You need a stereo with "TURNTABLE" input. Newer stereos don't have it and the turntable input is especially made for amplifying the small input voltage from the turntable. Then... connect computer to an output LINE level, (not speaker output). Now you will have some problems with HUM coming from this setup. You can solve that problem by doing 2 things. 1st be sure the GROUND wire from the turntable is connected to chassis of the stereo. 2nd, you may need to use a GROUND ISOLATION RCA cords. They have tiny isolation transformers inside a little plastic case. It keeps ground of the computer from touching ground of the stereo. This will completely eliminate any HUM and now you can use the computer (audacity etc) to record from the turntable. The picture is a sample of a typical isolation transformer with RCA plugs. Those are the things I do to record albums to my computer.
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Turntable pickup to photograph preamp (generally, the easiest thing to do is pick up a stereo system that someone was disposing of rather than building your own). Line-level ouput ("tape output" if you're using a stereo amp, or if absolutely necessary the headphone jack may work in a pinch) to the line-level (not microphone) input of your computer's sound hardware. Run recording program, play record, stop recording program, edit the sound file(s) if the program hasn't automatically/correctly been able to split the side up into tracks (which depends in part on whether you're willing to spend a bit of money on a program which specializes in this).If your PC's sound hardware doesn't have a line input, or you want higher quality, USB-attached 24-bit sound devices are available fairly cheaply -- I use an M-Audio Transit, but there are others.
Audacity is free and a pretty good program at that.
Audacity is excellent for its price, no question. I don't know whether it has a tool to automatically recognize (relative) silences of adequate length and guess at the bounds of record tracks (has to be a guess because the division isn't always a silence and a silence isn't always a division), but it could certainly be used to do this manually.
I did this last year on a handful of albums and I just recorded the whole album side then copied each track to a new file and named as needed.I don't know if it has an automatic "track breaker uper".
You may be able to get acceptable results by connecting line out (NOT the speaker connections) or a headphone socket to the microphone or line in input on your sound card.Audacity is your friend fro recording (Free)
You can buy a USB turntable, or if you want to use one you already have, you can take the signal out and convert it to whatever your mic line in on your computer is (normally a mini-jack).