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connect usb cable to usb keyboard

I have a usb keyboard. somehow the usb cable is disconnected from the keyboard. I opened the keyboard. USB cable has 4 wires (1 blue, 1 orange, 1 white and 1 green). The circuit board has code like C, V, D and G. Now which one is for which wire? out of C,V,D and G which is for ground, which is for VCC and which is for Data+ and data- the color code of USB cable I know. But cannot understand which wire to connect which code (C,V,D,G) of circuit board?

Question by jpsarkar    |  last reply

Stylus digitizer suggestions for diy drafting table?

I want to build a drafting table with a glass table top and a screen behind it. That way I can do things like:1) display reference images while I work on art2) trace things from screen onto paper3) toggle the screen to 100% white and use as a backlight4) draw shapes using traditional drafting tools and have them digitized. (Think of using triangles, compasses, and whatnot to draw on a Wacom Cintiq)It's that last thing that has me scratching my head. What are some affordable options for a fairly large screen with stylus (and possibly touch) capabilities?Will it work behind thick tempered glass?Should I / can I make my own digitizer?

Question by PS118    |  last reply

Research on makers and modular design

Hi maker community! I am conducting a survey as part of an investigation by the University of Zaragoza (Spain) about makers and modular design. Would you be so kind to do it and collaborate in the dissemination? The more answers the better! you very much for your help! :)

Topic by lauraasion    |  last reply

Need help Arduino DC motor

Hi guys , I need your help How to build a diagram & Arduino program to control a DC motor (9v I think) datasheet required & The program from the Arduino to Run the motor for 3 second (clockwise)stopping for 2 second & finally turn for 3 second in the other sens All that is a cyclic mode (8 seconds) at all Thanks

Question by Snake00012    |  last reply

Homemade Electromagnetic Drill Stand

Hi every body In this video I make an electromagnetic drill standFor this project I’m using two microwave transformers one psu 350 watt from old pc, epoxy resin. Aluminium swarfs, some pieces from steel and one piece of bronse. I hope you enjoy the video !;=J9I3FJ8dROk&feature;=emb_logo

Topic by versam    |  last reply

Why is green tea healthier than black tea? Answered

I dont see why one would be healthier than the other yet i hear all the time that it is. anybody know why?

Question by Gnara    |  last reply

Need help for Arduino Project based on Covid

Hello good people,I am trying to make an Arduino Project which can measure Body Temperature, Heart Rate & SpO2 using MLX90614, VL53L0X & MAXREFDES117# sensors respectively with Arduino UnoFor Heartrate and SpO2 output i am using program and algorithm modifies by RF Master whose github link is Temperature measurement i am using MAX90614 with LV53L0X LIDAR sensor for range monitoring.For the above combined output i am using ADAFRUIT libraries. And i am getting desired output from both these sensor when combined together in a program.My problem is that when i combine them all i dont get a output., the programe runs to certain extent then stopsFor simplicity i am attaching the library for MAXREFDES117# and the main program that i have modified and the output data.Your help will be very much appreciated, i have a mechanical engineering background with basic logic of programming. RegardsShubhashishProgram 1: where i take input from the user#include #include #include #include "algorithm_by_RF.h" #include "max30102.h" #include #include Adafruit_MLX90614 mlx = Adafruit_MLX90614(); VL53L0X sensor; const byte oxiInt = 10; uint32_t elapsedTime,timeStart; uint32_t aun_ir_buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; uint32_t aun_red_buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; float old_n_spo2; uint8_t uch_dummy,k; bool hr=true; uint8_t ip = 0; void setup() { Serial.begin(115200); Serial.println(F("1. Heart Rate\n2. Temp")); while(Serial.available()==0) //wait until user presses a key ip = Serial.parseInt(); if(ip==1) {hr = true;} else {hr=false;} if(hr) { pinMode(oxiInt, INPUT); Wire.begin(); maxim_max30102_reset(); delay(1000); maxim_max30102_read_reg(REG_INTR_STATUS_1,&uch;_dummy); //Reads/clears the interrupt status register maxim_max30102_init(); //initialize the MAX30102 old_n_spo2=0.0; } else { mlx.begin(); Wire.begin(); sensor.setTimeout(500); if (!sensor.init()) { Serial.println("Failed to detect and initialize sensor!"); while (1) {} } sensor.setMeasurementTimingBudget(200000); Serial.print(sensor.readRangeSingleMillimeters()); Serial.print(F("*F\tObject = ")); Serial.print(mlx.readObjectTempF());Serial.println(F("*F")); if (sensor.timeoutOccurred()) { Serial.print(" TIMEOUT"); } delay(100); } if(hr) {; Serial.print(F("Time[s]\tSpO2\tHR\tClock\tRatio\tCorr\t")); timeStart=millis(); } } void loop() { if(hr) { float n_spo2,ratio,correl; int8_t ch_spo2_valid; int32_t n_heart_rate; int8_t ch_hr_valid; int32_t i; char hr_str[10]; delay(1000); for(i=0;i Output for this program when user selects Heart Rate1. Heart Rate 2. Temp Time[s] SpO2 HR Clock Ratio Corr 0 737 508 1 731 511 2 733 507 3 734 506 4 728 504 5 734 506 6 738 503 7 736 505 8 731 507 9 741 503 10 739 516 11 733 508 12 734 512 13 735 507 14 730 507 15 732 494 16 741 502 17 734 509 18 728 502 19 742 505 20 742 500 21 736 502 22 742 501 23 734 508 24 735 508 25 733 506 26 734 505 27 732 507 28 732 498 29 737 505 30 736 504 31 729 502 32 731 498 33 730 502 34 733 507 35 730 502 36 730 508 37 729 504 38 729 505 39 731 505 40 730 500 41 731 497 42 733 498 43 733 505 44 736 504 45 730 501 46 731 505 47 733 506 48 734 505 49 732 498 50 735 502 51 736 499 52 731 499 53 729 507 54 729 506 55 728 504 56 734 499 57 729 509 58 734 503 59 727 507 60 736 501 61 730 505 62 735 501 63 734 507 64 731 508 65 732 503 66 731 503 67 736 506 68 731 502 69 738 512 70 736 506 71 734 504 72 735 505 73 733 506 74 733 503 75 730 506 76 730 502 77 732 508 78 731 502 79 734 508 80 733 505 81 727 504 82 742 508 83 735 506 84 738 503 85 729 504 86 729 505 87 728 502 88 726 512 89 729 502 90 734 503 91 737 499 92 732 510 93 739 503 94 734 512 95 731 510 96 734 499 97 738 503 98 729 505 99 724 510 03 734 512 731 510 734 499 AA1. Heart Rate 2. TempOutput for this program when user selects Temp1. Heart Rate 2. Temp 70*F Object = 85.26*FIf i comment out the code which take input from user then i get ouput based on condistion bool hr=true or bool hr= false#include #include #include #include "algorithm_by_RF.h" #include "max30102.h" #include #include Adafruit_MLX90614 mlx = Adafruit_MLX90614(); VL53L0X sensor; const byte oxiInt = 10; uint32_t elapsedTime,timeStart; uint32_t aun_ir_buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; uint32_t aun_red_buffer[BUFFER_SIZE]; float old_n_spo2; uint8_t uch_dummy,k; bool hr=false; //uint8_t ip = 0; void setup() { Serial.begin(115200); //Serial.println(F("1. Heart Rate\n2. Temp")); /*while(Serial.available()==0) //wait until user presses a key { ip = Serial.parseInt(); } if(ip==1) {hr = true;}*/ if(hr) { pinMode(oxiInt, INPUT); Wire.begin(); maxim_max30102_reset(); delay(1000); maxim_max30102_read_reg(REG_INTR_STATUS_1,&uch;_dummy); //Reads/clears the interrupt status register maxim_max30102_init(); //initialize the MAX30102 old_n_spo2=0.0; } else { mlx.begin(); Wire.begin(); sensor.setTimeout(500); if (!sensor.init()) { Serial.println("Failed to detect and initialize sensor!"); while (1) {} } sensor.setMeasurementTimingBudget(200000); } if(hr) {; Serial.print(F("Time[s]\tSpO2\tHR\tClock\tRatio\tCorr\t")); timeStart=millis(); } } void loop() { if(hr) { float n_spo2,ratio,correl; int8_t ch_spo2_valid; int32_t n_heart_rate; int8_t ch_hr_valid; int32_t i; char hr_str[10]; delay(1000); for(i=0;i

Topic by shubhashishmaitra    |  last reply

Internal server error. I'm alone

After 4 days to try to upload a file i have always an internal server error message. How we can fix that ?

Topic by Yannick99    |  last reply

The sad truth about VR headsets

With seemingly no end to lockdown I thought I provide a little heads up on the VR front in terms what is going on, what is required, how much it might cost you and where the downsides are.Google basically abandoned the Cardboard idea, there isn't much new happening anymore, still it is a great and dirt cheap start. For under 10 bucks you get some cardboard, two lenses and some magnets. Put together and you have a head mount for your phone to enjoy 3D and VR/AR realities. And surprisingly there is actually good content available for Carboard users.For a bit more you can get stand alone headset from several vendors. Starting from as little as 300 bucks for the older, entry level models. Good enough to watch movies, play some nice games and explore the virtual world. Serious gaming is becoming more and more popular, especially online multi player games.Still considered the best option in terms of experience ad quality are tethered solutions that required you to have a powerful gaming PC at your disposal. But for the casual fun it would be overkill to invest into both PC and VR hardware.How good is it then? I tried quite a few systems and have to say they have come a long way from the early days. The wow-factor though depends on the content, some is good, some is just painfully bad unless you like catoon style graphics. The potential is huge but right now content is limited to more or less always the same in a different look. If you have problems on a moving ship or have your breakfast come up in a themepark ride you might stay away from certain VR things. They like to call them "experiences" - a way for you to be really in it, a part of it. Only problem is that no everyone can tolerate seeing all sorts of movements and motions without actually moving - seasickness in reverse so to say and not very pleasant if you suffer from it LOL What is rather surprising is that some VR things are incredibly addictive even with crappy graphics. You can lost playing some crappy game for hours on end and still want more.....What is possible in terms of social interaction, considering we are in a pandemic? Depending on what you and your friends/loved ones have available there is some... You can hang out in virtual worlds together, have a chat, play some games. With some systems you can even watch movies together in your own virtual theater. A bit like having your friends with you in a really dark movie theater and not being allowed to touch them LOL Sadly a virtual sharing experience still seems far way. You can't just pop your headset on, plug in your 3D camera and share what you do in realtime and 3d with your friends. There is development though in terms of virtual interaction. By linking certain things, like little robots, electronic board games or just your virtual assistent, you can create your own virtual, virtual home. And whoever comes to visit can use your interactive things, for example to tell the robot tomove a chess piece on the board. VR suits to allow for a more realistic virtual experience are still very far away ....The reality about content, games and apps. Google offers quite a lot on it's Youtube platform. Simply tye in whatever you like and add VR to have a good chance to get at least a 180° video out. And there is plenty of other providers specialising in VR experiences and video content. From holiday promotions, over themepark rides to doing freefall jumps out of a helicopter - there is something for everyone. If we leave the free world of the internet behind us and things that every browser can reach: What is left? That is the real problem.... It is a platform war of the worst kind. Something that you like isn't available for your friends headset. An app that works fine for you can't even installed by your friend. And not even within a company you have a chance to use it all as Facebook showed us with Oculus. They kindly allow you to use some apps and games if you upgrade to a better model but not all. And once you find out that your new model can't share stuff with your friends on older ones you feel ripped off. Does not help that if you don't own one of the older models you won't even get access to the compatible and free software - you are stuck. Every company provides their own "store", why bother with the Playstore if you can keep the money and content control. It's all VR but good luck getting real cross platform support. Some developers decided to seek alternatives and so options to sideload content were born. And yes, some there actually bother to provide their game or app for multiple platforms :) What bothers me is the "try out buy later" approach. Sounds nice, sounds fair.... Most offer you a limited time, like 2 hours, to test a paid app or game. Turned out that itis actually possible to complete some paid experiences and games within two hours. Would you really want to pay 50 bucks for 2 hours of fun?.... Some say around 50 bucks is a fair price for a good game. Others say that for non VR platforms there is plenty of free alternatives that ae equally good and that it seems impossible to play the same game with people on 2D and in VR. Why is this happening....Let's take a look on how it all started.... There was the great idea once that AR and VR applications for everyone would be a great thing. We had no usuable tech at affordable prices though. Several companies and individuals tried ways to get at least AR solutions working, often by using mobile phones or tablets. Google jumped in with Cardboard, Samsung with Gear VR and even Microsoft wanted it rather late, a bit different and calling it mixed reality. Google gave up quickly and focussed back on Andoid and real world devices, same for Samsung. HTC and others still are game players and in some way responsible for us still having at least some choices left. from being just a pain and novelty at best AR and VR quickly saw real world uses. Developers jumped onto it and although content was rather low quality the interest was there. At some stage we saw a few interesting Kickstarter campaigns. And that's when things got really bad. A new device appeared and seemed to be a real game changer - a true stand alone headset with enough power to be practical. A few more were added shortly and it was almost a run to be the first to get a solution to the market. Obvious that even developers became rather exited. Suddenly they all started to disappear, often without actually shipping any devices to the many supporters. Only one Kickstarter got snatched up by a military contractor, two offered their services to Bill gates. The remaining ones including this amasing standalone model ready for production got snatched up for cheap by Mark and his social media platform. Microsfot had a lot of titles and applications, HTC was going strong as well and even Gear and Carboard were still all time favourites back then. Facebook offered the dream of every little hardware developer. Unlimited funds and access to a whole new world. Sadly it meant handing all control to FB. The dream of a free and open source VR platform with lots of support was gone. Now we have to decide in advance which system to buy, which company offers the most to fit the needs. Usually it means if your friend or family member has one device then you will buy something compatible, if not the same. VR turned into a game of control and data hording.What do your need to get really into VR and AR? Unless you have a supported Samsung device or a cardboard AND are happy with what is available you need a lot! Every competitor requires you to provide your personal details in one way or another. Most, if not all require you to also agree to being tracked and monitored during usage. They ALL require your bank details or credit card information if you want to make a purchase - few expections for the Xbox and Playstation in terms of gift cards. The later still require you to have a valid payment account at some stage. Some might say it is ok because if you order a toaster online the seller would have your address and bank details as well. Most sellers won't have databases for their users to track them or collect all sorts of data.... Microsoft at least limits this to gaming and proffessional use and the other competitors seem to keep a low profile. FB on the other hand has a very lear appraoch: Add whatever is possible to allow for even more data horading and user tracking - at the cost of competitors as this hurts developers and users alike. If you don't like being watched, tracked and that your data is abused stay away from the virtual world ;)How the VR development came to a stop.... Facebook made it clear from the start that certain content is prefered in their VR store. Experiences are fine but for apps and games the focus on being online is pretty clear. The need for people to not just sit there with a headset alone but to actually interact with other was abused to the max. The easier it is to get users together, to actually listen to them, see what they are up to is worth gold. This is reflected in the store. Apps that work(ed) fine on the GO are not available for the Quest. Titles advertised are not available. Developers wanting to port their things to the Quest are refused with useless excuses why it can't be allowed. If you actually check and see that it seems to be fine to publicly stream pirated movies or other copyright protected material you have to wonder... Bigscreen is a huge thing right now and o problem finding someone streaming a movie that is not allowed to beused this way. But it allows many users to watch and do things together..... Same for those virtual environments where you can hang out with your friends, share pictures and play games - you are being watched, tracked and followed while doing so - you date is indeed vital.... In other cases it is a clear money approach, like with Skybox. There were wuite a few good video players available for the Go. Only Skybox made it over to the Quest, the free ones all missed out. Those who still maged to get entry seem to have no choice but to leave well deserved features out, so that Skybox remains the only alternative. If you wonder why: The others won't offer or allow servers used to collect user data and usage data.... Right now the only real option seems to be to stay away from Oculus and to prefer the alternatives out there as a lesser evil.What will the future hold for us? The market is already clearly devided and split with only Steam being sort of a middleman solution for some platforms. Facebook made sure the hardware market stays empty and even if we would get a new player in the game it is questionable if the control of the big players can be broken. If in doubt and something becomes a thread it will be bought for whatever price necessary. Facebook already hinted that closing the door for "unknown sources" is an easy option, same for alternative app launchers. Microsoft made it clear that they don't mind free development for their mixed VR systems but well, with a very low user base interest is low for developers as well. HTC and the rest still try to fill the gap and find their place but it seems they only catch only slowly. In the early days we had only a few "companies" starting our computer revolution. Only the two who split apart in the garage times and are still rivals survived. Apple VS Microsoft. Only Linux and as a part of it Android really provided any lasting alternatives. Android was soon taken over by Google. Now we have the same useless war in the virtual world, with only the user paying the price and being blamed for the failure of VR catching on. Funny once you start thinking about it and checking how it all started. It is no wonder then that OS security as well as App security is of the highest importance to FB. Allowing true homebrew on these otherwise just modded Andriod systems would mean the end of tracking users and milking the money out of them.Is homebrew the solution or the real threat to VR? A very few of you will now say hold on a minute! Wasn't there a few court cases against Google and FB in regars to user data and privacy breaches?? Yes, and that is part of the problem. Both companies, more or less reluctantly, agreed access to their databses to government agencies. With basically everything in VR being (intentionally) kept unencrypted it is a real treasure hunt..... Homebrew would allow apps similar to Whatsapp entry and with that added level of end to end encryption open pandora's box. Imagine loading a custom OS onto a VR system that allows you boot whatever you like. You could create secure chat rooms for people with the need to show their latest tech, their latest innovations in a way that everyone can interact. Problems with your latest order of assault rifles - just check out our VR experience showing all you need to know. Need a map to find your way through this facility you shouldn't be in? No worries, just load the interactive 3D map on your headset and turn on the pass through from the cameras - follow the red line.... Fair enough then most will say now, make a bit of sense to be careful... But what is used as the worst case scenario to keep the doors locked also keeps all the good stuff out. And a result the devlopment and amount of titles and apps is kept low.What about families or group setups? Unlike other platforms there is no such thing as family accounts, not even individual user accounts on most devices. FB even removed this option from the native android setting with "updates". Means, if you own a bunch of VR headset you most likely will have buy the apps and games for every single device. The family fun of competing in virtual games then can set you back 200 to 250 bucks with easy - per title....Summary: VR is a novelty at best right now. Good for hardcore gamers with enough money mostly or to be precise totally useless for cross platform interaction - not even watching a movie from your own collection together in VR. You are tracked whenever possible, you are profiled and coached into buying more and more. Without real competition, without real open source solutions this will not change anytime soon.

Topic by Downunder35m  

I want to run my well pump completely off solar panels

The well pump is currently hocked to a designated 15 amp 220 breaker in my main panel the pump specs mention that the maximum amps required  is 59. I wanted to run solar power to a dedicated panel box with breakers etc the line for the  pump would be 15 amp 220 as it is now WHAT SIZE SOLAR PANELS WOULD BE REQUIRED plus what other materials are necessary??? Thank You

Question by solarbat    |  last reply


Hey this is matt and im building a ROV im just designing it right know but can you tell me what you think and tell me any helpful hints that you have.

Topic by Russian555    |  last reply

Can someone trace all the calls, text Msgs, social app Msgs from my phone? Incase yes then how?

I want to know if someone can trace all the details of my phone and incase it's possible then how do I get rid of the same.

Question by Rikesh333    |  last reply

Adjustable Bridge

I have an Epiphone acoustic guitar that I really like, my girlfriend gifted it to me after her uncle gifted it to her (she doesn't play, fingers are too small). It's the FT-130. It basically has two large screws, one on either side of the bridge, If anyone is familiar with this style of adjustable bridge can you please either tell me how to use it or send me a link to a site that will? the action is pretty low on the high strings and I'm getting a lot of buzzing (more than I should). Thanks for any help you can give!

Topic by HAL 9000    |  last reply

Tesla's "Earthquake" machine - revisited!

Lockdown sucks, so what bett to do than to check on some old inventions :)It is claimed that, although the earthquaked that happened was unrelated, that Tesla's little machine indeed was able to do some damage.Today however we focus on what is actually possible in terms of an oscillating apparatus causing other things to swing in resonance.If you look at the patent than there is terms used (intentionally) that neither make sense, nor find any explanation inside the patent - like "airsprings" ...Knowing Tesla's way of thinking a little allowed me to come up with some conclusions of my own.Using some surface transducers to get going also helped a lot.Using more or less modern stuff that anyone can access, we will try to build our own little quake machine.At least in theory, I leave it up to you if you want to build something just to confirm or rip apart what I might claim in here ;)How does this resonance thing work?If you check "Londong bridge swing" you see what I mean ;)Like soldiers won't cross a bridge in step for good reasons, a lot of little inputs quickly accumulated and syncronise themself- the bridge swings.You try it in small scale with a bunch of Metronoms (is that right for many of them? LOL) on a board supported by rollers.Set them all to the same timing, start them and release the board.One after the other will fall in sync until they all swing the same.Check how much the board moves in relation, especially if you place some added weights on it ;)For machines we often have the problem that something unbalanced and rotating causes all sorts of vibrations in other parts - we know that from our cars as well when a wheel is unbalanced.Not always is the part causing the resoance somewhere near where it resonates ;)What Tesla claimed to have built was a machine that had a freely moving weight, some electromagnets, "airsprings" and somehing to make it all able to find the resonance by magic....I can recreate some of it, but not all (yet).We need a way to move a weight with as little friction as possible while also providing some sort of dampening effect - otherwise the weight would just swing to the max.I thought a lot about this and how to do in the most basic form.For sake of simplicity I opted for a vertical approach.Ideally you would have big and heavy cylindrical magnet, about 3cm in diameter and at leat 6cm long.But you can cheat by stacking disk magnets or putting suare ones into a round tube.You need two cylinders, one to hold the magnets, the other just a bit wider to allow for a TINY air gap.Put together the magnet cylinder should freely boune around when you shake it but show good resistance if you close both ends of the outer tube.How to make "airsprings"....I found the easiest way out is to use "bouncers" on either end of the outer tube - with consideration that the inner tube needs to movable ;)The inner magnet has some good weight, so using stacks of small magnets allows us to compensate the different movement.Start with a bottom stack so the inner magnet has a good distance (gap).Now you need a sensitive scale or use a balanced weighbridge.Check how much extra weight on the inner magnets is required to push it down by, let's say 5mm.Note that weight somewhere.Place a smaller stack on the top end of the tubes.You want the distance so the inner magnet just start to be pushed down a tiny bit.You might need a slotted outer tube to allow you to push it up as well down now - hence the weighbridge idea.Adjust the distance and amount/type of magnets on the top stack until the inner magnet travels an equal amount up and down with the force (weight) applied.It is now "balanced" to be weightless in terms being suspended while free to travel a limited amount.Ideally the force you need for up and down should stay equal (more or less) throughout the indended range of motion.I found two ways that work well to actuate the magnet by extrenal means while having a good control.One uses a center coil around the tube, the other a split coil.Key is wind it so it is usable with something simple.Like creating a coil with a resistance if 4 Ohm so a normal audio amplifier can be used.Tricky bit here is to find the right balance in terms of the inductivity.For a strong magnet you wants of turns and lots of layers - your amp does not like this too much.I found that many layers and many turns require a capacitor to compensate but also that this brings additional problems.I suggest to stick with reall cheap amps in the 25 to 50W range for your testing.They seem to be more forgiving if you use multiple layers on a coil.Using a split coil with reversed polarities allows to use both channels on a stereo amp.In this configuration you can have a lot of fun in the lower frequencies, which are usually the ones we want anyway.The resonance finding though it a fully manually thing and you need to make sure the machine is secured properly to the surface you want to use it on.I found it best to start at about 1kHz and then to work my way down until something happens somewhere.Once you go below the 200hz region you will need to crank the amp up a bit.What is actually happening and why once it starts moving things around?Figuring that one out took me quite a while.It is not the moving magnet causing a change of things.It is the forces it transfers when it changes directions.When the magnet is down and the coil changes polarity it is "pulled" up.Wich means the mounted machine is applying downforces onto the surface.Opposite for the way down.Interesting about this how both the surcare and the machine interact.Out of sync not much at happens anywhere, but the closer you get to a resonant frequency the easier the magnet can move around - the amplitude increases while the input level is the same.Hence the need for the dampening magnet stacks ;)These stop the motion in a smooth and even way while transfering the excess to the machine in the form of vertical forces.Together this works rather well and surprisingly simple.You just need the right balance between weight of the magnet inside and magnetic field your coil can generate - it does not have to be huge magnet to have some fun...No clue, or least no usuable, how Tesla simplified the resonance finding and keeping - if he did not do it manually after all.In terms of electronic means it should be possible fairly easy to get the same output force no matter the conditions.Thinking of a controlled feedback loop here.The required power from the amp is lowest in resonance and higest when totally out of sync.This out of sync motion is to a small degree transfered onto the coil through the moving magnet.A clear sine wave gets "distortions" from the overlaying frequencies transfered from the surface.You can "filter" the required power level and the detected "distortions".If both filters indicate a minimum it means resonace is found.From there only the power levels are monitored.Every time they spike the frequency is adjusted so the spike is in sync again with the max amplitude of the frequency.The power levels will then level out while the external movement maxes out sooner or later.Will it actually make a building shake?If it is an old, wooden construction like mine it will rattle here and there ;)A solid brick or concrete one however won't be too impressed.A big barn with a sheet metal roof might get noisy but won't collapse.The frequencies to actually make big things swing are rather low, often below the 60Hz range.With that comes the energy requirements - you have maybe 200g moving around at max in your machine?Try pushing over some dead pine tree by making it swing until it breaks - same thing.If you manage to keep the correct swing you need a long, long time to make swing far enough to snap.For a big bridge you might need a centimeter or more of swing before anything can be noticed.You machine might be able to add a µm with every hundred swings it makes....Moving traffic constantly changes things so after a few weeks of trying the bridge might not even vibrate a little.Huge fun though to make friends cars shake apart with no sound at all LOLJust screw in the boot and crank it up once you notice something vibrates somewhere ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Is it possible to upgrade an old LED grow light by simply upgrading the chips/diodes in the light?

I have a couple of old cheap LED grow lights I don't use anymore as I've upgraded to more modern lights however I don't want to toss them out as they could come in handy as a spare or useful should I require a new grow space.I was wondering if I could upgrade these old lights by purchasing new full spectrum (or whatever) chips/diodes (about .80c per Epistar from China) and simply solder out the old cheap 3 watt diodes from these old grow lights and solder in new 3 watt chips to make a 'new' and better grow light for around $40 (as I'd be using the fans and all electrics of the original grow light).I have no electrical knowledge so is this even 'doable' or just a thought bubble?

Question by PYak    |  last reply

How to heat up nichrome wire?

Question by MrX5    |  last reply

What to do with old window counter weights?

My house was built in 1915 and we are replacing the windows to get better efficiency. Now I have all these weights. I can have them thrown into a landfill but that seems like a bad idea. I've seen people doing things with homemade forges but I don't have one. Would these be useful? Could they be melted down? Or could they be toxic?

Question by Bitter73    |  last reply

Is it legal to transport an air rifle over the USA/Canada border? Answered

I have a .22 Gamo Shadow Express break-barrel air rifle with a 3-12x50 scope and i would like know if it is legal to transport it across the USA Canada border.

Question by masterofsniping92    |  last reply

Where can i get a 1/8 inch sheet plastic for cheep.

Where can i get !/* inch sheet plastic for cheep. I am looking to make a custom bike fender. does anyone have any advice?

Topic by estherD135    |  last reply

Rock tumbling, is there an economical substitution for grit & polish? .

I have vibrating & rotary tumblers. The commercial grit & polish I've been using, comes in a 4 step process. Is there a homemade grit or other options for tumbling rocks & gems?    Thank you

Question by Jolieblnde    |  last reply

Maker Resources for High School Students

Hello! My name is Anthony Tan and I am the Founder of the Maker Hub Club Initiative, a non profit project that supports communities of high school student makers in the U.S. If you are a high school student in the U.S., I would love to help you make projects by providing resources and funding. Please let me know if you are interested. You can reach me at

Topic by rockcacti  

Power LED from RF? Answered

I have a maybe somewhat unusual question.There is a super simple circuit that enables an LED to be powered by ringing mobile phone. Can be found at What I would like to do is to power LED but from a distance, preferably Radio Stations of (if possible) power lines. LED does not have to be constantly on or bright, it can "blink". I was looking at Joule Thief and combining it with capacitor ... The point is that there should be no battery. Is such a thing possible?

Question by nccwarp9    |  last reply

Goat Tower

Want to raise goats, but are short on real estate? That's ok, build a tower!David Johnson built his own tower out of 5,000 handmade bricks, each one a different size and shape! "The goats love it, and the people driving by can't believe it."There are currently only three goat towers in the world. We hope to see the fourth one posted here! (hint hint)VIA: boingboing

Topic by scoochmaroo    |  last reply

How do you remove or destroy a microchip in a dog?

A friend has rescued a maltreated dog and does not want the cruel owner to get it back.Actually the dog has run away but if he(the rescuer)can find it he wants to prevent the chip from identifying the cruel owner.

Question by Cooper.123    |  last reply

How different is the tenor sax and the bari sax from an Alto saxaphone?

So, school starts soon obviously, and I am taking band. I currently am playing alto sax, and I am wondering if I should try to play tenor, bari and alto sax. However, I want to know what some main differences are, so if you play bari or tenor sax, I would appreciate any information. Thank you.

Topic by Rock Soldier    |  last reply

Alloys with a low melting point - not just for fun and magic tricks!

Be it real scientific need or just curiousity, we invented alloys with really low melting points quite early.Even some mercury based ones staying liquid at below minus 60°C.Usages are plentyful once you get a hang of it ;)On a big scale in reactors as a cooling medium for example.On a much smaller scle as a perfect heat transfer medium if water or oil are out of the wuestion due to the temperatures required.A bath for liquid salt works much better if it is sitting in another, heated container with a low melting alloy like Wood's Metal.Good thing here is that you don't need much if the containers match with just a little gap.Unlike oil or water nothing evaporates, nothing boils, nothing smokes ...Plus it does not wear out, you can use the low melting alloy for years if you keep it sealed and oxygen away.If in doubt just seal it and be done.Ever had the problem that you needed to work on a small piece that just wouldn't stay in you vice or clamp due to the shape?Or that it just a bit too fragile to get clamped into something?Get a small plastic box, melt some Wood's or field's Metal, place your part in the box and fill the molten metal in.Once hard you can clamp the new block any way you like and once done run some hot water over it to free you part.The railroad enthusiast like the stuff as well.Make you small lokomotive much heavier by filling voids with a low melting alloy - after sealing all possible holes with modelling clay or similar.Recently these low melting alloys found their way in wood and resin art as well.You can just fill a crack on wood with these metals and sand or machine them down with the wood for a perferct finnish - proper PPE and vacuum removal of the produced dust recommended for those metals containing Lead or Cadmium!But are there other uses we don't really think about that much?If they wouldn't be rather costly you could use them for mdel making and prototyping.Bending metal tubing into otherwise impossible coils and shapes is a nice use too - just fill them up and let the metal go solid.I quite like the fact that these metals are strong and can be used to cheat with magnets.Not affecting the magnetic field you can create arrays that you force together with a thin acrylic frame.Make a suitable mold, fill to the acrylic with metal, remove the acrylic once cooled enough and fill completely.You just created an impossible magnet array the dirt simple way.Not to mention that it is rather easy to include metal strips for field directing ;)If you don't mind the money for the low melting metal in bulk you can even use it to replicate body parts for old cars with no spares available anymore.Just create a mold capable of holding the original part.Create a wall around the original.Meaning you want a vertical wall to prevent the molten metal to flood over the part - you only need one side ;)And holes or missing bits will have an excess of metal once cooled.This can removed, machined and polished if required to create the perfect match for a replacement.Then you can use this block and a piece of sheet metal to re-create your part.Best thing is that for the block itself you can use wood as the metal won't harm it when you fill it up.Some added fun with Gallium!Gallium is rather special as it not only melts in your hand but mainly because it is able to "wet" almost any surface!Wetting means that a metal can stick to a surface, when soldering or brazing we usually have to use a flux for this to happen properly.If you have a low melting alloy with enough gallium in it you can do crazy things.Like melting it and then using a fine brush to paint circuit traces onto glass or acrylic.Simply place or electrics and elecronics with some super glue onto the surface and then use the molten metal to create the electrical connections.The resistance is low enough for most applications and if in doub you can always add a few layers for power hungry connections.Ok, I see you want to make an Ible for it....Then do it properly...Get some gallium metal and some plumbers solder, preferably the lead free type.Melt the solder in a small pot and use a tiny amount of rosin flux to prevent oxidation.Add a little bit of gallium, mix it for a while and do a quick check if the mix is able to wet steel or wood.If not, use a little bit more gallium until it does - don't forget the mixing, it will take about 20 minutes for 250g of solder to complete the reaction and alloy forming.Create a stencil to match your circuit.Don't forget to include the ares for solder pads!Heat your piece to about 80°C with the stecil in place.Fill the stencil with the molten metal - once it cooled down the new melting point should be significantly lower than the original solder.Wipe off all excess before it hardens.Once cooled down remove stencil and solder on the parts.Fill in some text and pics please beofre you publish ;)I do not recommend this for flexible materials as these alloys tend to be rather brittle.And well, obviously not for temperature near or even above the melting point of the alloy - like in your car on a hot summer day...Is there anything really unusual we could try out?Sure, quite a lot actually once you start wondering about things....For example what would would happen if you subject a liquid metal to an electromagnetic field.Copper isn't magnetic but creates a current if use as a conductor in a varying electromognetic field.Otherwise we wouldn't have transformers, motors, generators and much more.We know the current "flows" through the conductor, but what do we know how it works if the conductor is liquid.... ;)You might be surpised to see what happens if you use some flexible PVC tubing filled with a liquid metal that is used as a transformer coil.....Or if you have a liquid core inside your core....Something that wasn't already tried againsince WW2 is Mercury based propulsion.The knowledge about this facinating technology went itno allied hands after the war and never made it out into the public in any usable way.I talked about this a bit in my series on ancient technologies.Mercury or liquid metal propulsion systems are "banned" if you like.Officially declared a myth.Doesn't explain though why since WW2 it became harder and harder to obtain mercury as a private person.Nor why the demand for it sky rocketed in the US with no real indication that it was used for anything.Why is that?Mercury based propulsion systems use quantum effects and bend the space time continium.In some cases and with enough energy output they can basically create a bubble around any craft that excludes it from the effects around it - no gravity, no mass, no nothing, not even time itself.Try it out yourself if you are still able to obtain mercury and can make sure it is handled and used in the safest way possible.The more you mess around with magnets and electromagnetic fields the more you realise how special this metal really is.

Topic by Downunder35m  

Do you need a manual for an old power tool? Try this site!

I inherited a circa 1980 Craftsman router and circa 1985 Craftsman router table from my Dad, who died last September. Since Sears seems to be on life support and I think the plug might get pulled on them, I had a look on their support pages for these manuals, while I still can. They sell parts for these models but don't have the original manuals. For a possibly similar router Sears wanted $8 for the manual. Ummm, no. This site has an awesome collection of old power tool manuals, free, and you don't have to register.  

Topic by Mr_Liss    |  last reply

Ears Popping While Running?

Whenever I run a 5k, I'm finding that my ears start to pop part way through. It makes everything louder, including my breathing, and is extremely distracting. One website mentioned dehydration as a factor, another said something about blood pressure...does anyone know about it? Thanks!

Topic by Weissensteinburg    |  last reply

Reusing an electric or gas oven as a wood burning stove...

Has anyone ever burned wood inside an electric or gas oven? I was thinking of modding and oven with refractory cement, and a water mist sprayer,for bread baking, when it occurred to me that broken gas/electric ovens are cheap, mostly air tight and temperature resistant,to say the least. Obviously burning wood in them is not an UL approved usage, but clearly these devices are tested a lot more than your average barrel stove design.. So, any experience with this idea?

Topic by Ronyon    |  last reply

Does the magnet motor really work and keep spinning?

See it as a last hurray before the forum here disappears ;)For ages we have people claiming that they managed to build a working magnet motor.Basically not even a perpetual motion engine but something with enough energy output to spare.As soon as they surfaced to make it all public the vanished.Most say they only vanished because it was just another fraud as those things simply can't work - physiscs won't allow it.If that was really always the case then why did some of these people AND their families disappear after till publishing details and being active in their communities?Either way: If there is a will then there is a backseat - or so they said in the 70's ;)People are still willing to fall for every foolish plan they can find on the net, waste their money and find out that, well, it just won't work.If you dig long and deep enough though you get a glimpse of what really is possible without violating our laws of physics.And yes, done and applied properly even a magnet motor is possible.The do's and don'ts of trying to build a magnet motor:Once you got hooked you have to start somewhere.Usually some V-gate or similar that ALMOST worked for you already.Anyway, you will have to encounter the appearently only reason why these motors won't work rather quickly.It seems impossible to provide accelleration without having at least point in the cycle where the binding can't be overcome through inertia or mechanical trickery.So the first thing you really need to learn is to forget what you already know!Treat magnets like a think you never knew at all, something rare and very special.Don't use your schoolbook knowldege or what you learnt at university - only use what you discover yourself!!!Make your conclusions no matter how wrong they seem - you will find out soon enough if something was flawed.I, for example, "wasted" endless hours when there was nothing on TV.Just some good music running and playing around with my magnets.Adding metal strips, filing them down, seeing how they react at different angles and distances to each other.Once you are at the stage of getting over this last bit of forces that ruins it all you need to learn how to think totally out of the box!You can't see the magnetic field lines, can't really use magntic viewer foils on the running thing - you have to try things!Take 5 magnets and create and array with a very strong pole on one side and a very weak on the other - realise that the manetic field lines don't care whether or not they go back to their own magnet!See for yourself how strips of metel from some old transformer core will provide a pathway for those field lines.See for yourself where the "threshold" is from just "shielding" a part of the magnet to "re-shaping" the field itself.See for yourself how a magnet that you bring close to one pole also affects the opposite pole of the "attacked" magnet ;)And did I already say you should try to forget what you think you know until you could actually check it and all possible variations yourself? ;)Butter on the toast....For mostly the reason to keep it shorter I just assume you tried to build something based on the classic V-gate motor and that you found this topic somehow...For other motors most of what comes now still aplies in one way or another though.Binding:I speak of binding if a motor has one or more points during a full cycle where it gets stuck.Not just a bit of attraction, enough to ruin the entire motion.There are two forms of binding forces that I identified as important.1. Opposite poles.2. Equal poles.Just means your binding is either caused by too much attraction to move further or that the next (set of) magnet(s) repells too much.Either is bad ;)Redirected forces:It is a bit impossible to only provide a force in the exactly needed direction.For example when it is more displacement forces driving the wheel - going more sideways than in a true rotional motion.Means nothing more than that a lot of potential energy is literally wasted.Shielding:You can't shoild magnetic fields!I still use the term to indicate that I am "wasting" a part of the magetic field - I don't want this bit to interfere with operations.Flux directing:Or fluxing...I use this whenever I want to affect the shape or reach of a magnets field.E.g.: by adding a rod to "extend" one pole or by providing a "shunt" strip between two magnets.A way to get field lines where they are needed most.So much for the basic terms that might pop up from now on ;)Before you can worry about lost energy from redirected forces you need to overcome your binding points.This is only possible through shielding and flux directing!Of course it also includes the possibe use of arrays to create a field with a specific shape.Let me try with some classic examples you might have faced already:Where your V changes from wide to slim you always get stuck, so you did it again by using two V's in line.Hoping that you could use what one V has in excess to overcome the binding on the ther side.Nice thinking only you forgot that your max power output is about half way through the V ;)So you realised this and added two more V's on your roll with a 120° phase shift.Does much better now but still prefers to bind no matter what you try.So what went wrong?The approach did ;)You compensated for a binding force by wasting what you have in rotational energy - to say it simple.You might have tried some mechanical lifting and flipping as well to get closer but never close enough.Our first array....By now you realised that the junction between wide open and really narrow ruins your motor.Check where the thing stops without the next magnets in line.Then check the opposite arrangement and see where the next bit would stop the thing.This is your binding area.Mark this area.Now test where your machine creates the most pull or push to get it going.Do this by finding the strongest starting point.Mark this again.Now take a look at your markings!You will see a angular relation.E.g.: You max push/pull is 50° away from your max binding point.This angle defines how many parallel V-gates you need on your drum.You want then arranged so that whenever you have a max binding point you also have a max push/pull point at the same time.This is you basic V-Gate array allowing you compensate for a lot just by using a better design.Or second array....We now need a way to compensate at least a little bit of the binding forces by redirecting and shielding some field lines.If you like fairy floss then grab some ;)We face the problem that we use a displacemnt force to keep things rolling.Fairy floss on a stick can help to visualise ;)Grab two sticks so their stick end comes out either side of your fist.Do the same with the other hand.Having two colors helps as well and gives it some flavour.Try to align those double cones so they create areas where their forces would cancel ech other out.Meaninf for example when one north pole is close enough to another south pole to create a flattened field.You realise soon that angles are not really that relevant here, only distance ;)You can cheat by adding some (smaller but strong) magnets in little arrays between the closed and open ends of your V.Keep the distances from the previous power tests in mind though!!!For example if the closed end would just keep pushing with little binding due to having a long magnet bar on top then you focus on providing a path where the adverse push from the open V is mostly compensated.Or third array...We need some balance in the system now, so why not use magnets for the weights ;)You want to place them so they increase the push/pull forces!Helps to have a big collection of various sizes and shapes....Please also consider strips or bars of silicicium rich steel (transformer cores) to brigde from one magnet to another to get a good balanced system or just adding short pieces on the underside of magnets.Ok, where are we now?We have a phase shifted array of 3 to 6 V-gates.We have it properly balanced and still use these long mangets as the driving bars on top - or even multiple if you have more than one V per array part.And that thing is causing all our binding issues.....Common solution is now to just lift the offending bar up or to increase the distance until it can provide force again that we need.Unless you are already an artsist for building you own little steam engines froms cratch it is the worst possible approach.Creates too much friction, uses to much energy!We think we are almost there.....We can't waste ANY energy until we figured out how to get more than enough of it.A mechanical gear system is far from perfect but offers precision.A simple push rod solution works well too if properly balanced and the mechanics allow for a smooth operation.I leave it up to your what you prefer.We can't just change the lenght of our magnet bar but we can cheat - a lot.One good option to check for yourself how a magnet if a fixed rotational thingy reacts when you spin a magnet close by.Even with really good bearings you will realise the binding forces between them are not equal if you keep the same distance while rotating.Now re-think your engine desing - I know it hurst if ou realise now your magnet arrangement wasn't ideal.Do you have a north-south bar on top of a V with one row of magnets facing north and the other facing south?Really I am sorry if you do but it is not all lost unless you glued your magnets in place as a permanent solution.You can leave it if you wish but it might be harder to apply the required cheats - there is ways if you look good ;)Why a V-gate where both rows of magnets are orientated the same way?It is just easier and more flexible as you then can focus on the driving bar(s) ;)Let me explain the difference as I see it:With a fixed north and south pole on your bar you seem to be able to use "more" of the magnets.And it seems to be the logical way at a first glance.But now that you learned and discovered so much yourself already, ask yourself:Does it really matter if there a north and south pole available on the bar?Wouldn't two rows of north facing magnets with matching magnets on the bar to the same things?They would....And in such an arrangement we have almost endless ways to "cheat" physics as we know it.Especially if you have two V's per drum and have one facing north and the other south ;)For the standard single V the trick is to rotate the "magnet bar" in a controlled way so when the binding forces of the V are max the forces the bar can apply are minimised.You can see that nicely if you manually rotated the wheel and watch how the bar reacts to the field.At some points it wants to push, at others pull and at still others it would love to just flick over - use this behaviour in your rotating mechanism!You want to keep the max possible forces for the longest possible time and keep the flicking over time in sync with the drum rotation.Look up on the many ways to do a flipping motion by mechanical means to see how you can best implent one into a rotary action.If you were a really good observer during your experiments you now realise that you start to also deal with friction and mechanical losses and counteracting forces.We can not reduce all of them to zero by simple cheats and mechanical solutions.Whenever we try we must do this in the most efficient way possible - even if it means cheating on our own constructions.Remember playing with the magnets to see how they react at various distances to each other and ferrous metals? ;)There is a fine line between too much and too little ;)Try for yourself on your whell with a simple bar mechanism that allow distance adjustment.Do you really get mor "driving" force the closer you get with the bar? ;)Where is the point between effective force and you needing too much force to keep the bar at this distance? ;)Do you notice how the distance affects the forces in your binding areas? ;)Cheating the cheat ;)Now that we have to find the opimal distance for our bar to avoid changing this ones as well on a constant base during the rotation, we should see how to make this the least energy wasting.You need some sort of counter balance for your mechanics and it would be nice to somehow affect our bar magnets so we don't need to much mechanical energy to make them rotated and flick over.Why not use a drum around them ? ;)When you need a reduced force you can have a metal (ferrous of course) roatate in place.As a drum you would just cut out the parts you don't need and add weight where needed to compensate the imbalance in the mechanical system.Like for example having the most "shielding" metal between bar and drum when the binding forces would be max.Hence the need for correct distance to prevent unwanted binding forces from the drum parts ;)You can even influence the width of your magnetic bar to some extend this way ;)If done properly you now wasted a few weeks in your shed and have a motor that still is only very close to keep running forever once you gave it a little push.Let's say you did a really bad job.Means you still have one or more destinct binding points left.In this case I suggest you focus on them after finding out if they are mechanical or magnetic in origin.If you did a half decent job then your machine should be able to start running from multiple points in the rotation.But not in some others.Perfect would be two equally sized areas per revolution where it seems the thing would just need to be started a few degrees later to overcome the power loss.If you reached the max point and going a few degrees more again start to reduce the power output you are good to go.What exactly haapend so far, assuming all is still well in your shed?We tricked our system in various ways to actually utilise the push/pull forces our motor provides.And we learned what to do and how to do it so we overvome almost everything.Just to finally fail like all those idiots on the net before - or did we??? ;)Isn't there something really vital we missed in our construction while we cheated so much?There is but I can't blame you if you have not picked it up much earlier in your construction.We rotate our magnet bar now to compensate for the binding effect by mecahnical means.Ever wondered if we could more rotation and changing orientations in our V?The magnets won't mind too much if they are put in with north and south alternating as long as you rotate the bar correspondingly.Just instead of one spin or flip during max binding you do it for every single magnet in the row.... ;)The shielding drum though operates as normal with this.Bit complicated, lots of mechanical design involved - I know!!!And for what exactly???To use what have not even touched yet - electrical energy produced by our now alternating drum ;)I know :( Now you are whacking your head against the wall like I did so many years ago, sorry for that experience!But would it mean that coils will cause additional losses and binding forces?Of course it does, that's why it is so much fun trying to cheat physics!This approach is usually just neglected due to the ill thinking that a magnet motor would provide free energy for everyone.Simple fact is that no matter how good you are it will be impossible to get more than a magnetic machine that almost works forever - you won't be able to compensate for all losses and utilise them as energy unless you either have multiple high degrees or spend a lot of time in your shed - a lot...Since a full rebuild is now due anyway I leave it up to you to figure out how desgin it, I just throw in some "ideas" here:We only use the outside of our magnetic drum, this needs to change.And before you go into a mechanical frency to figure how to place inner magnets that rotate with the drum to compensate for dead zones: Just don't! You will get a headache and waste too much time.We can use all those inwards facing magnets to our advantage though.A lot of the arrays, if not all, could be replaced by creating a rotor to hold the magnets.Not in the traditional sense though but to guide the field lines to a common center.There is a need for a rather wide distance between the magnets so you can provide a ferrous pathway that won't just fully shortcut the fields.It needs to be enough so that a coil array placed on the inside will be subjected to changing fields- north south...I leave it up to to decide if a low resistance or ahigher output voltage is the better option.Either way we are able to produce some electrical energy as long as the drum rotates.But we only need extra energy for those ares where the system does not produce extra energy and in fact eats all our energy up.One way would be to store the electrical energy in a nice supercapacitor and to use it for some electromagnet that is placed in the right spot and activates at the right time.And yes it works.Far better though is to utilise resonance.We aim for a fully harmonic system so we can actually try to figure out where and if there is a way to produce more neergy that what we feed into it.Perpetual motion means a system produces enough energy to sustain motion.If motion is sustained AFTER getting to a certain speed by other means it is perpetual from then on.We have the impossible if a machine produces more energy than what is required for the motion AND if we can utilise this power.Sadly we have no means to utilise friction energy....So a machine that sustains motion would already be in what is called "over unity" !?In a sense yes, but not in a usable as it will discredit you quickly.A resonant electrical system is able to handle way more energy with way less resistance - or losses.Now to give you the final homework lesson and risk being watched again:What do you think happens if a resonant LC system has a set of rotating magnets at a matching speed? ;)Right! It won't be able to stay in sync because we still have this firction and "binding" problem on our hands.....What does that mean in reality though?The spacing of the rotor is critical, that is clear already,And our electrical system is never fully in sync with our drum, clear again.But it is still a resonant system, totally unclear, now I lost you ;)See it as two independent frequencies, one defined by rotor spacing and our desired operational speed, the other what results from our losses and running slightly behind.Imagine you would finetune the LC system to actually match the frequency that results from the losses....Suddenly it is not longer tuned to a theoretical speed but to the real speed.And due the the now full resonace the phase shift now is able to provide extra push for our system ;)Explains nicely why basically all magnet motor machines that claimed to work and disappeared only worked at a fixed speed ;)What are the final conclusions here then - is it really possible to do the impossible?I say it depends on your time, workshop and willingness to think out of the box.Impossible, certainly not.In case you came to the same impossible conclusion after neglecting your family and friends for weeks you now wonder how much more might be possible than just keeping it going for almost forever.For this you need to understand and basically feel how magnetic field lines interact and react, including electromagnetic fields.A magnetic field is a form of energy.We usually created this by putting an awful lot of energy into coild during the manufacturing process.And like a battery magnets lose their energy over the time, especially in bad conditions.Still we treat this energy as unusable because we can't seen to be able to utilise static fields at all.If neither the coil, nor the magnet moves there is no change in field and with that no electricity.Does that mean though the megnetic energy does not go through the coil? ;)Nope, it is still there, going nowhere.Otherwise we would not need power plants and just use earth's magnetic field instead.Now to drive your brain into true overdrive for the final:Did you ever watch these nice videos where a great physics teacher of the old kind shows how (AC) electromagnetic field work?Or maybe you had one of those in school?Remember how a metal cylinder placed ner a tall electromagnet starts spinning?Often used to explain the righthand rule ;)The cylinder spins due to the eddy currents created - like the disk did in your old school electrical meter in the fuse box.And doesn't our drum now support a changing magnetic field on the inside while it rotates?What do you think happens to "drums" placed off center and close to those magnets? You think they would spin?And, if made from aluminium or copper, wouldn't the field lines stillpass through and reach the electrical coil(s) ;)Couldn't you utilise the drum motion during the times of not enough spin? ;)Considering they are basically short cut inductors: Couldn't you use a "coil" that still spins while producing electricity? ;)Once you can answer this with confidence you will know how to build a magnet motor able to produce excess energy.I am not saying it is easy to include all this knowledge into a simple and basic design.But I do say that one you understand the relation between static permanent magnetic fields and electromagnetic ones you are a winner.I'll give you one final hint:Every electrical current or electromagnetic field near enough to a permanent magnet will influence its field!You only need to decide where the electrical energy is used to influence permanent magnets is a positive way without using more than what the system is able to provide.Then, and only then, will you motor to be able to start (with no load) from any position and keep gaining speed until resonance is reached.The amount of energy you can draw once this speed is reached is only defined by how much it drives the system out of resonance.Once the load is greater than what the system can sustain the speed slows, resonance is lost, efficiency down the drain.A good motor of desktop size is able to provide about 100W of extra electrical energy.And no it still isn't over unity or perpetual at all!The magnets deplete and they do it surprisingly fast in a working magnet motor.You are lucky get 6 months of continious use before one or more magnets get too weak.And if you check how much electrical energy was used to give these magnets their abilities you realise that even two years of usage wouldn't make up for it.Still nice to have a machine that runs for a few years with no load attached or that powers some fan, lamp, whatever for a few weeks without batteries or fuel.

Topic by Downunder35m  

British law on defacing coins? Answered

I wanted to drill through a 10p to make a ring like the ones on this website. BUT I NEED TO KNOW THE BRITISH LAW Lots of people are saying its illegal and stuff.  

Question by The Science Guy    |  last reply

How can I make gear shafts/axles without using power tools ?

I have a few gears that I want to 'connect' together into sort of a gearbox. Motor > small gear > large gear. Found a bunch of scavenged gears and bought plastic gears off aliexpress, but I am struggling to find shafts that would fit snugly inside the gear. Any ideas how I can make my own shafts ? The only idea in mind is to wrap pen refills with aluminum foil. Which seems okay. But not sure.. I do not have access to any power tools. Overall I am trying to make a curtain puller, for which the motor does not have enough torque. So making reduction gears to slow RPM, increase torque. At least that's what I have in mind. Not sure if I am on the right track. Thanks a lot! ~ love instructables

Question by jugaadDo    |  last reply

Unable to upload Arduino sketch

As the title. Every time I try to upload and Arduino sketch (i,o file) as part of an instructable I get an "Internal Server Error". What am I doing wrong? Image files uplaod without problem. Thanks

Topic by techno-womble    |  last reply


I am new in the programming stuff and i have, un familiar error problem. I hope you guys cold help me. thank for all the answers!!

Topic by ברקו    |  last reply

New Feature on Instructables: Teacher Notes

We’re excited to announce a new feature to share your knowledge, and help to bring more making into classrooms all over the world: Teacher Notes! Teacher Notes can be added to any instructable to show how it was used in the classroom. Educators can upload photos, lesson plans, and other resources to demonstrate their favorite ways to bring hands-on learning to their students.A Teacher Note is much more than a comment you can leave on an Instructable because they are designed to provide valuable information for other educators about how an Instructable was used in a classroom setting. The Teacher Note editor has options for noting grade levels and subjects, as well as attaching resources such as Docs or PDFs of lesson plans, graphic organizers, or other classroom materials created to support students with the project. Sharing a Teacher Note is an excellent way to connect with, learn from, and support other educators within the global Instructables Community.Do you have an Instructable project you've used with your students? Did you create resources such as lesson plans or student handouts to go with a project you found on the site? Did you adapt parts of an instructable or use different materials to create a project for your students? If you’ve done any of these things, then you can create a Teacher Note and share how you incorporated that project into your classroom so other educators can do the same. Have a project in mind and ready to post your first Teacher Note? To learn more about Teacher Notes and how they function, you can check out this handy tutorial: If you have questions, feel free to ask them here. :) Like this feature? Share it with other educators who you think would love it too!The first 100 teachers to post Teacher Notes will receive an Instructables mug prize pack! Be sure to describe how you used the project in your classroom in a way that will help other teachers be successful.

Topic by WeTeachThemSTEM    |  last reply

Would you like to see a FAQ on here?

Is there an interest in an FAQ? If so, what are some questions you'd like to see on it?

Topic by fungus amungus    |  last reply

What type of aluminium powder is best for flash powder. Answered

Hi I know that there are great and experienced pyrotechnics on this site so I need your advice if its good with you all. What type of aluminium powder is best for flash powder is it German dark, Indian dark, or 1250 mesh 10 micron aluminium powder. To all those into pyrotechnics I am glad to meet you through this site because I am obsessed with fireworks.

Question by Danny marie    |  last reply

knex vaccum

Hey I've been wondering on making something to organize and clean my knex all over the floor without picking everything up and crawling on my knees. I have a idea about a vaccum but i'm not sure if it might even work. I was thinking on making a turning thing that scoops up knex without all that dust since I have allergies... sadly.

Topic by rexdino5    |  last reply

usb 5lb digital scale from

Link to website 5 lb scale model 510 hello might be the wrong place to ask this question but ... i have picked up a usb digital scale from a garage sale ..... anyone have a instructable of what to do with it as far as software to use with it instead of the software or dose anyone have any ideas what to do with it beside using it with the software / thanks mike m?

Question by modifiedsoul    |  last reply

Ancient technologies revisted - the last chapter, 13

We often woder how the ancient builder were able to calculate all the stuff they needed.But there might be a very simple explanation: Evolution and the gregorian calendar...Our modern math is based on 10 or for most things US still the 12.And no matter which system you try to calculate things like gravity, accelleration or just angles you always end with a big mess.So what did the church to make it all so complicated, after all it was a change of calendar....Not quite....Before times we knew 13 star signs.Before the church came along most people used the 28 day moon cycle or derivations of it.What was once left to high priests or the village shamane turned into Astrology and also forgot about the 13, reducing the star signs by one.Big deal you say, no one cares....Or do we?What were the real world implications of this interference?Or year is now 364.25 days long - on average.We constantly need to adjust it by one day every four years and also need to correct our time accordingly.What a hassle....We also implemented that a day has to have 12 hours or 24 for the entire thing, including the night.Only to finally use the base 10 for our common math LOLIt does not get any more complicated than this :(As a result of this mixing our circle ended with 360° and a minute with 60 seconds - What the heck!?There is no common base to develop any proper, higher math!So we learned to work around the problem and to accept the most complicated way must be the best way.An artifical brake for our evolution.Nonsense? Let's play it out just a little bit:We do it the old ways and use the lunar cycle with 28 days.Gives us 364 days per year, every year.What about our star signs?Funny you should ask....Because suddenly we have a perfect fit for the 13 star signs again.We still ignore that they are not all visible for the same period of time in the zodiac though.What about the days and time?If we ignore the 12 and use 28 hours for a full day instead of just 24 we are again in the right rythm.But where is the natural logic in all this?Hidden, like our evolution ;)The key is again a thing called decimal parity, a magicians trick if you like.With that long number tunr into just a single digit by adding the singles:345= 3+4+5=12 = 1+2=3If we use the same magic on how our cells multiply:1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 we not only suddely see number we know from our computers.The cell multiplication goes on and on, however: Decimal parity give a simple and repeating sequence:1, 2, 4, 8, 5, 7Notice how everything that makes a 12 like 3,6,9 are "missing"? ;)For a 28 hour day we can divide it evenly to get 14 hours for day and night.7 is a quarter of a day.And yes, 1+4=5 and 2+8=10 = 1+0=1If you now checked some of my really old topics and remember Tesla's circle of math then it is no coincidence that it matches.Go one step further and apply the 364 or a multiple of 28 on a circle as degrees for a full one....If we can link the moon, or to be precise, the lunar cycle so perfectly to how how our cells divide: can the moon really be just a coincidence? ;)Go ahead and play with some of our favourite physics formulas based on the lunar cycle!Don't bother bother trying to figure out how to match the required second to lunar times though.Reverse engineer the formula so to say!We might have solved the time and calendar problem but not the meter ;)Take Gravity for starters.If we assume the moon is no coincidence then gravity shouldn't be one either!?Ignoring all resistance an object near earth surface will increase speed by about 9.8m per second every second.Transfer that to hours and see what happens if you hour is based on 28 or 364.Makes very weird numbers I know.Try again but this time keep in mind that if you change the time base you need the same multiplicator for the 9.81 ;)Ok, now you should have basically matching results and still the basically same complicated number.Re-arrange you formula so you get just 1m instead of 9.81.We could calculate before with our old math how far an object would travel in free fall with our gravity in a given amount of time.Never a nice number per second.Try again with you moon second of hour now ;)If you struggle with it a bit I won't blame you at all.Feel free to use any of the other vital physics formulas we know that require meters and seconds to find out how long a real meter should be ;)Or do it the other way around and use the speed of light formula and see what you get with moon based numbers ;)Why was the 13 banned and declared bad?Ignorance, protection, secracy, god complexes, call it what you like.Either way it is the link between real math and nature in every way.Our year is based on it the same way as our lunar cycle.Our cell multiplication and basically every natural shape in nature uses the 13 as well.Even astrology should again include it.Banning the 13 and using the 12 or 10 instead meant we were unable to see the links nature and the universe offer freely.Is it really just coincidence that a water vortex of tornado look exactly like our milky way?Just that the later is more flat....Or that so many patterns in nature follow the sequence of decimal parity - even your sunflower ....Some say banning "false" gods wasn't enough, others say it was a simple insurance policy.But with the 13 gone the way was free to let anyone trying run into dead ends.Without the 28 day lunar cycle seeing the connection was next to impossible.Ok, but how does the 12 come into play with the church and all?Making math totally impossible was not possible because our brains constantly evolve.The 12 was a perfect fit for the old days.It stands for the "missing" 3 6 and 9 from the decimal parity sequence.It is simpler in one way but only for the most basic things.Once you need what we call today higher math the 12 makes things really hard - hence our never ending numbers when we try to calculate "round" stuff....You just never get the full accuracy because it is always an endless amount of digits behing the dezimal point.Even for Pie....Defining the meter or foot on something totally not natural only helped the cause.After the apple finally hit us on the head it was already too late.Our understanding of what time is was flawed, our meter was a makeshift approximation.Of course the results of calculations only got worse and worse the more we learned about physics.Now we can't even think in any other ways anymore....What about our DNA?We struggle to understand it, make sense of all the unrequired data in it.We often like to say the junk is the leftovers from evolution.But what if our failure to understand and decode our own DNA is intentional?What might happen if someone appraoches this problem with the numbers 13 and 28 as the base of operations?Just some extra magic to make a point: ;)Take 28 days for a "Month".Take 13 "Months" for a whole year.Makes 364 days.Using decimal parity we get:2+8=10 =11+3=43+6+4= 13!! 1+3=4Considering Tesla you still think the lunar cycle is coincidence and won't matter? ;)13 was and always will be the key....Don't believe me?Use 13 and keep adding 13, then use decimal parity to get a sequence.Like 1+3=42+6= 83+9==3.....You get this sequence:4 8 3 7 2 6 1 5 9 Draw it in a circle like Tesla used ;)9 at the top then 1 to 8 every 40 degrees.You get a 9 pointed star.With so many links freely available you just have to wonder how we could ignore it for so long.....The lunar cycle is a complete sequence, no end, no beginning.We now got two distinct sequences, one for the 13 or our moon and the other for our own cell multiplication.1,2,4,8,7,5If you figure out what Tesla did so many years ago and find where the 3, 6 and 9 link those two sequences you will be a winner.I'll give you a hint: They nicely divide our lunar sequence.And our parity line from the cell multiplication does the same.What more do you need to accept that the base for true math is not 10, 12 or even 16?It is 9, always was, always will be ;)Live long and prosper! ;)

Topic by Downunder35m  

Como construir domos

Donde puedo encontrar un manual para construir un domo de 3metros de radio. quisiera saber las medidas que debo utilizar

Question by joseluis2399    |  last reply

​Teacher/Edu Focused Contests

Hey, teacher community! Did you know we are running three exciting teacher/edu focused contests right now? And we are launching more each month! :)The Classroom Science Contest is ending July, 29th and the Grand Prize is a $1000 Amazon Gift Card.We're also running a DIY Summer Camp Contest which ends August 26th and The Growing Beyond Earth Maker Contest which ends February 2nd.As we're planning more education focused contests, we would love to get your suggestions and feedback for the types of contests and prizes you would like to see.Is there a contest for a specific subject or topic you'd like to see? Are there prizes that would help meet a need in your classroom?We want the teacher contests to be a fun way to show off what you're doing in the classroom and provide you with prizes that help you continue to do all the amazing stuff you do, so let us know. :DP.S. Here's a preview of some of our upcoming contests.

Topic by WeTeachThemSTEM    |  last reply

Removing acrylic paint from a reused, painted canvas

About a year ago I got started in acrylic paint pouring. At the time I had decided to paint over some of them but I regret this now and wish to removed the painting I have done over them. The original paint pours were sealed with a spray on clear coating but not the painting that I did over them. Is there any way I can remove the over painting without damaging the original paint pours? Any recommendations for solvents/tools or experience with this? Thanks for your feedback!

Question by Markski    |  last reply

Tool for vibrating concrete? (DIY?)

So I've been thinking of making some homemade concrete stuff with different molds I plan on making. Since I'm not a big expert on concrete and such I've been reading all over the Internet for how-to guides and what not. And something that seems to be a really good idea is to use a tool to vibrate out the bubbles and air pockets from the molds before they set... and so far I've not found any instructable here on how to make such a tool ( because it's a bit expensive to buy one, and hey.. why not make it myself) So my question is simply if any one know of a good idea of such a tool, how to make one or whatever.. (maybe modifying something, making one from an electric motor?) I need ideas!  

Topic by Mr_And3rsson    |  last reply

Newbie begging for help! Making a PWM LED lamp with 0 experience

Hi there!I'm currently entering my 3rd year of my psychology undergraduate degree and for my dissertation I'm doing research into a study done a few years ago. I'm making a lamp to see if it helps reduce optical distortions in dyslexic readers (super cool!).My problem is that I have 0 experience with anything like this, but I'm very much willing to give it a go and learn, i've looked up some instructables on making LED lamps which I can get my head around fairly easily, the issue comes in when I try to incorporate pulse width modulation as the tutorials there are more geared towards people more advanced than myself. So this is me begging for any advice or resources you can recommend to me that are newbie friendly - any sort of suggestions are greatly appreciated! :)I've put below some of the details about the lamp and what it requires. The lamp should be able to alternate between 2 settings: A constant illumination setting, in which it should be constantly 200 illuminance (lx) A pulse regime setting, in which there is a 80 Hz pulsed regime, with a duty cycle deltaT/T = 0.2, no visual flickering.Replaceable batteries Large enough to light up a sheet of A4 well

Topic by jenniferhinchy    |  last reply

Can you use a remote control in place of a motion sensor?

Checking to see if you are able to change out a motion sensor in a talking parrot toy to activate it using a remote control? If so, is there an appropriate wiring diagram to follow in order to complete this? Any information would be greatly appreciated.

Question by dde60    |  last reply

Is it possible for someone to have a Ukranian accent but was born in the USA and lived with Ukranian speaking parents?

This person says he was born in Utah.  He has a decent Ukranian accent.  He lived with parents that were Ukranian speaking in Wisconsin all his life.

Question by LisaS74    |  last reply


Hay do you guys realy live in wisconsin because i do and i live in kenosha

Topic by hungyhipo 2    |  last reply