Can I use a regular digital thermometer as a cylinder heat temp gauge?

Hey guys, I want to make a cheap cylinder head temperature gauge for my 150cc scooter. I have owned one before which worked well but it was rather expensive. I'm more interested in being able to detect a temperature spike and avoid a blown motor than determining an acurate temperature. The last gauge I owned used a probe with a ring on the end that acted as a washer between the spark plug and the head. If I buy one of these probes:  http://www.ebay.com/itm/Thermocouple-CHT-Sensor-Probe-Cylinder-Head-Temperature-14mm-/120861470119?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_2 And a digital thermometer with a probe like this: http://www.ebay.com/itm/Digital-Blue-LCD-Temperature-Meter-50-150-Probe-/230650228821?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash;=item35b3d33055 Could I just splice the wires together and be away laughing? I'd need to find out what the temp range of my engine is first.....my last 2-stroke 150cc ran at about 275F and melted at 400F, 4-strokes should run cooler right? Any thoughts would be appreciated :)

Question by tig5 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Where can I find 4 AWG wire? Answered

I got my microwave, and now I want to make a spot welder. Any recommendations for where to find 4 AWG wire, or something similar?

Question by CameronSS 10 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


How many strands of 17 gauge wire twisted equal a 12 gauge wire (approx)

Hi,  I need a 12 gauge wire for the positive side of a small perimeter electric fence. However the only size aluminum wire they sell locally and I bought was 17 gauge wire. My thought is to twist the entire length of two or more strands of the 17 gauge wire together to equal the 12 gauge wire (approx)  How many strands of 17 gauge will it take to do so? One more related question while I'm at it. Does the twist have to be a tight twist or can it be a loose twist? Tight meaning a lot of twists per foot, loose meaning something like 4-6 twists per foot. tia - chase -

Topic by -chase- 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


What is a 4 pin power connector that can handle a lot of current? Answered

For a project powering red, blue, and green LEDs, with a common positive, I am hoping to power around 250 LEDs with around 5 amps. This means that each wire needs to be able to handle 5 amps of current at 12 volts (or 60 Watts), with the other three wires acting as grounds. I've looked at PC peripheral molex connectors, capable of handling around 5-8 amps however that is over all four wires. I need something stronger, most molex connectors use 20 gauge wire (which handles 1.5 amps), while the national electrical code suggests a 14 gauge wire to handle 5.9 Amps. It doesn't matter to me what the connector is supposed to be used for, if it's an audio plug, power plug, or whatever, this project will be very jerry-rigged. I would greatly appreciate any suggestions for a suitable plug.

Question by QuackMasterDan 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


how do I bridge a stereo car amplifier?

Http://www.drdetailshop.com/d2150.htm this source say that my amp is bridgeable and that it can run stereo and mono simultaniously. It is a 2 channel amp, however I only have one speaker.. I need both left and right channels running into the speaker. How can this be done? What would be the impeadance if the amp is running at 4ohms and the bridged subwoofer speaker is 4 ohms? what would be the overall wattage? how do i do this without causing damage toi my sub,amp, or radio? does this put excess strain and/or heat on the amp? if so how do I fix this? is there any wiring gauge problems that i should be concerned about? (18 gauge for input power, 18 gauge for speaker output, plan to lower the gauge of the speaker to somewhere around 12 or 14)

Question by fastcar123 7 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Few questions about coil physics and capacitors.

Hello.  Hopefully there's some smart electromechanical and physics guys on this board. Long story short I have been working on a coil gun project for about a month now. Originally I was using disposable flash camera circuit, a simple push button, and a coil I took out of a fan. The coil itself is roughly 42 gauge wire, wound an inch long with about 14-18 layers. I achieved best results from this coil, about 4% efficiency, using a 200v 470uf capacitor and a magnetic projectile. However when I used a more powerful capacitor rated at 400v 820uf efficiencies were much lower. I realized the coil was limited and the capacitors energy wasn't being maximized. So I bought some 16 gauge magnet wire to wind a new coil. I wound a coil 40mm long, 3 layers thick around a 1 cm pvc pipe. The coil works but once again there is a huge loss of efficiency at higher energies.  So I need to wind a new coil.  Now here are my questions. 1.  I have read that a coil should be about 33% longer than the projectile.  Is this accurate? 2a.  Is there a magical equation to determine the number of layers a coil should have if all other factors are known? 2b.  How many layers of 16 gauge wire should I use for a coil wrapped around a 1/4 inch barrel to maximize efficiency with a 400v 820uf capacitor?  What about a 200v 1200uf capacitor? 3.  Could someone please demonstrate how to convert farads into amps? My main objective is an optically triggered multi stage coil gun with kinetic energy transfer of above 30 joules. I've moved away from flash camera circuitry and am now using dc to dc converters to charge the capacitors.  I need to find out how to convert farads into amps to figure out what kind of transistors I need for the trigger switch.  Any help is truly appreciated.

Topic by MurdaMastaMike 7 years ago


Does it matter how a coil is wound? Answered

Hi everyone, Take a look at the illustration attached.  Is there any real difference in values between the four winding types? *** Assuming same core, same wire gauge and same number of windings on all 4 primaries, and all 4 secondaries *** A) Both primary and secondary are wound TOGETHER. B) primary is wound first, then secondary wound ON TOP. C) Primary and secondary are wound at OPPOSITE SIDES of the core . D) Primary and secondary are wound next to each other on the SAME SIDE of the core. Note that figure in D it seems like the wires are thinner, but I assure you, that's an optical illusion, and the gauge is the same in all 4 figures :-p Again, the question is whether the 4 coils would act the same in a circuit, or is there a difference in values between them? Thanks!

Question by Morgantao 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Current and voltage ratings in dc plugs and wires? Answered

I had this great idea to turn old cell phone chargers into DC extension cords.  Cell phone wires are nice because of their curly spring wires.    I worried the wire gauge might not be large enough to handle my project.  Here is my question.  On websites that list current ratings for standard wire gauges, they list current limits but not voltage limits. Why is this?  If a 22 gauge wire can handle .92 amps does it really not make a difference whether it is 1 volts or a million volts?  Why don't they use watts to list how much power a wire can handle.  Watts take both volts and amps into account. Another mystery is that my DC plugs are rated for 6-10 volts.  Why are the plugs rated for volts but not amps?  What would happen if I used these plugs for 4 volts, which I plan to do.   Thanks -Jacob

Question by Noblenutria 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Can I use cat5 wire to extend the length of solar cells/battery packs for my deck lights?

I have four sets of solar deck lights on back porch but can't get good sun. The solar cell/ battery pack has 3 rechargeable 1.5 AA batteries and I'm pretty sure it connects to the light string with 24 or 22 gauge braided wire. Can I use cat5 22 gauge solid copper to extend the panels about 75 feet for full sun? I have tons of cat5 and cat3 wire available as well as gel insulated 3m scotchlocks to splice the wires. And if possible, can I run all four cells off 1 cat5 run (noting the cat5 has 4 pair wiring, a pair for each light string).

Question by Punmunkey 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


How can I power a 5000 watt car amp without a car battery?

I've seen people power their amps with psu's but I feel like that wouldn't be able to handle this much power. I have a 2 farad capacitor that should take some of the load off, but in my car I run this thing with 4 and 0 gauge wire and my psu is nothing close to that.

Question by ngill 4 years ago


How can I improve my coil gun's coil? Answered

My coil is made of 22 gauge wire and the inside diameter is about 1/8 in. It's 1 3/4 in long with about 7 layers. The ammunition is a little over an inch and fits snugly inside the coil. How many more layers should I make it, and what else can I do to improve it?

Question by cardboarddude 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Verticle Axis Wind Turbine Materials?

I've been working on a vertical axis wind turbine that uses uses 3 identical helical blades positioned around a central vertical axis. For small working models I've been using 16 gauge wire and cardstock. I'm looking to build one with 6-8 foot blades. The trouble is finding an ideal material for this. It needs to be lightweight, cheap, flexible, "malleable" (it needs to be able to be bent into a helix but then retain the shape), and come in a 4'x8' sheet. PVC/CPVC is super expensive, as is polycarbonate, and aluminum. Any suggestions? 

Topic by FLskater3696 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Question Regarding Measurement of Vacuum Pump Air Flow Using Anemometer

Hello everyone, I am new to Instructables and am loving it so far. I was reading through some literature on a piece of equipment we have at work and it requires 18"Hg @ 25CFM. We have flow gauges at work, so it is just a matter of using one to determine the flow but it got me thinking... What is the most effective method of measuring airflow of a vacuum pump without a flow gauge. All I have is an anemometer, a basic understanding of physics and time. So I came up with this method and am looking for some folks to poke holes in it: I placed the anemometer at the end of a 36" piece of PVC with a 1.6" I.D. sealing the anemometer to the PVC to ensure no air gets pulled around the fan of the anemometer. The other end of the pipe is reduced to a 1/4" line (.16" I.D.) which is connected to the vacuum pump. Turning on the vacuum pump yields a steady 3.5MPH (307.98 ft/m)on the anemometer. Doing the math, I come up with 4.3CFM (307.98ft/m*.013962634ft^2).  Unfortunately, I cannot bring a gauge home from work to compare and I cannot bring my set up, as glorious as it may be. So this is more a thinking exercise. So what sort of accuracy would you guys think this 'rig' has? Can you think of some method for me to verify it's accuracy (or, more likely, lack thereof)?

Topic by mmcdonald6 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


DIY WiFi Helical Antenna impedance Problems

First off, I live in the states, but I absolutely hate the imperial system of measurements. I will try to use the metric system as much as possible.I have been attempting to follow hanzablast's Helical WiFi Antenna, but have run into a few snags. I have most of the parts and have a few problems concerning it.1. Instead of a Type N connector my USB card has a RP-SMA connector. Do I have to do anything special (buy a special panel mount/ reverse the connections along the wire) because it has reverse polarity or does it not matter?Edit: I feel foolish, Doing a quick wiki search on Reverse Polarity SMA I found out what it means. Turns out WiFi companies reverse the gender of the inner pin in their connectors. So either I have to find a RP-SMA panel mount jack, or buy a RP-SMA Male to N Male Adapter and a N Female Panel Mount. The latter of the two seems more efficient.2. I understand that having too small of wire can have a detrimental effect on efficiency, but what about using a much larger wire (instead of AWG 16 gauge wire using AWG 4 gauge wire)?Edit: Answered By NachoMahma3. I am having trouble locating a SMA right angle 4-hole solder point panel jack mount other than in bulk buys. Does anyone know where to purchase one separately? Edit: Answered By NachoMahma, but has become a null point.4. I am having a problem with the impedance matching. I have seen several different ways to connect the antenna (142.68ohm impedance) to the SMA Jack (50ohm impedance). I've seen half and quarter circumference turns, quarter wavelengths turns, and triangular strips of copper. Which is best?Edit: I did the math and read my friend's ARRL handbook. Supposedly, a 1/4 wavelength turn of a metal strip with an impedance of 84.463 ohm is what I need. Using TraceSim I figured that I can use part of the copper plate with a size of 12.79033mm in width, 30.775mm long (1/4 a 2.437GHz wavelength), and 0.406mm (.016") thickness placed 8.03mm (1/4 distance between coils) above the reflector plate will give me the exact impedance I need.

Topic by AllAgainstPaul 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


My First Tesla Coil!

I just made my first tesla coil, it stands only about 6 inches tall and has a diameter of ~1". The tank capacitence is ~940 pF. The wire gauge is 30. The topload is 6 inches in diamerer and 1 inch tall. the power supply is a 7.5kv, 60mA NST with a terry filter. It's a static spark gap. The primary has 13 turns of 14 gauge wire, it's a 30 degree cone.It gives out nice arcs and cornea. I will post photos and video soon, as my workshop reeks of ozone right now.I can probably get better preformance with using thicker (or no) aligator clips (prototype stage right now) and if I change the primary. The wire got too hard to turn, so near the center there's like 2" of leeway on all sides of the secondary... sorry about sound quality in the videothe rod in the video is kinda grounded. The rod you see is a thin copper pipe taped to a 3 foot, 1/4 inch thick dowel rod that I'm holding onto.

Topic by guyfrom7up 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Generatore to Home hookup

(Tried commenting on the "Easy Generator ...." article. Error?? Perhaps this can be re-directed? See no Electrical forum) ​Pulling my hairs out (and very few left ) Contrary information on wire size for 50 amps. I'd like to use some leftiver #8 cable for the run from Mains to outside outlet, for a generator. Here it states #8; 1)  I had already resigned to needing #6, because I've seen that more often than #8 in my exhaustive reading. I can't speak to the codes/locations question. 2) just because the generator outlet is 4- wires, 50 amps, 120/ 240V. Does the connecting cable, and plugs+outlets, ALL need to have the separate Ground and Neutral? There are so many 4 - 3 wire conversion examples out there- text and video/pictures. For RVs, welders, etc.

Topic by mrlewp87 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


Best voltage for coil gun?

In my coil gun project I have 36 330v 120 uf flash capacitors. When I had them arranged in 4 banks of 9 linked together in series (.5*1200*1200*1000e-6 = 720J) the projectile could easily punch through cardboard. But when I tried to increase the power by making 7 banks of 5 giving me (.5*2100*2100*500e-6 = 1100J) the projectile has trouble getting through cardboard. The coil I am using is 50 feet of 22 gauge wire. Is there any thing that I am missing? Thanks.

Question by eskibro830 6 years ago


Bike pump problem?

I was using my bike pump today to fill a pneumatic launcher, and finally I just got fed up with the leaking around the pump base. On every stroke, the first 3/4 of air would be leaked out of the base, and it would only compress the remaining 1/4 of air remaining, and that would only compress if you pushed down very hard, and quickly, otherwise it all leaked out. And no matter what pressure the launcher was pressureized to, the pump handle/piston would slide down slowly, getting pushed down under it's own weight, meaning that there was almost no resistance to it. I think the leak is occuring where the tube meets the pump base, and you can feel air rush out with your legs as you pump. I'm pretty sure there is a one way valve in the gauge portion of the pump, which connects to the base with a hose,  and the filling hose is coming out of it, which is allowing me to compress at least a little air before the rest leaks out. I disassembled  the pump, starting with the base. Turns out, the leak was from an oring on the tube which was not tightened down enough by a screw on ring around the base of the tube. Put it back together, and voila, pushing my finger against the schrader valve connector and pushing down on the pump handle created pressure against my finger and no leaking. As soon as I hooked it up to my launcher, i realized something was up, I could pump down once, but the pump handle just got pushed upwards as soon as i let go. This is what I can't figure out how to fix. It seems the one way valve in the gauge portion is locked in the open position. Anybody know how to fix this? EDIT: Okay I took pictures of the pieces. I now cannot figure out if the valve is in the base, or the gauge portion, so i have included pics of both. Hopefully someone can help me figure this out. EDIT 2: Turns out the valve is in the base, and the ball just fell out when i first disassembled it, i have now found the ball and it is working fine.

Question by LiquidLightning 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Creating a handheld Emp device

Has anyone been able to create medium sized nonexplosive EMP generator? i recently purchased 4 oil capacitors each rated around 5.5KVDC and 32uF, from what i have learned, in order to create an EMP generator, you would need a to feed it a large amount of power in to  a heavy gauge magnetic coil. I believe my caps could do the trick. I will be charging them with a  ZVS driver coupled to a self wound ferrite transformer, then rectified. As for discharging i' will probably use a mechanical spark gap. I am hoping to create something like the shock pulse generators in amazing1.com, does my setup look feasible ?

Topic by tazerboy 6 years ago


Extending Servo Wire

I need to make a servo wire that extends approximately 4 feet and then retracts to a length of 18 inches or less. There is a risk of entanglement, so the less sag and less loose the wire, the better. One option would be to use coiled wire of the appropriate gauge, but a product such as this is expensive. What are some other options?One idea that I had was to build a wire spool mechanism like that of a tape measure. From what I understand, a tape measure uses a constant force spring to somehow apply a retractive force to the actual measuring tape. Can anyone provide a more clear explanation of how a tape measure retracts? Does anyone have any ideas of how to implement this into a wire spool? Other ideas on retracting a very long wire?Thanks

Question by icecats 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


What can I make with this?

So, I have a few random components and I'm bored. What project could I make with this stuff? - 2 7ft sections of 18 gauge magnet wire - Unwound ferrite core transformer - 2 Rocker switches - VCR Lcd screen (PT6955) - 3 photoflash capacitors - 50v 2200 uf electrolytic cap. - 2 1.5A 120v Pushbutton switches, 1 red, 1 black - 4 lead pushbutton switch - 6v button cell pack - 1 white led, 6mm - 2 small speakers - 6 small pushbutton switches - 2 fuses, 125v1.6vA, and 25v315A - Tiny microphone - 3 lead IR sensor - 2 2lead IR sensors - Ring electromagnet, bunch of coils - small motor - large motor - large vibrating motor - 4 9v battery clips - 1 "C" battery holder - Encoder from VCR, only the bearing, no electronics - Halogen table lamp transformer, 110v to 12v - AC Motor Rotor - Heavy duty transformer - RF Modulator If it needs anything else I can buy it, just that it uses parts from this list. Thanks.

Question by LiquidLightning 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


can i make a solenoid out of these materials? will it work? school project pls help?

I have 50 meters of uninsulated copper wire 20 gauge. I want to make 4 solenoids out of it, yes i know i need magnet wire or insulated wire but they don't sell it where i live (Mississauga, Ontario, canada) so i was wondering if i can use electric tape (vinyl electric tape) to insulate the uninsulated wire and use it to make solenoids. first time on instructables so i apologize in advance for any mistakes in this posts. Oh and the metal object needed inside the solenoid that goes in and out (idk what its called) can i use canadian pennies and apply hot glue to make a long rod? would that work? i don't need the engine to push anything heavy i just want it to work.  Thanks

Question by ZaidA10 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


Dremel Micro Repair/Reuse

Recently at the end of 2016, I acquired a Dremel Micro cordless rotary tool from a garage sale/yard sale for about $20. I used it maybe 3 - 4 times until it didn't want to hold a charge for long. Basically when I put it on the charger, the LEDs scroll top/down indicating it is charging but after a minute or two they stop their normal scrolling sequence and they all stay lit up, which isn't even mentioned of in the manual. The fuel gauge battery indicator shows up red meaning it's near its battery life. At this point, I'm considering either to salvage the motor or buy a new battery for the dremel (which are 2 Sanyo 14650 batteries that are soldered onto a circuit board inside). I'm just wondering is there something that I have failed to do that would make the dremel not hold a charge? Thanks in advance!

Topic by TXVisual 2 years ago  |  last reply 6 weeks ago


Help with building a tesla coil? Answered

I want to build a tesla coil, but I want to verify with the instructables community that it won't blow up, burn down my house, turn into skynet, etc. Here's my plaaaauuuuuuhn: For the transformer, I'll be using an old negative ion generator thing that takes in 120VAC and outputs 7.5kv(pic). For the primary, I'll use old speaker wire in  a cone shape (possibly using acrylic). For the secondary, I'll use 32- gauge magnet wire (pic). And for the spark gap, I'll use two bolts in a box, possibly with a computer fan cooling it. And for the capacitors, I'll just use an array of Leyden jars. My questions: 1. What diameter should the coil form be? I have some random white tubing which has an OD of 1/2 inches, 1/2 PVC piping (which actually has an OD of 7/8 inches), and 3/4 inch PVC piping. And is there a better alternative to these? 2. Should I use chokes on the input/output of my transformer? For those, I think I'll just wrap a bunch of wire around a pen. 3. Should I varnish it? 4. How powerful will the EM be from this thing? Exploding computers aren't that good. If I have made any errrors, please tell me.

Question by Shagglepuff 9 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


How can I determine if my LM386N amplifier chip is defective?

I'm following the National Semiconductor datasheet for an approximate 200X gain (very minor modifications), but I get no gain at all. I do get sound though, which makes me believe the chip may be working just fine. The reason I know I have no gain is if I hook the audio out directly into the speaker I get the same sound volume/quality. I'm using a 9V battery for power, a 10 microfarad capacitor to connect pins 1 and 8, and a 220 microfarad capacitor between the 5 pin and the speaker positive input. Here are some differences in the modification: 1.) I'm using a 4 Ohm speaker and not an 8 Ohm speaker, but from what I understand that shouldn't matter since this is just a matter of less resistance and not more. 2.) I don't have a bypass or a .05 microfarad coming out from pin 5. 3.) I'm using a standard RCA cable from my computer headphone jack to test, and clipping a 20 gauge wire to each to run into the breadboard. I'm really new to all this, and I've tried like 3 or 4 different configurations, but they all generate the same sound volume/quality. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated.

Question by giantjamsandwich 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 months ago


Datura

My datura has been flowering for about a month now, and it seems all the insects in the world have figured it out. It gets swarmed by moths, bees, flies, etc. every night now, so I ran out with my camera and caught some pics of the bees going crazah! The flowers bloom only at night and fade the following morning.  The fragrance is very strong and lovely, but the plant is DANGEROUS!  Native American people used the plant ritualistically to induce hallucinations, but consuming the plant can kill you.  Some people will develop contact dermatitis just from touching the soft, velvety leaves.  Despite its showy blooms and large leaves, the plant is drought tolerant and can take a lot of heat and sun.  It will self-sow readily, and I'm expecting a lot of seeds just gauging from how many blooms (and seed pods) I've had.  My plants are HUGE, and I never would have expected them to get so big so fast from little 4" pots.

Topic by AngryRedhead 8 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


How can I soften aluminum sheeting? Answered

Hi,    I have some aluminum sheeting that I bought in a roll from a hardware store. It is aluminum flashing, and although it has no rating, I assume it is about 26 gauge (.019") because if I remember right thats the standard. I cut the roll into 4x14" strips. Right now they behave like sheet metal, kind of springy and difficult to mould. What I need is more like thick aluminum foil, where it can be bent all around, multiple times without breaking and retain shape incredibly well. I've tried to cold work the aluminum by bending it and running it over an edge but its not very effective. Is it possible to easily anneal the aluminum in a conventional oven or using a propane blowtorch? I don't want to exert too much effort on each piece because they're going to have a short life before I hand them off and they get thrown away. In case you're wondering or need more details: I'm trying to make moldable aluminum splints, like the SAM splint. Pre-made SAM splints cost $4 each but this sheeting would work out to under $.11 each. In case you aren't familiar with them, SAM splints are essentially a plate of thick aluminum "foil," about 4"x36" wrapped in foam. The cool thing about them is that you can bend them very easily to any shape or body part, but when you mold them into a curve they have incredible strength to support an injury. 

Question by SeniorShizzle 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Quadcopter using 12V battery and Wood Screwers

I’m currently attempting to rebuild the quadcopter demonstrated in the link below: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qa_x93JQhNM The materials I have are as follows: • SMAKN Buck and Boost Voltage Converter • 20 AWG Flexible 1007 Wire Electric wire 20-Gauge Copper Hook Up Wire • 2300KV 2204 Brushless Motor CW&CCW; • 12V 7 Amp EXP1270 Rechargeable Lead Acid Battery • Carbon Fiber Propeller • Digital Multimeter Attempt 1: We connected a motor to the 12V battery using clamped wire connects – there was a lot of sparking and the motor did not spin. Attempt 2: We connected 2 motors in series – connected the motors and the 12V battery to the buck boost convertor – which resulted in the battery smoking and the buck boost convertor burning out. Can you watch the video and explain to me the wiring aspect to the quadcopter - I believe I may be missing necessary wires such as a female insulated connector that connects to a terminal wire which connects to the 4 motors in series but I’m not sure.

Question by anthnymccld8 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Help! My low voltage, outdoor lighting wont light up - transformer error codes?

I bought a Portfolio 300watt transformer for low voltage outdoor lighting and hooked up a 100' 12 gauge cable (outdoor rated lighting cable) to it. Then I hooked up 4 low voltage lights (12volt 20 watts each). I plugged the transformer in to a gfi outlet that I ran out from the house. And turned it on. The little display flashes "E" and then "1" . The instructions say that the E means that there is a fire hazard so check the circut. So I unhooked every light except one. Same error. I hooked on a different light and unhooked the first one. Same error. Instructions say the cable needs to be under 250'. And the load less than 300w. I am there, except it won't run. Do I have a bad transformer or is there something that I am missing? Oh, and this is to light my haunt in my front yard, so I am running out of time! Thanks for any advice! Matt

Topic by mckeephoto 9 years ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


Is this a good paintball gun?

I am thinking of getting the syndicate misfit paintball gun. Does anyone have one or experience with one. here are the specs: The Misfit is the ONLY marker in its class to operate at low pressure using CO2. Its precision performance and engineering detail make this marker the most powerful at its level on the market today. +2 piece 14" barrel +multi mode electronic grip frame +adjustable rate of fire up to 16 balls per second (BPS) +3 firing modes (semi auto, 3 round burst & full auto) +LED light Display +enhanced volumizer +3/4" gauge +vertical Feed +leak proof valve (US patent 3.553.983) +adjustable double trigger +push button safety +deluxe field strip pin +spring loaded ball detent +vertical adapter +external battery charging port +top & rear cocking +Gloss anodized finish (also available in green to black fade finish) +milled body +standard bottom line adapter +velocity adjuster with lock +adjustable in line regulator +all metal gun no plastic exterior parts!

Question by Thelonelysandwitch 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Ideas anyone? Making electric coals

 Hi guys, girls 'n robots! I intend to build an electric coal (for my hookah) and I need advice from all you electronic dudes and dudettes! If I use nichrome what length and gauge should I use to achieve the following Specs: 1.  12 V power supply  OR 220 VAC (South Africa) 2. Minimum 400 Celsius / 700 Fahrenheit 3. Preferably 600 C / 1112 F The element will be wrapped around a "doughnut" which I will fabricate from heat resistant cement, it will be +/- 2 inches diameter with an inner diameter of about 3/4 inch and 1/2 inch thick, therefore keep in mind that the nichrome must be able to heat all that ceramic. If, during my testing, the nichrome expands sufficiently to short out then I'll cut grooves in the "doughnut" to keep them in their places. In the image orange represents nichrome wire ONTOP of the "doughnut" while yellow is BELOW I am in no way adept at electrickery. As a side note of lesser importance, any ideas on building a circuit to add a dimmer or potentiometer to the mix to regulate the temperature? Thanks in advance!

Topic by Baronrc 9 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


need help with a COIL GUN

    I was looking for someone to help me build my first coil gun. Everything seems to be working fine except it seems as if the coil is'nt getting any juice. The battery pack works fine, as do the capacitors. I can charge and discharge them without any problem.      I wanted to just get it working first before adding alot of power so it's a liitle on the mild side of the common 4-capacitor, 4-battery, 1/2 in. thick coil.  Here is a basic outline of what it's packing. 2 330v Capacitors 2 AA Batteries Kodac PowerFlash Circut The coil is 2/3 of an in. long with three layers making it about 1/4 inch thick. Uses a pen shaft as a barrel. Fires a 1/2 in. long steel screw.     The coil is made out of 24 gauge copper wire. The stuff we all used in middle school science were you had to scrape the ends off with sand paper or a knife. So I know it's insullated but all the help sites underline the use of "magnet wire".  Although my friend with more electronic knowlege assures me there the same thing. Oh, and i've insulated each layer with electric tape.     The way I have the circut set up I have 1 wire coming from the positive lead of the capacitor ON the actual circut to the negative lead of the extra capacitor. Then I have a wire leading from the positive end of the extra capacitor to the first end of the coil. To fire, just connect the other end of the coil to the remaining lead on the first capacitor.     I can only think of a few reasons why it would'nt work from just not enough capacitors to too small a coil, or just perhaps how I have it set up. I've also experimented with the position of the projectile but to no avail. It won't even budge.  I've included a rough drawing of the circut in this post. Help me instructables forum! You're my only hope.

Topic by darthDIY 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Need assistance - hooking up 30W speakers to 17W amp - will not work

Hello All, My knowledge of audio is VERY limited and I need a little help. I'm trying to recycle my old car stereo by turning it into a home stereo. The car stereo outputs at 17W RMS and 50Wmax per channel (4 channels) I have a set of speakers that are 60W max, 30W RMS, 4Ohm. From what I understand the weaker amp should power more powerful speakers without much issue.  I tested the setup and ran into a problem. The speaker works fine as the stereo powers up and begins to play.  As I increase the volume the speaker suddenly cuts out. The stereo volume goes up to 50 (I don't know what 50 represents. Arbitrary value?) and the speaker cuts out around 21. The volume at this level is much, much, lower than what it was when this stereo was in my car.  I assume this is due to the power mismatch with the speakers.  Is this a fair assumption? What could be the reason for the speaker cutting out? The speaker wire I used is 22 gauge, which could be a little thin.  It's all I had on hand while testing. Could this be related?

Question by iTinkers 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Knit logos?

Hi there! I'm trying to knit a scarf for my boyfriend. I had an idea of knitting a Boston Celtics clover into it. His school colors are green, and he's a big fan of the Celtics, so the scarf is already green. I don't want to knit it using two colors, I'd rather alternate between knitting and purling so that its just a change in texture and its subtle. I've already found a great chart, but I'm not sure if it would work, like if the logo would come across well, or if it would look lie i just messed up the scarf. It would be fantastic if someone could tell me if this is a valid idea or even try it out.  I've included the pattern below, as well as one that i drafted up (its pretty much the same, but i shrunk the original so that it wasn't as tall or wide, but kept the same proportions) I'm using Yarn Bee; Effervesce in Forest, with a gauge of 18stsx24R for a 4" square (package says using size 8 USA [5mm] needles, but I'm using 5s to get a tighter stitch) http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-tKNzQ_5J1cE/TqcJ86SOijI/AAAAAAAACoc/W8j2OcSpGvI/s1600/celtics%2Bclover%2Bknitting%2Bchart%2Bv2.bmp

Question by Smalfrii 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


How do I build an inductive charger?

      Sorry for making the initial question so generic. The basic concept I'm addressing is inductive charging but in perhaps an interesting fashion. I'm working on a school project and my idea is to build an inductive charger for my cell phone (and other devices) that is powered by my car's 12V accessory outlet. I know that I need to have a time-varying signal (AC) to create a time-varying magnetic field in order to transfer energy between the two inductive coils. I'll lay out what I've considered / calculated so far and any help would be greatly appreciated.       I am going to use a cheap DC-to-AC inverter to go from 12VDC to 120VAC, single phase, modulated sine wave (per the inverter's specs). For the inductive coils, I'm using magnet wire from Radioshack and Fry's. The primary coil has 40 turns with a radius of 3.45 cm. It is wound in a solenoidal shape with a length of 2.5 cm. The wire gauge is 24 which has an approximate current limit rating of 0.577 A. The secondary coil has 30 turns with a radius of 2.9 cm. It is also wound in a solenoidal shape with a lenth of 2.2 cm.  The wire gauge is 22 which has an approximate current limit rating of 0.92 A. Both coils are wound around PVC pipe couplings as they were the only round, cheap forms that I could find to wind my coils on. I have been unable to find any data online regarding permeability of PVC or how it would / will impact magnetic field induction. Any information on this matter would be greatly appreciated.         Continuing on to the secondary coil side, if I understand it correctly, due to the turn ratio of 40 over 30, the output voltage would be approximately 90 VAC. Is this correct? For the output current, I've found that it is dependent upon # of turns, distance from primary coil, and loop radius. I know that orientation of the secondary coil relative to the primary coil also greatly influences this but I intend to place the secondary inside of the primary.       I used the simplified magnetic field equation of B = µ I / 2 R to calculate the approximate field strength at the center of the secondary coil. Based on this calculation, if my input current is 500 mA  I get the following: (12.57e-7)(40*0.5)/(2*0.0345) = 3.643e-4 T --> 3.643e-4 = (12.57e-7)(30 * Io )/(2*0.029) --> Io = 560 mA.   Do these calculations look on par with what I should be getting? So my Vi = 120 VAC Ii = 500 mA and Vo = 90 VAC and Io = 560 mA.  From the secondary coil I plan to use a bridge rectifier to convert to DC and then drop down to 5VDC.  Ultimately I would like to get 5VDC @ 500+ mA on the output to meet USB standards.  How does this plan appear? Are there things that I am missing? Are there things that I don't need? Again, any and all help is welcomed and appreciated. Thanks.

Question by AMNunnally 8 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


advice on making a rail/coil gun also known as a electromagnetic accelerator for someone who understands basic electrics

Im looking for advice on how to make a "rail/coil gun", i understand the principals behind it and the componets needed but id like to know what is the most efficent and powerfull componets. have in mind im looking at making the gun completly portable but a stationary charging for the battery would be prefered id like to keep the device 12v dc if possible using a battery to charge up capacitors, a switching device which allows the capacitors to charge and switch of the battery input automatically to prevent the electricity draining back into the battery. also another switch which discharges the capacitors into the coils but is switched manually(trigger), multistaged coils hopefully around 16 if possible( the way i see it lots of power running into lots of coils means the projectile traveling faster and further) ive also been told that once the coils have been charged they'll need to be discharged within micro seconds and theres a certain componet which allows that im not sure exactly what that is?. Having many coils means ill need a timing mechanism to activate the coil when the projectile is within the magnetic field, ive done a bit of research on that and come up with a microswitch between every coil or infared diode and a photosensitive diode(not sure exactly the name of the second one). 1. how many rows of coils would i need for each coil, what gauge wire would best suit my needs, what grade of wire, a way to prevent the magnetic field affecting the coils next to it, to optimize the energy in the capacitors should i start with a larger gauge wire at the first coil and slowly decrease it per coil, 2. what size capacitors would best suit my needs also bieng small in size, also would it be better have 1 or 2 capacitors per coil 3. what sort of switching device would be best for charging the capacitors and isolating the battery when there charged 4. is there another switching device for turning on each coil seperatly when the projectile is in range of the coils magnetic field to optimize the use of the magnetic field 5. more info on when the coil needs to discharge would also be great any ideas or inputs would be greatly appreciated no matter how big or small or if only concerns a certain aspect, cheers, chris cross australia

Question by crossy 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


ZVS driver not working effecitently Answered

I have recently made a ZVS flyback driver. I got it working and the sparks are relatively impressive compared to other drivers I have made, but the arcs I'm getting seem a lot lower current and colder than pretty much every video I have seen of the ZVS driver. I used the Mazzilli ZVS schematic, and everything meets the specs in the schematic accept for the inductor which I made from a torroid i found in a PSU by winding about 15 turns of 18 gauge wire around it. the torroid has about a half inch outer diameter. I have a 5 5 primary on the transformer made from 18 awg wire. As it stands The driver is able to produce 20 to 25 kv with a thirty volt input, but the sparks are for the most part purple (not the flame like orange I have seem people get). As I didn't have any lead acid batteries around I just used six lantern batteries in series. I suspect the problem is either the power supply can't provide enough current, but I have measured and it seems to draw about 4 amps when arcing, and from what I understand it should draw about 10 amps and try to do that regardless of the power supply. I also think it could be the inductor is the problem, since it is what provides the constant current to the primary. If anyone knows what the problem could be and how to fix it, I would greatly appreciate your advice?

Question by Higgs Boson 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


16 V AC POINT MOTOR?

Hi there, I would like to say hi to the instructables members for a start. Hi! I have always enjoyed reading from this site and I see that there is a lot of help in the topics posted here. I am a Computer Technician that now wants to play in the hardware game (Are you all enjoying Windows 10?). So I'm starting small with an arduino and the raspberry pi, (not side by side yet,) a few motors, servo's, 7" color crystal display, and other things that I have salvaged from stuff or found cheap. I have a few of these CD drive eject motors with lil' knobs I was reading this post about how to make an electric magnet as I am trying to manually make my own point motor for my model train set.  For those in and not in the know, here is some information about what I am trying to do. Create 2 electric magnet coils that pull or repel a nail or metal bar where an upright pin ~2-4 mm is able to travel a distance of ~6-8mm (oo Gauge) in order to change a track piece from one position of a "junction point" to the other, allowing the train to change track or take another route. I would like to try and do this myself as I have plenty of different types of gauge wire, dpdt's (for pole switch?), nails or metal bars(to act as middle pin maybe and bar to be pulled back and forth), diodes (for bridge rectifier) , resistors (to calm the voltage down if I have to as I think it will get rather warm else), a constant power supply (16V ac admittedly)  and plenty of BABY BABY small yet rather strong.. magnets..etc.. ( BTW These were taken from a motor that was inside some water speakers, for perfect reasons the motor had a spin disc attached to it with 3 very small magnets, then in the water compartment there is a spin disc with more magnets attached and a wirly-gig to create the siphon to jettison the water up when the music is played so I now own 60 of the little blighters, (that's if i need them at all to be honest I'm a little lost in this idea))  So please take me as a n00b and please help me in going about this. Yes I could go buy one, but what does that achieve, when I believe I have everything I need at my fingertips and I wish to learn. I presume I will need to deal with the constant AC in order to be able to make a switch to change the polarity of the two coils in order to pull or repel the magnet or nail in either direction to then move the tracks junction from one line to another. I'm going to try and make some coils, in some rather thin wire that is insulated.  Thanks again for any replies. EOL

Question by WAREZRONIN 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


LED Questions

Help, I'm afflicted with inspiration in quantities that exceed my skills!So I came up with an idea for a project that would probably require the use of LEDs, which I know next to nothing about. Ah, said I, the Internet can teach me much... so I turned here and found the (nearly) perfect Instructable, "LEDs for Beginners":https://www.instructables.com/id/LEDs-for-Beginners/Having read this most helpful I'ble, I certainly came away more knowledge than I'd previously had, but still not enough to properly plan my project.Basically, I'd like to create a 2D "array" of LEDs to use as a light source, in order to backlight a roughly 8.5" x 11" translucent panel.It seems like it would be straightforward to just wire up a bunch of white LEDs in series to a power source and a resistor, and be done. I'm not afraid of a little trial-and-error, but I prefer to know at least roughly what I'm doing going in, so I'm asking for your help. Here are my lingering questions:1. Should I wire my LEDs in series, or in parallel? (Or some combination thereof)? In series, I gather that one LED failing will break the whole circuit, which could be a pain. On the other hand, I've seen several projects and sites that cryptically recommend against wiring these in parallel.2. Are there pre-built strips of LEDs I could acquire that would make this project simpler?3. If I want to vary the brightness of my light source, can I use a variable resistor (potentiometer), or does the nature of the LEDs preclude the use of this type of dimmer switch? If so, could I vary the brightness with multiple switched circuits, turning off half the LEDs for half brightness, 3/4 off for quarter-brightness, etc?4. I've got a slew of transformers from old tape decks, telephones, cell phone chargers, etc. Can I appropriate one of these as my DC power supply?5. How do I gauge how many LEDs I'll need, and what density is best to lay them out? I'm looking to create even, diffuse light, with no noticible bright/dark spots.6. Do I need to worry about heat?7. Are LEDs even the correct way to go here? Should I consider fluorescent light instead?I realize these are a lot of questions, but if you're an expert on LED projects, you could save me a lot of research time. If (I build this gadget, it will definitely show up here as its own Instructable.)Thanks!-JD

Topic by jdtwelve12 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


X-Ray Polaroids

Here's a good use of old radioactive material. Use it to expose Polaroid film to create some ghostly images of old items.Why would anyone do this? The author puts it out there pretty clearly:For some time I've been fascinated with the idea of reproducing these types of images in my home lab without great cost and with relative safety. As a collector of radioactive minerals and other ephemera, I decided that I wanted to use naturally radioactive materials as the source for my 'penetrating rays' rather than an amateur electrical x-ray machine setup.Polaroid film is readily available and it develops itself. However, a workable technique needed to be developed. How to expose the film for hours or days without the need for absolute darkness? How would I develop the film reliably after an exposure was made?The answer came from Kevin Clark of the Yahoo group, "GeigerCounterEnthusiasts". It was here that Clark explained his simple, yet reliable, technique for creating inexpensive Polaradiographs.Items you'll need: 1. A Polaroid SX-70, Type 600, or Spectra camera 2. A package of unexposed Type 600 or Spectra Polaroid film 3. One metal cookie tin at least six inches in diameter 4. A few sheets/roll of aluminum foil 5. Radioactive materialThat radioactive material can include:- Old, unused lantern mantles- Salt substitute or certain rock salts (Potassium Chloride)- Vaseline glass (plates, cups, or marbles)- Fiestaware plates and dishes- Welding rods- Old camera lens or vintage prescription eyeglasses (look for yellowed or browned optical glass)- Uranium ores and minerals- Exempt, unlicensed radioactive calibration sources- Radium containing clocks, watch hands, compasses, dials, and gauges- Tritium gunsights and keychain fobsCheck out the site itself for the full story. It's a good read with plenty of information about the history of x-ray photography.via Neatorama

Topic by fungus amungus 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Pipboy 3000 SCUBA computer? Answered

I am a fairly avid scuba diver, I try to dive every other weekend, but I think I want a dive computer. It can calculate my pressure group, weather I do a multilevel dive or use a different nitrox mix. A good dive computer should also tell you your current and max depth, tell you if you are ascending or descending to quickly, include a compass and maybe even show you how much air you have left. It should also be easy to use. I also like Fallout (3 and 4 are the only ones I have played), and the wrist mounted computer that the hero always wears, called the pipboy 3000, looks like it would be the perfect dive computer. Not only could it be a dive computer, but it also may be a watch, or even an mp3 player while above water. Although the knobs, scroll wheel, and "RT" and "LT" buttons make using it seem more complicated, the size of the unit allows for a larger processer, allowing for a similar GUI as that of the "real" pipboy. Such a GUI would be able to display info in Standard English, such as "Set your nitrox % mixture." and letting you use the wheel to set the air mix that you will be using. I guess that having “confirm” and “back” buttons would help as well. The Geiger counter can easily be used as a depth gauge, which works, as the deeper you go, the more dangerous. The dive computer settings could be where the quest, world, radio, etc used to be, and you can have dive info and other things like reminders where your stats would be. The time could be displayed on the upper right side of all screens except the time screen, which shows the month day and time, which would be where your “weapons” usually are. Other time related functions can be used to fill the sub-sections like stopwatch, timer, etc. There could also be a screen that shows your limb conditions that you can switch to, just like anyone you meet in the game who has a pipboy, you see that screen. All this will have to be water resistant to maybe 70 to 100 feet, made of a hard metal, and fit comfortably. If anyone has any ideas on how to make and program this, or know of any job shops that can make and program this please answer. I know someone can do it, I wouldn’t know where to start looking. I probably made this sound much more complex than most likely is. I am basically looking for a diving computer that looks like a pipboy 3000 and is easy to use. I don’t really need an mp3 player. Again, if anyone has any imput on how to build and program it, or if anyone know any jobshops I can send this request to to have this made, please let me know. this is too good of an idea to forget about. Edit: Thanks to all who answered, And I think just the fact that it IS entirely possible is good enough for me, although price is probably the limiting factor. Thanks again.

Question by Fluffy, the Destroyer of Worlds 8 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


EMT 140 plate reverb transducer & pickups. I want to build studio quality components.

Hello group. I am entertaining a spring project for duplicating the famous German made EMT 140 plate reverb units used at recording studios like Abbey Road. The construction of the plate, supports, box, welding and such is really not a problem for me personally. Even the pickups I don't think are a huge problem as there are many out there ready made and it's probably easier to make a high quality pickup than a high quality transducer. I would however like to build my own transducer but don't know exactly where to start. I don't want to go the piezo route that I see out there as I think that is not going to end up being anywhere near usable in a studio. I'm not opposed to converting a hacked up speaker or something that doesn't look pretty as long as it works. The typical plate reverb build (the main structure and plate) I believe is with a steel plate about 1 meter wide by 2 meters long suspended within another steel frame and tuned (tension even on all 4 corners). Also, there is a damper that you need to build to lengthen or shorten the delay. This general construction I don't see to be a roadblock but the transducer seems to be what I think may trip me up. I would just like to get something working before I dive in on several days of picking up heavy metal, welding and fabrication of the supporting structure and plate. Some things I would like to understand and advice on are: What type of transducer am I really trying to build here or what type of transducers do you think I should consider? Surface? Tactile? Bone? Can I use a regular speaker magnet? If so what is too big or too small for the plate? What gauge varnish coil wire do I use and how many winds for 8 ohm amp? What sort of material should I wind over? Should I just modify a speaker or driver? Are there any other quality units out there ready made to save me the pain of building this transducer from scratch? I do have a Dayton Audio HDN-8 on order to start experimenting but would like to get something better I think. Building a pickup seems to be infinitely easier since I already know how to build guitar pickups and also there are a huge selection of pickups for things like acoustic and mandolin etc. so that I assume is the easy part of the electronics. Still if there are any design ideas you know that would be studio quality I would like to hear from you. My main focus is the heart of the system and the transducer. I have seen a few different methods converting a speaker by cutting out most of the speaker except for the center and then super glue to a metal rod that would touch the plate or whatever but I'm certain that there may be a more simple solution out there. Thanks in advance for any replies! Art

Question by vestport 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Need a cheap dual-output, center tapped, 180VA 18V 5A transformer?

I am trying to design a nice dual-rail lab power supply and need a cheap dual-output, center tapped, 180VA 18V 5A transformer. The outputs are as follows: Primary: 120V Secondary 1:  9V-0-9V, @ 5A max. Secondary 2:  9V-0-9V, @ 5A max. ======================OR==================== Primary 120V Secondary 1:  9V, @ 5A max. Secondary 2:  9V, @ 5A max. Secondary 3:  9V, @ 5A max. Secondary 4:  9V, @ 5A max. I prefer a transformer for the linear regulator over a switching preregulator, because a switching preregulator sort of defeats the whole purpose of making a nice, high precision, low-noise lab instrument. However, I also prefer to have more than just 2 separate 18V outputs, since that means when the output is shorted and constant current mode kicks in for either the positive or negative rail, I will have a voltage drop of 18V, at a maximum current of 5A, and thats over 90W of power dissipation!!! I think that I can deal with that if thats the only solution, since I am planning on using a large CPU active heatsink for cooling, but I prefer if I was not pushing a TO-247 device to it's thermal limits. I have found this: http://www.antekinc.com/as-2218-200va-18v-transformer/ It is affordable, but it seems strangely cheaper than a lot of other toroidal Xformers on the market. Also, the 2 primaries are not center tapped. It is 200VA though! I have never heard of that company, and it seems like the description of it is written in chinglish. They act like the fact that they over-engineered and under-specced it is a feature (to me, thats how all ratings should be, that should be normal and standard, not a feature.). I have also found this: http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/36-6/36-6-ND/1984766 It would be perfect, but it is $80!!! Very expensive, Also, I do not think it is a nice toroidal transformer, not that that matters much to be, I just like the professional look of a beefy toroidal transformer inside a power supply. Lastly, I have found this: http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Hammond-Manufacturing/1182G18/?qs=sGAEpiMZZMvwUzoUXIIvySPCJQuQgm7bYNfLdl9rdUYluBT2%2f%252bFqzw%3d%3d It seems to be very similar to the first find, and it is from a reputable distributor. At $70 it is still expensive, and I do not want to spend over $100 for a homemade power supply. I would just get a off-the-shelf solution for that! What about the possibility of modifying a MOT transformer? How many VA or watts can I expect from the output without active cooling? I know they are rated from upwards to 1000W, but I also know they cannot sustain that power output for a long time without overheating and requiring lots of active cooling, and from what I remember, I believe the core is really being pushed into saturation during normal operation, leading to LOTS of power loss in the transformer core, but can they output 180VA continuously and effectively? Approximately how many turns of wire would I need to achieve my requirements, and what gauge wire should I use? I am thinking 20AWG but someone who has done that before would know better than me.

Question by -max- 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Making a better spot welder....

I am in the process of building a proper spot welder from scratch. Proper more in terms of the electrical and electronics part but not so much in looks ;) My problem now is to find useful info on what power levels are required for certain tasks. I realise that welding thin sheet metal won't need as much time and amps as welding a 3mm stainless steel rod - but what is a "good" power level? I watched a bunch of Youtube videos showing various approaches but for many it seems the producer had no clue about the difference between creating a short with burn marks and a weld... Especially when it comes to creating battery packs with a capacitor bank as the main power provider you can clearly see the device burns holes but does not really create a welded spot. On the other hand there are a few videos showing spot welder made from a MOT that seem to produce a proper melted and welded connection. When I used a proper spot welder at work it had timing settings, power levels and even a feature to adjust how the current rises.... Not to mention a gauge that checks the pressure and only activates the welder once the set point is reached... There is a ton of info out there that after a thausand words still tells you nothing you need to know :( So is there anyone here who can shed some light on the actual process of spot welding in easy words for everyone to follow? I am aiming for a max output of around 400A @ 1.5 -2.5V with an adjustable shunt in the transformer core to avoid oversaturating the core. In a later stage I will add power control over the primary side but until then it is only time control, from a few ms to a max of 5sec if the damn controller arrives one day. Big questions: 1. Is a power control really required or is it possible to cater from thin to thick just by using different timing settings? 2. Since a MOT is used for the power supply: Is it better to leave the shunts out to fully avoid saturation by adding an inductor in line with the primary or is it still better to adjust the shunts under load to get the maximum power possible? 3. Aluminium and other materials benefit from using AC but would be good to have a DC output too, if so then what materials really need DC? 4. All I could find is that copper is used for the electrodes, due to resistance and heat transfer - are there other options apart from using copper? 5. Tricky one: I would prefer to use the secondary winding as the new primary to avoid core saturation and to lower the load on the power outlet. Where can I find very thin copper bar material that I can coil up and insulate as I would quite a few more turns to get at least 1.5V out of it? Just don't like the idea of spending days rolling a copper bar thin enough.... For the advanced model at a much later stage: Of course I would like to be able to use a proper power control instead of a motor dimmer or similar. For obvious reasons an inverter microwave jumps to mind. But after checking one I noticed one big problem: there are not really that many windings on the primary of the transformer at all! Same way our modern switchmode power supplies only use a few turns these things do exactly the same. After some quick and dirty initial tests I realised that even a single turn of thick wire already results in over 20V on the secondary. Wasted a lot of wire and time making one coil with 5 turns less and one with 10 turns less but the system would not even start with it. Seems these things need a fixed inductivity on the primary that matches the frequency used, in my case 36kHz. Would love to overcome this problem so I can at least go down to a single turn to get under 5V on the output side as space is non existing on these inverters. Can I cheat? Do I need to change the circuit to match the new primary coil? Am I thinking in the wrong direction altogether here? And added bonus would be to be able to adjust the power from around 15% to 100%, so far the electronics don't allow anything below 45%. Is it possible to drive these inverters in resonance? (Ok, off topic as I would like to use this for a beefy HV supply) Last thoughts: I know people already used Arduinos and Raspberries with displays and all but so far I have not found anything that shows how to do it properly. Seems all that counts is to create connection one way or the other and to call it a spot weld even if it is just a burn hole from discharging a capacitor bank through a needle like electrode.... For obvious reasons I don't want to create just another spot welder that makes a professional pee himself laughing about it. IMHO nothing beats personal experience with something but I don't really like wasting my time by trying what other people alread did a long time ago. So if YOU already built a MOT based spot welder and used for more than a few spots I would love to hear from you! Let me know what type you used, what problems or shortcomings you noticed or where you feel it just does not work out the way you expected it. From simple things like always getting bad sparks or arcing, over how easy or hard it is to get consistand results to whatever really annoys you while using your homemade spot welder. I hope that your feedback here will help me to write an Instructable on building a spot welder that does what you expect it to do, not once or twice, but everytime you use it. Mechanics might vary the same way the electrode style does but the weld should always be a proper weld that won't tear apart ;)

Topic by Downunder35m 1 year ago


Looking for a cheap compressor with a high pressure rating or for airbrush use?

Today a friend of mine asked me if I know a way to reduce the noise level of his compressor in the work shed. With the current heat he prefers to work in the evening and nights, which does not make his neighbours too happy. His main use for several airbrush guns and sometimes for mormal airtools or the big spray gun for an undercoat or similar. So his main concern is oil in the airline and the actual flow rate is of second concern as he has an old 25kg propane cyclinder as an additional air tank. For relative low air volumes I would suggest an old fridge compressor. With a thicker pipe at the outlet that is filled with stainless steel wool most of the oil stays in the compressor. That is if this pipe is a) long enough b) upright c) of sufficient diameter so there is enough for the oil to avoid it being pushed up A second, standard oil seperator will be enough for the oil level required for airbrush stuff - and most other things too. If there is no pressure regulator on the airbrush system it is best to add a small air tank and shut off valve for it. In our case however a fridge compressor would be just enough to keep the bigger airbrush gun running but not to fill the tank at the same time. Not to mention the problem of fluctuating pressure levels. Since we already had a tank and pressure shut off connected to the loud compressor it was only a matter of finding something that keeps the neighbours happy. The first thing we did was to check how often the compressor comes on and how long it runs till the tank is back to pressure. With that and the stated air volume on the compressor we guesstimated that something a bit bigger than the compressor of a window airconditioner should be sufficient. The search begins.... If you don't know what to look for I give you a few hints: Older airconditioners often run on R22 or R12 - both use quite high system pressures which is a bonus, but more on that later. As a rule of thumb for these compressors you cans say: the bigger the higher the flow rate. At the local wreckers and scrap yards we found a few units but noticed the bigger ones often used three phases and not just one :( So we opted for the R22 compressor of a 4.5kW unit. Keep in mind the 4.5kW is for the entire system, so the quite massive fans can be removed from the sum. Usually the compressor alone is the 2.5 - 3kW range. Ok, we found the big thing but how does this help us? First things first ;) The oil was removed as the housing stating the original oil amount. This allowed us to use an oil rated for air use that has little to no water absorption qualities - you don't want water in your compressor. With the usual heat the water should be no problem anyway. Next was a pressure test to make sure the thing actually still works, so we added some plumping in the form of standard connectors to the inlet and outlet. We got well above 200PSI and abondoned the test at this stage as it was more than enough already. The air volume seemd to be well more than expected too so let'S move to the next stage. A fridge or aircon compressor always needs to have a certain amount of oil in it as it will otherwise seize and overheat quickly. But they are also designed so that the oil mixes with the refrigerant to cool all moving parts. So the biggest hurdle is to make sure the oil stays where it should stay and won't enter or get lost in the tank. Only real option for this to use something to catch the oil that is capable of releasing it into the compressor once it shuts off. Now there are several options for this so I start with the most basic: A "catch can" will get most of the oil, especially if filled with stainless steel wool or similar. Downside is that you have to find a way to get it back into the compressor. A step better is a thicker pipe filled with stainless steel wool to catch the oil. If placed upright and the outgoing pipe can be bend a bit upwards you have a good chance that most of the oil will sweep through the valves and get back down into the compressor housing. But only too often the cheap or even free compressor is better than expected and the oil won't get back into the housing as the vlaves are just too good. The last and IMHO best option is a pressurised return system. Most compressors for bigger aircons have a seperate filling port or sealed off piece of pipe. In this case you can do a simple check to see if they are usable for our purposes. Open the port of pipe and use a simple bike bump or similar to get some pressure in it. With a dedicated oil filling port you are best off but they are hard to find. The air you pump in should come out of the high pressure side - you might need a little pressure to overcome the valves. If you hear any bubbling in the housing (use a pipe on your ear or a sensitive microphone) it means you are going through the oil inside the compressor - perfect! You might not hear any bubbling but the port or pipe is still usable. Get ready with your fingers and start the compressor. The fill pipe should be sucking air in, same for the service port if there is one. A dedicated oil port should not suck but instead force some oil up if you cover the high pressure outlet. I assume all is good and no oil is splashing out of the open pipe or port. Add a small amount of oil with a syringe or similar into the port/pipe. If you see an oil mist coming out of the high side it is bad news. Clean outlet air is good. To get the oil back from the catch pipe or can we have to add a hose or pipe with a needle valve. It needs to be adjusted so that there is only a very little airflow (or oil mist) coming out. This regulated outlet is now being connect to the port/pipe with a bit of suction that we found earlier. Now every time the compressor runs the collected oil is forced back into the compressor :) Please double check the port/pipe used is not directly connected to the intake port! The last thing you want is a puddle of oil going into the cylinder and damaging it! They are designed to move gas but not liquid! If in doubt use a hardened sttel nail or similar to create a small puncture in the top of the compressor housing if there is nothing else to use. Check first if the material sound very thick, if so it might help to drill with a 5 or 6mm drill first - only about 1mm to make sure you won't enter the housing and conimate it with metal shavings! Once you have a small puncture hole of about 2mm in diameter get some 2 component metal repair glue mix and add a suitable connection for the collecting pipe/can. If you feel up to it you can of course use a blow torch and solder the connection on. Now we have the compressor working with a oil return system that also gives up very little to no oil at all in our system. You might now think you are good to go but you should at least add a decent and fine filter to the air inlet ;) The compressor noise of a bigger system can still be an issue if thicker pipes are used that allow the noise to travel out. Keep in mind they usually run in a fully closed system.... As we only need to match the noise level of the compressor itself a solid steel can like an old fire extinguisher in the 1kg rage is a good way out. Fill it with filter wool and a fine filter pad after adding some hose connectors either end. You can misuse the trigger nozzle and keep it to seal the top if you braze a connector on it. If the intake here is about 5 times larger than the pipe connection to the compressor itself the air flow going into the thing is low enough for a cheap paper air filter can or box if you have a quite dusty enviroment to work with. The real trick is to have a hose or pipe on the inside of the fire extinguisher connected to the compressor pipe connection. A garden hose is great here as is reduces the noise quite good and is dirt cheap. Make a lot of about 2mm sized holes in this pipe and close the other end of it off. Now the compressor will suck it through the small holes and the soft garden hose reduces the noise, the surrounding padding brings it down to basically nothing. The special case of clean air for airbrush.... If you read this for the sole purpose of airbrush use then this chapter is just for you, all other might want to skip it. The two things you don't want to enter your gun is oil or water. Both are a common thing in normal compressors due to lubrication and pressure difference resulting in condensation of the humidity in the intake air. Oil free compressors of good quality can cost quite a few bucks and often require ongoing replacement of membranes or piston seals. A refrigeration compressor with the above modifications already provides clean enough air for most airbrush users if a proper tank is used to store enough of the compressed air. So you might just want to add a basic oil filter or very fine paper filter close to the regulator. For very detailed work with very sensitive paints you might want to build a filter box containing of several layers of oil absorbent paper. This stuff is often used in the industry to clean up minor oil spills and bind oil very well. A PVC pipe (pressure rated please) with 5-8 layers of filter screens should last about a lifetime before the filters need changing if the diameter is in the 10-15cm range. That leaves us with the dreaded problem of condensation and water contamination. Depending on the type of paint and gun used a small amount of water vapour is usually no problem. Solvent based paints usally show their disliking by unwanted drops or run offs caused by water droplets. Of course you just go and buy a professional dehumidifier and accept the ongoing replacement costs for the cartridges... But if you are in a climated that has above 30% humidity for most of the year than you will have to remove the water one way or the other. A big enough storage tank for the air that is upright usually helps to release any condensated water prior to usage. But if you use a homemade tank you might want to avoid this problem completely and forget about water in the system altogehter. Silaca gel is the answer here, specifically the indicating variety that changes color once "full". A spaghetti glas or similar should be big enough unless you are in a very humid climate - is so just use multiple in a row. The air intake side for the compressor has to go through the silica gel to be effictive. This mean we need two holes in the lid. One with a pipe or hose going all the way to the botom - that is the air intake side. The other right on the lid - this is the air outlet side which continues to the compressor intake. With the color change in the silica gel we can estimate how much usage we have left until we have to heat it up to remove the water. If this color change happens quite fast from the bottom to the top, let's say within three days or less than you really need to use more jars with silica gel in a row or a longer one - like using a long and clear acrylic pipe instead. Of course you can always just cut holes and "viewing glasses" along the length to a PVC pipe.... No matter how wet your climate is you want to get at least 100 hours of compressor run time before you need to recharge the silica gel. This brings us to the recharging.... Once the color changes and you only have about one quarter left to the top you want to get the water out of the gel and re-use it. To do this you simply heat it up in your oven to around 120-150°C - the supplier should state the max temp for this. If you use a gas oven or one with limited accuracy here it is best to stay within the 120° range. You need to stir and mix the gel or use something big enough like an oven tray. But be aware that these little balls are like glass! The roll and bounce like no tomorrow! IMHO it best to use an old cooking pot that has no plastic handles for this and not to overfill it. This allows for easy mixing without making a mess that might cause a bad trpping hazard on your kitchen floor tiles! Once the gel is back to original colr it is time to let it cool of to a safe temperature and to fill it back into our canister or pipe. Tanks and shut off systems.... We have a refrigeration compressor working for us, and since it was for R22 we can use much higher pressures as a simple compressor from the hardware store. The low pressure side is used to 70PSI or around 5Bar of pressure in normal working conditions. The high side often works at pressure in the range of 200-300PSI or 14-20Bar! The tank we used is a big propane tank that was restamped at some stage in his life for the use of LPG - so it was tested to quite high pressures. The lower pressure limit is what keeps the stored gas liquid at the given temperature. For Propane at an imaginary 30°C this would around 155PSI or 10Bar. The stamped test pressure, although outdated, showed 600PSI or around 40Bar of pressure with no problems - and the thing was thick in the walls... The old shut off switch from an old air compressor was adjustable after removing the safety cap with a bit of force and the help of few cold beer. With a little tank attached we adjusted it to turn the compressor off at 250PSI or around 17Bar of pressure. If your tank is old or has no test pressure stamped on do your own test in a safe location. Make sure the area is secured so there is no chance of debris from a brusting tank can go anywhere - this includes to chain down the tank itself ;) Use the aircon compressor to fill it up to 300PSI or 20Bar of pressure - this should be tolerated with ease by any propane or LPG tank. Shut the valves and let it rest for a day or so. It is best to do this in the early morning so the heat from the day will slightly increase the pressure. At the end you still want to have a working tank and no major pressure losses. All of our mods on this tank were done without actually harming the tank. This was possible as the original valve had a release port for filling purposes - as it standard on most refillable ones. Here we removed the valve and added a pressure guage instead - better to know what is happening than to assume things. As this "port" had a seperate connection to the bottom of the brass valve we added as T-connection to allow for the connection to the compressor. Just be be really sure a thin piece of copper tubing was brazed to the exit hole of this port so all incoming air will be going down and away from the outlet connection with the big shut off valve on top - which we use to actually isolate and close the tank when not it use. Last thing required was something to connect the pressure shut off switch and regulator to. That was the only major expense on this project as we had no old BBQ hose or similar to get a suitable connector to the tank. We bought a simple adapter for the use of smaller hoses and cut the unwanted bits off we there was only the bottle conntector with the nut left. After removing the rubber ring we brazed piece of copper pipe onto it. Here we drilled holes and fitted severy connectors. First for the pressure switch, then for the connection to the pressure regulator and two standard ones with a ball valve for air hose connections. One air hose connection female, the other male so a standard compressor can be connected as well or "backfilled" for additional and mobile storage use. As we wanted to avoid any reduction in the safety and burst pressure no release valve was added at the bottom on the tank. The added silica gel filter stage was used instead so no water will get into the system to begin with. Additionally, and painfully for me and me friend, the inside of the tank was coated with a layer of acrylic paint to prevent and rust as it was free from it when we checked it at the beginning. This involved filling a suitable amount of paint into it, closing the top while keeping the thread clean and then to move the tank around to cover the inside evenly. If you do this be prepared for some weird movements with your friends LOL Once we were sure all ust be covered by paint at least three times we released the exxess paint and allowed the inside to dry with the assistance of some air forced to go in with a length of pipe. This was repeated 3 times... Then another two just for the bottom third of it where there might be some moisture after all... Now you don't want to remove the brass valve with everything connected to it just to turn the tank over to releae the collected water. Instead we made sure the added pipe on the former relese port would go all the way to the bottom of the tank. If any water collection is suspected only the connection to the compressor needs an additional valve for the disconnection so the water will be force back out here. To make this easy and fast we used standard quick connectors and a piece of flexible airhose rated to 20bar of pressure for the connection to the compressor. We checked the performance of the moisture removal and oil removal only for a few hours of running time while priming some surface for later use. The compressor oil used was very smelly to say it nice but nothing coul be smelled in the first paper filter after the pressure regulator. To check for remaining moisture levels (65% humidity in the house) we used a 10m length of clear PVC tubing going through an ice bath. After 30 minutes of moderate air release there was no condensation on the inside of the tubing visible. Of course if you only need it for air supply and don't care about a bit of moisture and oil you can keep it simple ;) Benefits of doing such a stupid thing: For starters noise and the peace of mind that you can do a lot of airbrushing until the compressor needs to kick in again. Then of course the benefit of an almost silent system compared to a standard compressor - something you can actually tolerate while doing art. But the real deal is knowing YOU did it and you did it for cheap. Warnings and some advise... I know, it should be at the very beginning but I just hope you read till the end ;) If the compressor fails from overheating you are up for a new one. This means the tan size should be within the limits of what the compressor can handle - same for what you actually use on air. You want an empty tank to be filled before the compressor feels hot to touch - quite warm is fine but if you can't leave your hand on it then it is too hot. Same story for the usage. There is no point in using a tiny 10 liter storage tank if you need that capacity every few minutes. The compressor would only have little pauses and overheat quickly. You want a good balance of usage time before the tank goes below supply pressure and running time of the compressor to get it to full pressure again. This brings us to the safety of high pressures. Where possible only copper tubing or sufficiently rate hoses should be used, the later as short as possible to avoid them acting like a whip if something goes wrong. When it comes to the safety of the tank you want to make sure to stay withing it's rated limits. All benefits of a compressor capable of producing over 500PSI otr close to 35Bar is wasted if your tank and pressure regulator can't handle it. This must not mean that you try to use a gas cylinder of unknow age and pressure rating and assume it will work! If in doubt use a lower shut off pressure and stay within the limits of normal air compressors - which is around 120PSI or 8Bar. Never, ever use a tank that is compromised by inside rust or bad corrosion on the outside! If you don't know how to braze copper tubing, pipes and connectors then check out some of the great Instructables about it! Whenever you know you won't use any compressed air for more than a few hours close all valves especially the ones going back to the compressor on the high pressure side! Some compressors really don't like a huge pressure difference constantly pushing on the reed valves. If your tank is big enough to allow for more than one hour of operation before the compressor has to top it up you might want to consider a one way valve right on the compressor outlet. This will prevent any massive pressures going onto the valves - especially helpful for modern compressors that only rely on the sealing capabilities of the clyinders or rotary system used. One thing you should always consider is a pressure relief valve rated for about 50PSI more than your tank pressure - it can be added to the pipe ;) If the shut off valve ever fails the relief valve gives you the ease of mind that it will blow before your tank does. Maintenance... If modded correctly the compressor should stay in the compressor and the compressor itself should not overheat from use. Having said that your compressor might force out a little more than your best catch system can handle. If that becomes a problem it might help to use an oil with a lower viscosity. If all fails it just means you need to top up oil once the last last paper filter is filthy or use slightly more to begin with so the intervals are longer. The silica gel, if used should be recharged before all of it is wasted - no point in adding it if you use it once full of water. If no gel is used there will be water in the storage tank. Even with the added paint and a good air filter it is possible that nasty things grow in there. Making sure the tank is emptied of any water after long uses and again before the next use is good practise. If no pressure gauge is used on the tank you must make sure the shut off valve is always working fine and within set parameters. I strongly recommend using a gauge and if not to perform a pressure check of the system every now and then to confirm all is within parameters of normal operation. A compressor constantly running means you either use far too much air or you have a leak - same story if the compressos kicks in after some of forgetting to shut it off and close the valves. If you keep the above in mind the salvaged compressor should work just fine for many years to come. Troubleshooting and alternatives.... You put everything together the right way, double checked and something is till not right? Maybe my crystal ball helps me to find something... 1. Always oil coming through the catch system. It usually means you use too much of it. A salvaged compressor, if the refrigent was removed legally from the system should still have a "correct" level of oil inside. Too much oil would mean is being pumped through the system at an excessive rate. Very thin compressor oils tend to do that in the compressor is misude like we do. Changing to standard mineral oil can help here. As a last resort you can use a pressure gauge or good judgement to allow more flow through the needle valve from the catch system back to the compressor. Too much backflow here would mean we loose system pressure to the set level of this needle valve! 2. The R22 rated compressor seems to be unable to produce enough pressure. First do a leak test using soapy water to rule out any leaks. Do a back pressure test on the ports. If you can push air through them in the reverse way with ease it means the valves are damaged making the compressor useless. You need to replace it. A regular cause with our type of usage is a constand back pressure from the storage tank to the compressor. To prevent this it might help to mount an electric solenoid between the compressor and storage tank. Such valve should be off when the pressure switch is engaged and on when the pressure switch is disengaged. This prevents the coil from overheating but requires a "normally off" type of valve. A good source at the wreckers are cars with LPG systems installed, they usually have suitable 12V valves somewhere on or near the tank and filler cap. 3. I am using several kg of silica gel but still get a lot of water in my storage tank. Going overboard in a humid climate can be a good thing here but if moisture makes it into the tank even with great amounts of silica gel there are only two causes: a) the tube or cylinder used is not long enough or not wide enough to allow the absorption of all the moisture going through. b) the flow rate is too high and the temperatures are too. For the first the solution is obvious enough. The second is related to the first for the diameter and lenght but temperatures constantly above the 30°C while operating somehow limits what the gel can do. Using a cooling coil on the intake side or simply putting the gel containers in icy water will help to a great deal here. If that is not an option than I suggest to layer the gel and to seperate it with fine paper filter screens. This will slow and even out the airflow allowing for more contact time with the gel. 4. The compressor gets very noisy after some time. If "some time" means more than 30-45 minutes you simply have it running too much and it overheats. If the noise increases too much when reaching the shut off pressure it can mean the pressure is too high for it. 5. Can I use multiple compressors from smaller units or refrigerators to get enough air volume? Of course you can but it might mean you have to lower your pressure expectations. Consider that each individual compressor would get the back pressure from all other compressors running while it's outlet valve is closed. To avoid premature failure you want to make sure the compressors are shut off at a lowver pressure. 6. I don't want to use a big tank but require a good airflow for airbrush. Two or three fridge compressors working one after the other with a small tank to keep the output pressure even can allow for about 30 minutes runtime per compressor. With three it gives one hour for the the first to cool off and should be enough for ongoing work. Downside is you need to make some sort of automatic switch to "rotate" to compressor working. Last words.... Is you find any spelling mistakes you can keep them. However, if you use them in any way to make a profit with them I kindly ask for 10% of your earning from it ;) Why did I not make an Instructable out of all this? Well the day was very hot, the beer very cold and my mobile phone at home, so I did not take any pics. To top it up the whole thing is now in a seperate box for additional noise reduction so it can be used in the same room where the guy is working. Of course he just used a nailgun for the job without any regard of access or at least easy view of the two pressure gauges. Typical if you have a great idea and the cold beer tells you to forget all about screws or hinges ROFL Only comment was: You created it and it works fine, why would need more than the pipe connections for the gel and regulator? Maybe he will reconsider when the service is due....

Topic by Downunder35m 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Ceiling fan generator mod to the max

I stubled upon several mods to convert a standard ceiling fan into a more or less usefull generator.So if you are looking to go this route then I might have some nice improvements that can be implemented.People like these mods for some weird reason, despite the fact that it requires quite a bit of extra work to make them weather proof.However, when it comes to the fundamentals then to me it looks like some folks out there are missing out.On the available power that is...Always the first step for a mod like this is to replace the induction ring with a lot of magnets.Second step usually is to remove a lot of the coils, especially the inner ring.Now, these two stator designs are common for fans with two speeds.Those with three or even reverse might have a different configuration!Lets start on the magnet part:The recommended way of placing the magnets is by creating an air gap as small as possible - makes sense.But then it is always the same amount of magnets as there is coils - and the spacing is also the same as for the coils.In the general generaotr design world this configuration is prefered as it allows for the best performance.If you dare to go a bit further and cosider how the magnets react to the stator configuration then you might want to consider a different option.You see, these two sets of coils for two different speeds mean just one thing:A different amount of poles is created, with the outer ring having more poles than the inner ring of coils.The core is split around the coils, not just to allow the windings to be made but also to provide independent paths for the magnetic field - resulting in the two pole configurations.Amounts differ by diameter, power level, manufacturer and so on.What is always the same is that the inner ring has less coils and that the outer segments of the poles created have even spacings.In the normal mods you see posted these gaps in the core for the outer ring are closed by inserting lamitaed pieces from some old transformer.And you end up with ONE usable coil configuration and ONE power output.The slightly advanced mod uses the inner coil to add some load depending on the speed to prevent spinning out of control in high winds.If you try a normal DC motor with permanent magnets than you will notice the strong binding forces, it is like the rotor sticks in certain places.The better ones use and uneven configuration to reduce this binding effect ;)In my mod the magnets are selected in size to almost be the same length as two stator poles next to each other.This allows for the best induction while still allowing "to experiment".Bringing the magnets and the coils into play...As said an exact match of the number of magnets to either coil ring is not ideal.The prefered option is to go somewhere in between.For example:Outer ring has 18 coils then the inner ring will have 9 coils - exactly half.360° divided by 15 make a nice 24 degress per magnet.But with 12 magnets you get an even 30°, which is far easier to deal with.16 magnets at 22.5° is another option.So, what does that exactly do for us?The bad thing is we get slightly less performance if you only see the standard mod with one coil ring.The good thing we get far lower binding forces and through that the thing will even spin in very light winds.Adding both coil rings with a suitable rectifier however results in a pulsing output of two sine waves.With just the rectifier we get a ripple that is easier to deal with through a capacitor.The extra power available is in the range of about 40% and make more than up for the "reduced" amount of magnets.Going the extra mile once more ;)Having created a much fancier ceiling fan mod now you might wonder if there is not a way to get even more out of it.And there is.For example by utilising a gear system or belt to get a far higher rotational speed on the generator than what the blades would provide, prefably then with quite big blades too and an automatic break for high wind conditions.With the reduced binding forces the generator will be happy to spin at quite high speeds in low winds.Downside is that you will need to build a far more sturdy bearing housing.In return though you get more stability and durability.You can do the math yourself based on the number of poles per ring and magnets to get the output frequency based on the RPM's.Perfect would now be to use a switch mode power supply configuration to directly transform the provided output into a stable DC per ring.And yes, it is possible to use mechanical systems to provide a fixed output speed from the blades to the generator - but way to complex and lossy!Lets do some lame math with no regards to realities:If the original fan would spin at 100 RPM at full speed than we could say our generator should provide the mains voltage at about 100 RPM.Keep in mind we utilise both coil rings and not just the high speed one!Geared and with the blades spinning at 100 RPM we might get as much as 1000V from this little generator....And even with the lower amount of magnets we migh see frequencies above the 500Hz range.The good thing now is that normal iron core transformers can still operate at these frequencies.A bit lossy in the upper range but acceptable for the purpose.Put simple: A 10 or 20:1 transformer per coil ring would provide us with a far more suitable output voltage and much higher amps.If you made it to here than you certainly wonder about other magnet configurations.Checking the stator configuration you will by now realise why I selected the magnet lenght accordingly.The magnets "activate" one coil after the other.The spacing between them means there is always some overlap where the magnets only cover one half of the stator for a coil.This is ok because we don't really have to worry about the resulting messy output.Ideally though you would want to have a magnet activate both coils, the inner and the outer at the same time.What we did though was to make sure that at no time more than ONE magnet fully covers more than ONE coil!It is the best option to cover both coil sets while minimising binding effects and increasing the avialable output.To go the last step you would need to invest a lot of time re-winding all coils :(You don't want to do this unless you have the means and no friends and family that might miss you for a few days....I found a far simpler way to change the coil configuration, although it is not as good a re-winding.So let's go full scale shall we?Ceiling fan reconfiguration!If you take the usual 18 to 9 configuration than one thing jumps to mind reight away: 3-phase power!Cutting the wire that goes from coil to coil might not always be possible and if it is then you need to know how to handle it.Magnet wire can be hard to solder.Burning the coating off results in corroded copper that is even harder to solder.If you are lucky though than a reall hot soldering irong will be able to melt the coating.The flux from the solder will start to cover the wire from the cut and the solder will follow.If not then using some fine sandpaper and time is the other option to remove the coating...Ok, you seperated all coil and have two wire ends per coil?I hope you did not cut off the ones going out to the actual connections to the outside world ;)Properly solder each wire end and take your time to check it is really proper and not just a few spots.Mark or number the coils on the rings!For the inner ring we have 9 but need only 3, so we start at one connection to the outside world and check if this connection is on the outside or inside of the coil.For this example I assume you picked the one that goes to the outside of the coil.Connect the inside wire to the outside wire of coil number 3, assuming we start with 1 here ;)From the inside wire of 3 you go to outside of 6 and the inside is you first new output connection.Do the same with the remaining 6 coils and where needed add the required output wire.It really helps to have wires with three different colors here, one color per new coil set.Note which color corresponds to to the three coils used!!!The outer ring with 18 coils is sightly different here.You see, we want a "flowing" magnetic field that makes best use of the new coil configuration!We can not simply bridge them in any way we feel like without considering how this might affect the electrical side of things.As we now take the approach of a three phase system it makes sense to use a more suitable magnet configuration as well.So before go to the outer ring of coils lets have a look of the best option for the magnets first:The stator packs are evenly spaced in our example and will alow us to use 18 magnets.This provides the best performance with the downside of a higher binding effect, but we need this configuration to get the best possible output.As said at the start I selected magnets that are just shy of being the same length as the corresponding stator segments.In a "free" setup these magnets would now be quite hard to place in a makeshift ring.Even harder in the original casing.A 3D printer certainly helps but some common sense too ;)Wood is easy to work with and if you select the right stuff than making a suitable ring to hold your magnets and attach to the drive system metal parts is not too hard.Bar or brick type magnets can be quite easy be utilised on a wood setup :)The key is that you add Flux Capacitors - sorry couldn't help the reference to Marty....What I mean is to add some magnetic material between the north pole of one magnet and the south pole of the other.Lets say your magnets are 15mm long and have a spacing of 5mm.Then a little plate of 12mm would be next to perfect.This plate needs to connect the magnets on the backside, the side facing away from the coils.Use a dremel tool or what you have to first create slots for the metal strips or bars, then the same for the magnets.Glue in the metal first and once set add the magnet, making sure the always go north to south with their alignment.Ok, and what does this do for us?I hope you are not one of these persons who starts building while reading...What we created now is a shortcut for the magnetic forces.The field between the magnets is severly compromised in terms of being usable for the coils.We do get a much soother run though...I only did that to have some fun and check if you paid attention - sorry :(What we really want is an effect similar to what you see on a loadspeaker magnet that is still in its metal shielding.A ring magnet with one pole on the inside and one on the outside is used here.The shielding provides a path for the magnetic field that is not going through the speaker coil - hence the little air gap for the coil.If we do the same then our efficiency will be going up quite a bit.Take two identical steel parts, like some butter knifes, and prefarbly a force gauge.If you try to pull your magnet at a 90° angle from the blade you will get a certain reading for the required force to lift it off.Most people now think that this would be the max a magnet can hold.So take the other knife and place the magnet between them.If you pull the knife off with the gauge now the reading will be higher than what you get from just the magnet ;)Taking that to our model and keeping the field lines in mind we now know that we could even use slightly longer plates if our magnets happen to be a bit short :)Just place them right behind each magnet !Back to the outer ring of coils....With 18 magnets we get an even system for both coil rings.However we want to make sure that our output waves are syncronised and not at random order.We need to combine two coils to be back on a 9 coil configuration as on the inner ring.The other option is to provide two sets of outputs for outer ring, resulting in 3 3-phase outputs.Both have their pros and cons....But if you check the 18 magnet configuration ina ction over the coils it becomes clear that combining two coils the usual way is possible but also that our inner ring does not get a proper north south action from the magnets!Only the outer coil ring works properly!For the inner ring we never get only a north south combo, instead a lot of mixes.Did I mention to read first? ;)Of course we can only use 9 magnets in our configuration, but at least I did not traick you on their size....You see, we need to account for the fact that the coils are not just evenly spaced but also that all configurations in terms of coils to stator pack are doubles or halfs.Makes a lot more sense if you know how these asyncronous motors work :)With 9 magnets we actually get both inner and outer ring coils activated properly.Plus we now have the benefit that there are always twoouter coils in sync with each other.Means apart from the same way you wired the inner ring you make this addition to the outer ring:"One" outer coil is created by going from one coilinner connection to the outer connection of the second after this, skipping one coil.The resulting output is again just 3 phases but with double the output voltage.The key is to again take notes of how you connect and wire the coils - and the colors used for the output wires!Let me give you an example for the correct order:I we take the number 1 coil on the inner ring then coils number 1 and 18 would be next to it on the outer ring.You want to combine 1 and 3, 2 and 4, 5 and 7,....And you want the resulting three coil packs and wires colores to correspond to the inner coils in the same order!That is true for the always same way of combining coils from the inner to outer connection - or the other way around but never mixed!Ok, we have done the magnets and the coil configuration now properly, no jokes this time!With two simple 3-phase rectifiers we get two DC outputs that can be combined or used seperately.As we end up with roughly double the output voltage on one output but all coils are the same it makes sense to treat them independly.For those who wonder why:If you add a load than one coil system would take a higher loading of it.Meaning while one coil set is stll fine the other will already start to overheat - if the load is too great.So we use two rectifiers with some filtering.In the basic form just a really big electrolytic capacitor of suitable voltage or a full LC filer system with multiple stages.Either way we can now utilise some better DC-DC converters to get going.Considering the equal max watss the coil rings can handle it make sense to include some current limiting.A good converter will provide this option.Both converters can now set to the desiered output or with some added protection diodes and adjusted properly to the same voltage combined for just one DC output.Compared to the standard mod of removing coils and bridgning stator packs the resulting output power in overall Watt will now be about 40-60% higher - depending on the model and quality of parts.Special words of wisdom:Consider the orignal max speed of the fan when used as intendet - see this as a theoretical max output that equals your mains voltage.Just ignore losses and such things - better to be safe than sorry.It becomes clear that it quite possible that your output will be far higher than mains voltage and that you need use transformers for the two 3-phase systems so you can use standard DC-DC converters, which have a max input voltage of around 50V only.This means your converter must be able to handle the higher amps!The fan might have only used 100W or less than 500mA but at high speeds and a ratios of lets say 10 to 1 for the gearing high wind speeds might get it up to over 5 amps on the transformer outputs.Please do the math first for your gear system in relation to the max wind speeds you want to use with your blades!If in doubt use a converter that has some reserves to offer, especially if you aim to charge batteries as quickly as possible.The most vital part however is to ensure that all previously cut wires are isulated properly!!!Magnet wire of the standard kind is good for about 1000V max, so don't drive it higher!Heat shrink with a hot glue liner is prefered but hard to apply in these thight spaces.Since nothing moves consider using long enough wires for your connections so you have enough space to solder without affecting the heat shrink tubes.Liquid insulation or rubber is the last option and should only be used to finalside the heat shrink security measures.Best option once all is confirmed to be working fine would be to make a custom mold and to fully enclose the staotr pack and wires with casting resin or an insulating casting mix.Make sure to keep the output wirese free at the their ends ;)What if I don't want to build a complicated three phase rectifier and just use a single phase system as it was?Firstly chances are your coils are already connected in a three phase configuration, just all in series.But working out a suitable magnet configuration to suit this is much harder if you want to use both sets of coils.In a series configuration like the original you also have to accept the losses from these connected coils.The higher the overall resistance the lower the possible output ;)Main problem however is to get the magnet working properly.The standard 9 or here even 18 magnet configurations still works, especially with the added shielding from behind.But the coils also produce a magnetic field, which grows with the load.Means that an top of all you also have the coils working against the magnets and create even higher losses.Explains why the simple folks prefer not use the inner coil set if they go with a single phase system.So either accept the losses and just use the outer coils or do it fully and get far mor output.And by the way: a 3-phase rectifier modlue is only a few cents more than a standard bridge rectifier ;)Ok, and why do I bother to write all this?People like to tinker but most don't really invent.Following some simple instructions is easy, trying to work it yourself much harder.The reward however is that you actually start to know what you are doing :)And what works for a ceiling fan can be used for these ring style washing machine motors too ;)Anyways...We need to get back our roots.Start thinking for ourself again, work things out instead of just looking them up.If people would be aware that a simple ceiling fan could provide about 3 times the output power of its rated installation value instead of only just about half......Super strong magnets allow real output even without re.winding all coils.And what works here works for other things too.We only learned to use magnets in a striaght way because we can not bend them.But we can bed the magnetic field lines to our advantage!The simple shielding used in this mod is nothing more than a shortcut to enhance the field strenght where it is is needed.By a simple coil modification we basically bet two electrical generators for the price and size of one.Apart from stating how easy it would be to place multiple stators and magnet rings into one generator the magnets itself also allow for even more output.If you ever played with hook magnets or speaker magnets then you know how much stronger they are compared to just the magnet once they seperate after hours of fun for you.Imagine you would replace the single bar magnet with two block magnets that are joined by a magnetic shunt like out simple shielding before.If the magnet blocks now would have a slightly smaller footprint than your individual poles:Imagine you create a hlaf ring shaped magnetic connection between the two blocks that also goes aruond the outer perimeter up to the outside of the magnets surface?I mean the surface facing the stator poles?Damn your imagination is good, yout it right away!Of course we would then have a magnet that allpies its full strength focussed onto each pole of a coil!And of course the resulting field would be far stronger than just using the magnet blocks itself and still significantly higher than just adding a shielding or connection between them.The affect of the next coil coming is also drastically reduced, which in return also increases the efficiency.In terms of numbers:If a fixed neodymium magnet would provide us 100$ field strength as the base point with no shielding (just the magnet blocks alone);A fully shielded and connected system, like in a hook magnet combined with a U-style magnet, would reach above 400% here.....Adding witchcraft to the mix ;)Although I know better I just assume some of you have now a working double-three-phase-ceiling-fan-generator.And that would mean you also have some fans to spare from your long experiments.Modern ignition coils seem to have nothing in common with our ceiling fan or resulting generator.So why do I try to use them anyway?For the ignition only one polarity is prefered so the spark works and travels as intendet.Means the "wasted" energy from the othe half of the pulse seems to be lost.The electronics do a lot here but magnets too ;)The core of the coil has magents at either end, turning it into one long magnet that still has the right properties to act as high voltage transformer system with the coils.The coil appear to be pre-loaded and with the ignition pulse it has to overcome the magnetic field pre-set by the magnets.And when the electrical impulse is off the same magnets also accelerated and increase the resulting fall back impulse - which provides the spark.Unless you have a suitable laser cutter or simlar cutting tech available somehow it will be hard to modify the metal plates of the stator.But if you could...Imagine you could add magnet inside the plates that are inside a coil.The same pre-loading would happen.Does not really help in terms of adding outpur as our rectifier would suffer badly here.It does give ideas though...Shielding works fine for the magnets, same for field shaping.Electromagnets use the same techniques...So why not use some leftlever transformer cores to add more "shortcuts" for the coils?Strips of transformer core sheets added either side of the coils increase their field strenght and result in better output!Three packs either side of the stator pack are usually no problem.Now take your leftovers and do a standard mod.Compare the max output on the same windmill with what you get from my mod(s).The only real magic I used here is that I actually bothered to combine multiple and already used methods to drastically increase the available output of an otherwise utterly useless generator mod ;)Warnings:If you take the above mods serious and to the their extreme than it is imperative to make sure you have safety measures in place!Assume the lowest rating for the magnet wire and if in doubt stick with a max output voltage of 800V.These mods are potentially lethal if you don't follow what is common sense to everyone dealing with high voltages for a living!Most people will start without any gearing or belts and use the wind directly.Even here it is easy to get far higher RPM than what the thing ever did under your ceiling.Without some fixes you will need transformers to reduce the output voltage accordingly.Only other option is to limit the max speed to what your DC-DC converter can handle.Making mistakes with mangets can cost you a lot of time and work, make sure to mark their poles somehow to prevent putting them in wrong.If in doubt then double check!Always keep in mind what the magnet wires and your connections can handle!You don't want any arcs or overheating.Some added electronics to monitor wind speed, rpm's, load and temperature of the coils can turn out vital once you upscale.Before letting your new generator do its thing make sure you tested all to the max!Use a drill or so to speed it up and check the limit regulation for the converters.Measure the actual volts and amps going through your coil sets at assumed max speed and max load.Monitor the coil temp while doing so to ensure nothing is out of limit!You are kidding me here right?A scrap ceiling fan shall provide more output as a wind generator than what was used to spin it as a fan?And of course I need not one but two 3-phse transformers...Pretty clear it is all a fake because nobody could replicate any of it unless limited to what the converters can handle...Didn't I say to think outside normal restraints already?A single phase transformer uses two coils in the most basic configuration.For example one side for 240V and te other for 12V.But some of them are more efficient than other ;)A 3-phase transformer uses 6 coils, two for each phase.And there are plenty of standrad transformer cores out there that would allow us to use this configuration.The worst being the MOT, or microwave oven transformer.Very lossy for a reason but good as an example as these have three core stems ;)Now that you see that you will that a lot more transformers actually allow you to replace the two coils with 6 ;)Ok, but why not use a rectifier first and not use a transformer or two at all?The resulting output voltage will without a gear REDUCTION be much higher than what a cheap DC-DC converter can handle.And at such speeds the effiency would be very bad too.You would need huge capacitors of good quality to deal with the now more impulse like output.And considering the primary side of the transformer does not require anything thicker than the wire on the coils of the fan...Not hard at all to find some suitable tansformers to salvage - or to use some nice ring transformers ;)No kidding around, just facts and possible options you might want to explore.Does that now mean I get free energy?Sure, if you mean you get the free nergy from the energy of the wind at no cost.No if you think a ceiling fan could ever power your house.Internal resistance, size and wire/connection properties set our limits.Not to mention that they are designed to be dirt cheap.If you are in a windy region and assume a realistic 300W minimum output from a 100W fan then adding more stage multiplies this.These fancy upright windmills are not just powerful but also would allow to use one modded fan either end.If big enough and with enough wind force throughout the year you could just add a second or third stage to ech end.With 3 on both ends the resulting output would then be suddenly 1.8kW per windmill....And all from scrap parts with only the costs for the magnets...No wind? Then use water....None of it? Get some greyhounds and build a big hamster wheel :)You get the general idea I hope...

Topic by Downunder35m 3 months ago  |  last reply 3 months ago


Magnetmotor - really impossible or just supressed?

When someone starts talking about a so called magnetmotor than most people judge right away.Laws of physics, perpetuum mobile is impossible, magnets are static....We all know the limitations nature puts on us... That however did not stop quite a few people since the 1950's to build working magnet motors. Or, to be precise: To make the claim, show them and then somehow disappear. A few though seem to have survived and even claim to make good business. Securely closed machine, stellite tracking and 24/7 online monitoring. Either just a bad and long running hoax or a real attempt to keep a secret secret. Even the somewhat famous Yildiz motor showed off around the world only to disappear.Some like them, some don't. Either way all this sounds like the perfect conspirary theory LOL So lets take a look on what is fake and what might be real but missing some vital clues. You can find several good Youtube channels created by people trying to build a working magnet motor. Some of them have no problems to admit failure and still keep trying and updating their projects. Did long enough and you see two outcomes. The first is giving up or "realising" that it will never work. The second often seems like a user is getting some relly good results and is really close to keep the magnetmotor running. Both disappear without and updates or traces. Now of course this is just confirmation that it will never work, but then again: What if it did already quite a few times? Even Tesla had patents for a magnetmotor and so far none of his patents were a hoax. Although none of his patents allow to actually build a working devices without some additional info and knowledge. And that is the key that I am trying to get: The lost knowledge.How can a magnetmotor never work? That one is quite simple from the start. If a linear model won't work no matter where you start then a rotary version will fail as well. And if a linear version works, it has to do so far at least 5 segments and with preferably increasing or at least constant speed. Having said that and assuming you know a little bit about magnetism: Ever wondered about shapes of magnets?? The common types are block, round like a bar and those disk like ones, some even with holes. A less well known version is the ring magnet. You can look them up as well as their corresponding magnetic field geometry - or what is assumed to be the right geometry. To give you a clue: All those floating spinning toys use a ring magnet in the base and onother one in the spinner. In the center is a dead zone for the magnetic field that is far lower than further out on the ring. And the strnger outer fields also reach further - giving the entire spinner a bowl like area to float on, the spinning just stabilises it like a gyroscope. A similar flat disk magnet wouldn't have this indentation in the field but rather a dome like sphere. The ring just kicks a dint into this sphere if you don't mind the simpification. Similar changes in the field structure happen when you combine two or more magnets. One example we all know is stacking identical smaller magnets. And often we are suprised how much stronger two thin disk magnets are compared to a single. Distance however sets a certain limit. And take those hook magnets... Just a small ring magnet in a metal pot with core. Remove the magnet and just by itself it is far weaker. Why? Quite simple.... The same way a transformer core directs the magnetic flow, the metal part of the hook magnet provides a shortcut for the magnetic field - and in return all is much stronger ;) Now you have some more clues, but still there are tons of options for failure... The most common is the sticking effect. No matter how well you planned and designed in most cases you linear or rotary prototype will stall sooner or later. Even if started manually at high speeds some seem to run very long but once they slow down and stop it is obvious they always stop where the magnetic field won't allow the binding effect to be overcome.Wouldn't dare to say that I have a working magnetmotor, but I might have some clues you want to try if you decide to give it a try yourself. So how COULD a magnetmotor actually work? Like in the Perendiv examples all over the web, you could aloow a moving responder to the rotor. Like a piston the responder will be lifted in areas it would otherwise limit or reduce the speed of the system. Well designed only a few mm would b required but it also means wasted energy to move the responder. Then there is the nice way of modifying fields by adding magnets in different angles and polarities. Lets say towards the end of your stages on the linear model it is hard to overcome the binding effect from the end of the previous stage. The perendiv model would now somehow change the distances. But you can also add magnets to lower the binding effect ;) Like a ring or hook magnet you can shape the field and offer a stronger repulsin field or a lower binding force. Last but certainly not least is the option of adding magnetic metals like iron or somehow weirder ones like bismuth. So, do we have any examples of something very common utilising any of this? We sure do :) Take a speaker apart and you end with the cage, the membrane, the actual work coil and the magnet. We don't need anything but the magnet so take a good and very close look. What in the audio world is called a shield to prevent the magnet from messing with things close by is exactly the same as on a hook magnet ;) Only difference is the tiny gap for the coil. The magnetic field is directed into two paths, one by the metal core, the other by the inner enclosure of the magnet or the magnet itself. The coil operates in the area of maximum flux.Last hints... If you take two identical and strong magnets with north or south facing up then it is quite hard to push them very close together. But check what happens if you try the same wen both soth poles (or both north poles) are placed on a magnetic surface - if in doubt your standard fridge door. Suddenly you can move much closer together with the same amout of force (not considering the added friction!). And similar story for opposing configurations. Where in free air or on a table the magnets would just jump together, on a metal plated you can move them much, much closer before this happens. Copper pipe and magnet fun :) Ideally you would have a straight copper pipe and a cylindrical magnet that has a loose fit in the pipe. Aluminium pipe work too or even a roll of aluminium foil if you have nothing else. A magnet in the pipe will travel very slow down the pipe, friction is not an issue here. So what is slowing it down? The magnet creates a field in the pipe and through that the pipe generates electicity. And funny enough this electricity creates an opposing magnetic field in the pipe - the magnet slows down. Even if you glue it onto a wooden stick it won't rush through it. Trying to push it by hand and you feel the created resistance. The faster you push, the harder it is to push! If you made it all the way down here with the reading then I have to assume you fit into one of three of my categories. a) You are a total sceptic and just read it for your amusement. If so, then please don't post a reply with usual negative feedback, instead see it as the same fun you had reading it ;) b) You are at least curious and like to play with magnets. In this case take the above as inspiration to explore more ways to have fun with your magnets! c) You are more or less frustated because you wasted a lot of time and some money to build a magnet motor that just won't work. A and B might go on and enjoy the fun, C however might want to read very attentive now ;) If you take some indicator sheet for magnetic fields, like these funny green ones, and play with moving magnets then you see a very interesting effect on the "screen". The otherwise static field lines change chape and sometimes even seem to disappear or shrink. With a small rotor assembly it almost looks like flashes when the magnets move past each other. This effect is often totally neglected and to be honest I overlooked it for a long time as well. Being able to see how the magnetic field changes gives the thing an whole new dimension so to speak. Creating a magnet with a complex shape is difficult to say the least. Only ferrite or ceramic ones can be used and you would cut of machine them according to your desired shape and with regards to the orginal center of the magnetic field. So most people revert to the classic way of shaping by adding magnets of various types, sizes and amounts. Modern neodymium magnets make this trial and error process easier as there are many sizes and strengths available. Add a detector shield of suitable size and you have hours of fun time ahead of you. But doing so in any rotary assembly is next to impossible. So what did Yildiz differently and what was missed so many times? Yildiz took it a step further and not only provided "shunts" to create very strong magnetic field from the generated electricity but also a second rotor. Since we all start small lets focus on the basics first. Remember the hook magnet and speaker or the copper pipe? Some examples for shape shifting your otherwise static magnetic fields: 1. A magnetic metal "connection" from one (low in the armature) pole to an opposing (high in the amature) pole with cause the field from the "high" pole to "bend" towards the connected magnet. 2. A magnet with an orientation of 90° to the last magnet is the sequence will severely influence the field of this last magnet! This goes for either orientations! 3. Adding a non-magnetic "shield" around a magnet, like a piece of copper pipe, will not affect the static field of the magnet. However it will severely alter the field of the enclosed magnet when another magnet passes it! It will also affect the overal field during the passing as the moving magnet will also induce a field in the copper by affecting the field of the enclosed magnet! Thickness and lenght of the shield influence the strength of these effects. 4. In a simple perendiv motor design the bar that creates the attraction for the spinning part is a magnet too. Either a long bar type or two small ones with an iron or nickel rod between them. There is no need for a piston or something that drives the bar up or out of the way ;) Just use the right magnet at the right spot on your rotor to repell the bar ;) Mount the ar with suitable springs and you suddenly can have multiple stages on your rotor instead of just the usual one! Don't forget the moving magnet on the opposing side of the segment in question though as otherwise you still will get stuck. (Hint: You can place a small but powerful magnet in the center of the opposing bar ;) Just make sure you limit the springs movement so the bar won't be pulled closer)Ok, hold on now! Does a magnet motor actually work or not? I can only give hints and say the laws of physics as we know them apply to magnetmotors the same way as everything else. Unlimeted motion without supplying energy is not possible. Limited motion with adding or using energy however is still possible and real. The same is true for being able to machine, 3D print or otherwise manufacture at very tight tolerence and accuracy levels. This includes bearings or bearing systems with very little friction losses. Just check these floting and rotating magnet toys that look like a spindle. Only a tiny needle like pin makes contact with a glass surface - next to no friction loss. A proper and supposedly working magnet motor should provide more energy than what it uses - one way or the other. No law of physics lets us get around the fact that such a motor could only keep spinning if the produced power or motion energy is at least the same as what is required to make it move. Magnets lose their strenght over time, they are like a very slowly depleting battery. So, isn't it funny that all magnet motors so far that claimed to work also had the requirement to replace the magnets once the things fails to work or start? And if you leave a very strong neodymium magnet shielded from outside fields or magnetic stuff than your grandkids will still find a quite strong magnet. Do a little performance test with your new magnets, like how much force is required is required to lift them off a steel plate. Make the same test with the magnets once you played around extensively with them in your motor. Now take a spare magnet that was never used from the orginal batch and compare both against each other ;) If the motor would not use energy then why are the magnets depleted to a certain degree, realted to runtime and usage time? Wait a minute! Does that now mean it actually works? Lets just say energy is certainly used. We only know similar effects from electromagnetic systems. But did anyone ever really check how much actual energy is in magnetic field generated by a non electric magnet? Get a good sized N52 neodymium magnet and check how much force is required to pull it off a steel surface. Now try to get the smallest sized electromagnet capable of that force and check how much energy it consumes at the level that equals the pulling force of the N52 magnet ;) Makes no sense to even try to compare these you will say now. I just say energy is energy and we were formed to only think in certain ways and don't even try silly things like this ;) To keep the fun up let us imagine we would actually have a similar energy available than what our electro magnet would require. In reality more because we wouldn't have electrical or flux related losses in the metal around the coil. Or is the imagined reality, no clue ;) If true it would mean even a motor with very bad efficiency would be able to create huge amounts of torque. Well, torque is basically acceleration. Which would mean our motor would not just be happy to spin, it would speed up until the bearing fail or the thing is ripped apart. Imagine a dental drill of that size and weight suddenly falling apart at full speed... Every example of motors claimed to be working, that are not fakes, seem to be happy no matter what the load is. It the thing turns a generator than it would have to slow down a bit with the increased load but they don't. With no limited factors otherwise this makes them a fake. Even a perfect motor would have to react to load changes.... Don't we agree that the stronger the magnetic force or field in a conductor the stronger the resulting magnetic and opposing field of the conductor? We use the difference to either drive a motor or take out electricity... But if you take the "open" shielding of a magnet in a changing field than the influence of the shield on the overall field gets stronger with stronger field changes. And properly desinged and orientated they would actually double as a natural limiter for the rotation speed. Once the electrical energy in the shield becomes too strong it will be able to cancel out the field of the enclosed magnet...If we assume a magnet motor is really possible and works with the intended output to keep it spinning or even take energy out: Then what would be possible downfalls that stop this thing happening in everyones garage? We can explore the stars but so far no one bothered to invent anything to visualise magnetic field in a 3 dimensional way other than by simulation. No realtime and true observation like this. The few working technologies that exist rely on sensors, interpretaion and filling in gaps. But imagine something like a detector shield as cloud! And then even better with selctive spacing to get a realtime view of where exactly the field lines go. All we can do is forget our teaching and try it out anyway ;) If by some mistake a magnet motor would really work right away, then chances are high the inventor would wonder why that thing takes off like mad and how to stop it. Unless well prepared it would certainly end in the destrution of the motor. But the inventor would know what to look for in the next prototype. The logical conclusion would be to the couple the energy taken to the speed while physically limittin the free load speed. The other one would be the design the electrical generator around the and within the motor. To even get close to this point you would have to spend endless days and nights working on finding a solution. The closer you get the more disappointment when the final model still fails to keep spinning for more than a few hours. Most people will then accept defeat and move on... Still not saying it actually works but if you made it to this point in time where it could be easier to move on and do other things:Ever wondered what would happen if you "shield" a magnet with a coil? Of course nothing would happen as we know. But try this in some fixed assembly that allows you move another magnet through the field of the shielded one. Perferably witha force gauge or some option to read out the energy required to move it through the various stages of the field. See what happens if you short the coil or add a resistor to it ;) Now if this coild is able to produce electricity then the more we use the more the effects on the required force would change. What do you think would happen if you combine common coil relations of electric motors to a "coil shielded" magnet motor? Right, all these coils would interact with the magnetic fields of the coils they are connected to... And through that with the overall field surrounding the enclosed magnet..... I leave up to you to imagine how these interacting coils could provide "resistance" or "acceleration"/"surplus electricity"...Like they say: You can only find out if you try ;) To keep up the positive thinking: A permanent magnet just sticks to any magnetic surface and does so with the same force. But the real energy loss in terms of getting weaker can almost be neglected. Any electromagnet capable of the same holding force woul require ongoing energy supplies to keep it up. It is using energy the same way the permanent magnet does! The difference is the permanent magnet is not seen as anything that would provide us with energy.... And if it can't provide energy other than passing through coils then why the heck does it keep sticking to the fridge year after year? It does require energy to keep this weight up doesn't it, even if you add a thin teflon disk and oil to reduce friction? ;) No magic, no "free energy" bogus, just plain physics viewed from a slightly different angle than what we learn in school ;) Have a good laugh and a good beer, then read it again and just consider some of the things here that are not mentioned in any literature about magnetism that we commonly use. Now I got you thinking, didn't I ? ;)

Topic by Downunder35m 3 months ago  |  last reply 2 months ago