You don't specify amplitude of a square wave,
Here is SQwave from a sine wave made with a resistor and diodes.
It should be acceptable to yearling like you ( 0 old on your page )
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I just don't know ow2takDat :)
Put the sine wave in the LED side and the square wave comes out the pin diode side.
You can't. You can turn a square wave into a sine, passively, but not the other way round, since you're creating information.
Why not do the conversion as I suggest using for example a 555 triggered by the sine wave. I am guessing and assume all he needs is the frequency data.
I got the impression he had to do it passively, or I'd have just bunged it into a schmitt trigger.
A precise square wave - Use the sine wave to trigger a 555 monostable. This will give you a square wave at the same frequency as the sine wave.
If an approximation is OK then clip the sine wave top and bottom. What in my young guitar days was called a FUZZ box.
You can't. Well you could build an op amp from desecrate components. But one of the discrete components needed are transistors. You could replace the transistors with vacuum tubes but that would be vary costly and overly complicated.
Look op amps and transistors are cheap and can be salvaged form anywhere. So why not use them?