The forums are retiring and are now closed for new topics and comments. The existing content will remain online and accessible through 2020 to provide everyone the opportunity to save any relevant information. In the spring of 2021, these Community forums will be taken offline.

Search for 40w in Topics


How can I make my own ledlamp (bulb model) 230V?

These are extreme expensive at the moment, so how to construct your own. I'm thinking the equivalent for a 60w 40w and 25w bulb with the warm colour of the regular bulbs.

Question by limetree  


Material settings for Full Spectrum "hobby laser 40W 5th gen + cardboard?

Hi-I am new to the Full Spectrum "hobby laser 40W 5th gen"--I have a bunch of 123dMake projects to laser-cut in single-ply corrugated cardboard and cant seem to get the right settings for power, speed, and current (top burns, bottom not cut through, etc)--Anyone out there have any "approximate" settings that have worked with single-ply corrugated and that machine? I am grateful for any tips and suggestions! thanKS.

Question by ge5    |  last reply


Where can I find inexpansive led light bulb? Answered

Hello everyone, My dad bought a new kitchen and he would like to put led lights behind plexiglas to have a light source at the level of the work place , I've searched on eBay for cheap led light bulb 40 watts equivalent , but it's a little bit expansive and after searching more , even if they say it's 40 watts equivalent , it's actually not and it's definitely not bright. Please , may someone help me finding the ultimate inexpansive led light bulb ?

Question by Anykey    |  last reply


I want to buy a 40W solarpanel how can I calculate how "heavy " the controller and the inverter should be?

The man in the shop told me it would be wise to buy these things too. If I want to use it continiously he advised a battery. How heavy should this be and how can I calculate it for a panel of 80 Watt Thanks in advance

Question    |  last reply



can i use a PMBLDC motor as a generator?

Can i use a PMBLDC motor as a generator? if so what would be the power and voltage generated by a PMBLDC motor which has a 12V and 40w rating?

Question by arun84    |  last reply


Extra tiny soldering

Ok, I have a weller 40w iron and I want to do some seriously tiny work, I cannot afford to buy anything. how would I go about making a tip for the iron?

Topic by The Ideanator  


Wiring circular fluorescent bulb Answered

Hello,my first time posting here, hope I don't break any rules.I want to wire up a circular fluorescent bulb for a sculpture.I bought a SODIAL(R) 40W Ring Tube Fluorescent Lamp Electronic Ballast AC 220V 0.19A and a 40W T9 Circular Warm White Tube.Could someone advise me on what other bits I need (e.g what starter) and a guide on how to connect everything up to each other and power? I'm based in the UK if this affects potential suppliers. I have done this with a straight fluorescent before but by cannibalising a bought fitting. Pretty clueless when it comes to electronics and would like to avoid killing myself/ others if possible.Many thanks!

Question by lochnessmonstery    |  last reply


240v to 12vdc driver/transformer, what wattage output do i need?

I am trying to power 12no 3w 12vdc bulbs starting with 240v mains. i have found a 240v - 12vdc driver/transformer meant for LEDS but not sure what wattage output i need, 40w?

Question by ciderpig    |  last reply


how to modify a dimmer switch (230V,50Hz supplying 5 incandescent bulbs of 40W each) to get max. brightness variation?

There's a dimmer switch connected to 5 lamps. Problem is the dimmest light occurs halfway of the span of the dimming knob. How do i tinker with the dimmer so the dimmest light occurs nearer the OFF position?

Question by rammstein2    |  last reply


Generator from induction motor

I have an  induction  motor  with  three  wires  so  I  am  now  interested  in  how  to  make  the  generator  of  the  induction  motor ,  and  what  I  need  from  the  parts  that  made  the  induction generator .  Induction  motor  is  40W  and  230  V.  Sorry  for  bad  English  if  i  wrote  something  wrong

Question by mrgaman    |  last reply


Full Spectrum Laser help

Hi-I am new to the Full Spectrum "hobby laser 40W 5th gen"--I have a bunch of 123dMake projects to laser-cut in cardboard and cant seem to get the right settings for power, speed, and current (top burns, bottom not cut through, etc)--Anyone out there have any "approximate" settings that have worked with single-ply corrugated and that machine? I am grateful for any tips and suggestions! thanKS.

Topic by ge5    |  last reply


Typo on the Halloween contest

On https://www.instructables.com/contest/halloween2012epiccostumes/?show=PRIZES The prizes page of the current halloween contest, there is a typo: Grand Prize:  Two Grand Prize winners selected from all 6 categories will be awarded their choice of a 5-inch 2.6 GHz Retina display MacBook Pro OR a Full Spectrum 40W Laser New Hobby Laser Cutter with a 20”x12” cutting bed. Winners will also receive an Instructables Prize Pack. I believe that should be 15 inch :) 

Topic by schumi23    |  last reply


Help replacing the amplifier in a powered sub woofer?

I have a Phillips SW 900 powered sub-woofer. The internal amplifier board has broken and I need to get a new board or an equivalent amplifier.  The internal subwoofer is a 6 inch 4 ohm 40w driver.I don't want to spend any more than around 50 US dollars. The only connection that I need is one RCA jack for audio input. Thanks.

Question by nurdee1    |  last reply


How come there is no SLA charger circuit on instructables? Answered

Are there any simple SLA solar or  stepper Wind mill charger controllers here, can someone draw one? I have auto relays and rectifiers and want to use a giant stepper and a 30-40w solar panel and poll the power and charge a 10amp SLA.. what is a simple circuit with cuts the charge with 14.5 and starts it with 11v ... I have one but it's old and I can't identify the components.. can someone make this more understandable?

Question by celalboz    |  last reply


How can I slow down an 230v electrical fan motor???

Hi.I have this fan but the lowest speed is too LOUD!!!Would it be possible to solder on a resistor or something like that?The label says: Induction motor Class E 230v 50Hz 40w model DT30B There is also a speed controller 0,1,2,3.Let me know if I should capture the fan/label.I am very grateful for all responses.Thanks.

Question by ddmeltzer8    |  last reply


laser cutters

Hi wondering if anyone could help me have a luifure laser cutter 40w which we have just purchases software CorelDraw and laser draw 2013 came with it but the laserdraw 2013 wont load onto my daughters laptop also we did not receive a English maual with it so basically don't have a clue what we r doing any help would be greatly appreciated or we r from fmaesteg south wales so does anyone know of someone who could set it up for us thanks

Question by straddie    |  last reply


Strongest 3V LED with pins?

I'd like to build a LED into an empty light bulb that can run on 3V (from button cells). So I can't use the normal screw-in leds that are sold because they are all 12V at least. I'm planning to build the LED into the lightbulb myself, and connect it manually to the batteries. I'd like my LED to be as omnidirectional as possible. So what LED would I be able to use for this, and would I need some sort of diffuser or something to make the light shine in all directions? Would I be able to get up to about similar lumens as a 40W incandescent bulb?

Question by reinhardtsmit    |  last reply


can anyone tell me about removing small bits of solder from a chip board that needs a swith replaced? Answered

I have a wii hero guitar and inside the stummer switch has to be replaced. I have new switches but need to melt solder to remove the chip board that the switch is attached to. I have a 40w soldering iron, solder sucker and solder wick. I don't seem to be able to melt all the blobs of solder only a bit of it, not enough to be able to remove the switch. Can anyone tell me how to melt all solder to remove it from the chip board it's attached, to be able to remove the switch

Question    |  last reply


I just bought a soldering iron!

   So im new to the soldering world as well as the small electronics and circuit world. I do know a little about restance capacitance and inductance. But I was wondering if anyone had any good ideas for me to get started off with. I have an old TV, Im not sure if I can use my soldering iron to de-solder it, that I can strip down for parts.      My new soldering iron is  a 20w to 40w, Im not sure what range I need though. If anyone knows any fun easy DIYs that I can do to get started please let me know!!  Thanks!

Topic by crazed rhetoric    |  last reply


Is it possible to wire two LEDs to a dimmer switch?

Hey guys, Just wondering if anyone know if it is possible to wire two LEDs to some form of dimmer switch. I had one knocking about the shed, but it's house hold with a minimum of 40W ... which is way more than what I need, plus I'd like my setup to be battery powered. I was wondering to kind of, hobby style dimmer switches exist? I quick look on Ebay showed that most LED dimmer switches are wall mountable, and really more for LED bulbs or large strips. Anyone have any ideas? Cheers!  Clare

Topic by codename-3c    |  last reply


connecting Speakers for equal load?

Hey There guyz i have speakers as follows 2*15w 4ohm 1*18w 4 ohm 1*40w 4 ohm and a small speaker which has impedance of 3 ohm dont know of watt for this i have an 100 watt amplifier (50w*2 or 50w/channel) how should i connect those speakers for equal load on amplifiers and which speakers i shouldnt connect sory im really noob at this i connected those speakers in parallel at low volume they worked fine but wanna build a portable speaker which could run at full volume amplifer i have is XH-M189 running at 18v 2 amps.

Question by The Fed upE  


how to make home made lcd monitor from old labtop (pentium 1) LCD ?

I have old laptop with Pentium 1 (fujitsu fmv-biblo, model: FMV5120NU2/W, CD:16V, 40W.) but i can not use it any more, coz it not work nicely any more.. one day my uncle give me a PC computer (PENTIUM 3) without monitor.. i thing, if i can make home made monitor from the old labtop, it will be great.. we can use wood frame for the body, just like digital photo frame.. but its only monitor for PC. thx for help...

Question by redwine68    |  last reply


How to power a High power laser diode?

If I build a 42A Constant Current PSU which can supply 1.2-6v, will the laser diode only draw 1.8-2V or will it try to draw to much voltage and damage its self? I have a 40W CCP CW Laser diode, here are some characteristics. Operating Voltage (V) <2.0 (1.8 typ.) Operating Current (A) <46 (42 typ.) I know that laser diodes will try to draw as much current as possible and suffer thermal runaway, so they need constant current power supply's. If anyone has any information on how to power high power laser diodes please let me know. All help will be greatly appreciated! 

Question by deltawars    |  last reply


Help with squirrel cage motor!

I recently pulled an old squirrel cage motor out of a fan (which was still working). And i have no idea how to wire it up. it has a red, yellow, blue and black wire coming out. There is also a 1uf capacitor, it has about a 1200-700ohm connection between the yellow blue and red wires. their is a 100ohm connection between blue to yellow, 200ohm between yellow to red and 300ohm betwwen red to blue. black doesnt seem to connect to anything. could someone please help me. A little label on it says:             Motor           Mode: R12-1        220v-240v       50Hz         40W Foshan Shunde Rihuang Electric Co.,ltd (mode isnt a typo by me, thats what the label says, though the company may have meant model)

Question by makincoolstuff    |  last reply


Sound card configuration problems

Want to configure my 7.1 sound card, which is embedded in the motherboard. Run windows 7. I used to just split the 'green' channel between my small 2.1 computer speaker system and home built full range 'rear' tower speakers with passive crossover, powered by an old 2X 100W RMS Sony amp, with very satisfactory results (movies, mostly reggae music). But finally I got a nice 10" subwoofer!  Time to make a proper setup! So I tried to plug the tower speakers in the black channel, and for now, the headphones, in the orange channel (while wiring the sub into a 4 X 40W  mono setup- Parallel , I assume????). To the control panel, sound, manage audio devices, speakers, configure (5,1 for now). Works like a charm: all tests OK, can hear all test sounds.  Restart... But W Media player, as well as other players (want to customize with Foobar_X_over eventually) don't provide any sound, except for the green channel. What am I doing wrong?

Question by BobS    |  last reply


Teach me a bit about lasers

Im in the process of piecing together parts for a 2 axis CNC and I would like to use it for laser cutting/etching. Since I'm new to building CNCs and I also dont have a ton of extra money I plan to build one using a DVD-r laser (200mW?) and just do some tests to get the basics down and play around with it. I would love to be able to cut 1/4'' acrylic as I have some laying around and I love some of the projects possible with it. What is the cheapest laser that is capable of cutting clear 1/4" acrylic? I have used a 40W co2 laser and it flew through the acrylic like it was nothing. Is there something for <$200 that would cut it?  And is it something that you can just use a lower power and go super slow or do you need the power? I did some light searching and didnt really find what I was looking for but if someone has a link to some helpful info I would appreciate any help I can get. Otherwise ill just spend my days cutting and etching paper!

Topic by jdavis-9    |  last reply


LED driving and wiring question? Answered

I have read and read and read, and am still confused no where seems to be able to give me a straight answer, so i've come to the instructables forum for help.  I am planing on wiring 16 leds in series driven by a driver. The constant current driver's specs are' in   -  85-277V, 50/60Hz, 0.5A MAx  out -  650mA, 30-60V, 40W The 3W leds run at 750mA, 3.2-4.0V so each led circut should require 52.1v-65.5v,  and 48W. I was hoping to under drive them to increase their lifespan, as i had a different project fail when one led blew and killed the entire line.   My questions are; 1) can i run 3 of these circuits off of one standard north american  plug 125V?  2) will this work? and did i miss anything?  3) can anyone recommend any simple improvements? I've done as much research as i can, but i never have been good at electronics and circuits. and half of the things i find are contradictory. That's why i went into chemistry.  Thank you for reading this, and thank you for responding and helping me!

Question by ninjutsu    |  last reply


how do i go about hooking up an old sound system?

Ok so heres the problem my family has a old sound system used for advertising ads within our small town now these speakers are old about 70w each i believe but theyre trumpet style and what i want to do is hook up my computer (laptop) to both speakers to play music and advertisments i know i cant just hook them up to my computer so i was wonering how do i do it?  the sound system has been in use since around 1960 and only recently has the record player used gone kaput so i want to "modernize" it  by hooking it up to my laptop  the speakers look like this  http://www.sterenshop.com.mx/catalogo/interior3shop.asp?pdto=TC-1240 theres 2 of them one is 70W and the other i believe is a 40W each have two leads  i can solder and i will most likely have no problem finding parts so if theres anything i can make to power these two speakers to the them running so all help is appreciated

Question by Diclonius    |  last reply


Lamps from recycled parts, ideal example of a green theme.

Personally, i think this lamps look very cool, both items are made from various pieces of old electrical hardware.I love how the design is rather simple, but complicated by the parts used.Made by the Flickr user Qvidja50.He saysThe lamp on the left is fabricated from a railroad signal switching relay manufactured by the General Railway Signal Company in 1924. The perforated cylinders were originally ink canisters designed for high-speed fabric printing. The light on the right is made from a water-cooled dual processor from an Apple G5 desktop computer. Other elements include an hour meter, aircraft compass and 40W LED bulbs.Check out the full Flickr set.Personally, i like the 'hanging bulb' one. Firstly as i love the way the bulbs hang down, that and the use of a Powermac G5 heatsink is a win for an apple user fanboy like myself.For anyone looking to enter the Epilog laser cutter contest. Whom may have some parts laying around, this is a good place to start your research.I have an old iMac stand that caitlinsdad said would make a good lamp.- gmjhowe

Topic by gmjhowe    |  last reply


Help with a school project on solar power

Hi. I have a science fair coming up in May and I want to do my project on solar power but I really don't know too much about electricity. This is my plan, please correct me where I'm wrong and tell me if there's a better way to do certain things: I am going to buy a 10w 12v solar panel (I might be able to get a 40w for a bargain) which will charge a battery. Would it be better to get a 12v lead acid battery or a 12v lithium battery? Lithium batteries have DC jacks instead of normal terminals on lead acid batteries so how would I connect the battery in parallel to the 2 devices I want to power? A splitter like this would work but it connects it in series? Although I suppose it doesn't matter because I just need to show that it works at the expo but I'd like to use it now and then. The battery will connect to a 12v LED light and a 12v to 5v USB charger. What about diodes? Do I need them? How will I make sure that the device charging doesn't get fried? Thanks a lot, I appreciate it. EDIT: A charge controller isn't necessary, is it? I'd also like to add in a switch to cut off power to the USB ports, power to the light and power to the battery from the solar panel. This would cause a problem if everything was connected in series.

Topic by Charly_ZA    |  last reply


DIY Soldering Gun? Answered

My 40W soldering iron is a bit too weak. I've been thinking about making a soldering gun, but it confuses me a bit... Since I don't work with sensitive electronic components, I don't think there's a problem. I also like the fact that I can control the amount of heat easily... I soldering gun is pretty much a "mix" between a soldering iron and a welder, right? Similar to a hot-wire styrofoam cutter. Maybe I should call it an Incandescent soldering lamp...  A hot wire cutter is exactly like a soldering gun, except it uses a thicker, shorter, wire that has low resistance... To make one, what I need is a power supply that can supply: High current, and low voltage (Wikipedia doesn't define low voltage), right? With a 5V 40A ATX power supply, a switch, and a single core wire that has close to 0 resistance, do you think I would be able to make a soldering gun? A 5V ATX power supply is the power supply with the lowest voltage that I own.  I don't know the resistance of the wire that I can use, because I don't know what wire to use, and don't know the current it will take. I know I will need the heating wire of the tip to be a higher gauge, so it will have more resistance on high amps, and it will be the one that will heats up. From what I'm guessing, 5V is too high, and something like 1V would be better. Perhaps I'll find a way for stepping it down to a lower voltage...

Question by Yonatan24    |  last reply


High/Low light LED switch

I recently purchase some 3528 300p LED Strip Light so that I can make some under cabinet lighting. I wanted to make my own because I believe I can to it for a much better price and learn something in the process rather than buying an LED light set from a big box retailer. I have a 3 position rocker switch Off/high/low. If possible I would like to use the LED lights in a High/Low configuration. From what I read they make PWM modules that control the LED making them appear to be dimmable, but I do not want to use one of these devices. For the low setting I was considering wiring in a POT or an inline resistor to drop the Voltage to the LED's. On second thought I suspect that this would not work and if I drop the voltage too low this would result in inoperable LED's. By the way I would not be opposed using an inline resistor if this is a good way to reduce the light level Is there some cheap electronic component that will produce or simulate an approximate 50% PWM that I can wire inline with the switch, in effect producing a low lighting mode? I am not interested in using a variable PWM control, I just want to achieve a switchable high/low lighting. I am not familiar with components and I hope you could suggest a few ideas for my project. Some details: The led strip will be ~11 linear ft using 12VDC and about 40W of electricity.

Question by baudeagle    |  last reply


Global Warming Experiment #1

(I slightly changed the instructable into a forum topic and an instructable)The Instructable Half"Global Warming" Experiment #1:As you can tell by my quotes around "Global Warming", I personally don't believe that this theory is happening. Theres facts I can use to prove this. However, even I believe that no matter how you put it, there's going to be some bias. Also facts are boring :PSo, what I have planned, is to do a series of experiments on what global warming might cause if it were real.I'm doing this because I've heard people claim some extraordinary things, which based on data won't happen.I could post an instructable with a bunch of facts, and I might. But for now, I want to set up a couple collaborative experiments. One reason I want collaboration is I'm biased. The other, is so you can't complain about my methods.I haven't done the experiment yet, I really don't know if this will help, or hurt, my case.The experiment is to determine if "global warming" could melt glaciers, thus cooling the ocean. Notice here I'm assuming global warming is happening. It isn't. But when people make claims on the news and stuff, they are assuming that too.Please comment if you would like to change my methodology, OR you want to do the experiment.I'm going to describe how the Instructable (and hopefully the rest in the series) will work.1) I, or anyone, proposes a framework for an experiments and writes up an Instructable. (Will be referred to as "I" in the following steps)2) I monitor the suggestions, editing and fixing as needed. After about a week or so, I go onto step 3.3) I preform the experiment to the best of my ability, and write up an additional 2 steps.3a) The first outlines my changes. This could mean I didn't have a 4x8 loaf pan, and I had to use a 3x8. Or it was plastic. Whatever. These small details are important3b) The second outlines the data and conclusion. This may have images of the experiment, graphs, tables, sensor data, Whatever. I also make a note of my previous bias.4) Wait for more people to run through the experiment, adding them as collaborators.5) Write up a conclusion to everything, OR do some more investigating.Its not that bad, however the whole process might take a few weeks. (I don't know)Scientific MethodThere are seven steps to the Scientific Method, which we will follow:1. Define the question2. Gather information and resources3. Form hypothesis4. Perform experiment and collect data5. Analyze data6. Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypotheses7. Publish results(Thanks Wikipedia!)#1 was done in the introduction.#2 I've already done, however you only have to look into data you'll need during the procedure.#3 I've done it, but I'm not telling you (I don't want a bias, even though I've hinted towards my guess)#4 - We're going to expand this out. More later!#5 and #6 sort of come together in this format, will be done as we go along.#7 is done as we go!Okay, #4. Remember back to High School, remember Lab Reports? Well basically there will be a step for each segments (leaving some out). We sort of do this already in most instructables "What will happen", "What you need", "How you do it"; this time more formally. Due to Lab Reports being unstandardized, I'm breaking it down into:IntroductionMaterialsProcedureDataIts shorter than your average one, due to the fact in Data, you have hypothesis and stuff I don't want to reveal yet ;-)The following is the framework, you can also see my instructable:(This is a framework, remember. Its not supposed to be "done" and perfect)Materials*Large basin of some sorts.*Water*Ice*Lamp + Light bulbs (100W & 40W)*ThermometerProcedure1) Fill large basin/pan with water.2) Take and record standing temperature of water.3) Add ice off to one side of the pan.4) Take temp. of water every five minutes until it starts to level out, at least 4 readings.5) Replace water, and repeat steps 2&36) Shine lamp w/ 40W bulb off to the non-ice side of the pan, but allowing some light & warmth to reach the ice. (Roughly 20-35%)7) Repeat steps 4&58) Repeat step 6 with a 100W bulbTake pictures throughout!What now?Okay, I'll be updating this with your comments over the next week or so. If somethings wrong with it, POINT IT OUT!!! I'm going to add my thoughts in as well. (I still feel its missing some things, I can't put my fingers on them, though!)

Topic by zachninme    |  last reply


Direction/turn signal indicators making them brighter with led bulb I need help pls

Hi. I somtimes ride a 1985 yamaha ms50 pogal 50cc moped. It has an 6v electrial system where as modern day scooters are 12v. I bought a knew indicater relay for it and checked all the bulbs as the turn signal indicators are not so easy to see flashing. I mean, on average sunny day other road users would need to look hard to see them flashing. the bulbs are 6v 15w and both old and knew flasher relays gives output of 6v 40w. I would feel much safer when turning if I had a bulb that gives a brighter flash to give other road users a better idea when im turning. I can see on the web there is a 6v 5w and 10w bulb I can try or even 6v leds but I dont know much about leds. the stanadard factory fitted indicater buld 6v 15w gives an ok flash at night, but in sunny daylight I would need to be close up to see it flash which is no good! I don't want to change the originality of this little ped since it has been carefully taken care of over the years and has made it in intact into current times as is. I need to come up with somthing that will work and if I replace a buld with a 5w or 10w when it should be 15w I may get a brigher flash or just blow the bulb. I wonder was there a problem or just bad design with the indicator lights on the yamaha ms50 pogal when they first came out in the 1980's as I have seen a couple of them fitted with suzuki fz50 indicators and other makes of bike turn signal indicaters on them. I don't think the flashers are faulty I feel they where just made that way. I could be wrong. I suppose there could be a bad earth on the flashers. Sorry to go on so much about this. Im looking for your suggestions for a brighter indicator flashers which is purely for safety reasons. If car drivers can see where im turning, im less at risk of being nocked off by them. Im thinking a higher or lower wattage incandescent 6v buld or even a replacment 6v led buld ive seen on ebay but as I said. I know nothing about led bulbs or even if they will work on my moped. Would a equivalent 6v 15w led give a brigher flash than a 6v 15w tradisional incandesant bulb? can someone help me here pls Here's the led ive seen on ebay http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/2pcs-E10-6V-9V-12V-24V-INDICATOR-LIGHT-BULB-LED-WL-ay-/330859527741?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_3&hash;=item4d08c3be3d these are the standard 6v 15w bulbs i want to replace with brighter led bulbs http://directshopping4u.com/6voltvehiclelighting/P244A10  

Topic by selectauto  


Long Range Off the Grid WiFi Repeater

Hello Everyone,  I've got quite the project that I am undertaking and I am looking for a bit of advice. This will be my very 1st forray into long-distance wifi, as well as off-grid power resources, so Im biting off quite a bit at once! I have a friend who has been helping me with the research who has a much firmer understanding of both electricity and hardware, but he will be out of town for the next week and I would like to get a bit of progress on this while he is gone. SO, I shall consult the hive mind known as the internet. Alright, this project consists of creating an uplink between a remote shed, and a home in a nearby city, with a broadband connection. The rub, there is 10,000 ft mountain range in between the two. We have a site were we can put a repeater node at approx. 10,000 ft elevation, that has wonderful line-of-sight to both locations. However, this site is very remote, and will have to run off the grid obviously. The distances are as follows: Home to repeater: 3.96 miles (thats with Google Earth following the contours of the          mountain/valley, not sure how to make it just do a straight angled shot, so thats a rough estimate) Repeater to Remote shed: 2.68 miles (same issue) Background environment info: shed has generator + 60w solar array with 3-4 deep discharge lead RV batteries at 7400 feet. Has spring fed running water, which could be utilized for power as well, as obviously its always running. Repeater location is at 10k, as stated. Moderate to high winds very likely (data from peaks of similar altitude in the general area show gusts ranging from 40-60 mp/h, temperature ranges of  averaging 7 to 90+ for a the later part of July and August (F). Obviously, its very possible to get soemething below this, though the lowest Ive ever seen at the shed has been -15 (f), I would say most winters we could get a few nights that see temps below 0, but not often. Equipment Ideas: So to pull this off, we have come up with two ideas for the network equipment, which I shall discuss 1st, then I will show you what we have come up with for power.  - Network    - Repeater Node: rb433 wireless access point ($99.00) http://www.routerboard.com/pricelist.php?showProduct=43         with 2 r52h mini PCI wifi chips ($59.00 x2) http://www.routerboard.com/pricelist.php?showProduct=69         2 8-18 inch satelite dishs converted for long-range WIFI use (20.00 x2) http://www.engadget.com/2005/11/15/how-to-build-a-wifi-biquad-dish-antenna/ OR instead of a rb433, we could use 2 WRT54G Linksys routers like this. (I also have 2 BEF 801.11b routers that are legacy to the WRT54G. I would like to use this if possible! http://hackaday.com/2005/08/23/how-to-greyhat-wifi-repeater/ Now, I know that this later choice would increase power use by about double. From what I have been able to find, the WRT's would at anywhere from 4.2w to 8w of power. Anyways, I like this later choice because it would be significantly cheaper for the equipment, but do you have any other ideas? I know that the RB433 would work great, but its rather expensive all said and done after I throw up the power as well. Plus, if it takes a lighting strike, its out of commission, and 2 cheap linksys routers are much cheaper to replace! Anyways any input here would be great! - Power  so power to the repeater node is the real challenge. We crunched the numbers and came up with something almost exactly the same as below: From the datasheets, a routerboard will draw between 6-10W. So design for 10W. Over 24 hours you will need 10Wx24h = 240 Watt.Hours of power. For 7 days, you need 7x240Wh = 1680 Watt.Hours. A single, large deep cycle 110Ah 12V battery gives you about 1320 Watt.Hours of power, almost meeting the requirement. Now, to look at the solar panels: A good rule of thumb is to install 6 times the wattage that is drawn by the device. This is because only about 8 hours a day in sunny weather gives you maximum power output from a solar panel. So the other 16 hours you need to draw from the battery. (So already you need 3 times the wattage drawn by the device to break even each day) To generate 1 full day of extra battery power per sunny day, you need another 3 times the wattage. This is how we arrive at 6 times. 6 x 10W = 60W. So at a minimum I would recommend 60W of solar panels. That qoute comes from http://diywifilink.wordpress.com/ and http://mybroadband.co.za/vb/showthread.php?179547-Advice-needed-Setting-up-wifi-repeater-11km which is a project from a guy in South Africa almost exactly the same as the one that we are working on. The numbers came out to be about the same (Though they were a bit different when we calculated for the WRT54G option.) so, 60w of power generation to keep a decent charge on a battery. Now, we have a 60w panel at the shed, which is rather large to take up to 10,000 ft and place on the side of a mountain, and given the consistent wind element up there, we are hoping to do a hybrid system of both solar and wind. This is where things get tricky. A perfect balance, or even a more wind heavy balance would be great, such as 30-40w wind 20-30w solar. That keeps the panel size down, and uses a power source that runs 24/7. A Faroun Savonius wind turbine seems like the best system, but the controller to prevent overcharging etc is where I get nice and lost, having breached into very unknown territory. https://www.instructables.com/id/Faroun-Savonius-Wind-Turbine/ http://www.fieldlines.com/board/index.php/topic,129060.html This looked at 1st like a good, cheap system to use a controller board for the wind, but my question is would the controller board that comes with these solar panels (see below) work for both. That below is the setup that we use more or less at the shed, with some mods, such as a better alternator. http://www.costco.com/Browse/Product.aspx?Prodid=11298029&search;=solar&Mo;=5&cm;_re=1_en-_-Top_Left_Nav-_-Top_search&lang;=en-US&Nr;=P_CatalogName:BC&Sp;=S&N;=4001192&whse;=BC&Dx;=mode+matchallpartial&Ntk;=Text_Search&Dr;=P_CatalogName:BC&Ne;=4000000&D;=solar&Ntt;=solar&No;=3&Ntx;=mode+matchallpartial&s;=1&topnav;=&Nty;=1&s;=1 So, can a small, 30-50w wind turbine and generator be built, with a small solar array to power this thing? I dont care if we have some down time, this is primarily going to be used as a system to get a weather station with web cam to send in hourly photos during the peak hours. I can have the system at the shed shutdown automatically  using some cron jobs in linux during the evening to conserve power. When there are people at the shed, we would like to be able to get a good enough wifi connection to use a wifi device (such as an android phone or ipod) to use as a voip phone in essential communication. The teenagers aren't going to be chatting with their friends for hours, but we would like to be able to put a short call through in case something goes wrong, or we just need to get ahold of someone at the shed or in the city. Next the equipment at the shed should be comparable to the repeater node,  sans 1 antenna and just some low power embedded system. We would like to get a webcam and weather station hooked up on this end, but that can wait for upgrades later if needed, if power doesnt allow it. like I said, a simple water turbine could be used (something similar to the wind turbine perhaps?) and even another wind turbine could be built to add extra power dedicated to running any system at the shed, though I dont think the wind is quite regular enough to be viable here, but if its cheap, we could throw it on anyways. equipment at the home in the city is simple, just use an extra laptop or desktop we have laying around to be server/router, hook up antenna to this, broadcast connection, run the weatherstation/webcam web server off of this. So, thats the plan, but load of input is needed to try to come up with this. We hope to try to keep this sub $1000.00, but the budget could go higher. This is DIY at its finest! Thanks in advance for you help!

Topic by kydan    |  last reply


UV filtration in your fish tank or small fish pond

Year after year the topic "I have a fish tank" seems to go more out of control. What was once a hobby just to have some fish can now be a design feature both in your home and inside the tank. Realistic looking lasdscapes, optical illusions that make you think the tank is much bigger and the list goes on. But one thing that now always pops up is the must have thing of UV filtration. Or to be precise: UV-C sterilisation! Now, if we trust Wiki and our big water suppliers then UV-C will literally kill anything alive that comes into contact with. So of course it would be a good thing to have for your tank - or not? UV-C is very dangerous for your eyesight and quite harmful for your skin! Looking into a proper UV-C lamp without protection means you can go blind! Even good sunglasses might not have enough protection in the UV-C range, so only use them for additional protection but never without and glass between you and the lamp! Don't be a fool! Treat UV-C seriously! You would not look into the full sun with your sunglasses and would not expose your eyes or skin to a powerful laser, UV-C is to be treated the same way! Let's start by using some boring text to explain the concept a little bit. On a large scale special and quite powerful systems are used to treat our drinking or pool water. Here special UV-C lights with a wavelenghts of 260nm or below are used to shine through the water passing by. There are two key factors here. a) the wavelenght b) the water flow rate and the corresponding time the water is in contact with the UV light To ensure all bacteria, viruses, algae and other harmful organics are dead the water must circulate for long enough so even the last water molecule had a few seconds of exposure. All this only works good with "crystal clear" water for obvious reasons as otherwise the UV has to be even more powerful to pass through. Single cell organisms literally crack into pieces similar to being exposed to gamma rays, more complex cells like algae have their cell membranes damages and the DNA suffers as well causing reproduction loss and early death. Even some chemicals break down, most importantly here chlorine based substances. Differences within the UV-C range! If you bothered to check Wiki about the topic of UV-C you will already know that only certain wavelengths within this spectrum will actuall be powerful enough to do what we want it to do. And here is the first problem for us hobby users. Most cheaply advertised "sterlisation lamps" you find in places like Ebay are actually totally useless. Stating to be selling a UV-C light to sterilze your water in such a case is still not considered to be fraud though. Simply because it still does what it supposed to do, just very slow and with very little effect. Only the so called "short wave" UV-C range is powerful enough! To avoid loosing business during the times of the biggest hype in 20 years no seller will actuall state the available wavelengths. That means without this info anywhere you can be certain the advertised lamp is of little to no use. Even those advertised to be short wave UV-C might not be the real deal. However, if a decent manufacturer is behind the actual lamp used it is possible to check the datasheet for these performance figures - but again most cheap systems come with no-name lamps inside. Check the prices for a reputable UV-C light with the same lamp fitting, e.g. G23 and you will see it might cost more than your entire system. Ok, you have a poper short wave UV-C lamp or consider getting a canister filter with one in it.... Never, ever test your lamp without proper protection!!!!! UV-C will damage your eye within seconds! If you system or lamp does not provide a viewing port or shine through area then you have to place a piece of glass between you and the light! UV-C won't be able to penetrate normal window glass but will pass through quartz glass. Place the lamp in a box and cover with the glass. How make proper use of UV-C sterilisation... The replacement lights are quite expensive, so let's see how to get the most out of them. As said before exposure is the key factor so the flow rate of the UV system must match tank size and flow rate of your filter system. Canister filters with a build in lamp should be designed to match but I will tell you later what to look for ;) Most of us will prefer to have a in-line system if there is already a good canister filter at work, so I will focus on those and rop in solutions. If you compare in-line system you might notice that some quite small and low power units claim to allow for the same flow rates as for example 40W units. Some are fraud and just want to sell while others use simple physics to make the claim true. A good system will utilise an auger like "ramp" that forces the water to circulate around the tube many times - causing up to ten times longer exposure rates. Others create this sprial effect more like a vortex with some diverters and modified inlets. The later seems to be less efficient though with low power lamps. An in-line system should be on the outlet side of your canister filter so the best quality water will pass through it. A drop in solution should be used alone and without the existing normal filter pump you might have in there. Ok, got it, but how do I actually use it now? Despite common thinking a UV-C system should not run 24/7 like your normal filter. You really only need it to solve problems you should not have in a healthy tank! It is not a magical solution to make your underlaying problems go away ;) Let's start with the most common reason someone buys a UV-C system: An algae or bacterial outbreak causing greenish or milky water. If that developed slowly over a period of weeks then you would be better off to do a good clean of the tank and filter plus a decent water exchange. A few drops of meds will do the rest. And if you constantly get algae growing on your glass, ornaments and plants then your nutrient levels and water quality is not right anyway and needs a good check. But of course there is also the problem of light - too much for too long and unwanted gree appears everywhere. If in doubt reduce the light power, shade out natural light or reduce the on time for your lights. Having said that we now face the problem of a sudden outbreak after introducing new fish or plants. If you don't have a quarantaine tank chances are that sooner or later you get unwanted or even harmful guest into your tank. Here the UV-C will be beneficial, which is why a canister filter with build in light should have a seperate switch or power supply for the light. After an outbreak or while introducing new life into your tank the UV-C will remove a lot of the things that we don't want to bring along. For new life I leave the light on non stop for a week, that is for a small 4ft tank with 200 liters. To control an outbreak it depends on how bad it is. I assume here you can still see the back of your tank  but that the water either appears greenish or slightly milky from bacteria. As a personal thing I prefer to to remove and clean my filter material before treating a severe outbreak. Once done I fill the filter with a mix of activate carbon material and fine filter wool. Reason for this quite simple: The outbreak causing stuff is already in your filter material and will be a constant source of re-infection. And since breaking down all this bad stuff causes even more bad stuff to be produced as biological waste we want to discard it properly once done. Using just fine filter wool and activated carbon also reduces the flow rate bit if compacted ;) Now we can turn on the light and pump and forget about it for a while. It is not recommended to run UV lights on a timer as you want them on all time to prevent short lifespan and have ongoing treatment of the water. Good idea to take a picture at the same of a day from now on to compare and check results. After 3 days the water should definately be clearer, if not then either your filter material is packed too losse or the lamp is no good. Once the water appears to be clear do a readin test - take a newspaper behind the tank and check if the text is clear - blurry means the water is still not clean. You will reach a point where the water quality will not further improve as much as in the days before. This is the time where you discard or clean out to dry your filter material and put the original stuff back in. The activated carbon should be discarded of course. You cleaned filter material will now need a certain time to grow enough good bacteria to go back to the old performance. During this time you should still leave the light on. In most cases with enough fish and plants in the tank a week should be sufficient. After that you can leave the light off and keep the tank fit and healthy. Special case: Algae everywhere! Especially after getting a new plant you can end up with quite pesty algae growth. Be it these long ghost hair types or in a bad case the black stuff growing on plants, ornaments and the glass. I have even seen tanks with algae covering the entire bottom of the tank causing the gravel to look like carpet. Here I can only advise to set up a quarantaine tank for your fish. Then remove all infested material for manual removal and cleaning. Infested plants should be cut clean and what can be boiled should be boiled in water for a few minutes. Now start scrubbing in the tank with ongoing water replacements. I prefer to let everything settle over night without any bubbler or pump running. This way I can suck up a lot of sediment the next day. If you can remove all plants and fish you can now use hydrogen peroxide and add it to your tank water. But this is only feasable for small desktop tanks. Before using the UV as above to cure an outbreak you should consider all water one last time. Allow at least 2 weeks with ongoing water checks before adding plants back in and another week before placing your fish back in the tank. The week before adding fish should be used to monitor the plats for any signs of algae you might have missed - if you find any remove it! A week after the fish is back in you can turn off the UV light. Underwater UV-C light!? In most online stores you will find quite cheap UV lights to be advertised as underwater or in tank use. Although it might sound tempting you should be well aware of the dangers of using them. The glass of your tank will block the harmfull UV rays but the water surface won't, so either don't ever look at it or use proper sunglasses with real UV protection. Apart from the dangers to you these lamps are not just cheap in price but also cheaply produced. That means there is no way of telling how much or how little UV-C is produced. If they are good then you still need to know in what type of tank setup you can use them. As plants can tolerate a bit of UV a placement as far away from the nearest plant should do, especially if you can place a bubble wall betwenn light and plants. The fish is another thing as some seem to be unaware of the danger in their tank. This means they can get too close to the light but I have not found any articles explaining how harmful UV-C is to fish or their eyesight. I guess once your fish starts to bounce into everything you know... ;) My advise is to stay away from the idea of hanging a UV-C lamp in your tank, the risk for you and your tank is just not justified. If you need to go cheap then get two or thre of these lamps so you have spares. But use them externally ;) Meaning: Take a UV proof plastic container of small size and place the light in there. To be really safe tape the lid and all holes for the hoses with black tape. Place the container above the water level of your tank and if you only have an internal filter pump push a suitable sized hose into the outlet to feed into you canister. Check how high you pump can make it and place the outlet or overflow slightly below this level. When to change the light? If you made it all the way down here then you might already had the benefit of using light to "cure" your tank. Now we are faced with the high replacement cost for the lamp itself. Ususally only flouroscent tubes are used. It is always good to check after purchase what type of lamp and manufacturer (if there is one) was used. In some cases the system itself is like an inkjet printer: Just a cheap way to make you buy the consumables. Let's say you new in-line filter was priced at $100 to have a nice round number, some are cheaper some much more expensive. The lamp used might be an exotic type and not even be available easy, so before you buy your system check where you can get spares, not just the lamp of course. A replacement lamp can be as ceap as 20 bucks or cost even more than your system if you need to order it elsewhere. The quartz glass sleeve can break too meaning you then need a lamp and cylinder. Going with a reputable brand and paying a bit more certainly helps to get spares in the future. Let's just assume you either got your system in bulk due to the price of replacement lamps or can get them at a reasonable price. UV-C lamps are not like your normal flouroscent light tubes you have around or maybe even on top of your tank. Consider them like the tubes used in the now unhealthy tanning beds. After a certain amount of time they no longer produce enough of the short wave UV light that we need. As you can't see it and most of us won't have the means to specifically measure it we have to trust manufacturers recommendations. For most good brands the numbers are the same: 8000 hours max. Considering the costs it does make sense to keep written track of the usage. Not too hard since we won't use them like normal lights but instead have them on for a week or more without turning them off. I recommend to have a replacement at hand long before you need it. A lamp can fail premature, crack or simply burn out. The 8000 hours are based on 24 hour usage, so one day on, one day off. This could mean for us the lifetime can be slightly longer but I would not go over 9000 hours. As a rule of thumb: If the water does not show good signs of getting clear on day thre the lamp is due.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply