Solar - PV versus Solar Oven with Peltier

I was browsing the site as I am often wont to do, and spent quite some time revisiting old 'ibles covering various solar projects, almost all of which are heat related. I understand from general consensus that PV (photo voltaic) solar systems are very inefficient and one of the worst ways to harvest solar energy (when considering the cost of construction and the energy transfer capacity, etc.) Almost everyone who knows what they are doing suggest that the best (and easiest) way to harvest solar energy is to collect the heat - be it to heat air or water, cook food, or other such purposes.Now, I have recently been fascinated by a discovery relatively new to me, peltier units. These devices, for those who don't know, can work in one of three ways. They can harvest and/or produce either heat, cold, or electricity.Basically, if an electric current is run through a unit, it produces heat on one side and an equal amount of 'cold' on the other. Yes I know you can't produce cold - but for the layman, that is what we call it.Or, if one side is heated while the other side is cooled, the unit produces an amount of electricity from the difference in temperatures. One example I have seen and plan to make use of is in vehicles - if you place one or more of these on your exhaust manifold, or any other location where the engine produces waste heat, and airflow can reach it to cool the other side, you generate electricity from the waste heat energy that would otherwise just be . . . well, wasted.But it occurred to me today, if you had a unit attached in the middle of a solar collector, focusing sunlight on one side of the peltier unit, and isolate the other side of the unit in some cooling medium (perhaps even just air with a heat sink of some sort - more likely a cooling liquid though), how effective would this be at harvesting solar energy (heat) into electricity?Actually, I have been using the more common name of peltier, but I believe that for this application a seebeck unit (which is nearly the same, but different) would be required. As I understand it, Peltier units are used more as coolers and are almost always constructed with Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) and used around room temperature and below; while Seebeck units are good for power generators are often constructed of PbTe or, SiGe as well as Bi2Te3 and are used at much higher temperatures.From :The effect is that a voltage, the thermoelectric EMF, is created in the presence of a temperature difference between two different metals or semiconductors. This causes a continuous current to flow in the conductors if they form a complete loop. The voltage created is of the order of several microvolts per degree difference.((more info can be found at the referenced wiki page on formulae etc.))Just curious on if this would ever be a decent way to harvest solar energy into electricity. I have also thought up using a thermal siphon solar heating system in which the liquid flows past one or more water wheels which power a small (and obviously slow) generator - but at that point I believe it would be so inefficient and limited in use as to just have absolutely no practical application. The peltier unit (used as a seebeck unit) would probably do better, but I am not certain, which is why I post the question.

Topic by karossii   |  last reply

How Can I Fix Bar Clamps that are Slipping?

⁽ᴿᵉᵖᵒˢᵗᶦᶰᵍ ᵗʰᶦˢ ʰᵉʳᵉ, ˢᶦᶰᶜᵉ ᴵ ᵍᵒᵗ ᶰᵒ ʳᵉᵖᶫᶦᵉˢ ᶦᶰ ᵗʰᵉ ᴬᶰˢʷᵉʳˢ ˢᵉᶜᵗᶦᵒᶰ⋅⋅⋅⁾ I just found an antique bar clamp (An ELZETT, a bit smaller than that one though). I've removed most of the rust, but: The sliding jaw doesn't lock onto the bar when I tighten the clamp. It looks like The notches were very shallow/small, to begin with, and they've worn out quite a bit. I tried enlarging the grooves/notches that were on the bar with a hacksaw, but that didn't really help. Does anyone have an idea for making it lock/catch on the bar? My grandpa might have several more of these clamps, and I don't want them to go to waste! Drilling holes into the bar and adding a removable pin - no, because this steel is really hard and I'd go through 10 drill bits! How about building some type of wooden cage around it that will hold it in place? The only thing I can think of is to take it apart, and use the hardware for a homemade wooden clamp. But I think it would be easier to start from scratch... I really want to fix this clamp! The quality of old tools, throat depth of this clamp, the screw, the swiveling pad - I need these! Thanks!

Topic by Yonatan24   |  last reply

I just don't see some of the data.

I manage MySQL databases. And this was not difficult before. But now I tried many thoughts and ideas how to solve the complexity, but didn't correct the problem. I can't access the amount of data due to the complexity of the program. And I can't understand what to do about it.

Topic by TaylorHaynes   |  last reply

please help!! my dog stepped on a pice of duct tape and now it is adhered to her paw see message for more info!!

ok my dog stepped on a piece of duct tape and it is now adhered to her paw pad as well as her paw hair i have tried to dissolve the adhesive with rubbing alcohol but want to know if anyone has any other ideas you see i cannot just rip it off since that would really hurt her so i really need some advice please help, fidgety2

Topic by fidgety2   |  last reply

KNEX MechWarrior Series PDF's

I was too lazy to dig out the instructions to make the MechWarrior line of KNEX and went looking for the pdfs. I couldn't find them any where online, so I dug them out and made pdfs to share with everyone who missed out on the line, lost the instructions or like me is too lazy to find the instructions. I'll upload as many of the pdfs as I can here; the rest are at this link: You have to make a free account to download them (UPDATE:  you don't need to make an account to download), but it's worth it. If you have a better website to share these files, please let me know. The pdfs include: The Cauldron Born & Owens The Mad Cat & Avatar The Shadow Cat and Sunder Series 1 Firefly Uziel Vulture Series 2 Hollander II Thor Uller Series 3 Converted MiningMech Legionnaire I am missing the Black Hawk (which i seem to have lost) from series 3 and the entire line of electronic armor (series 4) which includes the Fire Starter, Catapult and the Converted ConstructionMech. If anybody has a pdf of them or willing to sell them please let me know!

Topic by clanknexer   |  last reply

Transformers connected in reverse

Hi can a transformer connected in reverse. if 230v to 12v transformer is connected in reverse,. will it generate around 230v Just some silly doubt. Actually i was trying to find a step up transformer.. which converts 6v to 24v. what exactly its called.

Topic by nominds   |  last reply

Pro membership

Hey! If any one of you wants a pro membership. Please tell me . It is first come first serve policy as I have only 1 left. Goodluck

Topic by pranjal12   |  last reply


Hi, I purchased a few dogwoods, pink and white ones, the tags fell down from the pot and now I don't know who is who. There is any way to identify which one is the white one and which one is the pink one? They are around 12"

Topic by Dalida1980 

FoodSaver Quick Start V825/V845/Game Saver Sport Vacuum Sealer.

We have an FoodDSaver QuickStart V825/845 Game Saver Sport vacuum sealer that will suck the air out but will not seal. I was wondering if it could be the heating element gone bad???? Tell me how to check it and how to fix it. Thanks in advance. My email is;

Topic by DilmosJ   |  last reply

I want a special rc tank

Hi, We wanted to design circuit board. The Circuit board size 92mm x 42mm. This circuit board is for small RC Tank with two wheels which has two motors. This tank is for indoor usages. RC tank properties; a) Image transfer operation with 5g wifi and android hand terminal b)take picture recording c)2.4 g remote control (left, right, forward, backward) d)voice comunication single side e)Industrial tablet; android operating system support with remote control visual comminication. sample applications;,searchweb201603_1,ppcSwitch_5&algo_expid=6f402017-0dcb-44ff-aa1b-8ba773277605-6&algo_pvid=6f402017-0dcb-44ff-aa1b-8ba773277605&priceBeautifyAB=0

Topic by Alpaslankilickaya   |  last reply

Technology Category: Artificial Intelligence/ Machine Learning/ Data Science

I would like to see AI/ Machine Learning/ Data Science be a Subcategory in the Technology Category on Instructables. The field of Data Science/ Machine Learning is on the rise. Machine Learning is being integrated into various products & services we use on a daily basis. Below is the Developer Roles chart from the Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2017; It shows that the field of Data Science & Machine Learning combined accounts for approximately 12% of those surveyed, compared to the combined 1.6% in 2016. A large number of Open Source Machine Learning libraries like TensorFlow, SciKit, etc have been made available to developers across the world. These libraries enable developers & engineers to integrate ML models, Computer Vision, Chat Bots, Speech & Text recognition, etc into their projects. The Google Assistant & Amazon Alexa AI both AI Assistants are now compatible with the Raspberry Pi. Android Things - An OS built for connected embedded systems which can run ML & AI programs is now compatible with Hardware Platforms like the Intel Edison/ Joule & the Raspberry Pi. Platforms such as OpenAI conduct fundamental research & provide free software for training, benchmarking & testing AI. Kaggle - a website for hosting Data Science Competitions has a large collection of high-quality public datasets. There are many other platforms & frameworks like these. With the growing number of resources being made available in these fields, it is only natural that a large number of people will be looking for tutorials & instructions to help them integrate these resources into their projects. Instructables could become the repository of ML/AI based projects. E.g: AI-based Security System, a Line following robot which uses ML algorithms to follow the line, etc. I hope we can have a constructive discussion in the comments as to how we the Instructables Community can make Instructables the best repository for AI/ML projects.

Topic by Jonathanrjpereira   |  last reply

No option to make comment appear at top and setting promoted items does not work

I have a couple problems: 1. No option to make comment appear at top. There used to be a little checkbox saying if you want your comment of your instructable to appear on top. Now, I don't see one. 2. Setting promoted items does not work. Whenever I set promoted items, it just says 'saving..' and does nothing Also while i am at it. Instructables needs a undo and redo button. ctrl-z removes paragraphs, not characters, ctrl-y does nothing. I have had to redo paragraphs because ctrl-z messed it up. Also, i don't want carriage returns to be deleted in my intructables. I am using windows 7 and chrome. Instructables is honestly the buggiest website I have ever seen.

Topic by xp4xbox   |  last reply

"Set Promoted Items" still not working

Latest Firefox in Windows 10. "Set Promoted Items," after being totally nonfunctional when the new profile pages launched (I could click the button but the pop-up window would just show the 5 items that were already there, not give me an option to change them), still isn't working for me. It lets me drag and drop to rearrange the items but then when I hit "Save" it just gets stuck on "Saving...". It's been like that for at least 10 minutes now. I think I read in another post somewhere that it could take an abnormally long time, but it seems like that should be resolved by now.

Topic by Ben Finio   |  last reply

Set Promoted Items Saving Not Saving

After rearranging the items for "set promoted items" and then pressing Save, "saving" occurs to which occurs for an infinite amount of time ie it does not appear to work. Best wishes and all, thx. 

Topic by TVMiller   |  last reply

Help me design a table like this?

I have long dreamed of building a capstan table for my home like DB Fletcher's beautiful designs (google it if you aren't familiar). I have researched various jupe tables and similar expanding round tables with none that satisfied me - either they were designs I was afraid to try and recreate then build, or the product was not what I wanted for my home.But I now have found a very satisfactory compromise; something I feel is possible for me to design and build myself, and which would look great in my home.I just don't have enough time in the day to do all of my projects... so I am hoping to find some collaborators here who will contribute time to help me design a knock-off of this table. Here's a link to an swf demonstration of the table in action... who wants to help me out?

Topic by karossii   |  last reply

Windows 9x Clouds Remake

After searching and searching the internet, I could not find one single remake of Microsoft's signature wallpaper, "Clouds". So I set off to make one. The original picture was a 1024x768 grainy JPEG file. It was included in both Windows 95 and Windows 98 as selectable wallpapers, and it was the background found in the cover art of both releases of Windows 9x. My remake is a 1680x1050 PNG which I made fully from scratch, using Microsoft's Clouds.jpg as reference. Here on Instructables I have included my remake, as well as Microsoft's original. Deviant Art My Blog

Topic by Arbitror   |  last reply

Will it work if I use a guitar in the microphone input

Sorry, can't really think straight today I'm just wondering if I got an adapter for a standard guitar cable to fit the microphone input in my sound card, would it would it work as a microphone and record off my humbuckers?

Topic by Chicken2209   |  last reply


How would you make this?

Topic by plotseling   |  last reply

Building Touch Sensors from Scratch?

I am very familiar with velostat and conductive fabric and how to combine them to make textile touch sensors. I would now like to make a touch sensor that's more solid, and made from a firmer resistive substance than velostat. I've been looking up the resistivity/conductivity of different metals here: In theory, as long as one metal (or other material) is more conductive than the other, it should work the same? I've read on silicon and carbon fiber, but I'm not sure if what I'm researching is the solid kind, or the flimsy/squishy/bendy kind.

Topic by LeAnne_K   |  last reply

I get the message "replace the emergency stop switch" in my treadmill.

Hi. The treadmill is a Life Fitness T7. I would really appreciate any help on how to solve this problem.Thank you very much in advance.

Topic by Desgrac   |  last reply

Gap measurement using a sensor

I want to measure a very tiny gap of about 20-30 microns(0.02-0.03 mm) using a sensor with the help of arduino and then display it using a 16x2 Digital LCD Display. Can someone help me out with the sensor that I will need for this purpose with exact name and its working.The gap that I want to measure is the gap between the the joints of a healing fractured bone.(the joint where the tissues develop to join the broken parts together.)Since this is a leg bone any person walking with such a fractured bone will put pressure on the bone and the gap present in the bone will reduce. So that is what I want to measure using a sensor and arduino. Since this gap will be too small (20-30 microns) I am unable to find a suitable sensor for the same.PS: Main issue I am facing is the measurement of gap using a sensor and arduino since I can find a suitable sensor for the same.Please find the attachments of the bone and the gap I want to measure.Also the thing I am doing is a close case of greenstick fracture. refer to the attachment of greenstick fracture.

Topic by ChinmayV2 

Arduino-Based Solar Heater for My Above Ground Pool

A few weeks ago I grabbed the garden hose to top off the pool and noticed how hot the water was as it came out. (the hose had been lying in the sun). So, I decided to put it to good use. We've been looking at solar heaters for the pool but found the prices prohibitive, and being a DIY'er I decided to build my own. I have 50' of black, tangle-free hose coiled on a 2' by 4' piece of Wolmanized, 3/4" plywood. This is perched on top of an 8' 4by4 post which I sunk into the ground near the pool's filter. To feed the hose I installed a faucet in the filter's return line which is under sufficient pressure to travel up and into the hose. The other end comes down to an electric valve before emptying back into the pool. The Arduino portion of the project consists of an Arduino Uno board, a DS18B20 temperature sensor probe, a 12-volt, 3-amp power supply, A small prototype board that holds two 12-volt relays and two 2N3904 transistors which the Arduino triggers, two 12-volt car-type relays which are triggered by the smaller ones, and a Mallory Sonalert. My idea was to have the Arduino monitor the temperature in the return line from the solar hose coil, and when it reaches 80 degrees F, the Sonalert goes off for 5 seconds to warn swimmers that hot water will be coming out of the return spout in the pool. And after the warning sounds, the electric valve then opens for 2 minutes, flushing the warmed water into the pool. Since the system is driven by the pool's filter, the solar hose is replenished during this flush period, and when the valve closes, that new water is then heated, and the whole process starts over. The Arduino code consists of a couple libraries to incorporate and read the temp' probe's output, a subroutine which tests both the Sonalert and the valve when the system is first plugged in, and then the necessary code in the Void Loop section which simply waits for the temp' to reach a preset level and then sound the alert and then open the valve.The system is built into an 8" by 6" electrical box that mounts on the 4 by 4 post just under the solar hose panel.The systems been up and running for about a week now and I've averaged about a 2 degree rise in the pool's water temp' per day.If anyone is interested in seeing photos of the project, or the Arduino code, I'll be happy to provide. UPDATE: Here are some phots of the project...

Topic by bnelson218   |  last reply

14-16V to 12V stable 20A max

Hi,I am looking at stepping down from (14 to 16V) to 12V drawing at max 20Ais there any efficient way to do so in a very very small package?Thank you

Topic by garnio   |  last reply

Best vedio game

What do you think is the best video game in the world? What console do you think is the best? 

Topic by XxsonicxX   |  last reply

Smurfs (bizarre)

When I take a holiday in Wales we always listen to "The Smurfs" (Father Abraham in Smurfland) - it's a tradition. Hence the phrase "The Smurfs have finished" meaning "Someone change the record". If you've not been exposed to this yet, see here: Then there's "Smurfing beer" - quote: "you don't get drunk and it isn't dear" (It isn't beer) The Pinoccio song questions - quote "Pinoccio, Pinoccio, why are you made of wood?" The annoying but up-beat Dippety-Do song: Looking at the album cover I wonder exactly what happens when the floating-head of Father Abraham appears in Smurfland - do they panic and start singing lest he smite them? (Notice the bad image job where the top of a mushroom-house has been cropped off on the right)

Topic by lemonie   |  last reply

Problems entering a contest

Hello,I have noticed some time ago that when I enter an Instructable into a contest it doesn't work the first time and the instructable isn't listed as an entry even after a few days. I always had to re-enter and then it worked. Now it just doesn't work and that's it. I've entered my latest instructable three times between yesterday and today and nothing. I tried the fourth time now but I wanted to mention this already because there seems to be a problem. My instructable matches the topic 100% so I don't think it has been refused as an entry.

Topic by Creative Mom CZ   |  last reply

Can see instructables on phone but not on computer

I can get the instructable topics on my phone, but not on my computer. How do I fix this?

Topic by porscheman1   |  last reply

I need to quickly correct this failure.

One of my important projects suddenly stopped opening in the Project. I stopped accessing it, and it all complicated me a lot. I can’t imagine how this could happen.

Topic by JodieSaunders   |  last reply

Periodic table of condiments

Nope, that isn't a typo. You've heard of the periodic table of elements? Well, check out this hilarious table of condiments that periodically go bad. From Condiment No. 1 (Mayonnaise, which the table says goes bad in 3 months) to Condiment No. 75 (Maraschino, which apparently never goes bad), you can look up just about any condiment you can name to see when you need to toss it out. Or at least when these people think it goes bad.Take it with a grain of salt (Condiment No. 2, it never goes bad!) though-it claims Lemon goes bad in 2 months. Stuff and nonsense. I've eaten 3 month old lemons that were perfectly good.Mendeleev would be so proud...

Topic by Lithium Rain   |  last reply

Broken Portable LCD Screen

Hello everyone... I have a broken LCD screen that went to a dvd player base that was a portable dvd player system, I was wanting to know if it was possible for me to find a way to power this up and use it with my computer, to display system stats like temp, proccessor usage, and things like this, any ideas on if this can be done and how I could do it?

Topic by blumoon94   |  last reply

Arduino heating controller: solar panel, oil burner, stove. NEED HELP AND ADVICE

HI this is my first time with arduino and electronics so please be forgiving.i want to make a controller for my home heating system and if it possible be able to control (change temp. setting, see statistic, etc. by phone - Bluetooth).so, i have three source of heat: solar panels (water), oil burner, wet stove. first part of plan is to connect all electrical components correctly (to make sure nothing blowup), second step is the program. third connect controller with phone by android or have a option to send sms to turn on/off oil burner.let's startthe heating system should looks like that (photo attach)please don't focus on the plumbing (that's only sketch), electronic and programing is more important.program (second step) should do:1. if T5 >T2 pomp P2 work 2. if T3>55'C , P3 work but only if O1 is switch off (automatically P1 and M1 is off, because they will be connect directly to O1 power) 3. option to on/off O1 by click on the phone (or by modul GSM in the future e.g sim800L) 4. additionally options 2 and 3 they are conditioned by other sub-option of 5 zones (where hot waterwill flow, so what will be heat): a)olny hot water in the tank- M3 open, b)only underfoor h.- M2 open, c)only radiators- M4 open, d) all heating, no tank- M2 i M3 open, e) all M2 M3 M4 open. so, before turn on O1 start making fire T3, one of the zone have to be pre-sellect.also if T1 >60st.C (and O1 and P3 are off), P4 will turn on (dump extra hot water to underfloor h.).that's all, nothing more .... but it's to much complicate for me right now. :smiley-confuse: and third part: all should be controll by simple phone app (android) e.g. turn on/off oil burner (maybe timer), change temp. in tank, change zone, see statistics etc.thera are elements what i have already- arduino nano-logging data module-relay 8 ports-bluetooth modul At-09, ble-4.0-extension board nano v3.0- temp. sensors DS18B20 i connect everything by all info what i've found in internet. also i tried to do simulation in THINKERCAD but many of my elements are not exist in the program, stiil no win. i didnt want to connect power just in case of blow off :o this is what i already found online: about bluetooth only showing the links to proof my hour's spend in google.i think first two are the i put together all what i found and this is my first program:const int TANKSENSORT1 = A0; const int TANKSENSORT2 = A1; const int PANELSENSORT5 = A2; const int STOVESENSORT3 = A3; const int FLOORSENSORT4 = A4;const int RELAYO1 = 3; const int RELAYM2 = 4; const int RELAYM3 = 5; const int RELAYM4 = 6; const int POMP2 = 7; const int POMP3 = 8; const int POMP4 = 9;const int diffON = 6; const int diffOFF = 3;void setup(){ Serial.begin(9600);pinMode(PANELSENSORT5, INPUT); pinMode(TANKSENSORT1, INPUT); pinMode(TANKSENSORT2, INPUT); pinMode(STOVESENSORT3, INPUT); pinMode(FLOORSENSORT4, INPUT);pinMode(RELAYO1, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(RELAYO1, LOW); pinMode(RELAYM2, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(RELAYM2, LOW); pinMode(RELAYM3, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(RELAYM3, LOW); pinMode(RELAYM4, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(RELAYM4, LOW); pinMode(POMP2, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(POMP2, LOW); pinMode(POMP3, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(POMP3, LOW); pinMode(POMP4, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(POMP4, LOW);}void loop(){ float solarPanelTemperature = ((analogRead(PANELSENSORT5) / 1024.0) * 5000)/10; float hotWaterTankTemperature = ((analogRead(TANKSENSORT2) / 1024.0) * 5000)/10; if(solarPanelTemperature > (hotWaterTankTemperature + diffON)){ digitalWrite(POMP2, HIGH); do{ delay(250); solarPanelTemperature = ((analogRead(PANELSENSORT5) / 1024.0) * 5000)/10; hotWaterTankTemperature = ((analogRead(TANKSENSORT2) / 1024.0) * 5000)/10; }while(solarPanelTemperature > (hotWaterTankTemperature + diffOFF)); digitalWrite(POMP2, LOW);float stoveTemperature = ((analogRead(STOVESENSORT3) / 1024.0) * 5000)/10; if(stoveTemperature > 55){ digitalWrite(POMP3, HIGH); do{ delay(250); stoveTemperature = ((analogRead(STOVESENSORT3) / 1024.0) * 5000)/10; }while(stoveTemperature < (55)); digitalWrite(POMP3, LOW); // musi byc dodane autoamtyczne wylaczenie pieca O1 jesli T3>55, a jesli T3<55 piec moze byc wlaczonyfloat hotwaterTemperature = ((analogRead(TANKSENSORT1) / 1024.0) * 5000)/10; if(hotwaterTemperature > (60)){ digitalWrite(POMP4, HIGH); do{ delay(250); hotwaterTemperature = ((analogRead(TANKSENSORT1) / 1024.0) * 5000)/10; }while(hotwaterTemperature < (60)); digitalWrite(POMP4, LOW); // still system have to be sure that O1 or stove P3 not working. // if one of those is on (O1 or P3) 'heat dumping' options cant start// still missing: // bluetooth modul // or logging data modul (statistics) // before heating will be on one of the zones have to be setup.(and save) // 'life' option for changing the zones M2, M3, M4 } delay(250); }and i stuck again.i'm looking for advise about proper electronic setup and program the arduino. i believe there are many people like me looking for help, so this post will have a bigger impact.regards

Topic by eukaliptus   |  last reply

​Make an optic close focus.

I want to be able to put my night vision monocular in front of my 2x scope on my airsoft.I need a combination of lenses to put between my scope and the NV to let the scope focus at a couple of inches (instead of 30 feet), and reduce magnification because otherwise I’d just be looking at a tiny part of the phosphor screen heavily magnified.I know it’s possible because a commercial unit is available, I just don’t know if it’s feasible for a guy like me (doesn't have a degree in optics) to build (I'm thinking no, but I figured I'd ask).Thanks for any help you can offer.

Topic by instrucables360   |  last reply

Exploding K-cups in a Keurig coffeemaker

Our Keurig coffeemaker is several years old. We began to see a ragged star opening in the top of the K-cups after brewing and coffee grounds various places outside the K-cup. All of the usual recommended fixes were no help. (See below.) This video gave me a solution that worked very well for us. (I have no personal connection to the video or its maker.) We now see only a neat round hole in the top of our K-cups after brewing, not a torn and ragged opening. Video summary: Remove two screws under the flip-up cover above the K-cup holder. Remove the decorative plastic cover by tugging at it. Snip the zip tie that keeps the soft white tube on the fitting. Pull the tube from the fitting. Hold the end of the tube over a cup. Cycle water through the Keurig until several cups come out clean. Clear the upper and lower needles of coffee grounds. Attach the tube with a new zip tie and screw the cover back in place. One word of caution: Very hot water spewed onto the soft skin at the base of my thumb and it was very uncomfortable. I draped a folded towel over my hand while hot water was being expelled from the disconnected tube at the top of the Keurig. Also, I ran quite a number of cups of water through the Keurig until I got three consecutive cups of water without any debris particles of any kind in the water. (I did not see an accumulation of coffee grounds like the man describes in the video, but I saw what was similar to pieces of a brown wing from a housefly.) In the two or three days following the procedure in the video we did occasionally have a K-cup blowout, but have seen only perfect round holes after a week or so, and we probably brew a dozen cups of coffee each day. The usual recommendations-- +Keurig's official recommendation as the cause of grounds migrating outside the K-cup is too much air inside the K-cup as evidenced by a domed lid on the K-cup before it is punctured. Their recommendation is to poke the top of the K-cup with a pin before putting it into the Keurig. Because of my observations and experience, I give very little credence to this. +Accumulated lime from the water needs to be descaled from the inside of the Keurig. Lime accumulation does cause a partially full cup of brewed coffee. We regularly descale our machine. We have also run water through our machine whenever we have seen grounds in our coffee and some grounds came out with the water. Descaling is a good thing to do, but I doubt it has a connection to bursting K-cups and grounds where they do not belong.  +Clogged upper and lower needles. The video will direct you to use a wire to insure open passageways inside the needles above and below the K-cup.

Topic by Phil B   |  last reply

Including comments in a download

I was possible in the past to choose to download comments with a project. This ability has disappeared. Any chance of a revival ? Many times a comment may add to the value of the project or point out, for example, a safety problem.Thanks JohnO

Topic by JohnMTWAO   |  last reply

Cree XB-D driver circuit

Hi Everyone,I would use following design with some modifications to be able to drive 3x3 Cree XB-D LEDs Green/Blue: Step 8 #4I would use 12V ATX computer PSU as voltage source.PWM source: Arduino nanoAttached picture show how I modified the design: 3x3 LED setupMy main concern, is it correct my calculation of LED currents: based on my understanding, 220mohm current sense resistor setup 2,272A current through FET. Based on Kirchhoff's current law, it will be 757mA for 1 LED.Is that correct?Any advise and suggestion would highly welcome.Thanks,Best Regards,Gyorgy

Topic by bernathg   |  last reply

What stepper motor should I buy?

I am new to stepper motors and didn't have one. Just need to make sure that I will buy the correct stepper. My project is about DSLR camera pan + tilt and for slider, so it will be 3 steppers. Maybe can carry 1.5kg - 2kgI already have the following:Battery: Laptop powerbank USB1:5V/2.1A USB2: QC2.0 port 5V/2A 9V/2A 12V/ 2ADriver: Adafruit Motor Shield V2 for ArduinoArduino: DFRduino UNO R3And some 1:40 reduction gears from past projectAbout the stepper I'm planning to order in and here is my choices: 12-24v, 1.8 step, 0.5 amps, 20 resistance, hold, detent 12-24v, 1.8 step, 0.28 amps, 26 resistance, hold, detent 12v , 1.8 step, 0.4 amps, 30 resistance, hold, detent 12v, 1.8 step, 0.4 amps, 30 resistance, 260mN.m hold, 12mN.m detentPlease let me know what should be best for my project. I'm not expert in steppers. If you have any suggestions that would be great.Thank you!

Topic by coreuploader   |  last reply

Convert airgun/Paintball gun to be fired by a computer (12v solenoid valve)

Hi!I have a project this summer where I need to convert a paintball marker and a co2 Airpistol to be fired by the use of a solenoid valve powered by 12v.The project goal is high-speed photography, more or less photographing object being hit by a projectile.What i need is a way to fire these guns precisely by the use of my computer and software, and since I already have plenty of 12 solenoid valves that work with this system I thought my easiest way is to adapt these valve to trigger the guns one way or another.I just purchased a Valken V-TAC SW-1 which I plan to use as base (for parts) My reason for getting this particular one was that it was on sale for 50% and seems to be fairly popular as it's based on the Tippmann 98 design.I attached an image of the valve I used with my controller and software (Cognisys Stop shot) now I can probably use any 12v solenoid valve (with the same spec ?) as the one I use now so it doesn't need to be these exact valves. As long as they can be operated by turning on-off power with the same powersource i use to control my current solenoid valves.From my understanding, most airguns use a pin valve, which is hit by a trigger mechanism that is then rearmed by the blowback.What would be the best way to modify an airgun for my needs? Replace the pin valve with a suitable solenoid i can control instead? Or go for a design that uses maybe use a piston and 2-way valve to hit that pin?The gun does not need to be mobile or ergonomic, it will be placed in a rig regardless, however keeping the barrel and keep the Picatinny is preferred to be able to mount marking aids etc. and mount the gun to a tripod.Any tips or suggestions are highly appreciated!Thank you!

Topic by PaulL320   |  last reply

Bluetooth Arduino quad copter

I making a Bluetooth controlled Arduino quadcopter. I want some help with the code. It is using mpu6050 gy521 breakout board. Please help. I want it to auto level.

Topic by harshitsingh.111001   |  last reply

Please help me solve this error in code

Arduino: 1.8.5 (Windows 8.1), Board: "Arduino/Genuino Uno"C:\Program Files (x86)\Arduino\libraries\NewSoftSerial-master\NewSoftSerial.cpp:39:24: fatal error: WConstants.h: No such file or directory #include "WConstants.h" ^compilation terminated.exit status 1 Error compiling for board Arduino/Genuino Uno.This report would have more information with "Show verbose output during compilation" option enabled in File -> Preferences./* JPEG Camera Example Sketch The sketch will take a picture on the JPEG Serial Camera and store the jpeg to an SD card on an SD Shield Written by Ryan Owens SparkFun ElectronicsHardware Notes: This sketch assumes the arduino has the microSD shield from SparkFun attached. The camera Rx/Tx should be attached to pins 2 and 3. IMPORTANT: The JPEG camera requires a TTL level shifter between the camera output and the arduino. Bypassing this may damage the Arduino pins. */This example requires the MemoryCard, SdFat, JPEGCamera and NewSoftSerial libraries #include #include #include #include #if defined(ARDUINO) && ARDUINO >= 100 #include "Arduino.h" #else #include "WProgram.h" #endif #include //Create an instance of the camera JPEGCamera camera;//Create a character array to store the cameras response to commands char response[32]; //Count is used to store the number of characters in the response string. unsigned int count=0; //Size will be set to the size of the jpeg image. int size=0; //This will keep track of the data address being read from the camera int address=0; //eof is a flag for the sketch to determine when the end of a file is detected //while reading the file data from the camera. int eof=0;void setup() { //Setup the camera, serial port and memory card camera.begin(); Serial.begin(9600); MemoryCard.begin(); //Reset the camera count=camera.reset(response); delay(3000); //Take a picture count=camera.takePicture(response); //Print the response to the 'TAKE_PICTURE' command. Serial.write((const uint8_t*)response, count); Serial.println(); //Get the size of the picture count = camera.getSize(response, &size;); //Print the size Serial.print("Size: "); Serial.println(size); //Create a file called 'test.txt' on the SD card. //NOTE: The memoryCard libary can only create text files. //The file has to be renamed to .jpg when copied to a computer."/test.txt", true); //Starting at address 0, keep reading data until we've read 'size' data. while(address < size) { //Read the data starting at the current address. count=camera.readData(response, address); //Store all of the data that we read to the SD card for(int i=0; ivoid loop() {}

Topic by AhetekuD   |  last reply

SMD components codes

Its my first time using smd components i bought some transistor but i dont know how to identify itcode written on it is 3ft22what transistor is this and how you read code like these ?

Topic by DabuHackker   |  last reply

I have continuity in both coils (AC-DC) but no power output?

I have a 12v 2A transformer without power outputI testes/checked with a voltmeter both coils (AC-DC) but no V+ output

Topic by MarcosM117   |  last reply

Intro step text disappears from published instructables

A few days after publishing an instructable I checked back to find the text from the intro step was missing. There is no way that I deleted the text by accident, as I did not edit the ible between it being fine and the text vanishing. The pictures seem to be unaffected. This first happened after publishing this ible in December and it just happened again with this one today. In both cases I replaced the text, which so far hasn't had any problems. What's going on? I often put important information in the intro step and having it disappear is pretty inconvenient. For anyone else who runs into this problem I was able to find the text using the history tab when editing.

Topic by NoFiller   |  last reply

how to combine 2 Arduino codes together ?

Hello, I have a question. I need to combine my code for my Arduino project. I'm using a Arduino micro board .  The 2 codes are maxsonar and another is a flying drones coding. I'm lost and don't know how to combine the both of them as the maxsonar code will overwrite the flying drones code causing it unable to fly. Maxsonar code const int anPin1 = 0; const int anPin2 = 1; int triggerPin1 = 13; long distance1, distance2, cm1 ,cm2; void setup() {   Serial.begin(9600);  // sets the serial port to 9600   pinMode(triggerPin1, OUTPUT);   pinMode(A5, OUTPUT);   pinMode(A11, OUTPUT); } void start_sensor(){   digitalWrite(triggerPin1,HIGH);   delay(1);   digitalWrite(triggerPin1,LOW); } void Fading()//led1 { if (distance1 == 9) {    analogWrite(A5,25.5);     delay(10); } else if (distance1 == 8) {    analogWrite(A5,76.5);     delay(10); } else if( distance1 == 7) {    analogWrite(A5,153);     delay(10); } else if(distance1 == 6) {    analogWrite(A5,255);     delay(10); }   }   void Fading2()//led1 {   if (distance2 == 9) {    analogWrite(A11,25.5);     delay(10); } else if (distance2 == 8) {    analogWrite(A11,76.5);     delay(10); } else if( distance2 == 7) {    analogWrite(A11,153);     delay(10); } else if(distance2 == 6 ) {    analogWrite(A11,255);     delay(10); }   }   void read_sensors(){   /*   Scale factor is (Vcc/512) per inch. A 5V supply yields ~9.8mV/in   Arduino analog pin goes from 0 to 1024, so the value has to be divided by 2 to get the actual inches   */   distance1 = analogRead(anPin1)/2;   distance2 = analogRead(anPin2)/2; } void count_in_cm() {   cm1 = distance1 * 2.54;   cm2 = distance2 * 2.54; } void print_all() {     if( distance1 <10 && distance2 >=10 )   {   Fading();   analogWrite(A11,0);   Serial.print("Sensor1: Warning");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print("S2");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(distance2);                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Serial.print("in");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(cm2);   Serial.print("cm");   Serial.println();   delay(700);     }   else if(distance1 >= 10 && distance2 < 10)   {   Fading2();   analogWrite(A5,0);   Serial.print("S1");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(distance1);   Serial.print("in");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(cm1);   Serial.print("cm");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print("Sensor2: Warning");   Serial.println();   delay(700);   }   else if (distance1 < 10 && distance2 < 10)   {     Fading();     Fading2();     Serial.print("Sensor1: Warning");     Serial.print("  ");     Serial.print("Sensor2: Warning");     Serial.println();     delay(700);      }   else   {   analogWrite(A11,0);   analogWrite(A5,0);   Serial.print("S1");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(distance1);   Serial.print("in");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(cm1);   Serial.print("cm");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(" ");    Serial.print("S2");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(distance2);   Serial.print("in");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(" ");   Serial.print(cm2);   Serial.print("cm");   Serial.println();   delay(700);   } } void loop() {   start_sensor();   read_sensors();   count_in_cm();   print_all();   delay(200); //This is the equivant of the amount of sensors times 50.  If you changed this to 5 sensors the delay would be 250. } flying drone code #include #include // channel declaration Servo channel1; // throttle Servo channel2; // yaw Servo channel3; // pitch Servo channel4; // roll Servo channel5; // ball drop servo // PWM freq setting, should it be 62.33Hz? const int PWMConst = 20022;//50HZ // global variables byte incomingByte, incomingByteUSB; byte rcBuffer[32], usbBuffer[12]; int i = 0, j = 0, STATE = 1; int Flag = 0, usbFlag = 0; unsigned int thr_16int = 0, yaw_16int = 0, pit_16int = 0, rol_16int = 0, gear_16int = 0; unsigned int thr_16int_usb = 0, yaw_16int_usb = 0, pit_16int_usb = 0, rol_16int_usb = 0; float throttle = 1000, roll = 1500, pitch = 1500, yaw = 1500; int gear = 1500; float currT, prevT = 0, _flagHover, throFlag; // functions declaration void extract_RC_cmd(void); void extract_USB_cmd(void); void translate_RC_cmd(void); void translate_USB_cmd(void); void RC_Neutral(void); void reset_usb(void); void reset_rc(void); void hover(void); void sonar(void); void setup() {   // setting registers   TCCR1A = _BV(COM1A1) | _BV(COM1B1);   TCCR1B = _BV(WGM13) | _BV(CS11);   ICR1 = PWMConst;   // set PWM I/O ports   channel1.attach(6);    // throttle   channel2.attach(9);    // yaw   channel3.attach(5);    // pitch   channel4.attach(10);    // roll   channel5.attach(11);   // fail safe-attit   //init usb buffer   usbBuffer[0] = 0x03;   usbBuffer[1] = 0xE8;   usbBuffer[2] = 0x0D;   usbBuffer[3] = 0xAC;   usbBuffer[4] = 0x15;   usbBuffer[5] = 0x7C;   usbBuffer[6] = 0x1D;   usbBuffer[7] = 0x4C;   reset_rc();   reset_usb();   Serial1.begin(115200);   // rc Rx data in   Serial.begin(115200);     // USB } void loop() {   // accept serial data from computer   if (Serial.available() > 0)   {     incomingByteUSB =;     if (incomingByteUSB >= 0x03 && incomingByteUSB <= 0x07)     {       usbFlag = 1;     }     if (usbFlag == 1)     {       usbBuffer[j] = incomingByteUSB;       j++;       if (j == 12)       {         usbFlag = 0;         j = 0;         extract_USB_cmd();       }     }   }   // accepte serial data from RC   if (Serial1.available() > 0)   {     incomingByte =;     if (incomingByte >= 0x80 && incomingByte <= 0x87)     {       Flag = 1;     }     if (Flag == 1)     {       rcBuffer[i] = incomingByte;       i++;       if (i == 32)       {         Flag = 0;         i = 0;         extract_RC_cmd();       }     }     // Serial.print(rcBuffer[i]);   }   // STATE MACHINE   switch (STATE)   {     case 1:       translate_USB_cmd();       reset_rc();       //Serial.print();       break;     case 2:       translate_RC_cmd();       reset_usb();       //Serial.print('R');       break;     case 3:       landing();       break;     default:       RC_Neutral();       break;   }     // output PWM   channel1.write(throttle);   channel2.write(yaw);   channel3.write(pitch);   channel4.write(roll);   channel5.write(gear); } // local functions void extract_RC_cmd() {   if (rcBuffer[0] >= 0x80 && rcBuffer[0] <= 0x87) // double check throttle range   {     thr_16int = rcBuffer[0] << 8 | rcBuffer[1]; // 16 bit throttle     // Serial.print(thr_16int);   }   if (rcBuffer[4] >= 0x19 && rcBuffer[4] <= 0x1E) // double check yaw range   {     yaw_16int = rcBuffer[4] << 8 | rcBuffer[5]; // 16 bit yaw     //Serial.print(yaw_16int);   }   if (rcBuffer[16] >= 0x09 && rcBuffer[16] <= 0x0E) // double check yaw range   {     rol_16int = rcBuffer[16] << 8 | rcBuffer[17]; // 16 bit yaw     //Serial.print(rol_16int);   }   if (rcBuffer[20] >= 0x11 && rcBuffer[20] <= 0x16) // double check yaw range   {     pit_16int = rcBuffer[20] << 8 | rcBuffer[21]; // 16 bit yaw     //Serial.print(pit_16int);   }   if (rcBuffer[22] >= 0x21 && rcBuffer[22] <= 0x26) // double check gear range   {     gear_16int = rcBuffer[22] << 8 | rcBuffer[23]; // 16 bit pitch     //Serial.print(pit_16int);   }   // state   if (rcBuffer[24] == 0x37 && rcBuffer[25] == 0xE0)    // Fmode SW state 1: Auto   {     STATE = 1;   }   else if (rcBuffer[24] == 0x34 && rcBuffer[25] == 0x00) // Fmode SW state 2: Manual   {     STATE = 2;   }   else if (rcBuffer[24] == 0x31 && rcBuffer[25] == 0xB4) // Fmode SW state 3: Emergency landing   {     STATE = 3;   } } void extract_USB_cmd(void) {   if (usbBuffer[0] >= 0x03 && usbBuffer[0] <= 0x07) // double check throttle range   {     thr_16int_usb = usbBuffer[0] << 8 | usbBuffer[1]; // 16 bit throttle   }   if (usbBuffer[2] >= 0x0B && usbBuffer[2] <= 0x0F) // double check yaw range   {     yaw_16int_usb = usbBuffer[2] << 8 | usbBuffer[3]; // 16 bit yaw   }   if (usbBuffer[4] >= 0x13 && usbBuffer[4] <= 0x17) // double check pit range   {     pit_16int_usb = usbBuffer[4] << 8 | usbBuffer[5]; // 16 bit pitch   }   if (usbBuffer[6] >= 0x1B && usbBuffer[6] <= 0x1F) // double check rol range   {     rol_16int_usb = usbBuffer[6] << 8 | usbBuffer[7]; // 16 bit role   }   // state   if (usbBuffer[10] == 0x2A && usbBuffer[11] == 0xF8)   {     //state = 1; // auto   }   else if (usbBuffer[10] == 0x2C && usbBuffer[11] == 0xEC)   {     STATE = 3; // emergency landing   }   else if (usbBuffer[10] == 0x2E && usbBuffer[11] == 0xE0)   {     STATE = 0; // default rc neutral   } } void translate_RC_cmd(void) {   throttle = (thr_16int - 30752 ) / 2.016;   yaw   = (9243 - yaw_16int) / 1.382;   pitch = (pit_16int - 3047) / 1.378;   roll  = (5129 - rol_16int) / 1.373;   gear  = (gear_16int - 7506) / 1.165;   throttle = min(2000, max(1000, throttle));   yaw      = min(2000, max(1000, yaw));   pitch    = min(2000, max(1000, pitch));   roll     = min(2000, max(1000, roll));   gear     = min(2000, max(1000, gear)); } void translate_USB_cmd(void) {   throttle = thr_16int_usb;   yaw = yaw_16int_usb - 2000;   pitch = pit_16int_usb - 4000;   roll =  rol_16int_usb - 6000;   //Serial.print(thr_16int_usb);   throttle = min(2000, max(1000, throttle));   yaw      = min(2000, max(1000, yaw));   pitch    = min(2000, max(1000, pitch));   roll     = min(2000, max(1000, roll)); } void RC_Neutral(void) {   throttle = 1000;   yaw = 1500;   pitch = 1500;   roll = 1500; } void landing(void) {   throttle = throttle - 1;   if (throttle <= 1000) throttle = 1000;   yaw = 1500;   pitch = 1500;   roll = 1500; } void reset_usb(void) {   thr_16int_usb = 1000;   yaw_16int_usb = 3500;   pit_16int_usb = 5500;   rol_16int_usb = 7500; } void reset_rc(void) {   thr_16int = 0x8000;   yaw_16int = 0x1C03;   pit_16int = 0x13FD;   rol_16int = 0x0C07; }

Topic by singno123   |  last reply

How to convert analog MQ4 sensor output to ppm

Hi everyone,  My final year engineering involves a rover that can sense methane gas. Initially the idea was to just detect the gas as digital input but now i wanna do a bit more. I've searched all over the internet on how to convert the analog values to ppm, but couldn't understand any of it. I'd be really great-full if someone could give me the formula or the code to do this.  I don't intend on calibrating the sensor to find precise answers, just a rough picture of the ppm values is enough to begin with. Thanks a lot in advance. 

Topic by ZeeshanA27   |  last reply

Mosquito Flamethrower

It's a DIY mosquito flamethrower for when you want to go nuclear on the little buggers. What could go wrong? Link

Topic by fungus amungus   |  last reply

Graduation card box ideas

I know this is more craftsy but I'm trying to find ideas for my son's graduation party for making a card box, a place where guests can snap a picture with props and that kind of stuff. Any ideas & input are appreciated. I checked Pinterest but nothing caught my eye.

Topic by DUMB8   |  last reply

How can i get my PC to detect a WIFI signal again?

About 3 weeks ago, I was trying to update from win10 v 1709 to Win 10 version 1803 but I couldn't finish because the signal for this particular WiFi at the Lodge became so weak all of the sudden. Actually, the lodge has two routers- one with the excellent signal and the other with a very weak signal. What surprised me is that my android phone detects the signal immediately I enter the lodge premise but my PC won't. This WIFI network only shows up on the available networks for a few seconds and it disappears for hours. Sometimes I get lucky, it comes on and connects automatically but limited service. So I think my PC has a problem and not the router. Any help please. I'm stuck here for like 3 weeks, school work isn't easy to do anymore. I've atrached pictures from which u will see what Im talking about. I'll appreciate your responses.

Topic by Kale Vioe   |  last reply

Arduino alarm clock help!

Hello I am trying to make a pressure switch for my alarm clock where when I stand on it for a certain amount of time the alarm will stop. I've never done any arduino work before so I was wondering what board would best suite me for this project. I found this one but I don't know if it will work. I also found some code online that I think would work. Here is the link for the code: Also would this be how I would set the entire thing up?Do I need any resistors? What type of power supply would I be able to use?

Topic by boom man56   |  last reply

Reformatting bugs

I just published an instructable but I'm dismayed to see the autoformatting has made it look pretty rotten. Steps 2 & 3 have wide aspect ratio images and they have been cropped and rendered in very low quality. The autoplay youtube function (where you can make a youtube video look like a gif) no longer works and the aspect ratio chosen seems to be ignored, so you get the black bars even when you do hit play. Any chance this cropping/breaking can be fixed? Thanks.

Topic by makendo   |  last reply

Help me please for to download pdf

Help me please. I would like to download the pdf files and -Controlling-a-Raspberry-Pi-Robot-Over-Internet / but not able to register premium account files need urgently pogmogite please

Topic by АлексндрЛ   |  last reply