Is it possible to convert a webcam to digital camera ?
Most inexpensive webcams produce an image of 640x480 (0.3mp). You cannot get a higher quality picture from such a device.
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Cheap HDTV equipment uses "wobbulation", vibrating the imager, to
increase the resolution of the device. Many cameras including digital
ones use 640x480 resolution anyway in the cheap or older models.
There are also tricks with cross-pixel averaging, etc, IF the particular
webcam is only 640x480 and more is desired, so you can if you try.
Yes, definitely, but it's not easy, especially if the webcam is so proprietary
that you can't find ANY info on how to access it. (***)
The same CCD chips are often used in webcams, digital cameras, and
TV cameras, as well as military stuff.
If the webcam is working you can probably connect it to a laptop and a
printer and be done. But there are more interesting and unique projects
which might make figuring out the electronics worthwhile.
It is moderately complex "from scratch" electronics
just to make a lone CCD chip display a picture on a raw LCD screen.
(***) example: you have a windows 95 webcam with no drivers,
you take it apart, find the CCD chip, search the chip number, and
find out what voltages and sequence of pulses make it read out
a picture, using info from the datasheet pdf.
Then you do what you have to do to save and print the picture.
Good flash chip experience would be having built
an "embedded controller" type project before,
such as a homemade mp3 player.