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Use a Co2 regulator for air?

Can I use a Co2 regulator to regulate high pressure air.  I am trying to build a high pressure system using a scuba tank or paintball/airsoft tank to operate air tools, pressurize pipes, fill tires, inflate balloons, dust work areas and computers, etcetera.  There are C02 regulators but not many 'air' regulators.  I just want to use air and not Co2.

Question by RandallIja    |  last reply

Building a custom shaped Compressed air tank

Hello, am looking into the possibility of building my own paintball markers, and wanted to do a custom way of using the air system, compared to most markers. I was thinking either a square shape, but after finding an article that was talking about water and gases tanks and why they are build cylindrical, i realized that maybe that might not be as easy or practical. another possible idea would be a flask shaped tank, but for the design am looking at it would need special commendations, none the less I wish to see if something like that could be possible.

Topic by Mac yet more irish    |  last reply

Is it possible to mount a CO2 tank on the side of a painball gun?

I am working on a paintball sniper project using a Tippmann 98 Custom as the base gun. I was wondering if it would be possible to mount a small CO2 can, maybe a 6 ounce, on the side of the gun without the bolt on it. I suppose I could just rig something up and attach it through the existing bolt holes, but I was wondering if there was a manufactured product that does this that I could work from. At the moment I have my tank mounted under the front barrel by way of a home-made rack. This works, but messes with the balance of the gun. any tips or links appreciated.

Topic by ilpug    |  last reply

Are Co2 (Carbon Dioxide) air systems refillable? Answered

The kind of Tank Im talking about is a Paintball air system. Are they refillable?

Question by Paintballer98    |  last reply

paintball co2 tank hose to pressure washer trigger gun mod

I like to know how to adapt a paintball gun tank hose to fit a pressure washer trigger, & make what's know as a CO2 spray gun or Cryo gun. Personally, I just wanted to make a Dalek fire extinguisher gun.

Topic by elkaddalek    |  last reply

Soda carbonation?

Hi I want to carbonate my own soda with co2 (everytime I use yeast it comes out wrong/disgusting). I know I need a co2 tank and a keg, but what do I need in between? (simplest system possible).

Question by rushfantomsawyer    |  last reply

How can I carbonate soda using a CO2 tank and not have to carbonate each 2L bottle one at a time? Answered

I want to start making my own soda and I can get my hands on a CO2 tank. I've seen how to do it, but it involves carbonating each 2L bottle separately. I was thinking of filling some sort of tank up with the soda and carbonating that. What would I need in order to set something like that up, and how should I got about doing it?

Question by Hadokendude    |  last reply

How can you make a good portable co2 generator for paint ball.?

I've already seen the thing with the soda bottle. I want something wearable to slowly put co2 in the tank for your gun.

Question by ThroatSlasher    |  last reply

DIY Scuba Tank (breath underwater)

I need some advice. I have a great idea that would be amazing if it worked. I want a small scuba/air tank whatever you want to call it (like a scuba secondary tank or a paintball co2 tank) that i can use to mess around with in a pool. I dont want to be constantly breathing, just enough to take a deep breath, go underwater and hold it for a minute, release air from the tank-take a breath, hold it, take another breath from the tank, hold it, and so on. Just enough to get a few breaths and be under water to last me for 5 or 10 minutes. The only thing is i dont want to have to fill it at a dive shop or from a tank that has to be filled at a dive shop like scuba secondary tanks. i want to rig it to fit a bike pump (which probably will not have enough psi to get the amount of air i want) or my air compressor. So i would like advice and also would i need an air regulator since im not constantly breathing? what could i use as a regulator if i need one at all? 

Topic by wdemarche    |  last reply

To whom it may concern. Regarding: Building a Pneumatic Launcher

Question: How can I use a CO2 cartridge for propellsion, attached to a valve & trigger that is linked directly to the barrel without the use of a air chamber tank? Any ideas of how to engineer this is much apppreciated. Thank you, Gerald J. Wygladalski President & CEO SafeBrella Co.

Question    |  last reply

how to make a air powered short shot and stop air just passing by after the munition left the barrel?

Hey,i've got a question,i want to make a air pressured gun, but i wont make one that just lets you build up much pressure, and then in one single shot get's empty. i want to make it like a paintball gun, so you can shoot more than one time with the same pressure tank. i found this : that must axplain a bit how a paintball gun works. but i still don't get it. and i also found this:, so want to maybe combine those ideas, like make something in front of the nut of the explosive air-realese valve. that does the same thing as the paintball gun. something that knocks the valve back one time and then reloads itself. i don't have a clue how to do something like that, that's why i ask it.thanks for your time!

Question by rikels    |  last reply

can compressed gas leak through a metal tank? Answered

So the other day i was talking with my friend and  he told me that gas can leak out of a metal tank.  he said gas can leak out of scuba tank going through the metal just like it goes through a latex balloon.  so i wanna know is this true?  could gas leak out (given enough time) through a 12 gram CO2 tank used for airsoft for instance?

Question by cdubnbird    |  last reply

Need more information about this engine HELP?

I saw yesterday at the animated engine site the co2 engine      and really like it , and i would to make it using PVC pipes and wood , but i could not find more details and information for that model i searched a lot (results are other type of co2 engines) so can any body help me for more details and info as patterns and directions to make it. PS: i will mike one piston engine with a compressed air tank (could be a deodorant or gas spray)hhhhh

Question by vwtm2006    |  last reply

what do yall think?

Btw what happend to not liable any ways OK i was bored today. It acutaly rained in so cal so I made this thing its about 5 feet tall and its a pnumatic blow gun thing with a electronic scope i coulnd find the presure rated pvc thing nor the co2 tanks so i used the next best thing A COKE BOTTLE AND A BIKE PUMP WOOOOOOT. i Know people are going to say why the (*(& are u using a coke bottle its because i only need 25-30 psi with a paper dart tiped with a paperclip and foil it went about well outa my houses yard passed my neighbors yard to my 3rd row down neighbors yard (thak god!)

Topic by gotja    |  last reply

Neverending Seltzer Water Maker - Interest?

I've been making my own seltzer water for many years. And in normal situations (you know when there isn't a worldwide pandemic crisis.), I have to refill my 5 gallon keg about once every 7-10 days. But lately with a family of four at home, my refill cycle is down to 2 days!This has forced me to design a new system that will replenish itself automatically overnight. Basically, once its setup, the only thing it will need is a new tank of CO2 when the gas runs out. Even for me with a 25 lb tank at this high consumption rate will last about 4 months. So it will be a huge improvement for me, but was unsure if a broader audience would value the concept/project.Basically, I'm curious to know if people would be interested in an Instructable detailing this system. It will be completely electro-mechanical, and not require any raspberry/arduino/software/etc. (Also, it will be completely different from the other endless supply seltzer Instructables already published, and should be much cheaper too!)The system is currently in design phase, so I'll be much more diligent about documenting the process if others would be interested.Thanks in advance for your responses.(You can see my Instructable "Lazy Man's Carbonating Shaker (Seltzer Water or Beer)" to get an idea of my current setup.)

Topic by Icelandian    |  last reply

Airsoft v.s Paint ball

Many paintballers disrespect airsofters and vice versa. which is better??? (i play both and i enjoy both of them)please post some pros and con for each sport.A.S=airsoft P.B=paint ball Pros and cons for 6mm paintballs:Pros: Can be used in any gun if 6mm, can see if hit. most biodegradable Cons: Sometimes burst in the gun and mess up you're gun fore ever, don't all ways burst. It is like for every paintball that doesn't burst, 10 6mm paintballs don't burst. 3X more expensive than normal BBs airsoftpros: cheeper ammo & guns. reusable ammo. grater gun design freedom. guns available at walmart and most sports stores, AS guns look like real guns -Co2 cost only about 50 cents you can airsoft anywherecons: cheating is easier, more painful, Co2 can only be used once, you can't tell if someone was shot, biodegradable ammo hard to find and only available in .2 & .25 gram bbs (most guns work best with .12g ) paintball pros: more fields then A.S. easy to see when hit, less pain full games end a lot faster allmost all paint balls are biodegradable cons: ammo not reusable more expensive need large c02 tanks you need a huge open space and no dangers of damagni property and often have to pay to use fields airsoft at parks and large aeraswana add to this list just comment (please do so nicely this is ment to help people to decide between the 2)heres a tally of preferences / = 5 tallys |=1tally P.B/|A.S / ||||

Topic by i make shooting things    |  last reply

The "truth" about climate change - a little story

Global warming, climate change, jelly fish attacks, changed ocean currents...We all know the highlights from the news but what is the real deal behind all of this?It can't be denied that burning fossil fuels with no regrets has an impact on our globe.CO2 and other gasses or elements have been trapped for thausands of years.We release them all into our atmosphere and while doing so keep adding more harmful stuff.So, of course it is easy to say that if we would have nver used our fossile fuels to this extent then our world would be unharmed and a happy place throughout.Even if we would ignore the impossible task of making it where we are right now without having used any fossile fuels: How much would it be different?If we trust the offical climate data that has been collected then it clearly shows a rise in so called climate changing emissions since our industrial revolution started.Be it data from the ice, core drillings or just sample taken from old canyons - the results are all the same.Since the late 1800's there is a steady rise in emissions, CO2 and all the other things we don't really want in our air.And for good reasons all these green advocates try their best to stop us from doing more harm.Since the 80's we started to actually care more, better engines, catalytic converters, cleaning mechanisms for our industiral waste and chimneys.But did it make any change or difference?About 40 years now some countries try hard to do it right, so this must show up somewhere?!Well it does not.You see countries like the US never really cared about climate or the enviroment if there was a cheaper and easier option.Just check how long it took them to even acknowledge that our climate is changing due to our interference...Then there is China and as we have seen with the olympics they literally have to shut down production so you can see for more than a few km...But the same is true for so many other countries.Like everwhere else the industrial revolutions comes sooner or later and as always the cheapest way is done first and for far too long.And with the delay in reactions and consequences it is now certain that the worst is yet to come.Of course there is also another side to the entire story - nature itself.We destroy it where we can to safisfy our need for being cheap.Ever wondered where all this cheap furniture is coming from?Or all the wood used throughout the world?Rainforests are disappearing, flora and fauna is destroyed.In most cases with a lot of fires as it is still the easiest way to clean up when done.Now add the vulcanic eruptions that increased over the past 20 odd years around the world.And if you dare all the bushfires or natural causes.Combined this causes a higher impact than all our burning of fossile fuels - and it adds to the mix.And this brings us back in time.Taking the records of climete conditions all the way back to before the dinosaurs showed us that we had periods of much higher temperatures than what we might see soon.CO2 level at some periods were so high that the earth literally was a green house.So why did we humans amke it anyway onto this earth if chance were so bad?Species adjust, evolve or go extinct, new ones appear...Well, unless you are a croc or so and really don't care about Darvin and evolution ;)Does that mean we are on the way to become a new species?Sadly no, because we are the cause of all our problems.We now use technology and science to adjust nature and the enviroment to our needs.It gets too hot? Well add an airconditioner, will you!?The ground water is too contaminted to drink? Well, why do you think we invented bottled water?!You need room for new homes? Don't mind the flood planes, just drain them and build, there was no flood in over 30 years...See, even if we would go fully green and honur nature around the world from today on.Even if we try to clean up the mess we already created.The effects of what we did over the last 40 or more years are still in progress and far from over.Like a good stew it keep cooking until it is ready to serve.But strenght comes in numbers!Like a virus we keep multiplying even in areas with very limited ressources.After all, we just import what we need..Natural selection is being eliminated so pharma companies can make a living too.From just over 40 years our "natural" life expectency increased now to well into the 80's.You are not fertile? No problem we have means to fertilise your eggs with the sperm from hubby!Already suffering badly from diabetes, asthma or other chronical illness? No problem, have some kids anyway.And just to top it always make sure to avoid natural foods in favour for processed and artificial ingredients.In nature the weak, the sick, the old, the malformed and incapable are a food source.We took this food source away, keet them around, care for them and make sure really everyone has the same chance in life.In life - but not in nature anymore!Social evolution meant that natural selection was no longer a requirement to ensure a strong "tribe" or hunting party.We compensated the drain on ressources and all pharma companies are still very grateful for this.No this is no weird rant on humanity or the idea of some mad person, it is just the naked reality we like to ignore.A horse breeder will not accept a weak and constanlty sick horse for his breeding stock.A broken leg, like for a cow usually just means the animal is put down.Some dog breeders still prefer to cull a few pups just because the color pattern is not nice enough or the ears are too short.Even if you just breed fish you o through all sorts of troubles to ensure you have the best genes available in your tanks.You think this is already going to far with the ideas, I know :(But we have real world examples highlighting the results of the exact opposite: Inbreeding and ignoring the defects in genes and health.The british royal family destroyed the italian and russin monarchies the same was the spanish and protugise, even impacted on the french.In times when there was no clue about genetic defects or deseases that can be dormant in females but very active in males, the british royalty simply kept providing tainted bloodlines to the other royal familes.No offsprings that are male and of good health meant the end of their monarchies.The british survived by allowing the common folk to join the blue blood lines and now it is common in all the monachrchies left in the world.Remove the carries, provide fresh genes to get a better diversity.Really no offence, but just look at Charles and Camilla ;)Jokes aside: the story of the european monarchies shows what happens if things go too wrong.From hunters a gatherers that either kept healthy or died out we eveloved to having a gene pool that is full of nasty surprises.Again no offence meant in any way or to any person!If we compare our world with a big aquarium than it might have eveloved like this:Once there was a bowl full of plants, guppies and lots of other fish and creatures living on each other.Over time the guppies learnt when the feeding times are and made sure they get most of the food.Slowly the other psecies had not enough room and food anymore, only the hunter had a good linving with the huge supply of guppies.Then the guppies managed to reduce the dangers from all predators around and started to really take off.Soon every guppy had only conerns about having a good life and enough food.The waste got more and more, the sick and ill too.The last hunter able to fight them died off as he too suffered from the wasten the changed enviroment and gnetic defects transfered.Now there is little plants left, guppies everywhere, crap everywhere and even those guppies only living a few months still manages to find a partner to ensure their tainted gene pool spreads into the general population.We have no tank owner getting the balance right again, removing the sick and weak, we humans just keep going strong and if the crap pile gets too high we put grass and houses on top of it....We humans don't like to be compared with fish, a virus or any other lower being for that matter.These hings just don't affect or concern us.And anyone who dares to do so anyway has a long list of nasty words thrown at them.Is it because we humans can't tolerate the truth?Or is because deep inside we all know but refuse to think about it?

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Advice needed on nearly complete instructable

Sorry this is a bit long, but there is an actual question at the end, honest! Every morning at work I walk past a table at the end of our mailboxes that people put give away items on. Its usually a catalog of some form but for a long time now there's been a stack of empty CD spindles and a sign beside them that reads "free to good home." I could have taken them and sorted the mountain of CDs in my office or used them for small parts bins, but to make it areally Good use of empty CD spindles I had to ask myself "IS there an instructable in this?" There are some good ideas for using CDs and a few for the spindles, but at the moment what interests me is hydroponics. So using CD spindles or more exactly the plastic covers they come with I built the basic part of this excellent instructable:    and I learned a lot of stuff about water pressure and such and once I had built the 2liter bottle method described above I decided to try sealing one of the CD cases and use it for the water container at the bottom of the stack. That took about 4 sticks of hot glue and a couple of burnt knuckles to get a good seal. Turns out there's holes in the center spindle too but I didn't notice them till I had hot glued the container closed. Also ignore the bit of blue air hose inside the container, I was up way too late and flipped the CD spindle 'right side up' which caused me to attach the air hose to the wrong outlet and basically made it useless. I thought I'd need a lot more water in the system than I do so I chose to use a 100ct CD spindle instead of the 50 ct spindles you see on top. (Thanks to all for the ideas on how I could have done it easier!) So far this part of the project was just overlaying the ideas in the excellent instructable above onto the materials at hand. So what I ended up with is an air pump from a fish tank pumping air into the bottom chamber. (the clear hose in center of picture.) This builds up enough pressure to push water thru the blue hose and up to the top CD spindle. I've cut holes the diameter of the air hose into the base of the spindle and this lets water slowly trickle into the Perlite growth medium. When the water reaches the bottom it goes out similar holes in the clear plastic CD cover and starts to pool up a bit to start the process all over again. There is just enough lip on the lid and the bottom of the next spindle to keep it from spilling down the side before this happens. It helps to use the same brand CD spindle all the way up. The clever part of this instructable is that each CD spindle easily stacks in place and you can remove it or change the order without having to dig up or harm the other plants. The base is very stable with several ounces of water in it and I'd imagine you could put 4 of these in a stack and happily swap plants in and out all summer long. The height of the stack depends on how strong your air pump is. I tested two different ones and both were capable of lifting water over 4 feet  up the air hose. Caveat: I haven't actually grown any plants in this yet, so your mileage may vary. Using the stack of CDs for use as apartment planters or sprouting medium would have satisfied the original curiosity for what to do with all those left over CD cases, but in absence of glowing blue LEDs or CO2 lasers I thought Hydroponics would be a great way to sex up the overall idea. I imagine you could use spanish moss or bedding in place of the Perlite, or even soil if you used a coffee filter to cover the holes till you were ready to stick a seedling thru it. This Instructable isn't quite finished as presented. There's a small problem. As you can see in the photo there's a half height (25ct) CD spindle between the water container and the stack of planting modules. Remember that hole I mentioned in the end of the CD spindle? I closed that with a bit of plastic and hot glue, but it made me wonder, COULD I put some sort of check valve here to allow unused water to trickle back into the holding tank YET not lose the hard fought air pressure that's pushing the water to the top of the column in the first place? Since I'm re-using all this old aquarium tech I thought I'd try one of those tiny check valves that keep water from backwashing into the air pump when its off. I'm not sure if it will work in this application or even how much air pressure it will tolerate. This will require some disassembly of the CD hydroponics tower and I thought I'd ask here for suggestions before heating up the glue gun again. So what do you guys think? This has been a lot of fun to think about and I can't wait to bring the media guy  around into my office to see how I've re-purposed the spindles. Just this one last step away…. cheers, flashj  

Topic by flashj  

Laser Cutter Contest Winners!

It is with great pleasure that I announce the winner of the Laser Cutter Contest:Stuart.Mcfarlan for How to Make a Three Axis CNC Machine (Cheaply and Easily)Be sure to check out Stuart.Mcfarlan's plans for the Laser Cutter.Congratulations to all the finalists who will receive a Laser-etched Instructables Leatherman Juice S2 and an Instructables t-shirt for their simply amazing work:crabfu for Steam Turbine Tankdave spencer for erupting Volcano Birthday CakeHonus for How to make a Green Lantern ring- including a glowing version!jabroutin for personal powerPlantjeffkobi for Retro Hi-Fi ProjectKasey for Compubeaver --> How to case-mod a beaver - in 29 easy steps!lkrasnow for Precision Puzzlemaking Primer -- Volume 1mikejedw for Pringles Wind Turbine (Pleech) - Version One mydian_nightshade forFurniture grade cocktail arcade cabinetmzed for Low-cost Spherical Speaker Array nemomatic for Giant Squid kinetic sculpture from found materialsorthonormal_basis_of_evil for EMP shopping cart lockertalbotron22 for DIY Kitty Crack: ultra-potent catnip extract turkey tek for Interactive Multitouch DisplayWe had planned to select 20 second place winners, but just couldn't narrow the field, so we're awarding 25 second place winners, who will receive Instructables t-shirts! They are:$30 High-Speed PCB Drill Press by lancandy$60 Laser Engraver / Cutter by cgoshBreath powered USB charger by jmengelBuild a Tetris DVD (or book) shelf by odecom5Capture the Ethereal Beauty of Everyday Objects Using Polarized Light. by Tool Using AnimalCO2 laser that cuts sheet metal by owhiteCosmic Light With LEDs Embedded in Resin by technoplastiqueDuck Cam Decoy by RoadstarElectromagnetic Floater by J_HodgieFine Silver (99.9% pure) Popcorn Pendant! by roughtyperHan Solo in carbonite chocolate bar! by FreakCitySFLaptop Converted to 2nd Monitor by punish3rMake a wall avoiding Robot! a collaboration led by Brandon121233Make Conductive Glue and Glue a Circuit by mikey77Make rope out of dead plants -- with no tools a collaboration led by phyzomeMod a toaster and have retro art toast for breakfast by 5VoltMotherboard PCB Bracelet by llama13Portable Water resistant LED Picnic Blanket with hard center serving surface! by pointcloudStart a Guerrilla Drive-in by plusbryanThe Ice Bulb by mandrakeThe Intimate Video Light/ Handheld photograpy light. by curve12The One, The Only COTTON CANDY MACHINE! by T3h_MuffinatorTheater Effects: Gunshot Wounds by TrumpetNeelUse a Vacuum cleaner to build your own Skateboard by gregorylavoieWire Scorpion by OniToraAll the winners should watch for a personal message from us for prize claiming instructions.With so many excellent entries, and with each of them being at the top of their game in some different aspect, the judging was extremely difficult. We had help juding from a large number of users including 5Volt, african_andy187, Albetcha, BobbyMike, CameronSS, canida, daenris, drinkmorecoffee, ewilhelm, fungus amungus, herrozerro, ian, imanalchemist, J_Hodgie, jamesh, jesse.hensel, jessyratfink, jmengel, Kiteman, LasVegas, lebowski, lennyb, llama13, lothotrity, momo!, nagutron, nak, noahw, olddaddycrane, pt, Randofo, Robyntheslug, royalestel, ryzellon, Sam Noyoun, saul, Sedgewick17, sheekgeek, stasterisk, steven07, T3h_Muffinator, technick29, Tetranitrate, Tool Using Animal, trebuchet03, trialex, x9a, zieak, and Zujus. For more information on how we judged, check here.The entries submitted to this contest exceeded all of my expectations. They are totally amazing in their quality, instructional value, uniqueness, and pure brilliance. It is my hope that everyone had a blast entering the contest and learned something useful, fun, or both. To me, the value of posting an Instructable is when someone makes a comment saying that I taught them something new, changed the way they looked at things, or inspired them to make something themselves (even if it's something totally different than my Instructable). Looking through the Instructables submitted to the contest and comments on the finalists' forum posts, it's clear that this is happening all over, and it makes me smile every time. Congratulations to all the winners! And, thanks to everyone that entered. Even if your Instructable didn't win a prize, I'm sure it has had a positive impact on someone's life and will continue to do so.

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply

Ancient technologies revisited - drilling and machining

In the ruins of our ancient world we often see exceptional accuracy for surfaces but also clear indications of machining work that should have been impossible back then,For quite a few of these impossibilities modern scientists, inventors and people that just like to experiment came up with plausible conclusions.So let's start with a few of them...Core drilling...It is a process were a rather large hole is not actually drilled but cut out.Imagine a piece of pipe you press into some clay - that's what you end up with.A circular, deep hole with a standing core inside, break the core off and you are good to go.Doing this with copper or brass tools as the only available metal tools seems feasable.If it is something soft like sand stone but for things like granite???Ancient texts provided some clues, like that slow spinning tubes were used or that drilling a 2m deep hole did only take a few hours.Appearently it was done in less than half a day - a day being daylight.Modern diamond drilling tools would still struggle to create such a deep hole in that time unless you pay a fortune for a custom made drill bit.One clue that was nagging these people for a long times was how it was possible to reach these high penetration speeds.The marks on core samplesand holes clearly show and almost spiral pattern, indicating the "drill" went deeper by a few mm with just a few rotations of the drill.The calculated pressure required to do this is about equal to having a tank parked on top of your drill....Impossible I know...Hammer drill differences give us another clue here.Take you homedepot drill that can drill in metal and stone - it runs fast and although it does the job the tradesmen tool does it better.Not because it is way more expensive but because it is purpose made by running slower but with a much more powerfull impact for the drill bit.How do you create a massive impact with copper or brass?Those who tried a copper drill will tell you they are no good for anything.Those who tried a copper core drill will tell you the same.Too soft, deforms too quickly, no "teeth" that last for more than a few seconds.But is that really true???These soft metals seem to have a feature that makes them special: They can be "work hardened".Like the top end of your cold chisel "peeling"...Of course the harness levels you can achieve are still very short of being even like soft steel.Every material has a resonant frequency, even hard rock like granite.A technique called sonic drilling utilises this as an advantage.The drill is subjected to an audio signal that is very close or matching a harmonic frequency of the rock in question.There is even nice Youtube videos showing how two stones are flattened against each other just with loudspeakers and some wire to hold them together.The same guy posted videos showing that core drilling is possible this way too.The science behind it is still not a 100% understood though.Several universities did their own experiments here and here are some of the more modern explanations why it works despite being impossible:The vibrations cause surface fractures on contact, a bit like when your dentist cleans your teeth with this screaming thing...The contact surface of the drill actually does not do any impact damage, it simply acts as a transducer horn for the vibrations.In their tests it was even confirmed that steel tools are no good here as the material would mean you need very long tools due to the resonant nodes forming differently in denser material.Most interesting was that these aido drills can be literally of any shape you like.Not hard to create a fancy symbol shape from copper pipe - and then to vibrate it into the surface to create writing....Several ancient cultures show clear tooling marks in their carved symbol creations while others seemed to have "melted" the symbol into the rock - audio only ;)Extreme accuracy for planar faces....Be it the walls of an ancient "coffin", box or chamber, we can find a lot of them with an accuracy that even today we would fail to achieve.A solid granit like block with a perfectly square box cut out of it.Several examples exist where the accuracy couldn't be done with modern tools at all.Less than 0.5% divergence from true parallel walls and corners with a rounded inner edge with a radius of less than 2mm....Audio machining is not feasable for this one.And with literally no surface marks scientists were baffled for decades.Due to the size it would mean that for a tiny error you would have to re-do the entire surface of the affected wall.And with a surface so highly polished that even after a few tausand years it still reflects light....Samples taken showed another conundrum - glacing...Almost as if the stone was melted, pressed flat and then repeated until the entire surface was done.The temperautres required for this however are said to be impossible in ancient times, same for any tools capable of tolerating such heat without melting.So this theory was discarded for a very long time and deemed to be interpretation error - after all they had no chance to do this thausands of years ago.Later it was discovered that you actually can use two identically hard stone surfaces to grind them perfectly flat against each other.And well, using the right, mild abbresives it is even possible to give the surface a nice shine.Yes, the theory is sound but can't explain how one would machine the corners like this....The inside of a square or rectangular box can't be produced like this.Plus the problem of actually removing all the unwanted material first.In recent years the old samples taken were subject to new studies, this time in regards to the possibility that the surface was polished using heat.Surprisingly a mix of high temps and cold water allows for quite accurated destruction of the surface.Relatively easy to remove some bumps by just heating the bump and spraying a mist of cold water over it.Still not possible to create perfect corners but a start.It failed to reproduce the shine and polished surface too.Then, as a last resort you might say, lasers were used on rocks of similar or identical composition.The classic CO2 laser is a brute force tool and although accuracy would be possible you wouldn't get a good surface as it does not melt, it just cracks like glass.Femto second lasers were great here but could not provide any glacing effect either.Problem was always that the stone could not soak up any of the laser energy.It would not heat up evenly, only very locally where the laser was hitting the surface and no depth either.Then they finally got the idea to use tiny samples in a wide laser beam.A wavelength more suited to heat rather than vaporise and energy levels per mm² much, much lower than in a focussed beam.No problem to actually fully melt the sample without create any cracks or to adjust the parameters so the core still remains solid for a true glazing effect.Funny side effect of fully molten samples were their extreme surface hardness - very similar to what we find in ancient leftovers we can't explain.On bigger samples two effects were observed.Firstly that of a flat surface with the sample being rather thick, a too fast cooling down would result in the entire surface that was heated to split off.Secondly that the resulting surface was still extremely flat and even.Sadly we can not find any real evidence that ancient cultures knew about how to use high energy lasers with adjustable focus....And so far no one was able to come up with any theory that explains ALL the features of a perfect stone box with polished surfaced, especially if the surfaced is glaced.The ancient lathe....We can see the evidence of large boulders machined on some gigantic lathe through the ancient world, especially in greece and the middle east.And so far the best archeologists could come up with was that some guy sat there for days hammering the surface until a template provided a perfect fit.What they failed to explain was how this guy did this in a true rotary fashion.But the beauty of archeology is that these guys can claim what they like without being required to provide backing of their claims - not their territory OLIn several places we found leftovers of contraptions deemed to be the remains of some grinding mechanism to make flour or maby fine powder from rocks for mortar.But every mill needs a mlling stone - they were never found anywhere.And if the "mount" that remains clearly indicates it was able to be moved in the X and Y direction it would have been a very strange flour mill indeed.In the real world you would only have to move the grinding stone up and even that is mostly optional.The real clue however is how complicated it would have been to collect the flour.No one wants to use a broom to get it off the floor in a desert environment....With the wearmarks on the bottom stone it would have been impossible to produce flour, so why would it have been used for decades more if the flour was no good anyway?Again, outsiders provided vital clues by creating small models of these ancient "flour mills".The ground around them shows wear marks identical to someone running in a circle since the dawn of time.At quite a distance to the center I might add.If horses or cows were used to go in said circle with a harness you could spin quite some weight - like a round piller stone.And the bottom "pan" could be filled with fine sand or similar to act as a rudimentary bearing.The rounded bottom and indentation on the top of ancient piller stones seems suddenly more plausible to be the result of these "flour mills" - they self centered the block for machining.Push your tool(s) against the surface and make sure they keep the tension, then sit back and watch the animals do the hard work for you.Nothing fancy about it, just a vertical lathe driven by animals instead of a big motor and gear box...Won't explain though how some cultures were able to create perfectly round pillars of 20 or more meters in length in one piece....In many places we can observe impossible fitments, like a lid on a stone box that won't even require a sealant to be perfectly air tight.Or in India and other parts of the east intricate stone figurines that are hollowed out - with carved details on the inside.So not just some holes and simple cavities, more like 3D printed.Several experts of their fields, from artists over stone masons to jewlery makers tried to re-create some of these features using modern tools - they all failed badly.You simply can't use a rotating tool if you need to get around several corners to reach the surface to be machined.So how were the ancient builders and artists able to do the impossible?Some say that ancient texts and images tell us that the stone was melted away, like bee's wax.The glacing effect on these surfaces seems to confirm this but we all know you can't melt rock, especially not in a controlled way to create artwork.Rock is not ice - or is it?High frequency ultrasonic machining allows us to work with very hard rock, like cutting through butter with a hot knife.No sharp tools required either.The only problem is that you need very hard tools with a high tensile strenght and "good acoustics" - like titanium as the prefered option in the industry for ultrasonic horns and amplifiers.They did not have titanium in the ancient world and they certainly did not have power outlet to drive some ultrasonic tools.But they did know their acoustics as the "musical temple" in India shows.Hit a pillar, some plate or even statue and they all produce a very accurate frequency, despite the entire temple being carved out of one solid mountain piece...You can not create this today even if you had a clue how to carve it out of the mountain!!No way to create delicated designs that all have individual but extreme accurate musical notes when hit...Means the ancient builder must have known about the way sound travels through solid materials and how it is reflected inside them - otherwise hitting a statue would also make other things in the temple swing....Imagine that it was known how to produce the required frequencies to basically weaken the crystal structure of a rock exactly where you want it to weaken.You would have a rock-shaver of sorts.You could not use it though as it would be a huge thing.Theory is the ancient builder worked the opposite way instead.Making the entire rock or even mountain swing at a perfectly matched resonant frequency that produces a peak right where you need to work.A bit like going a dentist that no longer uses a rotating and screaming drill on your bad tooth, instead you sit in a fast rotating chair ;)Lab experiments clearly showed it is possible on a small scale with our modern technology.Tungsten-Carbide already in the ancient world?Electron microscopy claims to have found evidence of substances embedded in the machined surface that have similar properties to our modern carbides.Of course every alien theorists jumped right on it and claimed that had help from extra terrestrials.But is it really as simple as someone coming down from the stars to give some ancient builder a more than modern tool?He wouldn't have a clue how to use it, how to power it, he would need a teacher and power source.What some of these alien nut crackers missed is the simple fact that a lot of really hard materials can be created by the most basic means.Thermite is still widely used and produces quite good steel, all you need is iron oxide and aluminium powder.With sand you can even make your own silicium metal is you like on the beach....Where the knowelde for such things and more originated might remain a mystery but we have evidence the ancient guys knew quite a bit about ores and oxides, so why is it so hard to think they accidentially or intentionally tried to melt them into tools or art pieces?And then suddenly something goes up up in flames and some shiny and really metal appears when cooled down....We also know the ancient people knew about several acids and how to make them from scratch, even how to concentrate them.Not soo hard anymore to create some waste products that are of no other use to you than to be used as grinding materials and abbresives....As said, it is unclear where the knowledge or idea come from, all we know they had the know how.Where did the ancient tools go?We can still find tools in the pyramids in tiny and no longer accessible areas - at least no human fits in there anymore.We also found clear indications of iron oxides embedded in stone surfaces, predominantly in holes and such.So they might have had iron or even steel around the same time we though they only had copper and brass, big deal...Well, it kinda is...Especially Japan showed us how metallurgy is carried on as a vital tradion into todays times.From selecting the raw material for the melting, over the entire melting process, down to discarding most of the results by just looking at them - an understanding we modern people no longer have.And the swordsmith again only takes those sample where he can see already how they work together when he heats them up and hammers them.Especially the secret knowledge how to iclude impurities, remove them and what natural and most basic additions need to be added is something even modern science fails at.A bit of leafs from this plant, some dirt from that region, some burnt wood and suddenly the resulting steel won't rust anymore, is more ductile and hard at the same time...But you would need this kind of attention when you create tools.For steel you want a certain hardness, flexibility or ability to flex without breaking quickly to avoid fatigue.In most cases these steels are anything except resistant to corrosion.Most tool steels of the older days needed to be kept well oiled or they would rust away quickly.Chrome and other hard to come by elements gave our modern steel the stainless effect.From the ancinet world we know of iron statues and pillars that produce a protective rust layer of just a few microns but no further rust damage.You wouldn't be able to create this without generations of experts refining the process and observing how well or badly it works out.Would you take your expensive tools that might taken weeks to manufacture at a job site with thausands of slaves? Certainly not, you taken them home with them and slep with them under your pillow....No surprise then that we could never find any "good" tools around ancient ruins.Once a town is build today you won't find the tools of the tradies still sitting around either...Is this evidence?Nope, the failure to find high quality tools from builders does not mean they existed.Finding evidence of modern alloys or steels just in abbrasesion or tool marks is no good either.It could be from someone at a later time simply following these marks with a more modern metal tools, like a steel needle.For every evidence here there is also evidence of where the evidence can't come from.Again science clashes with archeology and history without being able to agree or compromise to provide a conclusion that is acceptable by both sides.Only materials designed and created to last throughout history will survive thausands of years of exposure to the elements.We might find real and undeniable evidence one day in lost cities on the ocean's floors, till then though....

Topic by Downunder35m