Introduction: 24V Mini PowerWall Using 6S Lithium-ion 18650 Cells
Here you will realize how you can build a 24v Mini Powerwall using 6S Lithium-Ion Cells.
This build includes,
- Wire Fuse Protection for each cell.
- Battery protection against Over Charge, Over Discharge protection using BMS.
- Cell Balancing with retrofit 6S balancer.
Step 1: Building Materials Required
- 18650 Cell Holder (4 Cell holder Block) - 12 No
- 22cm x 9cm PCB General Purpose PCB - 6 No
- 6S BMS with Over Charge/Discharge Protection(With Cell Balancing preferable) - 1No
- 6S Cell Balancer(If the balancing feature is not part of BMS) - 1No
- Fuse Wire 5A Tinned Copper Wire.(lesser than the individual cell 'C' ratings)
- Copper Rod to act as Bus Bar.
- Silicon wire 16 AWG
- XT60 Connectors
- Heat Shrink Sleeve
- Insulating Sheet
- Circuit Breaker (Optional)
- Fuse 10A (Rating shall be based on Load and Battery capability)Fuse Holder
Step 2: Tool Required
- Soldering Iron - capable of heating above 300 degree
- Soldering consumables
- Drilling Machine
- Glue - To stick the insulation sheet
- Measuring Tape/Instrument
- Wire cutter/ Stipper
- Digital Multimeter
Step 3: Placing the Cell Holder to PCB
Place the 18650 cells holder to PCB by drilling holes to the PCB. Repeat the same to fit in 2 holder in a PCB on six sets.
Step 4: Connect the Copper Rod
Once the Battery Holders are placed to the PCB use the Copper rod and solder them as shown in the picture.
Step 5: Soldering Wire Fuse
One of the side of 18650 holder shall be soldered together with copper rod and the other side shall be fused with the tinned copper wire to the copper rod as shown in the picture.
Step 6: Making the 6S Connection
Mark the Positive (+) and Negative (-) sides of each PCB with a Marker on both sides of the PCB.
Connect each PCB to the other one as shown in the diagram/pictures.
Tip: Make sure the terminals of each boards are at opposite side, if one terminal is at the top then the other terminal should be at the bottom, By doing so the current shall evenly flow across all cells.
Step 7: Soldering the Terminals
Solder the Silicon wire as shown in the picture, use any clamp to hold the silicon wire tight to the PCB. This helps in making fine soldering joints.
Step 8: Check the Connections
Once the 18650 Battery holders were soldered to the PCB cross check the connection, to make sure there are no short / open circuit.
Step 9: Insulating the Conductive Side of the PCB
This is one of the important stages, make sure the conductive sides of the PCB's are insulated properly to avoid any accidental short circuit.
I my case i have used Class B insulation sheet which is really good against conduction.
Step 10: Connecting BMS
Here comes the electronics integration part:
As shown in the figure solder the XT60 pigtail to the 6S BMS and connect the Sense wire to B-, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 & B+. Make sure the connection are properly made to avoid battery shorts which may result in safety hazards.
Hence proper connections and insulation are very much important.
Step 11: Connecting 6S Balancer
As illustrated in the diagram proceed connecting the wires to the 6S Balancer. Make sure you use a wire that is capable of carrying 1A current. This Balancer acts as a Top Balancer, means it start doing its balancing job only when any of the six branches reaches 4.2V.
Step 12: Insulating Connectors and Sense Wires
On all my steps explained, you would have seen me emphasising on insulation because it is very much important. Zero Tolerance toward shorts as it will create safety hazard.
Step 13: Testing
Its time to test the build.
- Take six cells in hand
- Check if the cells are healthy and at the same voltage
- Connect one by one to the holders.
- Check the voltage as shown in the image. you may use a digital voltmeter or a Cell meter as shown in the picture
Step 14: Safety Tips:
- Use a fuse in Series with any of the battery terminal.(Shown in image)
- Use a circuit breaker in series to isolate the battery pack / Powerwall when not in use.(Shown in image)
- Select the right wire fuse which is soldered to one side of the cells(Step-5). "Faster it Blow, Safer it is"
- Select the rite 18650 cells for your use, either use a new one or test each cell before use.
"Stay Safe and Keep Creating"
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Caution: Do Not Try this at home if you are unaware of the Risks involved with Lithium Ion Batteries.
8 months ago
I really like this approach to have an iterative way of building a power wall. With a 24 volt solar setup, I could have one array, then upgrade it when I get used stable cell.
1 year ago
much thanks for this instructables, can you please show me how to make a 6S2P ,
thanks in advance and PLEASE STAY HEALTHY !!!
Question 3 years ago on Step 14
With the balancer and BMS: Could you use cells with slightly different capacity (+/-30%) or even an uneven # of cells on the packs?
Answer 3 years ago
If you have a good BMS and active Balancer you can do it. But uneven pack will be less efficient. We will not be able to use the full capacity, as any branch may run out of charge faster during discharge than the other. Same applies during charging the battery.
Reply 3 years ago
Ah yes. True. I was too fixated on "can we do it?" and should have better asked myself "Should we do it?".
You are 100% correct. Total capacity of the pack is defined by the lowest capacity of one of the sections. Silly me! :)
Tip 3 years ago
Make sure the terminals of each boards are at opposite side, if one terminal is at the top then the other terminal should be at the bottom, By doing so the current shall evenly flow across all cells.