how to connect 5MM RGB led to connect with 12v 6A controller?

Dear all,  i am bit confused and want your expert help for following matter. 1. I have 12v 6A (2A X3 each= 6A)  RGB contoller  : as this link http://www.ebay.in/itm/24-key-IR-Infrared-Controller-remote-12V-power-Adaptor-fr-RGB-Strip-flood-Light-/161201011884?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_203&hash;=item2588543cac  2. I have 5 mm common anode led: as this link  http://www.ebay.in/itm/RGB-LED-5MM-Common-Anode-20pc-Set-/151542871353?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_203&hash;=item2348a8b539 i want to connect this 5mm common led total 6 nos with above mentioned 12v 6A RGB contoller.   how to connect it safely so that led will not burn . because red needs 2.2 v  , 20 ma , blue and green need 3.2v  , 20ma  to light up. and source is suppling 12v 2A . i think if i connect it directly . it will burn the led. 

Question by YOG PATEL8186   |  last reply


5-6mm square Paper Shredder???

Is there such a thing out there in Shredder-Land that makes squares about 5-6 mm?  

Question by Timbershine 


5 mm led's 8 LUMENS PER WATT!?!?!? [answered] Answered

Well i was thinking, 5mm LED's take about 1/10 of a watt, correct?  and from this calculator found out Cree 5mm led's are .806 lumen's. i assume they are 1 tenth of a watt. well, my calculator states they are 8 lumen's per watt (if i could run them at a watt.)  i figure they are 1/10 of a watt because because this 500 led light makes takes about 50W as in the video and led's give less than a lumen of light. so far, it seems leds just last long and emit blueish light. is incandescent light better? with 20 lumens per watt from halogen?

Question by -max-   |  last reply


Soldering a TRS to TRS cable?

I am trying to make a transfer cable for my TI-84 Plus Silver Edition Calculator. It came with a USB-mini to USB-mini cable, but it has two ports on top. One for a USB-mini cable, and one for an I/O cable, with 3/32 TRS jacks (2.5mm) from Radio Shack. I am wondering how to connect two TRS jacks together to make a transfer cable. I don't know what kind of wire to use, or how the wires should be connected.

Question by Pettrocity   |  last reply


what is the inductance of a coil which is 3mm in diam having 5 turns? Answered

I'm testing FM transmitter using multisim software.I don't know the value of the inductor to be used in the oscillator ( the oscill. has a variable cap.).I got this ckt. from a site, it is mentioned that the coil should be about 3mm in diameter and 5 turns. The wire is tinned copper wire, 0.61 mm in diameter.Since I'm testing it using multisim so i need a specific value.anyone knows it PLZ... let me know........THANKS.....

Question by manpreet singh   |  last reply




Sound from computer TO midi w/ speakers?

I picked up guitar again, and found that my MIDI keyboard has a good set of speakers. I have a MIDI to USB cable currently, as well as some 1/4" and 3.5 mm jack cables. The ports on the back of the keyboard are Sustain, Headphones in,  Midi In/Out, and power supply. Computer has USB of course, mic in, and headphone out. This is my last resort, as there are no other good speakers that I can use. I want the sound live if possible, too. I'm totally stumped. Even vague answers will help.

Question by Fenderpony   |  last reply


controlling 100 rgb leds from arduino?

Hey there i got 100 of 5 mm rgb led diodes. so i want to run them as string lights. so can i do it via arduino? if it is possible please tell me how to do it. thanks

Question by uditha mihiranga   |  last reply


connect to a mini switch to LED

I hooked up a 5 mm LED to a mini push button on-off switch. However, when it is in the off position the color is still bleeding through. Could this be because the LED is too strong for the switch? I am powering it with a CR2032 coin cell battery. 

Topic by cpaz17   |  last reply


Calculating heating effect.? Answered

I have been experimenting with making a hot wire foam cutter. This needs to be at least 600 mm wide. I have to hand a PSU capable of providing 14 volts at 2 amps (or slightly below) This is 28 watts. Now the question i would like to calculate the heat the Nichrome wire will reach at any given wattage but have no idea if I can do this. I have several wires that work to different levels, resistance of 30R, 4 R, 137R at the length I am using. Any one any  ideas how to calculate the temp or are there too many variables? So far I have worked empirically and arrived at the conclusion I need either around 18 volts at about 3 amps or I need a wire with a resistance of around 7R to suite the power i have available. I do know that the 20+ watts I am generating is just heating the wire to the melting point of the polystyrene foam. The melting point of the foam is apparently around 220 to 240 deg C (internet) At present it isn't cutting fast enough for my project. which required producing 5 mm thick sheets of foam with a reasonable consistency. i am cutting them from a 50 mm thick 1000mm x 500 mm block.

Question by rickharris   |  last reply


Metal to Metal Sealant? Answered

Hello Everyone, I want to screw two parts of aluminium 2014 together ..... one is a hollow cube with at-least 5 mm shell width without the top face and one is it's cap/metal sheet with 3 mm height with holes for two m12 to 8mm pneumatic fittings through which pipes will be connected... it is actually a water block ,cooling a part of my next project.. so i want to ask which kind of adhesive or gasket should i use in between them while screwing those two pieces together so that water or any other coolant doesn't leaks from the block and damages the electronic components. A non-native English speaker here, please ignore grammatical mistakes. :)

Question by _Boltz_   |  last reply


How to change jack for 3 connectors headphones?

Hi there, I'd like to change jack of some headphones I have. Original jack has 3 pins (left, right, power) and a switch on/off for power, now I want to use a standard 35 mm jack... How? I have 5 cables: blue, red, green, gray, brown... I'm sure blue and red go to same pin but no idea which of others go together... Any suggestion please? Thank you

Question by DiegoC199   |  last reply


Help with LEDs and simple circuits? Answered

Okay, I'm making a little LED project and I'd like help on these following questions: On most switches there are three little prongs, which ones do I connect to which wires? Do I need a resistor for a simple, battery powered, LED circuit, with 16 LEDs? If so, what kind of battery do I need and what kind of resistor? Can LEDs shine through a thin layer (3-5 mm) of balsa wood? Thanks! -popewill

Question by popewill   |  last reply


Peltier thermoelectric heat pump, can it be used as Solar Generator?.

Can a 40 mm square Peltier thermoelectric heat pump be used as a solar generator It operates on 13 Vdc @ 5 Amps. Operating at 13 Vdc, we measured the hot side at 190 Deg. F and the cold side at 55 Deg F. I have a 6 foot reflector dish and can add Reok led tracker. How many watts will it generate if it does?. Thanks for your help

Question by talei1   |  last reply


Laser cutting.

Hello (excuse my English really bad I'm Belgian and French) I would like to cut aluminum sheet of + - 5 mm thick and also cut paper without "burning the edges" I would like to know what kind of "laser head" the cheapest possible exists and what would be even better, whether this kind of "laser head" is recovering ... I was thinking of a DVD laser burner but, even though I I'm as good at DIY as an elephant is good at skydiving, I guess a DVD burner will not cut aluminum ... A big thank-you

Topic by Hiram   |  last reply


I need some help with a color organ again (sorry).

So, here's the color organ (video form) I'm using (or going to use). I was wondering, since the input is from a 3.5 mm audio jack, could I take a direct line from a speaker instead of the jack. I want to use the speaker from this pig and have it as the direct input. Would that work? Would I have to bypass the amplifier in the color organ? All I want is to make the color organ work with the pig, but have the music playing from my iPod on the doc in the pig. (Or maybe the iPod dock might have the same output as a standard 3.5mm jack and I could split it). I am also thinking of buying two kits, one for each speaker, so that I can have the left and right LEDs flash independently. Please help!

Question by Metalio 


leds.strip lights?

22 inch long strip surrounding an exhaust tip.want  an led every inch.my main prob is i dont know how physically big is an led.5 mm?3mm?dime? pencil eraser?that odd looking mole on my....,well you know. how big are the darn things?also,do i put a resistor every 2 or 3 bulbs according to volts and ohms and such or one really badass resistor at the begining.next ,the resistor drops voltage for the following leds in line.if the led in front is getting proper watts or voltage,then the one after that is getting less and so on,isnt it?i dont know help? 

Question by frankentrike   |  last reply


How would you make a direct link from a phone to an iPod through the TRS jacks to record ringtones? Answered

Hello! This is my first post on this site so I hope it will be a good one! I have both a Samsung Messager and an iPod Touch 4th Gen (I'm not too sure if versions matter in this or not). The phone has a 3.5 mm TRS headphone jack with both three and four conductor capabilities and my iPod has the same. Now, this is the conundrum I am in: My phone has the capabilities to record sound one of two ways, through the built in mic or through the headset (which also has a mic). However, when I do the recording sounds garbled, static-like, and all around horrible. Would there be a way to make a direct link from my iPod to my phone through the TRS jacks? I was thinking that if I did this then the digital sound quality would be much better. Then I could play my iPod, turn on the recording feature on my phone, and easily record the songs as they play. Then I could use those recordings as ringtones. If at all possible I would not like to take apart my phone or iPod but I don't care about the headsets, I have plenty. I have experience in soldering and a bit in cicuitry. Thanks in advance!

Question by ben_xman   |  last reply


How do I ignite this smoke cartrige with a shorter battery than AA and with no explosives? Answered

Updated question: As using nichrome wire does not seem to work in my application, I am looking for ideas how to ignite this smoke cartige, electrically and with no explosives and with a battery shorter than AA. Thanks! Hi, First, I have very little experience in electronics. I am familiar with Ohm's law but don't undestand it fully in every situation. However, I'm developing a product in which I need to make a nichrome wire glow for at least 5 seconds, with help of a battery. The lenght of the wire must be at least 5 cm and must be at least 0.2 mm diamater. (Longer/bigger is even better). I am trying to find the smallest battery possible, due to very limited space. After 5 seconds, it doesn't matter if the battery goes flat, as long as it doesn't explode, catch fire or anything else unpleasant. I have already read through every forum with similar questions like mine, and have understood that I need a battery that can deliver enough current. I therefore have an idea that I maybe could use a high capacity coin cell battery of model CR2477 (1000 mAh, 3 V). However, as I, due to my limited knowledge in electronics, I cannot predict what will happen to this battery and I'm too scared to try. I also found this website that let's you calculate, for example current requirement with a given wire: http://www.jacobs-online.biz/nichrome/NichromeCalc.html If I punch in the following data: 5 cm length, 32 gage, 2 volts, I get a current requirement of 1.15 Amps. I entered 2 volts because of internal resistance of the battery, don't know if that was correct. Will the CR2477 battery be able to supply 1.15 Amps for 5 seconds? Will anything not nice happen to it? In the data sheet of the battery I read a maximum pulse current of 25mA, which makes me think that it will not work. But at the same time, I know that a standard 9V battery would work, and this has less capacity in mAh (though higher current). Can somebody help me understand? Thanks!

Question by karolina81   |  last reply


how to power multiple devices on one 12v dc power supply? Answered

A)   So i'm upgrading my soldering fume extractor as the OLD model looks ancient.. the old model ran x5 12v dc fans with the following current rating ( 0.12A,  0.25A,   0.41A,  0.40A,   0.40A ) and 3 standard 5 mm led's.  POWERED BY 12v = 500mA DC power supply B)  the NEW model will have x4 dc fans @ 0.41a          x1 12v 360 degree W5W led  0.41A           x6 5mm leds     x1 arduino Nano. My questions are: 1) How did i power the OLD model (A) with that power supply. from my understanding if doesn't supply enough current.  2) Can i power all the components in the NEW model(A) with a 12v 1A supply  and if not how can i power all these components from 1 plug? thanks for your help

Question by icey.hood   |  last reply


I need to power 150 led's, and Im not sure how.?

The LED's I want to use have this as a data sheet: Emitted Colour : White Size (mm) : 10mm Lens Colour : Water Clear Peak Wave Length (nm) : N/A Forward Voltage (V) : 3.2 ~ 3.8 Reverse Current (uA) : <=30 Luminous Intensity Typ Iv (mcd) : Average in 25000 Life Rating : 100,000 Hours Viewing Angle : 20 ~ 25 Degree Absolute Maximum Ratings (Ta=25°C) Max Power Dissipation : 80mw Max Continuous Forward Current : 30mA Max Peak Forward Current : 75mA Reverse Voltage : 5~6V Im going to be using 150 of them and was told my arduino cant power them all and I need to get/make a "led driver" So Im not exactly sure what I need to make to power them, and not blow up my arduino. Any help?

Question by 'earl   |  last reply


How can I build an amplifying circuit to wire a vibrating motor to an alarm clock or cell phone?

I will be going to college soon and have found out that my roommate gets shaken by loud noises, so I had to abandon my guitar-amp amplified phone alarm for a quieter alternative. I was referred to a vibrating alarm system that fits into pillows and runs on signal from music players and/or plain ol' alarm clock inputs, but those are waaay too expensive, and I prefer building my own over buying. Here's the situation: I have a USB-powered vibrating massager that I got for free at some tech convention. Since it's USB-powered, I know it runs on 5 volts, which is more than my phone's 3.5 mm plug can deliver. How can I build an amplifier circuit that will boost the signal from my phone enough to run the motor? Thanks

Question by Usf   |  last reply


How do I properly power my electromagnet?

I just purchased an electromagnet from Amazon for a small prop for an upcoming play I am directing. Now my problem is... I do not have a clue as to how to supply the power to it. It needs to be able to run steady for roughly 3 hours.  What size batteries would I need -the smaller the better in terms of size since the prop itself is not that large,  ut will do whatever is necessary to function properly. Here is the only information the electromagnet had attached to it: 'Feature: Electric lifting magnet Powerful and compact Smooth and flat surface Low consumption and reliable Applications: assembly line, sorting machine, mechanical arm, experimental facility, etc Specification:Material: Metal Input Voltage: 12V DC Lifting Force :20N Overall Size : 15 x 15 mm /0.6 x 0.6 inch(Dia. *T) Thread DIA : 3mm Lead Length : 24cm/9. 5 inch" Any help would be greatly appreciated. Thank you in advanced!

Question by DeanB77   |  last reply


Firesleeve(Silicone Coated Fibreglass Sleeve)http://www.hsinsulation.com?

Firesleeve(Silicone Coated Fibreglass Sleeve) 1)Silicone rubber coated fiberglass sleeve(sleeving) - Protects hoses, cables and wires. from molten metal splash, high heat hazards and occasional exposure to flame, in steel plants, glass plants, foundries, cutting and welding shops and wherever hoses, cables and wires may be exposed to high heat or occasional flame. Fireproof sleeve also may be used to insulate your race cars plumbing system. 2)Continuous protection to 500F, short term exposure thru 2200F Extremely flexible and conformable through out entire size range at temperatures -65F thru 500F. 3)Impede heat radiation of flame 4)Protect operator from burning by hot pipe 5)Impede heat lost and favor to saving energy 6)Moisture-proof, water-proof, resistance to oil and pollution 7)Color: red and blue mainly. 8)Bore diameter(mm):15,20,25,30,35,40,45,50,55,60,65,70,75,80,90,100,110,120,130;(Sizes from 1/4" I.D. to 6" I.D.) Yancheng Hengsheng Insulation Co.,Ltd Web: http://www.hsinsulation.com Email: hsinsulation@hotmail.com Tel :+86-139-61986280 Fax : +86-515-88430696

Question by firesleeve 


Altoids Tin 1/8" Stereo Mixer using a 3.5mm 4 pole conductor (mic + audio)?

Hey have been thinking on how to modify https://www.instructables.com/id/Altoids-Tin-18-Stereo-Mixer/ to accept a 3.5mm 4 pole conductor as the output while splitting the mic to the inputs. This is going to be something like the Iphone ear buds with built in mic. I just got a pair of amplified 4 pole headphones with mic that I want to use for everything.  Here is my wish list:   3 - 4 pole Audio in (iphone, macbook, ...) 1 - 3 pole Audio in from computer 1 - Mic in from computer 1 - RJ10 (so I can use my headset with my cisco phone) The audio mixing is basically the same as Rich's write up. But im not sure if I can just split the mic to everything. If I am sacrificing mic volume by splitting to every input I could limit it to the CPU mic and the RJ10.. the ones i really want. Please let me know any ideas or advice you have. Here is my purposed schematic:

Question by V4zra   |  last reply


Mounting Lenses On Your Microscope

I found a broken cell phone with it’s camera and wondered if the lens could be used as a microscope objective. Image A shows the lens and it’s mounting with the CCD. The back of the lens is shown. The lens is about 4 to 5 mm in diameter. The starters from florescent lights make good lens holders. Image B shows a starter along with my modifications to hold the cell camera lens. The starter tube has 4 slits along the length so it can be compressed to fit the turret of the microscope. Image C shows it mounted on the turret. Image D shows the resulting view of a feather. It’s quite bad. Image E shows, for comparison, the view through an ordinary 20x objective (.40 NA). Here are some more lenses that I tried: Lens from a discarded flatbed scanner..... Very good! Lens from a 8mm movie camera...... Fair. Lens from the laser pickup of a discarded CD player..... Almost worthless. To take pictures through the microscope, I used eyepiece projection with a wide angle eyepiece. The lens on the camera was set to wide angle and maximum aperture, with a remote used to trigger the shutter. The camera’s LCD was used to focus and adjust the image. The camera’s autofocus handles the rest. For even illumination, be sure to center the objective lens over the substage condenser.

Topic by ShutterBugger   |  last reply


Basic single direction led chaser

Hello everybody. I am a newbies in this world and I am a bit lost. I want to make a project witch is a single direction led chaser. ( 6 led blinking one after another from one to six then start from the beginning over and over). I found plenty of larson scanner nightrider style but those are all bi-directional. Since I don't know much about it, I would need someone to tell me what hardware that I need and maybe a plan of the circuit. I will use 6  orange ultra-bright  5 mm led  VF: 2.1V- 2.5V    VR: 5V.  I would like to know what resistor that I have to use with this setup. I've read about a 4017 ship but I don't know if it is the one that I need for my project. I know I will need a lot of hardware that I don't know the name and that is why I need  help. It will be on a car so it need to be on 12V. I will have to make my schema on a PCB board 1 inch X 10 inches. It would be good if i can adjust the speed too. Since it will be a car blicker/flasher, I don't know if I need to use blinking led or if regular bright led will do. Sorry about my lack of knowledge(and my bad English), I am sure that I forget to mention a lot of detail so feel free to put me on the right track. Thank you for your time people Rick PS: In the picture, we aiming for the 6 orange led. they have to blink one at a time from the left to the right over and over.

Topic by rbrunet   |  last reply


8x8x8 Led cube, Parts help?

Ok, Ive been debating this for a long time, and I already bought some of the parts, But Im trying to figure out what else I need. So far, I have" Computer power supply Prototype board from radioshack with copper eyes. Two way screw terminal 3 - 20 pin IC terminals (I know I need more, but 3 is all radioshack had at the time) 2 - 16 Pin IC terminals 1000 uf Capacitor - 6.3v 100 uf capacitor - 10v 33uf capacitor - 6.3v A push button 3 status led's (Red, Green, and yellow) Arduino uno protoboard ^ I also have 18 gauge aluminum wire for the layers.  I have a spool of rosin core solder (I hope this will work, I dont wanna buy more) And Im going to get 1000 blue leds off ebay. with these specs: Color: Blue Size (mm): 5mm Lens Colour: Water Clear Forward Voltage (V): 3.2-3.4V Wave Length(nm): 465-470 Luminous Intensity : 11000 - 12000 MCD Life Rating: 100,000 Hours Viewing Angle: 20-25 Degree Max Power Dissipation : 80mw Max Continuous Forward Current : 30mA Max Peak Forward Current : 75mA Reverse Voltage : 5~6V Lead Soldering Temperature : 240°C (<5Sec) Operating Temperature Range : -25°C ~ +85°C Preservative Temperature Range : -30°C ~ +100°C As far as the rest goes I have NO idea what I need. Im going to be using my arduino with it, And im not 100% sure how to change the current instructable here to work with it. they dont specify.  Any help would be really appreciated. Ive wanted to make one for a LONG time :D

Question by 'earl   |  last reply


Finished building Low Level Laser Therapy Helmet using #38 3v and #69 5v diodes. The helmet will be used for hair loss prevention. Due to zero knowledge of circuitry, what's the safest and right way to power device? Answered

There are similar projects on this website but all using less diodes. I'm also not convinced that wiring all the diodes in a parallel circuit is the best route. If it is, then great and that will make my life easier.As you can see in the photos, I've soldered the diodes into bundles. However, each bundle either consists of only 5v or 3v diodes. If I need to desolder anything, so be it. Right now there are bundles of the following:5v = 20, 15, 22, 123v = 9, 9, 9, 11The diodes were purchased from Amazon and displayed the following specs:3V Output Power: 5mW Wavelength: 650nm Working Voltage: 3V Operating Current: less than 20 mA Laser Shape: DotWorking temperature: -10 degree~£«40 degree housing: CopperDimensions: 6.5 X 18 mm5V Output Power: 5mW Wavelength: 650nm Working Voltage: 5V Operating Current: less than 20 mA Laser Shape: DotWorking temperature: -10°C to +40°C Housing material: High quality Copper Dimensions: 6.5 x 18mmWire connection: Red wire connect to Positive, Blue wire connect to NegativeOther purchased materials2 x 4.8V 700 mAh Rechargeable Ni-Cd Battery Item Name: Ni-Cd Battery Dimension: 2.16 x 1.97 x 0.59 inches Plug: SM 2P Plug Charging time: About 2-3 hours Working time:About 20-30 mins5 x 4 Cell 4.8V AA Battery Holder W/ JR Style Connector ReceiverUltimate Goal: Simplify powering of helmet for 20-30 minutes / 3x a week by using on/off switch or plug.*This is my first time on this website and I apologize if I entered into the wrong category. THANK YOU in advance to anyone who helps. Greatly appreciated!!

Question by Randyroo1   |  last reply


Let us assemble power distribution switches at home together.

I am an electronic engineer in the field of power distribution switches. In recent days, I am prepared to make a project for power distribution switches at home together.  The project begins now: Home decoration, the concern of hydropower indispensable. The laying of the home circuit is a crucial link, the home distribution box installation involves the safety of home appliances. Therefore, I specifically summarise the home distribution box installation knowledge, as well as home distribution box wiring diagram to make the relevant finishing, for everyone to take precautions, the home distribution box has a clear understanding. Home distribution switch installation points 1, Household distribution switch sub-metal shell and plastic shell two, there are two kinds of mounted and concealed, the box must be intact. 2, The household distribution switch of the cabinet wiring assembly should be set up to zero line, to protect the ground wire, phase line, and to be intact, with good insulation. 3, The installation of air switch seat should be clean and there is enough space, should be installed in the dry, ventilated parts, and no obstruction, easy to use. Never install the distribution box in the box to prevent fire. 4, The household distribution switch should not be installed too high, the general installation of the elevation of 1.8 meters, in order to operate; into the distribution switch of the electric tube must be fixed with a lock nut. 5, If the household distribution switch to be open, the edge of the hole to be smooth, smooth, distribution box buried in the wall should be vertical, horizontal, edge left 5 to 6 mm gap, distribution box wiring Should be rules, neat, the terminal screws must be tightened. 6, The loop into the line must be sufficient length, no joints, after installation marked the name of the use of the circuit, the installation of household distribution box to be completed after the removal of the distribution box residue. How to assemble power distribution switches at home ? 1, The installation of electrical box, distribution box installed on the wall, should be used bolts (expansion bolts) fixed, bolt length is generally buried depth (75 ~ 150mm), the thickness of the box floor, nuts and washers Of the sum of the thickness, plus about 5mm of the "margin". For smaller distribution boxes, it is also possible to embed a good brick at the installation site (in the form of a distribution box or a panel mounting hole) and then use wood screws to secure the distribution box or power distribution board. 2, Dark assembly distribution box, distribution box embedded in the wall installation, in the wall when the hole should be reserved than the length and width of the distribution box about 20mm, the depth of the distribution of the thickness of the distribution box with the wall Plaster thickness. In the masonry distribution box, the box and the wall filled with concrete can be fixed to the box live 3, The distribution box should be installed firmly, horizontal and vertical, vertical deviation should not be greater than 3mm; concealed, the distribution box should be around the gap, the edge of the panel should be close to the wall, the box and the building, Part should be coated with anti-corrosion paint. 4, The distribution box installed in the spiral fuse, the power cord should be connected to the middle of the terminal contact, the load line should be connected to the threaded terminal. In this way, in the loading and unloading fuse will not be electric shock. Porcelain plug-in fuses should be mounted vertically. 5, The distribution box of AC, DC or different voltage levels of power, should have a clear sign. Lighting line, should be set to zero line (N line) and protect the zero line (PE line) bus, zero line and protection of the zero line should be connected to the bus, not twisted, should be numbered. 6, The wire leads to the panel, the panel line hole should be smooth without burrs, metal panels should be installed insulation protective cover. Metal shell distribution box shell must be reliable grounding (then zero). Ps: Excuse me if I was wrong in words or expressions as I am a green hand in the field of power distribution switches. I need continual learnings. What is your idea ? Do you agree with my ideas ? Any of your ideas would be highly appreciated. May someone would like to help ? thanks in advance.

Topic by maryzhu   |  last reply


Useful Batch Commands

Hey guys, I wanted to post a quick forum topic about useful batch commands that are seldom used or not well-known, or maybe just useful tidbits. Note: These do not have to be used, they are just extremely helpful and are just "extra," meaning you could probably find easier-to-understand but not as useful commands. 1. The CHOICE command The reason this command is so cool is that unlike other Y/N menus, when you enter the desired number, you don't have to hit enter, it goes straight to the next screen. You can also program it to execute a command after a set amount of time. Here's how to write it out: choice /c:12345 /t:5,10 if errorlevel 5 goto ha if errorlevel 4 goto joke if errorlevel 3 goto tired if errorlevel 2 goto fried if errorlevel 1 goto chiken To time it, you type /t and then a colon. You write the choice that you want to be timed, e.g. 5, and the amount of time in seconds you want it to wait for seperated by a comma. 2. The Random Variable The reason I deceided to put this up is because it is one of the only if not the only variable that is already programmed into the system. By using it correctly, you can generate a number between 1 and 32767. WHAT?! Of course, you can narrow it down, to, say about 1 and 100. :dim set rnd=%random% if %rnd% GEQ 101 goto dim if %rnd% LEQ 0 goto dim set number=%rnd% So as you can see, %random% is a set variable and generates a random number for you. Please keep in mind that this can take one second, or one eternity (literally) since it doesn't narrow down the choices after finding that a number doesn;t work. So, you may keep on generating 101 forever and never get to 100! 3. The ^| Command. Ever get frustrated because you are making an animation with, for example, stick figures and are getting driven nuts because the minute it gets to a certain part, it exits on you? The reason is probably because you used the | symbol, which is actually knd of like a command by itself. So, if you're doing something like this: echo [0] echo /| echo / The reason it is not working is because you didin't use a ^ before the |. Here's what it should be: echo [0] echo /^| echo / Yes, it looks wierd in the editing stages, but looks much better in the real thing. Just remember, you will have to remember that the ^ will be invisible, so make sure everything else in front of it is like this: echo [0]   [ echo /^|    [ echo /     [ So that the [ or whatever it is is one space ahead from the others. 4. The %TIME:~0,5% Command. What time is it? Oh, it's 3:16:52.29! Ever been frustrated with the TIME command? For one, who ( and when I mean who, I mean the average batcher who doesn't use the TIME command to synchronize seven different computers around the house which I could never hope to do) needs to be that exact? When making a batch alarm clock, for example, the user wouldn't really want to do all of that, would they? So, for those of you who would want to make such a clock, here's an example: @echo off title Alarm Clock :start cls color f0 echo. echo Use 24 hour clock echo. set /p a=Set Alarm: cls echo. echo Alarm set to %a%. :alarm if %time:~0,5% EQU %a% goto alarmset goto alarm :alarmset color fc echo echo echo cls echo. echo It's %time:~0,5%! echo. echo Press 1 to acknowledge. choice /n /c:12 /t:2,1 if errorlevel 2 goto alarmset if errorlevel 1 goto sleep goto alarmset :sleep goto start So there's one example. %TIME:~0,5% sets the time from 3:15:00.00 to just 15:15. This doesn't work just with the TIME command, you can do this with any variable. If I had a variable %x% and it said "crayon" and wanted it to say "cray," I would type in %x:~0,-2%. If I wanted to make %x% say "on," I would type in %x:~-4,0%. 5. The AT Command The AT command is exactly what it appears to be. You tell it AT (time) /every:[day(s) of the week] (command to be executed). So, it I wanted an alarm to go off whenever the Simpsons are on, I'd type AT 19:30 /every:sumtwthfs echo ALARM!!! Now, I know that the Simpsons are on at a different time on Sundays, but that's not important. Please not that you HAVE to specify what day you want it to go off on (it can be dd/mm/yyyy to be really specific). Default is set to "tomorrow." This was probably too confusing. For one, I talk too much. Thank you for even getting this far, anyways. Thanks a bunch!

Topic by TheBatchies   |  last reply


HOW TO SHOW DYNAMIC GPS DATA AND AUTO REFRESH PAGE ON WEB BROWSER ?

Hello, I'm using ESP8266 WIFI module and GPS module. I have connected to ARDUINO UNO R3 board to read the GPS coordinates and transmit them to webpage using ESP8266 WiFi module connected to router. In my code the page change only when I press F5 (refresh) , and so I can see the change of Coordinates. I want to see the changing results dynamically with out refreshing the webpage. what to I need to do /change in order that it will change automatically? please check my code here or in the attachment  and suggest me the changes. Thanks in advance. CODE: // code starts #include #include SoftwareSerial Serial1(2,3);     //   ESP8266 RX pin 2, TX pin 3. SoftwareSerial gps(11, 10);       //   GPS RX pin 10, TX pin 11.   boolean No_IP=false; String IP=""; String webpage=""; int i=0,k=0; int  gps_status=0; String name=" Name: XXXXXXXX ";   //22 String date="DATE: DD MM YYYY";     //21 String number=" Vehicle No.: ABC 0000";//29 String cordinat="Coordinates:";          //17 String latitude=""; String logitude="";                       String gpsString=""; char *test="$GPGGA"; void check4IP(int t1) {   int t2=millis();   while(t2+t1>millis())   {     while(Serial1.available()>0)     {       if(Serial1.find("WIFI GOT IP"))       {         No_IP=true;       }     }   } } void get_ip() {   IP="";   char ch=0;   while(1)   {     Serial1.println("AT+CIFSR");     while(Serial1.available()>0)     {       if(Serial1.find("STAIP,"))       {         delay(1000);         Serial.print("IP Address:");         while(Serial1.available()>0)         {           ch=Serial1.read();           if(ch=='+')           break;           IP+=ch;         }       }       if(ch=='+')       break;     }     if(ch=='+')     break;     delay(1000);   }   Serial.print(IP);   Serial.print("Port:");   Serial.println(80);   delay(1000); } void connect_wifi(String cmd, int t) {   int temp=0,i=0;   while(1)   {     Serial.println(cmd);     Serial1.println(cmd);     while(Serial1.available()>0)     {       if(Serial1.find("OK"))       {       i=8;       }     }     delay(t);     if(i>5)     break;     i++;   }   if(i==8)   {     Serial.println("OK");   }   else   {   Serial.println("Error");   }   delay(1000); } void setup() {   Serial1.begin(9600);   Serial.begin(9600);   delay(1000);   connect_wifi("AT",1000);   connect_wifi("AT+CWMODE=3",1000);   connect_wifi("AT+CWQAP",1000);    connect_wifi("AT+RST",5000);   check4IP(5000);   if(!No_IP)       {         Serial.println("Connecting Wifi....");         connect_wifi("AT+CWJAP=\"MountPointTech\",\"MpTl2013\"",7000);   //AT+CWJAP="wifi_username","wifi_password"       }       else         {         }       Serial.println("Wifi Connected");       get_ip();       delay(2000);       connect_wifi("AT+CIPMUX=1",100);       connect_wifi("AT+CIPSERVER=1,80",100);       Serial1.end();       Serial.println("Waiting For GPS");       Serial.println("     Signal    ");       delay(2000);       gps.begin(9600);       get_gps();       show_coordinate();       gps.end();       Serial1.begin(9600);       delay(2000);      Serial.println("GPS is Ready");       delay(1000);       Serial.println("System Ready.."); } void loop() {   k=0;   Serial.println("Please Refresh Ur Page");   while(k<1000)   {     k++;    while(Serial1.available())    {     if(Serial1.find("0,CONNECT"))     {       Serial1.end();         gps.begin(9600);       get_gps();       gps.end();       Serial1.begin(9600);       Serial1.flush();       Serial.println("Start Printing");       Send();       show_coordinate();       Serial.println("Done Printing");       delay(5000);       //delay(1000);       k=1200;       break;     }   }   delay(1); } } void gpsEvent() {   gpsString="";   while(1)   {    while (gps.available()>0)                //Serial incoming data from GPS    {     char inChar = (char)gps.read();      gpsString+= inChar;                    //store incoming data from GPS to temporary string str[]      i++;      if (i < 7)                           {       if(gpsString[i-1] != test[i-1])       //check for right string       {         i=0;         gpsString="";       }      }     if(inChar=='\r')     {      if(i>65)      {        gps_status=1;        break;      }      else      {        i=0;      }     }   }    if(gps_status)     break;   } } void get_gps() {    gps_status=0;    int x=0;    while(gps_status==0)    {     gpsEvent();     int str_lenth=i;     latitude="";     logitude="";     coordinate2dec();         i=0;x=0;     str_lenth=0;    } } void show_coordinate() {         Serial.print("Latitude:");     Serial.println(latitude);     Serial.print("Longitude:");     Serial.println(logitude); } void coordinate2dec() {         //j=0;     String lat_degree="";     for(i=18;i<20;i++)          //extract latitude from string       lat_degree+=gpsString;         String lat_minut="";     for(i=20;i<28;i++)       lat_minut+=gpsString;         String long_degree="";     for(i=30;i<33;i++)          //extract longitude from string       long_degree+=gpsString;           String long_minut="";     for(i=33;i<41;i++)       long_minut+=gpsString;            float minut= lat_minut.toFloat();      minut=minut/60;      float degree=lat_degree.toFloat();      latitude=degree+minut;           minut= long_minut.toFloat();      minut=minut/60;      degree=long_degree.toFloat();      logitude=degree+minut; } void Send() {            webpage = "Welcome to MountPoint Technologies Pvt Ltd";       webpage+=name;       webpage+=date;       webpage+=number;       webpage+=cordinat;       webpage+="Latitude:";       webpage+=latitude;       webpage+="";       webpage+="Longitude:";       webpage+=logitude;       webpage+="";       webpage+= "       webpage+=latitude;       webpage+='+';              //28.612953, 77.231545   //28.612953,77.2293563       webpage+=logitude;       webpage+="\">Click Here for google map ";       sendwebdata();       webpage="";        while(1)          {       Serial.println("AT+CIPCLOSE=0");       Serial1.println("AT+CIPCLOSE=0");       while(Serial1.available())       {         //Serial.print(Serial1.read());         if(Serial1.find("0,CLOSE"))         {           return;         }       }       delay(500);       i++;       if(i>5)       {         i=0;       }       if(i==0)       break;      } } void sendwebdata() {      i=0;      while(1)      {       unsigned int l=webpage.length();       Serial1.print("AT+CIPSEND=0,");       Serial1.println(l+2);       Serial.println(l+2);       Serial.println(webpage);       Serial1.println(webpage);       while(Serial1.available())       {         if(Serial1.find("OK"))         {          return;         }       }             i++;       if(i>5)         i=0;         if(i==0)         break;       delay(200);      } } // end of code.

Topic by shivendrareddy 


Hack your Servo V1.00: Make a powerful linear actuator using a standard hobby Servo

Hack your Servo V1.00: Make a powerful linear actuator using a standard hobby Servo   Provided you have the tools and the servo you can built this for under a couple of bucks. The actuator extends with a rate of about 50mm/min. It is rather slow but very powerful. Watch my video at the end of the post where the small actuator lifts 10kg vertically.   Materials List Tools list   - hobby servo - standard hobby brass tubing             -OD: 4.0mm, ID: 3.4mm             -OD: 5.8mm, ID: 4.5mm - standard hobby styrene tubing                                                 -OD: 4.8mm, ID: 3.5mm - M4 studding - 2 x M5 washers - 2 x M4 nuts - 5 minute epoxy - cyanoacrylate - grease - multi-strand cables - heat-shrink tubing   - standard tools – screwdrivers, scalpel, files etc. - dremmel multi-tool with ceramic abrasive disk, or similar - hand-drill + 4.9mm + 2.5mm drill-bits - M3 tap - M4 tap - soldering iron - glue gun - small vice - small saw - sanding paper (relatively fine) - small flame torch         http://www.01mech.com/sites/default/files/images/material_tools.jpg Procedure - I will be giving instructions based on the dimensional parameters of the Hitec HS-300. The procedure remains the same for any type servo. I strongly recommend you read the whole post before you start. So lets make a start, shall we?   - Open your hobby servo, remove control electronics, feedback potentiometer and mechanical stop on the servo’s output gear.   - Solder new cables on the servo motor’s leads.   - Drill two 4.9mm holes on the servo case bottom cover. These should be located longitudinally along the centre line and 9.5 mm from each end (this applies on the Hitec HS-300 and is also true for many standard servos but depending on your servo type there might be differences). The M4 thread will come out from the servo body using one of these two so this hole must be located directly below the centre of rotation of the servo’s output gear. Be very careful since this alignment is very important! If you don’t get it right you might have to use a new servo! The more accurate you are, the longer your servo will endure.     http://www.01mech.com/sites/default/files/images/bottomCover_potHead.jpg -  Measure the dimensions of the rotating shaft of the potentiometer on the servo’s original electronics – note the geometry in general. The shaft should be flattened right at the tip in order to prevent it from freely-rotating once inserted into the servo’s output gear.   - Take the M4 studding (M4 thread) pick one end and by using the dremmel and the abrasive wheel tool, replicate the tip of the servo’s potentiometer on that end. Start by decreasing the diameter of the thread, rotating it steadily by hand against the abrasive disk (normally to 3.5mm in diameter and at least 6mm in length). Try to think of your fingers as the chuck of a slow-turning lathe. Once the diameter of the thread is down to the pot’s shaft diameter, flatten the tip according to the potentiometer’s tip. The idea is that the thread must be inserted in the servo’s output gear in the same way the potentiometer did before. The better the fit the longer your servo will endure.     http://www.01mech.com/sites/default/files/images/thread_modofication.jpg - On the flat tip of the M4 thread, screw the two M4 nuts approximately 20mm down its length. Following that, insert the two M5 washers. - Insert the thread inside the servo and adjust the distance of the nuts and washers down the thread such that the servo case bottom cover closes properly and the motor rotates efficiently. Basically, you have to make sure that once the thread and the servo are assembled there is no pressure between the servo case bottom cover and the nut-washer assembly. Similarly, you have to make sure that once the thread and the servo are assembled there is no gap between the servo case bottom cover and the nut-washer assembly. Once again, the better the fit the more your linear actuator will endure.   - Once you find the optimum position carefully disassemble the servo, remove the washers from the thread and use a drop of cyanoacrylate on the side of the nut that was in contact with the washers in the assembly. Let the glue to settle for 5 minutes. Unscrew the second nut by 10mm towards the flat end of the thread, and prepare a small epoxy mix.   - Put the mix between the two nuts and screw the second nut back in place. Once in place also use some epoxy on the back of the second nut as well. Ideally you should sand all contacting areas before you apply the epoxy glue. Leave to settle for at least 6 hours (even if you use a 5 min epoxy).     http://www.01mech.com/sites/default/files/images/copper_thread.jpg - Secure tightly the 4mm diameter brass tube onto a vice by flattening the mounting end and use the M4 tap VERY carefully tapping as deep as possible (at least 15mm). Using the dremmel cut 10mm out of the threaded part of the tube and then verify that the created thread runs along the whole length of the small threaded tube by screwing it onto an M4 screw. Keep the 4mm threaded tube on the screw for handling purposes. Apply a layer of solder on the outside surface.     http://www.01mech.com/sites/default/files/images/thread_solder.jpg - Take the 5.8mm diameter brass tube pick one end and try to sand at least 5mm into the tube (on the inside). Mount the brass tubing on the vice without squishing it and apply a thin layer of solder on the inside.   - Ignite the flame torch, take the 4mm threaded tube (holding it by the screw) and move it on the soldered end of the 5.8mm diameter brass tube which should still be mounted on the vice. Using the flame torch heat-up both tubes and carefully insert the 4mm threaded tubing inside the 5.8mm tubing until is fully inside. Use a pair of pliers and insert the brass tube by holding the end of the screw that sticks out. Hold the threaded tube levelled inside the 5.8mm tube until the solder settles. If you do not have a flame torch use a candle, your soldering iron and your patience :). Remove the screw. The end result will be the cylinder of your linear actuator.     http://www.01mech.com/sites/default/files/images/thread_cylinder.jpg - The cylinder length should be equal to: the actuator’s desired working length (stroke) + length of the 4mm threaded tube which is inside the 5.8mm tube + 10mm for the mounting hinge at the cylinder end.   - The thread length should be: the actuator’s desired working length (stroke) + length of threaded tube which is inside the 5.8mm tube + length of the thread which resides inside the servo casing, which is model-dependant.   - Take the non-threaded/non-soldered side of the cylinder and drill a 2.5mm hole through, 5mm from the tip.     http://www.01mech.com/sites/default/files/images/cylinder_heatShrink.jpg - Cover the entire length of the cylinder with heat-shrinking tube and cut-off any excess bits. The 2.5mm through holes made earlier on the non-threaded side of the cylinder are now covered. Use the drill again to expose them and tap them through, using the M3 tap. Screw a 20mm long M3 studding or simply cut-off the head of a 20mm long M3 screw. This will act as your cylinder mounting hinge.   - Take the 4.8mm styrene tubing and M4 tap it 10mm deep. Cut a small ring 5mm in length and screw it in the M4 thread fully, from the side of the nut that was in contact with the washers (long side of the M4 thread). This will act as bushing between the thread and the servo’s case bottom cover. Ideally you should use nylon, copper or metal bushing.     http://www.01mech.com/sites/default/files/images/thread_servo.jpg - Secure the motor cables inside the servo casing using a glue-gun and use heat-shrinking tube to cover them. Assemble the servo including the thread, the styrene bushing and the washers.   - Screw-on the cylinder and you are good to go! Here is a video of the small actuator lifting 10kg For those of you that have watched my video on the MTR Rover     will understand where the idea of hacking the servo came from ;))   Soon we will be posting assembly instructions, code and schematics on how to modify a standard servo to get full PID speed and position control with 10-bit resolution over 360 degrees – continuous ;)     I look forward for your comments!    

Topic by Antonb   |  last reply


Tracking down the speed problems on a laptop.

I've copied the conversation here so we could remove the information from the original instructable's comments.  I figure this would also be of some interest to other forum viewers who may have similar problems, or may be able to chip in. The long and short of it is, 92033 (Ed) has a refurbished laptop that takes literal hours to run a YouTube video on.  I suspect that it's due to a bottleneck with his internet connection.  Here's the conversation thus far: ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033 (Ed): Thank you kindly for your prompt reply...appreciate it very much. I came across this site by accident in searching for something else and now I'm 'hooked' on it. :) So far I've read over 400 archived posts (whew)...as well as looking at the videos. The videos are somewhat of a problem because this new laptop only has 512 mg memory...LOOOOOng time to load. For example...to watch a SLOW 5-minute You Tube video takes 5-1/2 HOURS to load...keeps showing a couple words at a time...need to get two new memory chips to upgrade to 2gb. Thanks again...Take care. ---------------------------------------------------------------- eddems: I think you're basic download speed is killing ya, not the laptop. check you're speed at Internetfrog.com, if you see the link near the bottom for the old test, run it, I like it's graph of upload and download speed much better. ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Thanks much. I'll check it out. I ordered a 1gb SDRAM Memory chip which just arrived yesterday. Hope this speeds things up a bit. ---------------------------------------------------------------- harley_rly: i hear u man, my computer is hopped up, but i live out in the sticks and have dialup...i only get 24kbps at most :( ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Maybe there's hope for 'us' yet. :-) I phoned Tiger Direct to see cost of an upgrading memory chip to go from 512mg to 1-1/2gb. The guy I talked to suggested I get "PC TUNEUP 2.0" which bypasses the Windows Operating System (I'm using Windows XP Pro) and speeds up the system. I gave it a try and ordered the CD (cost $39.98 - $44.77 postpaid). It hasn't arrived yet but will let you know if it helps as he claims it will. He said that if I just ordered a 1gb memory chip my system wouldn't notice much improvement as it is, but this CD should do the trick. THEN...when I DO order the Memory chip(s) to get total of 2gb my system should zip through like a rocket with the CD just ordered. I'll let you know when I get the CD and about the results. Just hope I haven't thrown forty-five bucks to the wind. Thanks for the contact...appreciate hearing from you. TAKE CARE. ~ ED ---------------------------------------------------------------- Javin007: PC Tune-Up "bypasses the Windows Operating System?" This guy fed you a load of crap. (I work on computers for a living.) PC Tune-Up does nothing more than clean up registries, defragment harddrives (if your OS even needs it, some don't) and keeps drivers up to date (which you could do manually.) That guy's an idiot, or just a liar. Could be both. Unless you were buying PC Tuneup 2.0 from Tiger Direct, in which case we can add "sleazy salesman" to that. What are the specs of the laptop? Go to Start/Run and type in DXDIAG. This will give you a quick snapshot of the specs. Specifically, I'm curious as to the processor speed/type. For a 5 1/2 hour "load" you're more likely looking at network slowdown issues (although 512 megs for XP is WAYYYY too little. I HATE when they put PCs together like that). The RAM upgrade will show significant speed increases, but no improvement with YouTube videos or other downloads. I'm glad to see you are returning the CD. ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Thanks much for your input...appreciate it very much. I checked the DXDIAG as you recommended. Here's the info on it: IBM ThinPad Laptop PC. Model # 23738TU. Intel Premium M 1.70GHZ. 512mb SDRAM Memory chip.Page File- 351mb used,513 mb available. Direct Version-Directx 9.00 (4.09.0000.0904). 512 mb SDRAM-Actual 212 Ram. AVAST Anti-Virus. MS Windows XP-PRO.. Dialup Speed-40kbps. PC2700 SDRAM 512mb Memory Chip installed. I ordered 1bb memory chip which arrived yesterday. Now I have to figure out HOW to remove the bottom of this laptop to install it...lotta small screws on it. :-) Oh, total memory shows 32mb. I don't know if this means much to you. I note your comment that the added RAM memory WONT (?) speed up loading YouTube videos? Is that correct? If so, why not? Thanks again. Take care. ~ ED ---------------------------------------------------------------- Javin007: :) At the risk of boring too many people, here's how memory in a PC works: You have two kinds of memory: RAM, and Hard Drive (technically there's three, as there's also onboard video RAM on video cards, but this is primarily used for 3D video game textures, so can be mostly ignored.) Your harddrive's read/write speed is determined by the type of harddrive it is (most are SATA now) and the rotation speed (most are 7200 RPM, though the specs for your system say yours is only 5400 RPM, but there are 10, 15, and even 20K rpm models out there that are exponentially more expensive.) No matter what, harddrive memory will always be degrees slower than RAM. RAM on the other hand is a small chunk of memory that is "temporary" memory, but very fast. Its speed is determined by the type of RAM (DDR2 being the current common one for notebooks, though DDR3 is available with some motherboards (you can ignore this, though, as you can only handle 2 gigs max of DDR with your system). The motherboard will determine the limits for the RAM that can be installed.) When running *ANYTHING* on your computer, and I mean ANYTHING, it must first be loaded into RAM to be accessed by the CPU. The computer doesn't directly access the harddrive. So this means when your operating system is loaded (Windows XP) the entirety of all running processes for the OS have to be loaded into RAM. Now, Microsoft claims that Windows XP only requires a minimum of 64 megs of RAM, but recommends 128 megs. I challenge you to find me a Windows XP system that only uses 128 megs out of the box. It's not atypical for an XP system to chew through all 512 megs of your RAM, leaving no RAM available for other applications. (Interestingly, the default setup for your laptop is only 256 megs of RAM, yet yours is reporting 512.) What happens when there's no RAM left? The system has to then start trading things into what is called "Virtual Memory." VM is nothing more than a file on the harddrive that will temporarily hold information that SHOULD be in RAM, so the RAM can load more info. For instance, say you have a process that's using RAM, but you want to watch your YouTube video. As the video is ready to play, the system will take the other process's data that's in RAM, write it to the harddrive, load your video into RAM in its place, play a portion of it, write the video to the harddrive, load the data for the process to RAM, let it run for a split second (so it doesn't lock up), write it back to the harddrive, load your video into RAM and play a short clip, etc. etc. etc. The result of low RAM on your system is that applications will open slowly (seconds or minutes, instead of instantly or a few seconds) and they will seem slow to respond, will stutter, etc. With enough RAM, your system can freely open as much as it needs into RAM, and ignore the virtual memory and all the slowdowns that it causes. Now, all of this being said, NO lack of RAM will cause a streaming video to take 5 1/2 hours to play. This is 100% going to be related to your downspeed. (Go to www.speedtest.net and post your results.) RAM slowdowns tend to be most noticeable when shutting down, or starting up your computer, apps will open a little more slowly, they will be slower to respond to button clicks, and video will be very choppy. Anything that is causing a YouTube video to take HOURS will be due to the system simply waiting to get the video in the first place. RAM wouldn't slow down the receiving of the video, but it would cause the video to play weird once it's downloaded. So, all this being said, here's the summary: Your system has a 1.7 Ghz processor, and your RAM is most likely 333 Mhz DDR. If you bump your memory up to a gig, you should see a pretty significant improvement in that your computer will, overall, just "feel" faster. It'll be more responsive, and working with large documents will be many, many times faster. This won't, however, affect your YouTube experience (unless you were getting jittery video often, not the same as "buffering" video.) If you see "buffering" for a long time, your internet connection is your bottleneck. A test on www.SpeedTest.net will likely confirm this. However, if you get decent numbers on SpeedTest, then we could have something more sinister going on, though I suspect you'll find your numbers well below the 1 mbps rate. This brings us to actually changing the RAM. I've been out of the PC hardware realm (professional programmer now) for a few years, and was unable to find a manual for your particular model. However, if memory serves, this image should be a fairly accurate representation of the underside of your system: http://www.javin-inc.com/temp/thinkpad.JPG Don't quote me, but I BELIEVE the red circle will indicate the only screw you will need to remove to access the RAM. There should also be a small clip holding the RAM in place that you'll want to pinch to get the RAM out, and make sure that the new RAM snaps into place. (Sometimes you'll have additional empty RAM beds, and you can just put your RAM in there and end up with 1.5 gigs, but I suspect you'll have two 256 gig chips in there.) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Phew. Thanks again for your most indepth educational lesson. I appreciate all your help more than you realize. I attempted to answer this last night, typing in more than twice the amount of text as your to me, then suddenly realized there was a glitch and I was on another page...lost it all into the ionisphere. :-( Rather than try to retype all I wrote, I shut 'r down and went to sleep. Now I'm trying to recall all I wrote last night but failed to get mailed. I'm not a traditional typist, rather a one-finger bloke so you can understand the frustration there. I do, however, type at a reasonably good speed. With that said, let's continue. I went to search for Configuration of this IBM Laptop ThinkPad 23738TU and am copy and pasting it here. It's relevant to what I have to say...here it is: ********************************************************************************** Overview Specs Features Includes Warranty Supplies IBM ThinkPad T42 2373 Specifications Part # 23738TU Key Specifications IBM ThinkPAD T42 2373 Manufacturer IBM Manufacturer Part # 23738TU Processor Type Intel Pentium M 735 1.7 GHz Data Bus Speed 400 MHz Cache Memory Type L2 cache Installed Size 2 MB RAM Installed Size 256 MB Technology DDR SDRAM Memory Speed 333 MHz System Type Notebook Storage Hard Drive 40 GB, 5400 rpm Storage Controller Type IDE Optical Storage Type DVD ROM Read Speed 24x (CD) / 8x (DVD) Display Type 14.1" TFT active matrix Graphics Processor / Vendor ATI MOBILITY RADEON 7500 Video Memory 32 MB Max. Resolution 1024 x 768 Audio Output Type Sound card Audio Codec AD1981B Compliant Standards DirectSound, AC '97, SoundMAX Telecom Modem Fax / modem Max. Transfer Rate 56 Kbps Protocols & Specifications ITU V.90 Networking Networking Network adapter Data Link Protocol Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet Expansion Expansion Slots Total 1 x front accessible Expansion Slots Total 2 ( 1 ) x memory 1 ( 1 ) x CardBus - type II Interfaces 1 x docking / port replicator, 240 pin docking 2 x Hi Speed USB, 4 pin USB Type A 1 x parallel, IEEE 1284 (EPP/ECP), 25 pin D Sub (DB25) 1 x display / video, VGA, 15 pin HD D Sub (HD 15) 1 x infrared, IrDA 1 x modem, phone line, RJ11 1 x network, Ethernet 10BaseT/100BaseTX, RJ45 1 x display / video, S video output, 4 pin mini DIN 1 x microphone, input, mini phone mono 3.5 mm 1 x headphones, output, mini phone stereo 3.5 mm Miscellaneous Features Locking device keyhole (cable lock), administrator password, hard drive password, power-on password, asset ID, IBM Embedded Security Subsystem 2.0 Compliant Standards ACPI 2.0, ACPI 1.0b, FCC Class B certified, CE, MPR II, UL, BSMI, cUL, NOM, VCCI-II Operating System Microsoft Windows XP Professional Software Included Adobe Acrobat Reader, PC Doctor, IBM Rapid Restore Ultra, IBM Update Connector, InterVideo WinDVD, IBM Access Connections, IBM Access Support, Access IBM,(OEM) Battery Technology lithium ion Capacity 4400 mAh Average Run Time 5 hour(s) Installed Qty 1 Ambient Temperature Min Operating Temperature 50 °F Max Operating Temperature 90 °F Humidity Range Operating 8 - 80% Dimensions (W x D x H) Unit 12.2 in x 10 in x 1.1 in Weight Unit 4.9 lbs Warranty 3 Years Limited Warranty on parts and labor. IBM 23738TU Summary ********************************************************************************* NOTE...I DON'T BELIEVE THIS...I JUST TYPED FORTY MINUTES REPLY HERE and it instantly scrolled up like speed of lightning and disappeared like last night. I'll ATTEMP to try again later. So please don't reply yet as you need to read my discoveries in changing the RAM chip. Meanwhile, thanks again...take care. ~ ED ******************************************************************************* TRY #3...I'm Back :-) Your diagram showing where the RAM chip is located was right on. Thanks. Here's my DISCOVERY :-( The RAM chip installed was NOT a 512mg...but only a 256mg chip. The ads ans specs say it's a 512mg...NOT SO. I was lied to by either the manufacturer or refurbishing company who removed the original 512 chip and reinstalled a 256 chip. I was lied to by the Tiger Direct guy on the phone. There are NOT two chip slots...only one. So I now have a useless removed 256mb RAM chip. Replaced with the 1gb RAM chip I just installed. So instead of having 1-1/2 gb RAM, I only have 1gb. Here's the crux. To. go to 2gb RAM I'd need to buy a full 2gb RAM CHIP and discard the 1gb for which I just paid $39.99 ($45.00 with s/h). This means another output of almost a hundred dollars plus the $45.00 just wasted because they wont accept return once the sealed chip plastic was opened...even though I had no idea there was only ONE SLOT in this PC instead of TWO like the Tiger Guy said. Now...crux #2...this new 1gb RAM does nothing more to increase speed. I just watched a 2.01 MINUTE YouTube video which took a HALF HOUR to load, so I threw the money away for nothing, eh? There is no noticeable change except the 'speed' shows it now as 41.2 kbps instead of 40 kbps. Okay...now HOW do I get to speed this thing up to normal viewing in real time? I also saw an ad for 4bg RAM Gateway laptop with 120gb hard drive for $404.99 which is all suped-up with everything. I had to upgrade a LOT since I got this only four months ago...taking over a hundred hours to load it, like Internet Explorer 5 to 6 and then to 8 and now to 9. I'm using AVAST Anti-Virus, after trying for 23 hours to get ADVAR, then find out it didn't load because of problem on the servor's end. Added Firefox and upgraded twice. Loaded MS Protection but it created more problems so I deleted it...now with AVAST which I like. Soooo...I've literally spent over 200 hours to get this thng where it's at now, plus the wasted money for the upgraded RAM chip.and I still don't have increased speed. HOW do I get it? IF the processor has to be changed does this mean I have to gut the thing and install a new motherboard? If so, what kind of money cost are we talking here? I bought this four months ago as a refurbished unit only because I was able to get it on payments of only $25.00 a month. If I had to wait to get $400.00 cash I'd never have it. :-) Okay...that's it for the moment. Thanks much again for your help offering and detailed instructions...appreciate it more than you realize. Best Wishes And God's Blessings To You And Yours In Everything Always. Most Respectfully... ~ ED  ---------------------------------------------------------------- Javin007: Well, let's start with the RAM. If you're running windows XP, you can assume all the extra processes (virus scanners, and whatnot) will be eating up about 512 megs of the RAM. First thing to do is check DXDIAG again (start/run) and verify that it's now reporting the correct amount of RAM. (Don't be surprised if it's like 9 hundred something megs or slightly more. It won't report 1024 or 1 gig.) This being said, that will leave you with the other 512 for your applications. This box won't be running the latest and greatest 3D games, but I suspect it was never intended to. If the heaviest hitter you'll have running is along the lines of photoshop, the 1 gig of RAM you have now should be plenty sufficient. I wouldn't worry about getting 2 gigs. Not for this rig, anyway. Also, Avast is a great (and free) virus protection, every bit as good as Symantec's Norton, so good choice there. If your youtube videos are choking out, we need to start by verifying that it's an actual speed throttling problem. Go to www.SpeedTest.net and run the speed test. Come back with the results.

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