In general, there should be no real impact by using a higher rated part. However, depending on the type of circuit the cap is used in, the parasitic characteristics like ESR and ESL and leakage may cause a change in circuit operation. Two parts that otherwise seem very similar aside from the voltage rating may have different construction which will affect the parasitics. If the caps of of two totally different types (such as ceramic versus electrolytic) then there can be a significant difference in parasitics.
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Shouldn't cause a problem if the capacitor is in a power application the voltage just tells you how much voltage it will handle before it blows.
No.... Unless it's a timing or frequency capacitor, also used to be called a condenser. A
More than likely not. The only major difference is that the capacitor will be able to withstand higher voltage. That does not mean the rest of your circuit will be able to though, unless it's parts are rated for the higher voltage as well.