You could try a wax mark. Rub the design on the paper with a sharpened-candle, lay greaseproof-paper either side and iron it on a low heat. L
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Interesting; hadn't run across that variant. Basically, controlled oiling of the paper...
Yes that was the idea. L
Watermarks are almost always lighter than the surrounding paper. The only way I know to make one darker than its surroundings is to compress the fibers everywhere else.
so how do you compress the fibers to make like those of fujiyama watermarks?
If you're doing it by hand as an artwork, any stylus will do. I typically put a drier sheet of paper over the wet one to help prevent tearing the wet paper, and use something no sharper than a ballpoint pen. (But I haven't attempted anything with that kind of detail and subtlety -- just demoing the idea for kids. If I was going to *try* to do watermark as art, I think I'd try working on a light table so I could see the effect as I went along.) If you're doing it industrially, I would expect they'd use some variety of engraved printing plate with a pressure roller on the other side of the paper. It's closely related to blind embossing/debossing, but with a hard roller so the paper is only crushed a bit rather than raised/lowered relative to the background. If you're thinking of counterfeiting, think again; you aren't going to get the results you want.
BTW, Wikipedia has some discussion of the industrial techniques. You might also want to look at http://www.watermarks.info/indexi.htm, http://www.tappi.org/paperu/art_class/makingPaper.htm, http://www.jstor.org/pss/3179578, http://www.sewanee.edu/Chem/Chem&Art/Detail_Pages/Projects_2000/Brown/Brown.html, et al. (Websearch is your friend.)
Create the image you want and load it into your word processing software and position it where you want it. Adjust the transparancy of the image to print the way you want it.
More details please. Watermarks are supposed to be very very light.