Decide which type of stem cutting you should take from your plant. Plants root best from different stages of stem or wood development. Take softwood cuttings from new, soft growth, typically in the spring. Take semi-hardwood cuttings from this year's growth after they have hardened, typically in the summer or fall. Both softwood and semi-hardwood cuttings work well for many houseplants, annuals, perennials and woody plants. Take hardwood cuttings from stems from previous year's growth, usually during the plant's dormant stage. This type of cutting is best suited for deciduous shrubs and evergreens.
Snip a healthy-looking cutting with a sharp pair of scissors or hand clippers, removing about 4 to 6 inches with several sets of leaves; make the cut about 1/4 to 1/2 inch above a leaf or leaf node. Do this in the early morning when the plant is most hydrated, or in the late afternoon when temperatures are mild. Wrap the cutting in a moist paper towel placed in a plastic bag to keep the cutting hydrated. Take several cuttings of each type of plant to ensure at least one roots well.
Fill a container that has a least one drainage hole with a commercial starter potting mix; water until the mix is thoroughly moist. Alternatively, make your own mix using one of several recipes that create the light, well-draining mix a cutting needs to root well. For example, combine one part perlite and one part peat moss, or combine one part perlite and one part vermicilite.
Recut the bottom of the cutting just below a node, then cut or slice off the leaves from the lower half. Dip the lower one-third to one-half of the cutting in a growth or rooting hormone to increase rooting success. Then, poke your finger or a pencil in the moist potting medium to make a hole and insert the end of the cutting with the rooting hormone into the hole. This trick helps prevent the rooting hormone from coming off when inserted into the soil. If you root more than one cutting, plant them about 2 to 3 inches apart so all the leaves receive adequate sunlight, or plant them in separate containers.
Stick two or three sticks that are taller than the cutting around the perimeter of the container. Place a plastic bag over the sticks to trap in humidity. A sterile plastic milk jug that has had the bottom cut off also works well. Place cuttings in indirect sunlight in an area that is between 65 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Keep the soil moist. Rooting can take up to three or four months depending on the plant and time of year.
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Some plants can be forced to root by using a substance called Rootone. It's a hormone that stimulates root growth from the stem, and those in my family with a green thumb swear by it.
If its green and flexible you can root it more easily, such as placing it in a glass of water or moist soil for a few weeks. A woody stem, means you need to do air layering to accomplish rooting.
It depends on the plant. Some will root from a cutting by just sticking in moist ground. Some you can pin a runner to the ground and it will root then you cut it off the main plant and you have an new plant. Some you air layer by scratching the bark and wrapping it in rooting soil. Keep it wet and in a month or two you have a new plant. Some must be started from seed. Some start from runners that the main plant puts out and become a new plant. Some plants you can start by breaking apart a clump off it and planting new. So, what kind a plan do you want to start? Or do you just want to put you root bound plant in a bigger pot and put potting soil around it so it has more room to grow. Don't for get to break up the existing roots so it doesn't keep growing round and round in a circle.