Some plants can be forced to root by using a substance called Rootone. It's a hormone that stimulates root growth from the stem, and those in my family with a green thumb swear by it.
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If its green and flexible you can root it more easily, such as placing it in a glass of water or moist soil for a few weeks. A woody stem, means you need to do air layering to accomplish rooting.
It depends on the plant. Some will root from a cutting by just sticking in moist ground. Some you can pin a runner to the ground and it will root then you cut it off the main plant and you have an new plant. Some you air layer by scratching the bark and wrapping it in rooting soil. Keep it wet and in a month or two you have a new plant. Some must be started from seed. Some start from runners that the main plant puts out and become a new plant. Some plants you can start by breaking apart a clump off it and planting new. So, what kind a plan do you want to start? Or do you just want to put you root bound plant in a bigger pot and put potting soil around it so it has more room to grow. Don't for get to break up the existing roots so it doesn't keep growing round and round in a circle.