what is the best way for a 1st grader to build a robot for science fair ? how do we start
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If this is your first time I suggest a kit and work your way up by modding that kit and eventually starting from scratch. However you can start with something simple like a beetle bot (there is an excellent Instructable on this by robomaniac and I think he has two now actually) then a beam bot and progressively get harder, and modding. If you have electronics experience but have not built a robot before you could probably jump into some harder projects.
Yes, theres lot of ibles about making various robots.At the very least, it needs a few things:A chassis - something to hold all the parts togetherA method to move - motors, actuators. This can be locomotive, or just stationary - depends on the function. A brain - It can be smart, or dumb (operated by a user input) or a combination of both. Microcontrollers are a good start.The robot may do no harm to humans, the robot may do no harm to self, and the robot must act to prevent harm to humans ;)Sensors so it knows what its doing (depending on the situation) - lasers, photosensors, pressure sensors, encoders for positioning, bump switches, etc etc.It needs a cute antenna on the top, this IS instructables after all.
There are several Instructables on building robots of varying complexities, from the simplest bristlebot to a fully autonomous Wall-E.Just type your requirements into the white Search box at the top-right of every page of the site.