On a guitar cable what part is positive?
The signal + line is the tip, and it connects to the wire at the core of the cable, ie, the signal wire. The signal - line, or signal return, is connected to the connector ring, and it is internally connected to the cable on the shield, a braided wire that provides a return path for current. In large part due to its geometry, it also provides a partial Faraday shield for the signal, ie, noise filter, by providing an easier current path (a lower frequency-dependent resistance, ie, "lower impedance path") for intruding signals to the amplifier's power supply common return.
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The tip is hot and the sleeve is common. As Re stated, there really isn't a polarity; however, as most guitars have shielding around the components to minimize radio interference, this is connected to common (or "ground", although it's not really ground either - confusing, huh?) which provides better noise rejection.
. As long as the cable is wired tip-to-tip and ring-to-ring, it doesn't care about polarity.
Yea, there really isn't a polarity since the signal is A/C. But the shield on the cable should be connected to the grounding of the guitar and amp.