I want to know why arduinos restart
It forces the Arduino to load the newly uploaded firmware into RAM, and "forget" whatever it was working on before.
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If the micro is busy and you want to talk to is i.e. reprogramme you may need to force a restart so that it will ckeck the programming connection to see if there is a new download.BUT your question is so vague it's hard to answer.
Restart is a second start, a third start, - - - , an nth start.Well you have to be able to stop computers from taking over this world. The nice computers then have to restart. A "watch dog" is designed to cause a restart in any computer if the software does not perform as designed.
I'm not sure what you're asking. With a properly written program and a reliable power supply, an Arduino should be able to run more-or-less forever.