Butane distillation

I have instructions for extracting pure esential oil from plant material using butane. The problem I have with it is that at the end, the butane is vented. I just don't feel right about venting unburned hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. I've been looking at glass lab equipment (distillation tubes, connectors, etc). I have no background in chemistry, but it seems to me it shouldn't be too difficult to put something together using standard glass lab equipment to capture, distill and reuse the butane. Butane boils at 31 degrees farinhite and is heavier than air. At the end of the process, the oil is scraped from the bottom of a drying dish. Does anyone have any suggestions on how to put something like this together? Thanks

Question by GlobalVillageIdiot   |  last reply


in distilation , how is a condenser set up? Answered

after watching a video made by nurdrage and realising i could use a condenser to distill various chemicals like ammonia water, i was wondering, how is a condenser set up. now ive looked at a lot of images, and all i see is the top of the condenser where the gas enters, thenthe bottom where the gas exits as a liquid. now what i dont nderstand is the two middle middle nozzles, ive looked at many setups and theres usually nothing attached to them, or they have a hose attached to them that goes nowhere and you cant see where they end, so i must ask, what are they for, in the sense, what do they do? and what, if anything, are they attached to? whoever answers my question properly and makes sense will receive a best answer. also, i will just add, ive searched through google and wikipedia, and found zilch that made any sense to me.

Question by oldmanbeefjerky   |  last reply


It shouldn't be possible to produce methanol by distilling store bought wine because it shouldn't have any in it right? Answered

It should only contain ethanol right? Otherwise you would get methanol poisoning from drinking it in the first place before distilling? 

Question by ducks6   |  last reply


this is fake right? Answered

Https://www.instructables.com/id/Distill-Hydrogen-Peroxide/

Question by eric m   |  last reply


Looking for a thermostat

I am a science teacher and need help finding a thermostat to fix the department's water distiller. It looks very similar to the "Waterwise 9000 contemporary distiller" but is slightly different in appearance. The basic operation is you fill the reservoir and turn it on, the water boils and is then condensed and drips into the bottle that slides into the front of the device. When the heater reaches a certain temperature a thermostat turns on the cooling fan, when the device cools to below that temperature the cooling fan turns off. There are lots of warnings about running it without the fan because it will burn out the heater. I have tested the heater and it works fine, I can bypass the thermostat and the fan works fine, but the thermostat no longer switches on the fan. If I can find a replacement thermostat that should fix the entire distiller but it seems to be a custom order only for the manufacturer who wants you to buy a whole new distiller. Can anyone suggest an appropriate substitute? The code on the side of the thermostat is:  36tme02 22471 f150-15f p185-97 a0615 I found a similar image on the emerson site for a 36T thermodisc thermostat http://www.thermodisc.com/en-US/Products/Bimetal/Pages/36T.aspx Does anyone know how to figure out the switching temperature from the code from the side of the thermostat? Any suggestions are appreciated!

Topic by CitizenScientist   |  last reply


How can I make alcohol (for fuel) from celulose (wood, paper) without buying expensive enzymes?

I am fully versed and practiced in column distilation.

Question by    |  last reply


What is the importance of utilization of this cell in this devise ? Answered

''Suppose that a water electrolyzer functions under the effect of voltage provided by a chromium-silver cell. To perform the electrolysis of water an electrolyzer containing distilled water with few drops of sulfuric acid is connected to an electrochemical cell .''

Question by Fatima.9   |  last reply


is there a foodsafe and heat resistant adheisive?

I am joining copper tube to a stainless steel pot lid, i have joined them but want to make an airtight seal. is there an adheisive i can use that will be heat resistant and not react with alcohol?

Question by the rowdyboy   |  last reply


Why can't you drop electronics in water?

We all know we can't drop electronics in water. Why? I think it's because they short out the circuits. SO, I can drop my ipod in distilled water and it will be perfectly fine?

Question by starwing123   |  last reply


dos any one know were to buy cheep laboratory equipment in The GTA or grater Toronto Area?

I need a: Hotplate, water condenser, three way adaptor,vacum adapter, claisen adaptor, three neck flask,sepparation funnel,dry tube, a flask, distilation colum,and a capillary with fine outlet.

Question by dciocoiu   |  last reply


Best "HHO Electrolyte" Versus "Conditioned Water" and Why you think it is ?

I eared many things about hho generator but some say it is better to use "solution recipes" (electrolyte) instead of  "conditioned distilled water" . I'd like to know more about conditioning distilled water . I need your help on this one ! I plan to use rectified high voltage for 2 dry cells . 8" by 8" 16 plates each using microwave parts but I can't figure the minimal input if coming form  12 volts batteries and car alternator . I bet I'll need a converter from car DC to H/V transformer and I have no idea how to make it a reality Use the best of your knowledge to answer !!! Instructive and useful links are welcome ...

Question by wiseboy   |  last reply


CO2 extraction, SFE build ideas?

I'm wanting to build a SFE co2 extraction "plant" home or garage unit...i am trying to use it with essential oil extraction projects...especially with cedarwood ( i have a successful steam distillation business, distilling and fractionating cedarwood oil and blending it with various carriers to provide my cedar based pesticides and lawn care products)...but i want to increase efficiency and potency, etc. the USDA did testing with cedar and co2 SFE and had great success. i am trying to build a unit...many ideas out there...but very few clear details, videos, pictures, etc... i want to use for cedar, algae, kelp, bamboo, etc....various essential oil products... the sad thing is i can find vague info from either large commercial units or from cannabis users... IDEA's ?!?!?!?!?

Question by IdeaVault   |  last reply


i need some help with My science fair project ?

I picked my sci project and have been working on it for 3 weeks now my subject is what habitat does basil grow the best in? my variables are 1 controll plant put in sunny area with regular amount of water 2 poluted water plant 3 LED light source and good ventilation plant 4 encanced water plant with artificial food in a dark box with a crack of light and my partner Melrose is doing what type of water do plants grow the best in types of water she is testing Tap distilled pure spring

Question by albylovesscience   |  last reply


Can I mix a Luminol solution for detection of biological materials with a dilution of drug store hydrogen peroxide?

Here's my situation: I've obtained some powdered Luminol, and would like to experiment with it a-la-CSI. I know Potassium Ferricyanide is the suspension of choice, but I've also read that 4% Hydrogen Peroxide works. If I were to achieve the 4% with First-Aid grade peroxide and distilled water, would that work?  And is a Hydroxide Salt necessary to the chemiluminescent effect of the detection of biological materials? Is it just a simple "add powder to liquid" mix, or are there more steps? Also, would anybody know where to get - or how to make - Potassium Ferricyanide safely and inexpensively? Thanks, Tomtomtom55

Question by tomtomtom55   |  last reply


no fog

  I dont know the mechanics fog machines,so heres a problem u probably already heard,or know about.. I have a cheapy  400 watts Gemmy (about 6 or 7  years old). I pulled it out of the attic thinking it needed a good cleanout before halloween. I mixed up a 50/50 bottle of white vinegar and distilled water - turned it on and got one good 20-30 second burst from it.On 2nd burst a little leftover came out then nothing.Still heats up hot and I can hear pump humming when i trigger the remote. Next, I empty the tank and tried straight fog juice and still nothing.I emptied the tank  and cleaned the tank filter tried it all again and still nothing...Could it be somewhere in the solid copper tubing from the pump to the heater and how do I clean that?   I did however store it without fog juice in it..(empty),could that a cause of problum ?  Please help.. TKS.

Topic by ron de   |  last reply


Can the large amount of sodium acetate decrease the stability of the glow of TCPO?

Sir we had made the TCPO by ourselves and we used the dye DAPN(diaminp phenazine) instead of 9,10-bis(phenyethyl) anthracene and use the solvent ethyl acetate for this and procced as your procedure but we didnt't get the glow for minutes.It lasts only for seconds(i.e. 3-5).Is this due to the use of DAPN rather than the use of anthracene? We had made the DAPN with the mixture of OPDA(orthophenylene diamine) with Distilled water and the addition of the HRP(horse radish periooxidase). We had used the amount as: 15 ml of Ethyl Acetate 1gm of Sodium Acetate 3mg of DAPN 3ml of hydrogen Pero-oxide 800mg of TCPO Sir, we are the student of Nepal studying Biomedical Engineering and we are doing our final year project and we need your help in this, as our project is based in the che miluminescece method for the pregnency detector.Please,please sir help us sending your reply.We will be very thankful towards you if you will be kind to us.Eagerly waiting for your reply.?

Question by    |  last reply


Can I fix my 400w fog machine?

I dont know the mechanics fog machines,so heres a problem u probably already heard,or know about.. I have a cheapy  400 watts Gemmy (about 6 or 7  years old). I pulled it out of the attic thinking it needed a good cleanout before halloween. I mixed up a 50/50 bottle of white vinegar and distilled water - turned it on and got one good 20-30 second burst from it.On 2nd burst a little leftover came out then nothing.Still heats up hot and I can hear pump humming when i trigger the remote. Next, I empty the tank and tried straight fog juice and still nothing.I emptied the tank  and cleaned the tank filter tried it all again and still nothing...Could it be somewhere in the solid copper tubing from the pump to the heater and how do I clean that?   I did however store it without fog juice in it..(empty),could that a cause of problum ?  Please help.. TKS.

Question by ron de   |  last reply


what is the equation i should use to dilute 50% hydrogen peroxide into lower concentrations? Answered

Hello, i just got some 50% hydrogen peroxide, from my local pharmacy because they were out of 35%, plus for some reason 50% is free. anyways, i want to know whats the equation for finding out how many ml's of water i need to use to dilute a solution toa certain amount, as i want to use the 50% peroxide to make 30% , 22% and 3% peroxide. now ive looked on google and i couldnt find a thing , and if i did by chance come across it, i didnt understand it. what i want to know is how much distilled water will it take to convert 100ml of 50% hydrogen peroxide to the above concentrations, or if possible, could someone please give me the equation for converting any concentraion to any, please! also, whoever answers my question and solved my problem entirely will get a best answr i promise!!!

Question by oldmanbeefjerky   |  last reply


i need to make a silent water pump using basic parts. help?

I havent got much at my disposal, ive got tubing, glue, and brushless fans. i have tested with distilled water and the fans do not short out from being in contact with it, nor do they appear to be rusting or locking up. i have tried using a standard fan to make a simple pump, but with no decent results. the way i have it set up is the bottom is covered, and a tube is exiting out the side of the fan shroud. it is angled so that the fan blades should be pushing the water into the tube, but the water is just staying in the fan shroud. i currently have a CD as the intake, using the hole in the middle as the intake and the rest of the cd covering the other side of the fan. i was wondering if theres a way to make it work with a normal fan, and if i can do that, how do i need to have the hose set up? if its impossible to do with a regular fan, i know a blower fan will work, since water pumps have basically the same setup on the inside. i have a feeling the blades themselves are playing a big role in where the water is going. any help is appreciated!

Question by zack247   |  last reply


30 minute DIY AM particle-acceleration

Last fall, I verified an initial relationship of resonance between two bifilar wound wires (of any length). The predictable sequence resonates at the following levels - 20 Hz, 30 Hz, 50 Hz (and all multiples of these 3 frequencies). I used a Parallax Propeller Board - with PGEN 2.0 software from Innovationshop in Germany.   This software allows for a waveform built of 32 stacked frequencies to be created and amplified.   I have used it to successfully break the bonds of distilled water - as one of my earlier videos shows 2 years ago. JL Naudin calls it a "GEGENE machine" - but it is a simple, tabletop, particle accelerator.  His results can be found here:::  http://jnaudin.free.fr/wfcbooster/indexen.htm One of my earlier videos from May 2013 - can be found at YouTube - I just want to show people how this works.  It is a 4 minute explanation of open-sourced Patent 512,340.:::   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHxK1VWrXcM The materials:: 1 - 1800 watt induction cooktop (iron, copper, or 3-ply stainless cookware is required on these types of devices) 2.  50 feet of 14 AWG speaker wire 3.  2-10 count of 500-watt halogen lightbulbs. 4.  wire, solder & connectors for the wire-ends. 5.  1 stainless-steel HHO DC electrolyzer tank.  6.  Cooking Pan - or light fixture (to hold light bulbs). 7.  High Voltage diodes (500 Volts or higher)

Topic by jabel4   |  last reply


Technology Makes Cheap Drinking Water from Air

INTRODUCTION:   How can we best apply basic technology to help the underprivileged and/or disaster-hit countries like Haiti? Daily hygiene and nourishment are among the top needs for disaster ridden regions!  Simply put, no water means no hygiene. The Romans understood that over two millennia ago and created their complexly beautiful aqueduct networks for handling both fresh and wastewater! Other ingenious water systems like “air wells” have been found in the city of Theodosia (cf: discovered in 1900 by Zibold, see Zibold’s Collectors/Dehumidifiers) dating back to Greco-Roman times during the Byzantine Empire. These were strictly passive systems that naturally dehumidified air, collecting its potable water in underground basins. All air, even in relatively dry desert regions, will precipitate or release its natural water content (initially in the form of vapor) through condensation when it hits its dew-point temperature and below. That means you “chill” it to an appropriate level that is anywhere from 5F to 50F below its current air temperature, depending upon how much water content (relative humidity) it has locally absorbed. The condensation of the water vapor releases its internal latent heat (reheating the cooled air) which must be constantly dissipated (absorbed by something) in order for water formation to steadily continue. So how do we dissipate this resultant vapor-heat and chill our air without any infrastructure or electricity, in an underprivileged or disaster-ridden region? We simply bury a long cast-iron or any metallic drain-pipe sufficiently underground where the temperature of the earth is naturally held to a constant at around 45F to 55F. That’s our “free” chiller gift from nature. One end of the pipe, Figure-1,  sticks out of the ground to suck-in local outside hot air, and the other end dumps cooled dry air and water into an underground cistern where it gets collected and is piped to the surface to both exhaust the cooled dry air and connect to a water pump. We need a hand operated water pump to lift up the water above ground, and we need an electric fan to constantly pump air through the ground-chilled piping system. We can even force the cooled piped air to exhaust into a tent-like structure where it provides air conditioning as an added bonus, but this adds the penalty of both power and the increased fan size necessary to drive our required airflow further into an enclosure! While this concept is not “passive” (requiring electricity to work) like those clever Byzantine air-wells, it will produce much more potable water and within a smaller volume than those elegantly passive historic devices. The electricity for our fan power requirements can be produced by any one of four ways using either “active” or “passive” techniques: 1) An active playground or bike-pedaling-person or oxen-driven mechanism-generator, 2) A passive windmill generator, 3) A passive solar energy collection system that directly generates electricity, or 4) A passive thermo-electric system that directly generates electricity using the Peltier effect, operating solely on temperature differences between the cell’s top and bottom surface (we jury-rig the cool pipe and hot ambient air to contact separate sides of the cell). Depending upon how much water is needed, the required air volume plus pipe length and diameter, together with the fan will be sized accordingly. We can also configure groups of parallel fan-driven air pipes that are radially fed into the cistern. The sizing of this underground network depends upon the ambient air’s local average temperature and relative humidity (how much water gets absorbed into the air) plus buried pipe depth and effective underground temperatures achieved. The basic concept is one where we “wring” water from air at some given humidity content. The higher its relative humidity the more water is recovered from the air. The air-wringing process simply chills the air as it scrubs along the cooled internal pipe surface until it starts to rain inside the pipe from condensation onto its surface. The condensation is like the dew that forms on car windows, grass or any cooled surface in the early morning, before the sun comes out and evaporates the dew back into the heating air. A further bonus is that our dew-formed water is naturally distilled and very clean. It is potable water ready to drink without the need for additional sterilizing agents. Of course, we must make sure that the interior piping and cistern network is biologically cleansed before burying it underground. The hand pump with its 10 to 15 foot extended piping to reach the underground cistern must also be cleansed. The beauty of this constantly replenishable water supply is its convenient underground installation anywhere! After the in-ground installation, we have a virtual, partially passive, no moving parts, non-breakdown system containing above ground total access to all moving parts that could breakdown, namely the water pump and electric fan. Also, it is easily maintained, with few moving parts (water hand-pump and electric fan) and basically lacking any technical complexity which makes it ideal for technologically backward regions. The example below uses a relatively small industrial fan moving air at 1500 CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) with a DC motor rated at 1kW. This fan together with our underground piping system will conservatively generate 12 GPH (Gallons Per Hour) of potable drinking water without need for any purification chemistry. Based on an average electrical cost of 14-cents per kWh (kilo-Watt hour), the typical commercial distillation of one gallon of drinking water costs roughly 35-cents as compared to our cost of only 1.2-cents. Furthermore, if we decide to go green and use solar energy for generating our water, it would effectively cost us nothing beyond the initial installation! USING A PSYCHROMETRIC CHART TO SIZE OUR WATER SUPPLY: The following gets a little technical and is only provided for those die-hards who are truly interested in how the science works. Those non-technically schooled may skip this part and not miss the basic concept. Figure-2 shows a Psychrometric Chart for air. This chart summarizes some of the basic thermodynamic properties of air throughout its typical range of operating temperature. The chart uses six basic air properties that defines the physical chemistry of water evaporation into air:  (1) the enthalpy or total energy contained within a unit of air which is a combination of its internal and external energy, expressed as the amount of BTU-energy per unit mass of reference dry-air, (2) the specific volume or the ratio of a unit volume of local air to its mass of reference dry-air, (3) the humidity ratio or the amount (mass) of moisture in a local unit of air divided by its reference mass of dry-air, (4) the percent relative humidity per unit of local air, or the mass ratio (expressed in percentage form) of the partial pressure of water vapor in the air-water mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at those conditions (the relative humidity depends not only on air temperature but also on the pressure of the system of interest),  (5) the dry-bulb temperature or the locally measured air temperature, and (6) the wet-bulb temperature or saturation temperature which is the local air temperature experienced during constant water evaporation (a wet-bulb thermometer is typically used:   a thermometer that measures resultant temperature while wrapped in a water wet-gauze and spun to generate local air movement and max-evaporation)  1.0   The Process and A Sample Calculation Our Psychrometric Chart uses six thermodynamic properties that help to determine the amount of water available for extraction from the local ambient air as a function of its temperature, pressure and relative humidity.  Let’s assume the following local ambient conditions for the region we plan to construct our water system at:  (1) Typical daily air temperature Td = 106F and one atmosphere pressure assumed at sea-level, (2) Relative Humidity, RH = 55%, and (3) Typical underground temperature down at six feet is measured at Tu=55F (at 12ft. it drops to ~45F). This yields the following calculated results for obtaining a steady-state supply (changes at night) of water to fill the cistern:      1)      In our example, the “local” air (dry-bulb) temperature is Td=106F, at a relative humidity of RH= 55%.  Fig-2 indicates that the resultant Humidity Ratio is HR= 0.0253 Lbs-water/Lb-Dry-Air (intersection of Td=106F line and RH=55% line, then horizontal to HR value).  We then determine the “gulp” of air volume containing the HR Lbs-water which corresponds to the point of intersection of Td and RH. Interpolating on specific volume “mv” yields mv=14.7 ft3/Lb-Dry-Air (this value sets the optimum unit airflow for our given ambient conditions, and creates a ballpark pipe length to diameter ratio needed later). It represents the basic unit of air volume that will enter our underground pipe per given time, and ultimately defines the size of our fan and piping network. For increased water creation, multiples of this unit volume will scale up the additional amounts of water that can be collected. 2)      As the inlet air cools down to a temperature of Tu=55F, from contact with the relatively cold underground pipe, we follow the constant enthalpy line (red upward left-diagonal) from the intersection of Td and RH to its saturated air temperature condition of Ts= ~88F, which is its dew-point temperature where the corresponding local RH=100%.  At this temperature or under, the air precipitates and releases its moisture content, resulting in water condensation onto the pipe walls.  Since our air will chill to a final pipe temperature of Tu=~55F, we follow the RH=100% saturated curve (green) down to yield an HR=~0.009 Lbs-water/Lb-Dry-Air. This is how much water is left in the air when it gets to 55F.  Therefore for every pound of local outside air that enters the pipe, mw=0.0253 – 0.009 = 0.0163 pounds of absolute pure, distilled potable water precipitates onto the inside pipe wall (per pound of dry air that is cooled and dehydrated) to gravity-flow out the pipe exit and into the cistern. 3)      We now convert pounds of air per unit time into a unitized volumetric airflow that yields gallons of hygienically pure potable water production per unit time. For every Va=100 ft3 of local volumetric air movement per minute (CFM) through the pipe, which translates into ma=Va/mv= 100/14.7 = 6.8 lbs. of dry air per minute or 6.8 * 60 = 408 lbs. per hour (PPH), to yield a water-flow of mwf=ma * mw = 408 * 0.0163 = 6.65 PPH or 6.65/8.345 = 0.8 GPH of water.  An industrial fan rated at 1kW DC will typically move 1500 CFM at a pressure of 8-iwc, to continuously produce 15 * 0.8 = 12 GPH of pristine potable water. 4)      Not shown here are the design details of sizing our pipe, fan and solar collection system for electric power requirements using heat transfer principles coupled with a thermodynamic heat balance, and aerodynamic fan performance assessment. These details help to size the electric power generation requirements plus margin used to properly size a solar collector containing further margins for overcast days. The engineering involved here is straight forward but beyond the scope of the current project.

Topic by RT-101   |  last reply