If I am hungry and holding a box of saltines in my hand and have no wheat things, what's the advantage to a wheat thin? your question is far too vague.
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Very Zen, Master.
Depends on your application Compare the spec sheets to see what features you need, what the chips have to offer (memory, io, speed, computation bits...etc) A very important part is the programming environment - some chips are practically free but you have to pay for the software. Some have expensive chips and free software...
Over a 1980's era 8051, lots of advantages. Over a 2010 89C51 none. The 89C51 beats it hollow ! Steve
touche; the 8051 is pretty archaic.
So are things like Unix....archaic doesn't mean bad. It means multi-sourced, reliable, adaptable - all the result of surviving in the market for as long as they have. Seriously, the 89C51 parts are vastly better organised internally than the PICs and at least as fast. Their interrupt structure and control oriented assembly language makes logic based operations easy too.