First off, i apologize for asking so many questions. google couldnt tell me a single thing about what i wanted to know, which was how the -12v is created and why a computer needs it. so i turned to a broken power supply to see is the -12v connects to a IC of some sort, which i would assume creates the strange voltage, confirmed by a datasheet. i completely traced the traces with a multimeter and at one point a capacitor went to ground close to where the -12v connection is on the board, after an inductor of some sort. the trace continued, and lead to a pin on the transformer, much to my disappointment. BUT that same trace was directly connected to ground, so now i am confused, does the inductor type piece createthe -12v? there was a diode as well, but i thought nothing of it or its place on the board.. i have a feeling i should have, shouldnt i? fed up and confused by the power supply, i turned to my motherboard. where the -12v leads to a smd capacitor and then traces from the capacitor, to ground, and nowhere else as far as i can tell with a multimeter and a dark blue motherboard. then i bring up the picoPSU, how do they make the -12v, if it is even made? is there a chip responsible? or a inductor like i found in the power supply? -5v has been omitted form power supplies, so im assuming that the same can be done by -12v, right? and wouldnt you get a -v type measurement if you put the + test lead on the - terminal and vice versa?