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Can i replace a Mobile Intel(R) 965 Express Chipset Family video card from a laptop with another video card ?

Can i replace a Mobile Intel(R) 965 Express Chipset Family video card from a laptop with another video card for laptops ?

Question by hellrider75    |  last reply


Something to replace a transformer? Answered

Hi everyone,I just want to know if there's anything that could replace a step-down transformer i.e,Step down 220 volts(AC) to 5 volts(DC).I want a thumb nail sized transformer for my purpose but its hard to get,so if there;s something more compact and can replace the transformer,things would move on awesome!

Question by Adarsh_tronix    |  last reply


I got a NST!

I recently bought a 11kv, 30mA Neon Sign transformer. I can get nice arcs off of it and everything (maybe about 2 inches? when rectified it makes shorter high pitch arcs), but I'm wondering about protecting it. after a couple hours of playing with it there was a loud pop in the case and it stopped working. I opened it up (it was held together by rivets, I just drilled the rivets out) and it's a switched mode neon sign transformer. I thought it was a bit light! So I found a (transistor? To-220 case) that had it's face blown off, luckily I found the other piece and I'm going to order the component and replace it. So, is there a cheap easy way of preventing this happening? While opening the case I added a number of saftey features, a saftey switch, and a "ON" indicator.

Topic by guyfrom7up    |  last reply


What sort of Bearings are this ?

Hello, Im trying to see if I can find a replacement bearings so I can try out a larger / better wheel on my knee walker mobility device that has 8 mm bore as opposed to the 7 mm i have now. However after searching the web im still not exactly sure what type I have in order to find a replacement . You can see the bearings below in my photos . http://www.flickr.com/photos/28633046@N02/ ( sorry no zoom in lens ) Any one have any ideas as to what is , and if not what options i have to replace them ? thanks helena

Topic by hele    |  last reply


solar phone charger

Https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-make-a-solar-iPodiPhone-charger-aka-Might/?ALLSTEPS <<< can i replace that with cheap nokia phone?? i need it for my school project =)?

Question by Syaril    |  last reply


bypass the speed pot on pride mobility scooter?

My speed potentiometer is not working can i bypass it till i can replace it

Question by PhilL31    |  last reply


Raspberry pi

Hello, I have to create webcam server system that consist USB web camera, raspberry pi. The system will function like this : 1. Raspberry Pi will take a pictures every 30 seconds. 2. raspberry pi have to send the pictures (MMS of the picture) to the owner mobile phone and email ID. i just want to ask several question. 1. can raspberry pi send MMS? i think i want to connect raspberry pie to the wireless broadband modem, so it will send MMS thru email. possible or not? or there is another alternative to do this thing? 2. Is there any chances owner can reply via mobile phone or email? how the owner mobile phone want to confirm back to raspberry pi? reply the email or what? i hope anybody can help me. and also can provide me any website link that can help me to understand more about all of this.

Topic by chaitanyabysani    |  last reply


In reference to my first question......? Answered

Re:  I put my net-book (Toshiba nb250) in my backpack, 4 beers, and took off. I soon there after crashed. Got up, rolled on, and then my back got wet..... I busted 2 beers! So, there was not much I could do and Shcktop is high in sugar. Can I salvage this and what may my chances be? So, it sounds like it works BUT the screen is shot.  I can see "water marks" on the edges of the screen.  Can I replace it, where do I get it, and is it worth it?  A solid THANKS.

Question by onrust    |  last reply


Is a sony ericsson w810i handsfree's answer button momentary or what?

I'm trying to stuff a wired handsfree headset into a retro phone handset. i need to know if the answer buyyon on the headset can be replaced with somehting.

Question by TheSpode  


How can I overclock my gpu? Answered

Hello Instructables community! I have a laptop and it has been driving me crazy recently! Specifically the graphics card has been driving me crazy, its an integrated mobile Intel(R) 965 express chipset family chip running at 500mhz with 256mb of graphics ram ("stolen" from the normal ram and controlled by the OS) I was wondering if anybody knows of a program that is capable of overclocking it, I have tried rivatuner and power strip with no luck, rivatuner didn't even recognize the card and power strip wouldn't let me change the clocks. I want to make sure that I can change the clocks before I upgrade the ram. BTW: the specs on the computer are as follows: Compaq Prescario c700t CTO Intel Celeron @ 1.7ghz 1 GB of shared system and graphics ram (soon to be upgraded) 80GB SATA toshiba hard drive Windows Vista Home Basic sp

Question by junits15    |  last reply


What do Nokia use to glue LCD/ main board cables with ?

Opening a Nokia 1661 mobile phone (its an uber-cheap UK phone ) to replace the LCD, I have the usual orangey flex PCB material off the LCD, basically GLUED to the mating surface on the main  PCB. The old display tails peeled off, but I can't identify the strange grey glue they used to mate the connections. Has anyone any ideas ? It almost looks like partially cooked solder paste, but that would conduct all over, and I can't see any isolation. Its not "rubbery" that I can tell. Thanks Steve

Question by steveastrouk    |  last reply


Some questions about A/V stuff (home theater)

Hi all! Hope I got the right place for this.  I figured that there's someone in this community who can help me. My A/V receiver is about to give up the ghost.  A number of channels no longer work, and the sound is pretty fuzzy.  I know I need to replace it. I've always been terrible with A/V stuff.  I'm not sure what direction to go as far as replacing it goes.  Here's my issue:  The room I have the receiver in is small, so I don't need a lot of oomph.  I also don't have a way to run wires to rear speakers without people tripping over them.  I've gone without rear sound for a long time now.  I've never seen a set of wireless speakers that are reliable, so that seems like a poor option. I can't really do a "home theater in a box" setup, because they don't have enough inputs to add all of my stuff.  The things that currently run through the receiver are my computer (which runs our TV through a tuner card), a wii, an xbox 360, and a dvd player.  None of them are HDMI.  I use RCA cables for everything. The other thing that looked interesting is a sound bar, as they can apparently replicate surround sound without the rear speakers, but they seem to have the same problem that the "theater in a box" packages have. I don't know anything about receivers.  For example, I don't know if it makes sense to use a 5.1 receiver if I'm only running R, L, and Center speakers from it. Anyway... I'm not looking for brands or models necessarily, but rather, setup suggestions.  What kinds of things should I be looking into?  I can't be the only person with this kind of problem. Any advice that some of you A/V gurus can offer would be greatly appreciated!  The cheaper the better, here... as I don't use it all that much.  :) Thanks!

Topic by JesterPoet    |  last reply


How do I replace my graphics card? Answered

Hey, I want to replace my graphics card so I can run Minecraft, Masseffect 3, and Battlefield 3 on my computer swiftly. So, I'm asking for a graphics card that will run those three games on my computer without lag. My budget is about $100 and I do have an intermediate knowledge of computers and soldering. My computer is a SLIMLINE PC with 320GB hard drive and 3GB of system memory. Currently, my graphics card is an Intel(R) G33/G31 Express Chipset Family. My CPU is a Pentium Dual-Core E5200 @ 2.50GHZ. If you need any more tech-specs, just comment and ask for it. PS: I'm guessing that I'll need a G-Force graphics card, if so, I need it to be at least Direct X 11 or newer.

Question by knexpert1700    |  last reply


How to convert a battery pack to AC power?

Wife owns a very expensive piece of Japanese cosmetic device that uses a very special Li-ion battery pack but the battery died! No way I can find a replacement for the battery pack.  The battery pack available only has 2 wires (black and red) but not 3 wires (the yellow wire). I am afraid if I get a 2-wire battery pack, it won't work at all. There are lipo battery packs, but I don't think I can replace li-ion with lipo battery packs?! I am wondering how to convert it to an AC power? I have no experience doing this at all, so if you can provide as many details as possible, that will be great! The battery pack: 3 wires connected to the connector: red, black and yellow; 7.4V, 750mAh The AC adapter used for recharging the device: INPUT: 100VAC 50/60 Hz 8VA OUTPUT: 9VDC 500mA Thanks a lot!

Topic by car2i    |  last reply


Help identifying component on HTC Mozart

Hi all! Recently my girlfriend dropped her HTC Mozart and it landed on the edge with the power/sleep button. After disassembly, the switch/button has physically been smashed off from the fall. I've been repairing devices such as the mozart for years, and my soldering skills are very good but I have just one issue. I could easily solder a new button/switch onto the mainboard, but I don't know what to replace it with? I've tried searching for HTC component lists and everything to no avail. I've attached two pictures. One is of the damaged switch/button and the other is one of the other switches (For the volume) which are the same switches/buttons that I need to replace the damaged one. How can I identify it and replace it? Thanks!

Topic by KyleGP  


Can I use a LCD controller to control a mobile display?

I wish to build a small 1080p monitor, and the smallest regular LCD display I could find was around 10" and not HD, so I've been looking at mobile displays. I don't know much on the subject, but I am willing to learn and work to get what I want.  A mobile display that suits my needs is the HTC One display, it has a resolution of 1920x1080 and is not OLED (I may wish to replace the backlighting). It is available on spare part sites, and on eBay (though with the touchscreen digitizer included): http://www.ebay.com/itm/New-ASSEMBLY-LCD-display-Touch-Screen-Digitizer-For-HTC-One-X-S720E-G23-/231095967913?pt=US_Cell_Phone_Replacement_Parts_Tools&hash;=item35ce64a0a9 http://www.fonefunshop.co.uk/cable_picker/97516_HTC_One_X_LCD.html Would I be able to control this display with a regular LCD controller, such as this one? http://www.ebay.com/itm/121059321784?_trksid=p2055119.m1438.l2649&ssPageName;=STRK%3AMEBIDX%3AIT With full HDMI/DVI and function support? Maybe I'm mistaken, but as long as the voltages match... Right? Unfortunately, the display description on these websites is completely lacking in details, so it's been difficult to get any tech specs. I've been googling this a lot, but with few results. It seems a problem could be the interface: there aren't enough pins on the HTC One display (of course, it doesn't HAVE to be this particular display, it just has to be small, cheap and HD). I managed to find something about MIPI interfaces, could this be a problem if it's proprietary? Are there adapters? And would I need an inverter if this setup even works? Thank you in advance.

Question by build_0    |  last reply


Help with an overclock

Hello Instructables community!I have a laptop and it has been driving me crazy recently!Specifically the graphics card has been driving me crazy, its an integrated mobile Intel(R) 965 express chipset family chip running at 470mhz with 256mb of graphics ram ("stolen" from the normal ram and controlled by the OS) I was wondering if anybody knows of a program that is capable of overclocking it, I have tried rivatuner and power strip with no luck, rivatuner didn't even recognize the card and power strip wouldn't let me change the clocks.I want to make sure that I can change the clocks before I upgrade the ram.BTW: the specs on the computer are as follows:Compaq Prescario c700t CTOIntel Celeron @ 1.7ghz1 GB of shared system and graphics ram (soon to be upgraded)80GB SATA toshiba hard driveWindows Vista Home Basic sp2

Topic by junits15    |  last reply


The future of "mobile" energy...

Right now our current standard is still to use LI-Ion batteries when it comes to rechargable and power demanding devices.We all want more power for our phones, laptops or battery powered tools on the job.And we also want to be able to charge our batteries faster and faster.Back in the old days a D-Cell like lead acid battery in a flashlight was good for about 3 hours until it started to dim a bit.With up to 4 batteries inside they were not just heavy but also quite hazardous.Chargin was usually done over night and you just hoped they were not blowing up while charging.I spare you the other types that came after and that we still use as they all have their good and their bad sides.If we trust our marketing experts than quite soon we will only have electric cars on our roads and battery the size of a suitcase shall be able to run your car for hundreds of miles.The ideas of graphite based batteries or those using crystals and their forming reactions are all great and promising.Some will certainly make it to the consumer in a few years.The one thing that we are never told though is where all the energy to charge those batteries is supposed to come from.Replacing the combustion engine with electric motors is one thing but if no fossil fuel is used....Energy does not come out of thin air!Right now a lot of countries already struggle to provide a reliable power supply grid and distribution network.If you ever enjoyed a scorching hot day during a blackout caused by everyone using too much electricity you know what I mean...The population is growing as fast as the energy demand for our industries.Solar and wind are well and good but without proper storage solutions of not real use because no one can really predict how much they can produce.You know, weather and such things...If we trust our so called experts than all will come together really nice.By the time we have really powerful batteries we will have enough alternative energy supply chains up and running to keep them charged.I have a few issues with this entire concept, so let's see what other people have to about this:Imagine you have a nice and big cabin somewhere really remote and beautiful - but with no electricity for miles.Obvious solution for the modern hunter or nature lover is to invest into free energy.Free because that is how your solar, battery and inverter system would be advertised.You buy the stuff and after that all the electricity comes for free - the things pays for itself!Reality is a bit off though as you need to maintain and replace the costly batteries over time and such things.All this however totally changes for a residential home.Getting a huge solar system on your roof is no problem.Getting off the grid next to impossible.You see, once (or even before) you sign up for an electricity contract it is defined that your home is in a residential area.This brings certain limitations like the requirement to connect ot gas (if available), water, sewage and electricity.Only way to enjoy your "free" energy is by getting a good deal with your supplier.Some countries do it differently but around here it goes like this:Whatever you use still comes right off the grid.That is because your solar system really struggles to cope with load changes and providing surplus back to the grid.And since your meter is not capable ofworking properly with it either...To make it "fair" it is metered how much you use and how much you supply.Most companies here even do this on at least an hourly base - just to fair...For your bill the amounts are then adjusted.What you supplied is taken off.Sadly in most cases going negativ is not an option - if you provide more than what you use only your supplier is laughing.To make things worse what you supply is valued far lower than what you get from the grid.Often the difference is above 20%.Control....Around here quite a few people basically covered house, shed, carport and all with solar panels.This was while we had a great subsidy from the government to go solar...After now over three years most of these people still struggle to get anywhere near even for their investment.Without the grants the timeframe to break even was estimated to be around 12 years - which is about the time for when you need to replace the lot anyway and start over.Some do get nice savings on their bills though but families with kids not so much...If you have little to no chance to get your investment back before you have to replace it, then it is not really that much of a good deal after all.Imagine in town with hundreds of small houses everyone would be able to get the same money back for the electricity they provide...Pay 18 cents per kWh from the grid and get 18 cents perkWh for what you supply and once you provide more than you use you get money back.The providers won't allow this to happen as it means they not just loose some money but also they would lose control.How could they justify another price hike?How could they explain the blackouts?Why should tey pay you at all... ;)If a city with enough open and unused space would decide to go solar on a huge scale and while add also add a lot wind turbines....Someone would need the electricity provided and someone need to step in for those times where demand is above supply.Here the old triangle of power goes into full swing....You see a city or town would need also need a sub station to handle the electricity and to distribute it to the town houses, shops and so on.Funny thing is that only a "provider" can do such things.Doing it privat is usually only possible in really remote areas, like big mining outposts that just have no other option than using generators or solar/wind.And in most areas a town or city is no longer allowed to be a provider of electricty - at least not in the drirect form.Buying in bulk is no problem, having your own supply system however is not in the books.Right now most, if not all the big wind and solar farms are owned and operated by energy providers.There is billionaires everyhwere who could build a solar and wind farm the size of Texas if they really wanted but they won't do it either...Starts with the land, goes over the usage rights and won't end with activists claiming how bad it all is.Means it won't happen and if it does then the energy providers get together and claim they guy might have money but does not have the right to provide energy unless he actuall starts a corresponding company and plays by their unwritten rules.Can we still dream about it though?The dream is kept alive like the fire of hope that is only a tiny amber.If you sign up for electricity you are asked if you would like to pay bit extra so your electricity comes from alternative sources.Why is that bad, after all it is green?The initial investment might be huge for a wind farm but after that it is more or less just providing mone out of thin air.You can look the cost up for the new windfarm build near you.Same for the electricity prices in that area.And also the expected output of the entire farm.Do the math and calculate how quickly they break even....Once they do it only profit but you still pay the extra to go green.A bit like the new road that came with a toll....After 5 years the motorists paid it off but 10 years later they are still being charged while the road is disintegrating...Now add electric cars and our constantly rising consumption to the mix...We can't provide the electricity ourselfs as we don't get fully paid for it, we can go off grid either.The atom as the source of electricity is being phased out slowly as well.Finally as some might say, considering the thausands of years we have to deal with the produced waste and what aftereffects the storage might bring.Our providers will keep their grip on us for as long as they can.No government will stop them as in return they wouldn't have electricity.A cold war if you like.We never cared how much fuel our cars use until the OPEC decide to limit supplies and drive the prices up.And you can see the riches especially in Saudi Arabia.For most of the big OPEC players it really does not matter anymore whether or not they have oil or not.They make the same or even more money by other means and more modern means now.After this initial shellshock we woke up and decided that for the shopping trip of the wife a small car with just 4 cylinders will do.Overcrowded cities and roads also pushed us more into thinking small.Again it took force to go further, this time by governments slowy "going green".Emmissions, greenhouse gasses, polution, particles and corbon monoxide...Sounded all godd in the ads but it meant we could no longer afford our old car or even got banned from entering the town center with it.But a lot people still can't afford a modern car that meets the standards.Once they finally got the money and car the laws change again and they need yet again a newer car.This created a huge export and recyling market and profits for other people though.And what differenc did it all make in reality?While we were forced to improve and lose money countries like the US refused for years to even consider reducing the pollution.Countries like China and Russia even increased their pollution to impossible levels.We all remember how Bejing was literally shut down for the Olympics so the athletes have a chance to survive the games...We know how the pollution or global warming problem is misused to make money.The governments get huge payouts in the form of taxes from those cars that can't meet the specs.The dealer smiles with the increased sales of cars.And again the government smiles too as they get taxes from this as well.We know it happened before and is still happening with everything realted to fossil fuels, global warming and pollution, so why would electricity be any different?Reactors and coal fired power plants are phased out with basically nothing to replace them.Solar and wind will provide and till then we keep what we really need to keep....There is no plan for what comes after coal and the atom.There is no alternative.Batteries need electricity.And providers will always be the middleman controlling both the price and the availability.So how does this actually work you might wonder...No matter who invents or produces a new device to provide electricity - there is a very limited market for them.A farmer can't buy a full size wind generator and place it on his land...But an electricity provider can buy thausands of them....And if you go bigger than ask yourself who would need a 10 or 100MW fusion generator?Providing electricity is only a viable option if you go big and if you can sell the excess with a profit margin.Leaves only our electricity providers as customers.If you don't have to care about the buying price because it will be put down one way or the other onto your customers than it is like a credit.Only difference is that once it is paid off you start to get money back!Imagine that for your bank account ;)And if you know what you sell can have a very generous profit margin because your buyer does not care then the solar or wind farm will be quite costly to build..."We know we are not cheap, but who else can deliver you what you need?"And like our big supermarkets there will be an agreement on what the wind generator can cost.Ressources....Be it wind, be it solar or just the modern electric motor in your car - they all require stuff that is very limited on our planet.Take Neodyminum.Without it we have no wind generator or fancy motors as we wouldn't have powerful enough magnets.Vital elements and mineral required are only available in a few spots on our erth in quantities justifying mining them.I won't make this much longer than it already is, so please look up what is really needed to keep our future solow and wind projects alive.Then go and check where we can find thes things in good quantities.Once you did you might realise why the world tolerates the abuse of human rights, freedom or just self expression in other countries ;)If only China would stop today to export and sell their rare earths and prcious minerals basically our entire production worldwide would suffer quickly.Entire industries break down quickly and prices for certain things would literally explode.The US already started to re-open long abandoned mining projects as suddenly even the most costly operations become viable again.Think about this next time you fancy a world free of cars and truck using combustion engines ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


How much could I sell these various computer parts for?

Here are some parts I would like to sell on eBay: 2 AMD Athalon 64 X2 Processors 2 1GB DDR2 RAM Chips 1 Intel Mobile Pentium III Processor 1 Cartridge Type Intel Pentium III Processor 12 Various Old Working RAM Could you guys give me a good selling price for one of each item? The last item you can just give me a price for all 12. Thanks! -Shadow Ops P.S.      If you are interested in any of these items, PM me and I'll give you a link to eBay, once I've posted it.

Question by Arbitror    |  last reply


Hunter Thermostat for a heat pump how to get the a/c working...?

We had this guy install a Hunter Thermostat and replace a coil so we could get heat when it was real cold. Well now that it is getting hot we want to run the a/c but it's not working right when you put it on a/c it blows out hot air and gets hotter as it blows. He hooked all the wires up except for a purple wire he said didnt need that one and put a jumper from one wire to another. The heat started working right away. At the time we were worried about heat because it was cold. Now that we found out there is a problem with the a/c we can't get the guy to come back out or the guy that was the one that put in the heat pump and did all the wiring for it. He doesn't like working with Huter digatal themostat so he is avoiding us. But I want it fixed can anything pls help me try to fix it. Tks Jennifer It is a Hunter Touchscreen Programmable thermostat model 44860 2 stage heat/2 stage cool

Question by jennyksva    |  last reply


Rennet is not available in any form in Pakistan. I need it for cheese making. What should I do?

I am an artisan. I make Fresh mozzarella cheese. Rennet is not available in Pakistan. Either tell me a source who can supply in Islamabad or any herb which replaces rennet. Someone was suggesting bark from fig tree. We have fig trees. How to go about it? My requirement is about a kilo in one year. Shah Nawaz Khan Mobile: 0092 300 5333 877

Question by skhan30    |  last reply


Random computer shutdown problem? Answered

While using my computer upstairs I randomly get shut down. Mostly all I am running is iTunes- not much else. It will shutdown when playing a movie for about 5-10 minutes without pausing, and sometimes (but not nearly as much) while playing music. Its on Win XP Pro, 3ghz Intel Pentium 4, 1gb of RAM (SDRAM?). Computer gives no error/overheating messages. I have no active internet connection, but I have some temp. monitoring  programs installed (speedfan + intel software) and I can get programs on it with a USB flash drive. Computer did have an overheating problem, but I attributed that to the broken PSU fan. Replaced the PSU and it ran a lot cooler, except for this new problem. Any ideas?

Question by astroboy907    |  last reply


Need guidance to build a lego based wifi controlled camera car

Dear ingenious makers,i forged the plan to make myself a wifi controlled lego car with camera support. the vision is to chase my cats and/or wife when i'm not at home.So far, I got the lego rc car assembled: https://shop.lego.com/de-CH/Ferngesteuerter-Tracke.... It comes with a battery back (6xAA) and two motors to power the two tank chains individually.Now I´d like to replace the rc with a wifi module and add a camera. I have found some great inspirations here:https://www.instructables.com/id/Wifi-controlled-c... --> powered by intel edisonhttps://www.instructables.com/id/Simple-WiFi-Controlled-RC-Car/ --> powered by NodeMCUI used to be a professional programmer, but i haven't touched source code in years. However, I think I'll manage with some guidance. With all the options, the tough part is how to even start...My questions:What platform (Arduino, Pi, Edison) would be the best? (I need to control two motors, stream a video and build a website i can use on a mobile device to view the stream and control the car)What components need to be purchased?Many thanks in advance,kamyrion

Question by kamyrion    |  last reply


Can 2 (or more) 'Wallwart' AC Adapters be used as a battery eliminator for a Laptop? Answered

Right, my sister's laptop has suffered the classic 'dropped on its power socket' syndrome... Now, I know there are Instructables on how to repair/replace it, but I can't find anything that'll handle the DC 19V 3.42A the adapter gives out - and I can't match the numbers printed on the socket to anything on RadioShack, to get an exact replacement. So, my sister is left using only battery power (which I charge in my same-make laptop) which rarely lasts 1 1/4 hours. Anyway, down to the nitty-gritty: The battery gives out 10.8V, 4500mAh, I saw pir8p3t3's 'Reuse "Wallwart" Adapters' 'Ible, realised I have quite a few mobile (cell) phone chargers - and got to thinking... Now, I know that a straightforward parallel connection (would that be safe, anyway?) would require some way of stepping-down their combined output voltage, but would there be any safe way of reaching (let alone exceeding) that 4500mAh? Or am I just barking up a too-dangerous tree? Any suggestions would be welcome. Thanks. karlpinturr

Question by karlpinturr    |  last reply


How can I find new driver boards for my 5-phase motors?

I will try to summarize the problem: 1. I have a CNC mill sitting in my garage that won't work because the whole control unit including the motor driver boards is shot. 2. I can't buy new driver boards because I don't know what spec to buy 3. I don't know which spec to buy because I am not an expert on 5-phase stepper motors and don't know how to judge / measure / test them to find their spec. So the CNC mill is of type EMCO F1P (1984), and it looks like this (actual photos of the unit). The control box that comes with it houses an awesome (for the time) integrated computer based on intel x86 chips to convert G-Code into movement. I had fun digging around inside it and here are some details about that journey. Unfortunately its from 1984 and in deteriorating shape. After being adamant for years, I have since given up restoring the control, and the current plan is to simply focus on the the machine itself with motors, which luckily is in a much better shape. This means that I will buy new motor driver boards to drive the existing steppers and get a LinuxCNC kind of control to control them. It turns out that finding a 5-phase step driver was much harder than I first anticipated. It doesn't help that the motors are without a spec. I asked a question on the ee stack site previously for finding the specs for my motor here but I didn't get any meaningful answers. I also blogged about this with lots of pictures here. So to sum it all up, any help/advice is welcome on the following:  + How to measure/test the motors to find their specs and hopefully a matching driver board  + Which brand of board is good/bad/cheap etc.  + What to look out for that I would not think of as a beginner PS: I know I could replace the motors with cheap Chinese 2-pole ones and be on my way, but I really want to do this the right way, and maybe learn something underway!

Question by lennartr2    |  last reply


The future of mobile operating system or the end for "hackers" and rooting?

For mayn years it was almost logical to get full root access on your new smartphone or tablet.The other fraction might now it as "jailbreaking"...No one really needs it unless they are not happy with they way the mnufacturer designed the operating system and features.The removal of bloat, apps the user never needs, is still the most common reason for rooting.Custom ROM's offering a different experience are right behind.Now we also have TV's, entertainment boxes of all kinds, even from our ISP's directly.The main provider for the operating system is now Google with only a few "competitors" left.Apple has a strong hold of the mobile and tablet sector too but is not really presented in other areas.Android is still open source but Google heavily modifed it to suit the needs of data collecting and security for features like banking, access control and so on.What is good for the normal user and perfect for those with security in mind can be really bad for those actually just using a device.No matter why you buy a new phone from your provider, you almost never buy it for the added apps and services.Rooting has become more and more difficult.One reason of course is constant security updates and removing possible access options for even simple things like getting USB debugging and an unlocked bootloader.People dedicated to find ways to remove provider locks, creating custom firmwares or the basic tools required to work with firmwares were called hackers.If you buy a new car and decide to modify it with a new engine, seats or whatever than no one will stop you.So why don't we have the same rights for our electronic companions?I wouldn't call it hacking, I would call it actually owning and controlling your device instead of Google letting control you - or Apple, but who cares....The other reason is dead simple: Those guys who started it all have retired or found employoment with those they fooled for so many years.Chainfire should ring a bell for anyone ever concerned with rooting.The master is gone now and only a few people are willing to take his legacy.For Asian devices the community over there is better off but for our market region right now Magisk seems to be the only option left for modern devices.The sneaky ways to lock us out....Security comes at a price, simple as.You can offer secrity for money transfers if the device is not trustworthy.Same for online streaming - you want the money for what you give and prevent that someone is able to make unwanted recordings without encryption.The list goes on with access control system and literally everything we use our devices for that involves some security.Even with the lates PIE systems Google's own devices are still quite friendly in terms of gaining root access.Different story though if a manufacturer makes full use of all the latest addition at Google's disposal.Device security no longer starts with the boot we see.It is now possible to create a hardware based tree of trust.This means any modification to anything will cause a failure.This locks out all "tools" able to read out partitions and vital data while a device is in fastboot mode.And of course said fastboot can be fully disabled as well now.For security reason a so called A/B configuration is used.Updates come over the air and are applied to the dormant system.Next start will boot the new system and then update the old one, no requirement to manually apply and update.The recovery can also be abandoned and replaced by a system using a copy on the device itself that is updated through OTA updates with the firmware.So both ways to gain official access can be full removed from the user.From there we get encryption, hash checks and literally everything working in its own user space - a full SELinux enviroment at the highest level.There are already devices utilising a lot of this and so far the only way to get any sort of insight was done by those intercepting OTA updates on a router level.And apart from quickly changing the encryption with the next updates nothing was gained.Is it all coincidence?Of course not.Well known leaks were kept open for years.Kernel updates gave improvements and closed really old leaks but never all known ways.With the retirement of the best rooting experts these holes were suddenly closed.Checks of latest kernel releases showed that there is no known vulenerabilities anymore that can be misused to gain access.And those finding new ones and making them available for us are bascally gone now.Encryptions and packing algorithms changed, same thing for the actual handling of partitions and rights.Anyone with a decent understanding of how the old ways worked will be able to figure it out with some time wasted on it.From there however the outcome is often dark.The tools needed to work with these new files are not always updated anymore.The developer simply moved on and most of the time without publishing his source codes.And the still best way to protect your firmware from tampering is to encrypt it.In the old days it was enough to sign a ZIP file with a release key not available to the public.Custom recoveries allowed us to get around this.This still works to some extent but now we also get additional checks starting from the bootloader.A modified system will be detected and stopped and a stock system will stop i a modified boot is detected.Even using a custom recovery by flashing or through fastboot is preventable now.Right now the only way for most new devices is a total wipe and the installation of an unsecure firmware with everything.As you already guessed this is to prevent now as well.So does all this rooting stuff actually concern you?Of course not!If you never had any need for rooting or no clue what to do differently with a rooted device than you are a happy camper.But your neighbour or friend might think differently.You see, I have two problems when it comes to "stock" devices.a) I have no clue what data they collect from me and what it might be used for.b) I do not like being forced to agree to terms that are endless and of questionable content just to use the damn thing.For crying out loud: In most cases it is now impossible to even set up a new device without working internet and a Google account.....

Topic by Downunder35m  


What to do with a bricked all-in-one pc?

I have a bricked Dell Studio 19 All-In-One PC, and wanted to know if I could use it for something. It was bricked by a failed BIOS update. There was a program from dell which came installed and updated any other of their software and drivers on the computer. Only after the failed update I found out that updating the BIOS is really unnecessary. The only fix I know for the motherboard is replacing it, and the only place I found out that refurbishes them are from a company in the US, and it's not cheap at all. (I used to live in the US, and moved to Brazil later) Well anyway, I wanted to know if I can use the computer for something else, like use the monitor for a different computer and use its bluetooth mouse and keyboard on a different computer too. I think the only thing really useful in it is the processor which is already old (Intel E7500 and a 320GB HDD). http://www.dell.com/us/dfh/p/studio-one-19/pd http://www.dell.com/support/home/us/en/04/product-support/product/studio-one-19/diagnose Thanks for the help!

Topic by nickfaraujo    |  last reply


How to combine AT and ATX power supplies to power same system (motherboard)?

Hello,   I am struggling to upgrade a certain medical system . The device I have contains an old motherboard which powered by an AT power supply. My problem is that the power supply board (which supplies the AT power) has other functions, and there's no way to be replaced (by an ATX PSU). I already bought the motherboard: http://www.ibase.com.tw/2009/MB970.html , with INTEL core i5 CPU  Cry Cry. I can't risk my power supply board in attempting to operate the new parts (motherboard, CPU, 4 Gb RAM, CPU fan, SATA harddisk, and DVD), I believe it won't stand that kind of power consumption. I know you'll say this won't work at all -I know, but I was thinking about using voltage regulators to generate the 3.3 v rail from the same AT power lines. OMG I really need help about: How I can connect the AT and ATX power supplies to this motherboard (and to the other parts), ensuring that I am not risking my AT power board at all?. Another headache is that the AT power board has to work at the same time with the motherboard. And in order for the system to work the AT power board has to work (you know that a feedback circuit should be completed) that's why it should be connected to the motherboard.   This really became a challenge for me. I can't stop thinking, planning, and dreaming about it. If you have any idea or any experience about this, I would like and hope to hear from you...

Question by muhammad.shamut.7    |  last reply


Convert airgun/Paintball gun to be fired by a computer (12v solenoid valve)

Hi!I have a project this summer where I need to convert a paintball marker and a co2 Airpistol to be fired by the use of a solenoid valve powered by 12v.The project goal is high-speed photography, more or less photographing object being hit by a projectile.What i need is a way to fire these guns precisely by the use of my computer and software, and since I already have plenty of 12 solenoid valves that work with this system I thought my easiest way is to adapt these valve to trigger the guns one way or another.I just purchased a Valken V-TAC SW-1http://www.valken.com/Marker-V-TAC-BLACKHAWK which I plan to use as base (for parts) My reason for getting this particular one was that it was on sale for 50% and seems to be fairly popular as it's based on the Tippmann 98 design.I attached an image of the valve I used with my controller and software (Cognisys Stop shot) now I can probably use any 12v solenoid valve (with the same spec ?) as the one I use now so it doesn't need to be these exact valves. As long as they can be operated by turning on-off power with the same powersource i use to control my current solenoid valves.From my understanding, most airguns use a pin valve, which is hit by a trigger mechanism that is then rearmed by the blowback.What would be the best way to modify an airgun for my needs? Replace the pin valve with a suitable solenoid i can control instead? Or go for a design that uses maybe use a piston and 2-way valve to hit that pin?The gun does not need to be mobile or ergonomic, it will be placed in a rig regardless, however keeping the barrel and keep the Picatinny is preferred to be able to mount marking aids etc. and mount the gun to a tripod.Any tips or suggestions are highly appreciated!Thank you!

Topic by PaulL320    |  last reply


Road Speed limit project

Hello, I'ts my first post here, so dont get mad if it's not the right subforum for this topic. I would just like some ideas/opinions for my project, because maybe I am forgetting something in addition to i am new with arduino the idea is a device that tracks a car's speeds and omits a message to the driving control authority, in case the car exceeds the speed limit. so What I am trying to build,is a Speed limit notification system that can sense my location and speed using GPS then compare it to defined speed for the current road using algorithm then send data over GSM network to my webserver or mobile phone warning me if i exceed the speed limit . What I need to achieve (and my plans to do so) are: 1. Arduino Uno 2. GPS module  http://www.zeroohm.ae/Adafruit-Ultimate-GPS-Breakout-66-channel-10-Hz-updates-Version-3?search=gps 3. GSM shield for network connection or sms sending http://www.zeroohm.ae/Arduino-GSM-Shield-2-integrated-antenna?search=gsm 4. GSM + GPS shield (Replace 2 and 3 ) http://www.waveshare.com/phone-shield-sim908.htm 5. so i will defined  maybe two or three roads using this techniques and define any speed i want http://forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=136265.0 Is these parts good ? is it ok to connect GPS module through gsm shield to Arduino ? or replace both with one shield (GPS and GSM ) I'm working on this project alone, maybe I have missed something, maybe theres a better solution for something, maybe someone else has some great ideas they are willing to share, regarding this idea and how to pull it off. Thanks all and sorry about my english

Question by ekayed    |  last reply


Laptop Display Upgrade to Touch?

I wish to upgrade my Laptop Display from Non Touch to Touch. I did a bit of research on the internet, but am unable to find a proper answer. Is it possible? I would love to migrate from half HD non touch display to full HD touch display (even IPS). But here in India, I'm unable to find it in this config for 15.6" size (atleast, not cheaply). I have found one display which has a few things common with my old display. Both have TFT with LED Backlight, same size, aspect ratio, resolution and no of pins. Old Display: 15.6 inch TFT with LED Backlight (Non touch) (16:9). Resolution: 1366 x 768. 40 Pins. Part Number: B156XW04V5 Datasheet: https://www.olimex.com/Products/OLinuXino/A20/A20-LCD15.6/resources/B156XW04V5.pdf Cost: ₹5000 ($75 approx) Proposed New Display: 15.6 inch TFT with LED Backlight (Touch) (16:9). Resolution: 1366 x 768. 40 Pins. Part Number: B156XTT01 Datasheet: http://www.datasheetspdf.com/datasheet/download.php?id=923648 Cost: ₹12500 ($180 approx) Would I need to change LVDS cable as well? Existing LVDS Cable: Part Number: P5LJ0 Datasheet: http://www.s-manuals.com/pdf/motherboard/compal/compal_la-7221p_r1.0_schematics.pdf Here are the answers to some questions you might have: 1. Laptop is Acer Aspire TimelineX 5830TG. 2. My Laptop did not have any variant with 1080p display or touch display. 3. The old display is slightly cracked. Hence I need to change it anyway. 4. The top flap, display mounting brackets and bezel are damaged too. And the laptop is 5 years old and am unable to get the replacement parts. Hence I am planning on building a new housing for the new display, in any case. (Suggestions in this regard are also welcome) So a bit of variation in physical dimensions is not a problem. 5. Motherboard is Intel i5 2410M with Intel 3000 graphics processor. Graphics Card is Nvidia 540M. (I couldn't find supported resolutions on official websites, but according to 3rd Party websites, both should support 1080p) 6. I have some experience with Electronic Disassembly and Assembly. 7. I can do soldering, but I'm not very good at it. Hence, would like to avoid it, if possible.

Question by dcthelord    |  last reply


Convert a basic plastic toy car to autonomous, request for comments. Answered

Here is my idea: Convert a basic plastic toy car to autonomous. Using an arduino or similar, convert a basic toy car to autonomous. My son has a toy car approximately 10 inches or so in length he outgrew.  It is quite rugged and would be a shame to throw it away as it is in very good condition. The wheels are approximately 4 inches high.  I have opened the chassis and there is a gap of approximately 4 centimetres (rising to 7 centimetres at the front and back) between the base and the body. There is more than enough room to fit an arduino in there along with a couple of motors and batteries (although realistically I would fit the batteries externally so they can be replaced easily). The wheels are on metal rods approximately 3 millimetres thick that travel the width of the car. []-----[] If I was to cut each bar in the centre I would end up with the 4 wheels on a length of metal rod. Using a self-locking washer on the inside of the chassis I could prevent the wheels falling out: []-)--- If I connected a motor to the back wheels and linked the front and back wheels so the back wheels drove the front wheels I should get a tank-track like system - turning the back left wheel would turn the front left wheel, same for the right hand side. Controlling the motors would allow forward, reverse, left, right and turning on the spot mobility. Using sensors to detect distance, light, darkness, collisions etc which on an arduino would be trivial would give a truly autonomous vehicle. Am I way off track here or is my idea feasible? Please, comment away.. I will give it a go anyway but before I start I wish to know that it can in theory work :)

Question by gregoryfenton    |  last reply


Radio Triangulation (GPS minus space)

Okay, my idea is that in the event of the zombie apocalypse (or many others) I think it would be very handy to have a GPS-esque service.  I've read that the satellites we use for GPS are decaying and will not be around for much longer than 20 or 30 years without repair or replacement.  So, in the event that the zombies come and I manage to survive and, more importantly, thrive, I would like to be able to set something along these lines up. Assuming I have access to renewable power sources and the correct materials, how would I build something like this?  My initial thought is to use radio towers for triangulation.  I go to three existing radio towers, set them up with a power source, and set them to frequencies A, B and C respectively.  Then i have a (preferably mobile) device that monitors the signal strength of those towers.  Another option that springs to mind is that i might have multiple antennae that i can connect to a few feet of wire each and place around my device for added accuracy. If my idea is sound, I then will have a way to tell where i am, roughly. Of course, not only will I need a method of recording locations in a logic manner, I also have to worry about the accuracy of my readings, due to the limitations of my device/radio towers, possible weather conditions or even my physical location (valleys, cliffs, etc). I should add that I'm looking for a very simple reproducible device here, not a standard GPS with loaded maps or the like.  I'm fine with having a receiver and a notebook for locations, or just marking them down on a physical map.  I don't know much about radios or GPS, I'm afraid, and would greatly appreciate any advice.  Thanks!

Topic by theMij    |  last reply


USB charging and data transfer problems

I recently got some mobile phones given to repair the USB ports. You might know the problems claimed on faulty USB problems first hand: charging takes forever, device is not always recognised in Windows, data transfers are interrupted or the device disappears suddenly and without any reason from your explorer. Although a lot of devices can suffer from from those symptoms and will work fina after paying money for a new USB port I also discovered a totally different source for the problem. In my case the cables itself. It is obvious that you should try a different USB cable before going through the lengths of replacing a USB port, but: a) not all cables are the same even if they have the same connectors! Some cables contain resistors to regulate the max charging current, others simply have flimsy and hair thin wires inside, prone to breaking. b) not all chargers are the same either! For example Apple chargers provide a voltage on the data lines that in return tells the device how fast it can charge - totally against the USB standards but Apple claims it is fine because they don't use a USB connector on the device side... Why does my device get problems with the USB? Well, to be honest, I don't know as it is not my device ;) Joking aside I will narrow it down to wear and tear. Both the connection on the phone and inside the USB connector can and will wear down over time. With daily charges for power users it is obvious that at some stage one part has to fail. Having a spare, quality replacement cable at hand often helps to find the source of the problem. In my case I had the cables for the phones but also a brand new and with 5$ quite expensive cable to spare. Guess what? None of the supplied cables worked while my new cable performed perfectly with all "broken" phones. After checking the USB ports with good light and a magnifying glass I could see dust, dirt and worn contacts. For 3 of the 5 devices a decent cleaning with methylated spirit and a small brush fixed that issue, the other two will either need a proper new cable or a port replacement. What to do if I have USB problems? 1. Check on a different PC or for the charging use a different charger. 2. Try a different, if possible new cable. 3. Check and clean the USB port. Only if the above won't help at all you should consider that the port itself might be faulty! Is there something to prevent the repair? Yes: don't use your USB port too often ;) This means, you can use a QI charger (wireless) and for the data transfer WiFi, on Android Airdroid is a really good choice. Keep your device clean! This does not mean you are a filthy pig, but more that a phone with an uncovered port tends to collect dust and dirt over time. In your hand bag, pocket or car, it does not matter time will get unwanted stuff in there. If you want to keep your device happy use a cover that also covers the USB port. I checked all the above and think I need a new port - what are my options? If in warranty go the offical way. Out of warranty a repair shop will fix it fast, but not always at reasonable costs, depending on the device and labour involved. Some devices are easy, others require the display to be removed to acces the port electronics. Online tutorials on how to dismantle your device should be available and if you are good with sensitive stuff you can do the repair yourself. Some sellers of replacement ports not only include all the tools you need (watch out for this if you don't already have them) but also videos on how to do it. I hope this little info helps people to avoid high repair costs for no good reason.

Topic by Downunder35m  


Did you notice how the internet and mobile phones totally changed our culture?

Go back just 20 years and on a busy shopping street you saw the poeple walking around as they do today - or did they?I remember poeple talking to each other, standing in front of the shop windows and checking the offers.People greeting each other or stopping for a chat.Now all you see it zombies staring at their phone screen or texting.Even the dreaded "self talker" with a BT earpiece seems to die out.You like fast food don't you? ;)But did you ever bother to waste some time watching people going through the drive through?Back in the days they mostly tried to keep their cigarette going or the girls were busy with the make up.Today it is almost impossibe to spot someone making it through a drive through without playing on his or her phone.The shopping is finnished and all you want is to pay once your trolley was emptied onto the conveyor going to the register.If it were not for the person in front of you...On hand holds the phone to the ear, you hear the latest gossip you don't want to know anything about...And then painfully slow one hand tries to load the trolley again and then finally tries to find a credit with still some money left on it.My favourite are however all those people who are fully addicted to their phone and go mental if you try to tell them.You are having a cold beer with your mate and just want to reflect about the great day fishing.Hold on a second....Oh, did you see this today? ....Ok, just quickly checking FB...Your beer is already number three while your mates beer went warm and stale.Fair enough, was a long day...Then you knock at his door at 3AM to take the boat or or go on a trip.Still half asleep but the phone and all social media must be checked before even making it to the toilet...You get the picture, hopefully not by looking in a mirror now ;)When the "internet" started to be a thing I was already long on the wagon of "online".And back then some big players in the game said "One day we will all be connected in real time!".Of course everyone had a good laugh and moved on.No chance "everyone" could afford a computer, let alone get the skills to go "online".But look at today:You call your provider, tell them you need internet at home and you just plug a box in and have it.Oh, moible is prefered?No problem, just pick the phone you fancy, add a sim card and off you go minutes later.I remember libraries not just as a place to read books but also as a place to learn new things.Explore the world, see other cultures...If you could afford it you might have seen it all for yourself and in real.Today all this is replaced by a single term:"Google it!"What we have today is a simple money scheme created through the totally useless "need" to be connected.So how do you know that you are already addicted to you electronic friend and failed to realise it?Quite simple actually and in the same way as maybe your grandparents did with your parents - if they are old enough ;)Yes I mean the goggle box, the good old TV.Back in the day we said that 4 hours of TV time for a teen is already quite much.We can't escape screens for work or school needs anymore.What we can though is ask:How many hours per day do you spend on yo phone? The time that is not work or school related...How much of your daily life do you organise through your phone by texting, social media or just notes, reminders and so on?Do you complain that even the newest phone newer has enough charge for your "needs"? ;)Do you get cramps in your hands or fingers? ;)Or just plain simple: How long could you really be totally without mobile phone, computer and internet?The answers you give yourself might shock you ;)What are your thoughts on the mobile phone zombies of today?

Question by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Tempered glass screen protectors - understand and beware!

I recently had the joy of needing a new screen protector for my mobile after being dumb enough to drop it on gravel. The hard cover took all the impact but the film protector on the screen was scratched badly. Was old and partially worn anyway so I decided to upgrade to a Tempered Glass screen protector. Being somewhere rural I had no chance to get one in a shop so I ordered online. With no intention of advertising for some sellers, I collected a few links so you can check what I am talking about: Item1 Item2 Item3 Item4 Item5 Item6 So, what is my concern with these? They all can be found on amazon and other online services as well as on local markets... As I said I ordered a glass screen protector. If you check these listings and even some of the packing you will notice they all have a thing in common - being shatter proof and of 9H hardness. I also love this video showing how to remove and fix a glass screen protector! The last time I checked glass had one very distinct feature: It is hard and before it really bends it breaks - unless you use fibre optics of fibre glass cloth... What is my concern and warning here? Pretty simple: Stay away from expensive scams! Some claim their screen protector is only 0.25mm thick, even the 0.2mm one I measured was over 0.5mm with the glue... The hardness of 9H refers to the so called Moh's hardness - look it up on Wikipedia if you like. That means these tempered glass protectors would have a similr hardness than a diamond, or at least close to it. Problem is that they are made from plastic to start with and not glass at all. They claims that the screen protector is flexible because it is so thin - again a fake! Even the thinnest tempered glass will shatter if you bend it enough, not so these plastic ones. If you think I am making all this up try to use a really sharp knife or deburring tool and cut the thin sides of one of these protectors. All the ones I tested could be cut quite easy - and I though glass can't be cut with a kinfe... A nice website showing that the scratch resistance is far from the claims can be found here. And a video showing how a real glass screen protector sounds and breaks can be found here. So is it really all bad and should I avoid getting one? Not really if it is only for the added protection. To be clear here, and without the intention to blame any of the above sellers, some protectors actually do have a top layer made from glass and you can hear it as in the above video - it sound solid and not like plastic if you tap it with something hard. Another factor is the simple fact that plastic absorbs impact much better than glass. So where a real glass screen protector might shatter and crack like in the above video, the fake ones might one get a nasty dint or scratch. But you should be aware and clear about what you get and what to expect from it. These glass imitations are made from a strong polycarbonate plastic, similar to the stuff used for bullet and explosion proof "glas" windows - if you every watched the Mythbusters you have seen the big sheets I mean. The top layer of these things is specially treated to repell water, oil and dirt, it also gives the surface the good scratch resistance. The technique is nothing new, camera lenses, plastic sheets and the clear covers you see over the timetable at your bus stop all use it. The new thing is to intentionally mislable a product to make the consumer think it is glass ;) What is the real difference for the user? Check this video. Here a guy performs a drop test with a real glass screen protector. Thing is once the protector breaks the screen itself is broken too but until then it was not too bad. Here it is demonstrated how a real glass screen protector reacts to certain types of abuse - one of the reason I decided on glass. Compared to the plastic counterfeits just the sound on the glass is worth it, but I think the hacksaw was best. Another video from XDA gives a bit more info on how the glass is made - if you can't seeing a phone being abused then don't watch the drop tests at the end ;) Glass with these hardness levels and types of surface protection will give the user a long and worry free use of the phone. The plastic fakes will perform at a similar level for some time but will show signs of wear long before even the top coat of the glass one fails. Both types have their uses and if the fakes would be labeled correctly the user would actually benefit from that. On bigger screens like a tablet I would actually prefer the plastic ones to prevent damage once it needs replacing. On a mobile used in less than perfect conditions I would also go for plastic as it usually is a bit thinner and will fit better within quality hard covers. But when it comes to real abuse like using with dirty fingers most of the time or mostly outdoors where a lot of dust and fine sand can be involved I always go for glass. If you paid attention to the surface treatment then you already realised that the plastic and the glass are in the same region, making them quite scratch resistant. Still fine sand or metal dust will scratch it.... The difference is in the hardness of the actual material that was covered with the oleophobic film. Glass will not give in any way, where plastic is much softer - so not to be confused with the surface hardness! This mean that sharp and point object will easier penetrate the plastic than the glass, something to be considered if you often ecounter harsh use. In terms of actual protection we need to differenciate between surface quality and actual screen damage. After all when badly scratched we can replace the protector but if the display got damaged we are back to square one. The surface hardness was already covered so let's move on to the screen itself. In some of the above videos you can see the abuse a screen might see in normal conditions, and if we would not drop our phones so often repair shops would not be at every corner LOL I have done quite a few screen repairs, mostly for friends and work mates that did not want to pay the hefty extras in a repair shop. From there I got the stories on how it happened and in almost all cases the screen cracked when the phone landed on the corners. In one case the screen and glass protector failed, including the actual display when the phone was dropped out of a 4WD and landed screen first onto a rock. A glass protector will spread the (direct onto the face) impact force onto a much larger area, where a plastic one will produce a dint onto the actual screen much sooner. So again glass wins in terms of actually protecting your expensive screen. But be aware that all this is useless if the phone lands on the corners!! Let me explain: Both the top glass on your screen and the screen protector have a thin layer of "glue". This acts like a shock absorber, so unless an impact goes deep enough so the pressure on the actual screen is too much only the protector should fail. But the screen itself is a tight fit into the frame of the phone, so all side and corner impacts go directly into the glass. As the rest of the glass has no way to give or go the stresses will crack the screen. How should I treat my phone with the new screen protector? Exactly the same way you would without it of course. But if you don't have a proper cover that offers protection of the corners you should invest in one. Having a quality protector and a good case does not mean your phone can be used as a football, see it as an added insurance in case something does go wrong. For obvious reason it can also pay off to have a spare at hand, if something bad happens that requires replacement of the protector you won't be left with an unprotected screen ;) Last but not least, double it up: For people that already know their screen will see a fair bit of abuse in term of scratches it is a good idea to put an extra film protector onto the glass one. Once it is too scratched you peel it off and replace it, while the glass protector gives you the actual protection for your screen. Corning Willow glass As time of wrinting Corning Willow glass is the only "flexible" glass on the market, unless stated with your flexible screen protector you can assume it will be just plastic. I did not list it above as this high tech material is mainly reserved for displays and at least to my knowledge is not available for screen protectors, although I will stand corrected as I have to assume some big players use it for their protectors. The material is actually a sandwich where an ultra thin sheet of glass stis bewteen two layers of durable coating, read it up on their website it is quite interesting. It won't reach the strength of their famous Gorilla glass so without an outer plastic that has the additional oleophobic coating it won't provide the strenght of real tempered glass protectors. Some phones like the Galaxy Round and the fleixble HTC phones use it for example.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Power banks and solar cells -could be great Instructable for you to make!

I was lucky to score a nice and real 8000mAh power pack with a solar cell from my local discounter.Realising the solar cell is more a gimmick than of real use I started to wonder....We all love our mobile devices and really hate that they need to be constantly charged up again.On long outdoor trips people used to carry a lot of gear and vital supplies.In todays times it almost seems that solar and battery power start to replace food and water.No trip is complete without pics, selfies and videos, some even take a drone with them.So: are there ways to increase your luggage weight by thinking smarter?Modern technology has come a long way and moves faster ever year.Solar cells are no exception here.Be it foldable setups or now even roll ups of flexible cell systems, you have the total freedom of coice.But then again: You are going on a week long camping trip in the middle of nowhere...Going on foot or using a bike means you need to keep the extras down or hire someone to carry them.Here are some of my yet to be finnished ideas:As long as you don't use them commercially feel free to make an Instructable or just use the ideas!1. Pop up amd normal tents.They seem to be the new standard now.Big with no poles on the inside and even someone who never used a tent can set them up.With the design comes a certain way of folding everything to pack it.Flexible solar cell designs won't break and can often be arranged so they would actually be able to replace parts of the outer tent material.And if it could mean they would get kinked too much and too often they are still perfect to create some "strap on panels" that can be rolled up and included with your foam underlay or mattress.A 200 or even 400W system can be transported easy and has less weight than a 80W fold up solution that you struggle to secure on your backpack or bike.2. Trackers!What is now almost a standard for fixed installations is still not seen in mobile setups.You pop up your panels, connect the power packs or batteries and go fishing, hiking or whatever.The sun moves on, the efficiency of the panels suffer.There are a lot of great Ibles for these solar trackers, from simple to 3 dimensional.Kites loves to use carbon fibre rods to reduce the weight.A tracking frame to hold a good sized flexible panel would count at less than 300 grams....In return you get up to 40% higher effiency and overall output compared to a fixed panel!Roll the panel up, fold the frame and you end up with a quite small roll that is easy to transport and very low in weight.3. Battery backups.No matter how long and well you planned, the weather might let you down shortly after your trip started.For a lot of comitted people that is no problem.The lack of power though can cause some to struggle to keep their video logs running.Your small drone might be great but it only lasts for less then 30 minutes until you need fresh batteries.Similar story if you use stabilizers, automatic tilt and pan gadgets or just a 360° camera.Just your cell phone alone can be a hassle if you use it as the main thing for GPS, pics and videos.At least one set of spare batteries seems to be a must have these days.For a lot of things it does make sense, for others not so much.Unless you really need ongoing power it might be enough to just charge you empty battery at the end of the day.But then the sun is down and options are gone for solar energy.In the RC area we can find a lot of powerful battery packs.Usually around 14V but 40 or more are no problem.And if you check the E-bike and scooter sections you will find some quite powerful and light weight battery packs.If you go outdoors a lot and for longer periods of time then it makes sense to replace the multiple battery options with just a single one.Use a high power backup battery with your solar system.DC-DC converters make it possible to literally combine everything with everything.Select the battery size so it will suit your charging needs and capabiliteis of the solar setup.Once time to close the tent you enjoy electricity to finnish your logs while your batteries are being charged during the night from the backup.4. Emergency generator.We all know these cheap gadgets like crank up torches or cranking mobile phone chargers.Nice to play with, utterly useless if you actually have to rely on them.A full charge for your modern phone might mean you crank for at least half the day - good luck!If you already carry a supply of gas for your cooking needs then these new fuel cells running on butane might be nice.Some of the Kickstarter projects actually made it into production!Prices though are more for real fans or those with enough money...But a small RC engine can drive some nice DC motor with very little fuel....In return you get a pocket sized generator that can charger your phone fully in the same amount of time a wall charger would...

Topic by Downunder35m  


Help for completion of Knee Walker Project ?

Hi Everyone I have a problem with a project I started to overcome my unique disability , this project was to basically install low powered electric motor on a kneewalker so I could get assistance / go off-road , yet still use it manually if need be i.e. to get some exercise or more importantly if battery dies ( something I cant do with mobility scooter or wheelchair  ) The problem however is I cant do this myself due my disability ( weld it , use power tools etc ) so I had this person i meet on a another  forum who agreed to help me - but unfortunately he hasnt   - so instead I am trying to find a replacement for him or any one that is willing to help. The motor itself ( Motor - MW12B GoldenMotor  )seems to work fine using a Lyens controller , but  unfortunately there is no direct link to the hub motor whose details are below. Model: MW12B -- 12" Motor Wheel Voltage:36V (Brushless) Power Rate:250W Weight: 4.8Kgs You will have to got to the gm website on the link above click on hub motors and scroll down to find more details , including links to 3d drawings . You can see the motor itself working in following videos that were posted by the person who still has it video1 video2 video3 Due to the size difference of the wheel  ( 16" compared to the front 9" using MTB tires ) amongst other things, we were  trying to find a way to mount it that he suggested would probably involve having to weld on some strong rear forks from a bike  or perhaps something else. Ive included the whole assessment / plan we did based on our mutual ideas and discussions below for reference, but Im afraid thats pretty much it , as I dont have any of the parts here for reference or than the basic facts . If any ones interested in helping , or going me any advice Id be grateful for your suggestions , if any ones wants to offer their services at a price just send me a pm and we discuss things further. thanks for listening , heres the assessment / plan I mentioned.. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I need to figure out a rough plan for the wheel mounting, plus brake mounting. We need to get disc and caliper. We need to figure out what front wheels, how to mount them, and how to fix the sloppy steering. In order to go see a welder we need to know where to weld the dropouts, the caliper mounts, and what, if any welding to do at the front end. Assessment Frame - good, solid, heavy. bulletproof. Wheels - strong, solid, better made with bearings etc better than expected. but hard tires are not nice, and wheels are a little too thin and too small. I expect its easy to get hung up on small obstacles. brakes - crap. none existent basically. Just a bit of metal pushing on the tyre. Also the lever is either crap or a bit broken. need to inspect it. steering - not very good but not crap. whole linkgae is a bit loose and wobbly, just held together by a few bolts. this means it has a fair bit of play in the steering. The whole thing with the bolts is that they have to be a bit loose otherwise the steering won't move. not a very good design. but it will do. handlebars/stem/steerer - designed to be collapsible easily, which is good, but there is also excessive play in this as well. it will do but its not great. ------------------------------------------------------------------ Thoughts.... Because there is four wheels, I found that on uneven floors (just around the front room the floorboards were uneven enough) one wheel is often off the ground a tiny bit. This would be solved by having 3 wheels or tyres with a bit of give in them. I would not want to keep any of the wheels. I would want to replace the front wheels with something a bit wider softer and grippier. like scooter wheels or MTB wheels. Brakes - the center of gravity is quite far forward. if it had brakes only on the front then i feel like it might tip over. then again, with the weight of the frame, the motor, batteries and person, maybe not. I will do some testing. Motors - Golden has the 8" single sided solid tyre motors that would be the easiest conversion, but I don't like the solid tyres and I don't like having 2 wheels at the back. I already ran into my foot. There is also the 8" double sided solid tire. This is not so easy either because it is the same size as the existing wheels therefore the axle would want to go exactly where the existing axles join. Could be done with cutting and welding but would be a pain, plus you still have the solid tire etc. I held up a 12" dinner plate and I reckon it would not look so bad actually. I will take some pics tomorrow. It looks like we would need to cut off a bit of the back section and weld on some dropouts, a bit higher up and further in than the existing axle mounts.. It looks like it will fit under the knee platform ok as well. Controller - because we may well end up with a motor that is not exactly right for the job, I think its all the more important we get a controller with some intelligence. Something programmable where we can set a low voltage, top speed etc. This leads us back to the GM controller, Lyens mini monster, or......I just thought, hmmm the kelly controllers are programmable - well they do a little controller that might be up for the job as well. In fact it looks the most programmable one so far. It is the mini one next to the coke can here: Hub & Wheel Motor Controller | EV Parts They have one that does 12-24v for $79 or $99 depending on max amps. You can get it waterproof for an extra $19 http://kellycontroller.com/kbs2405120a1 ... p-499.html It is fully programmable, see the software screenshots and manual here: Kelly KBS controllers online demo/help-Kelly Controls, LLC http://kellycontroller.com/mot/download ... Manual.pdf You need a serial port on your computer to program it, if you don't have one you need a serial to USB converter. They sell one for $29. Kelly are good controllers. I never thought of them until just now - I usually associate them with high power controllers for cars and motorbikes. When I used to work at Sevcon (who make argubaly the best...and most expensive...controllers you can get.)....kelly was one of the few competitors we kept an eye on. If you look at the setup software, you can fine tune min throttle, max throttle, max amps, max speed, all kinds of things. It will be just the ticket for fine tuning. --------------------------------------------------------------------- So........... This would be my personal plan right now - Electronics: $115 Motor - MW12B (GM) $98 kelly controller waterproofed $29 Serial RS232 to USB converter (from kelly) $20 throttle (max) $20 ebrake lever (max) $50 wiring, connectors, etc -------- $332 Frame / Fabrication: $50 old steel bike to steal dropouts off (maximum, probably less from craigslist or a garage sale) $150 to pay someone to weld the dropouts on and maybe brake caliper mounts plus machine front wheel mounts if necessary for new wheels (maximum) $50 (max) 2 front wheels MTB or scooter 8 inch with pneumatic tyres. $30 (max) new axles, bolts, washers etc $30 box for battery plus mounting bolts etc $50 (max) for respray or powdercoat frame (will be messy after welding. something to put the battery in ----------------------- $360 Brakes $20 (max) brake disk for rear plus screw on adapter for rear hub Brake discs $40 (max) brake caliper (cable ok, hydraulic not needed) $50 bolt on brake caliper mount (seen them somewhere but can't find right now) price is a guess. --------------------------- $110 Battery depends. I am clueless as to the requirements of this system. I can test with my own batteries once it is setup. Then we will know, but at a minimum you will be talking about 18 or 24v 10 amp hour. That is : $199 from ping

Topic by hele    |  last reply


Safety of your garage door or car remote...

No time and no pics for a proper Instructable, so I just put out some word of warning ;) Around here bad people take advantage of the fact that a lot of new houses have the garage right next to the house. With these you usually also get a door so when you park your car you don't have to get out of the garage again. All controlled by the press of a button on the remote... Some fancy guys got a device working similar to the IM-ME Open Sesame hack a few years back. But unlike the original author the new guys found ways to make money by providing working "universal garage door openers" on dubious websites. Problem with the new model is that it not only fakes a remote with dip switches but also the newer models with so called "rolling code", "intellicode", "changing code" and so on. The old remotes with dip switches should actually by phased out years ago by any owner who values his stuff... But the new models are still deemed secure and next to impossible to hack - well if you trust the advertisement... How does the code hacking work? The old dip switch models allow for a maximum of just over 4000 different codes and come in just 3 or 4 frequency bands. No real problem for anyone with basic electronic and coding skills to hack these - as shown with Open Sesame. The new models all use a so called rolling code, here the remote and opener are paired through 32 bit of ID code and an encrypted part that changes every time. Both remote and opener calculate the next code once a button was pressed or a code received. To overcome reception problems the base usually calculates the next 256 codes in advance - and that is the entry point for bad boys. The illegal device scrambles the frequency detected while storing the code received by the orignal remote. As the door did not open the owner will try to press the button again. Still scrambled to opener does nothing - until the device sends out the first recorded code! Now the owner can drive in and is happy. Of course he still needs to close the garage - again all is scrambled and the code stored as before. You see where this is going.... It is even possible to set the amount of required tries to capture, so in theory a bad guy could get the next 10 or codes in advance for use once the owner is gone out... Worst thing however is that these illegal devices not only open garage doors but also cars as a lot of them use similar systems for their remotes - up to the point of starting the car with it. Took me only 2 hours with Google translate to find a website outside the usual search results that offers these "gadgets", along with WiFi and cell phone jammers, credit card copy devices and more things I don't want know about... What can you do to protect yourself? First check what type of remote your system uses - if there are DIP Switches than replace the remote system or the entire device in favour for something more secure. If you already have a rolling code model that you are far better off but sadly no longer totally safe here. A lost remote should not only be replaced but the old one removed from the system as well - you never know if you just lost it or someone took your remote ;) Alternatives exist, especially if you are not afraid of doing some open heart surgery on the electronics of a garage door opener. You can add a WiFi module and use your mobile phone to open the garage - search Google if you like the idea ;) Another very neat way is using a second transmitter that keeps the relay for activating the opener from working. This can be anything from a BT module paired with your phone or cars BT system over a keycard to numberplate recognition cams. A good system also allows for a "holiday mode" or similar. Here you can set this mode with one remote until you deactivate it with the same remote the system will not react to anything. Great if you leave the house for more than a day or two... As a last resort you can always get a big and angry dog to sleep in your garage.... What if you are renting or a bit limited with the electronics and soldering skills? Not all is lost if you can accept a second remote for added safety. These days you can get plug in converters for your mains voltage outlets that work with a remote control. Unless they use Infra Red for this they are great to disable your opener. Simply plug it in where the power cord for the opener is and then plug the cord into it as well ;) Now you can fully shut off the opener with the press of a button and only if the power outlet is switched on the opener will work. If in doubt you can use a double outlet adapter an extension cord and a night light to indicate wether or not the opener has power. Ok, and what about the door lading from the garage into the house? Well, of course keep it locked and if you are home also keep it locked. At least this way you have some extra time in case someone tries to enter through your garage while you are sleeping ;)

Topic by Downunder35m  


Design for reuse...

The "1st world" (that would be us) is infamous for its rampant and wasteful consumerism. Buy an electronic gadget with N times the power of the OLPC machine, then throw it away after two years (incidentally filling landfills with all sorts of questionable stuff.) Meanwhile, other parts of the world starve for technology.Do you think it would be possible to SLIGHTLY modify the design of 1st world consumer products to make it easier to reuse them (or parts of them) in devices conceptually similar to OLPC? I mean, consider the cell phone. Modern cell phones have cameras, flash card sockets, relatively high-res (but tiny) displays, relatively high-quality sound capability, low power consumption in standby mode, and radio based networking capabilities. It seems pretty close to an OLPC device to me (tell me an Apple iPhone wouldn't be an adequate replacement for an OLPC...)Why can't "we" convince a cell phone manufacturer to design the internals such that when the phones original life is over, it's guts can get a larger display and keyboard and new software, and become someone's computer or eReader. People are willing to donate their old phones to assorted worthy causes now; they might even be convinced to pay an extra $10 to purchase a phone that is MORE reusable. (or is it more expensive to do this sort of "refurbishment" than to build brand new machines?) Now that wireless headsets are common, it's not even necessary for a cellphone to retain a "phone-like" size and shape. Can I have a paperback sized combination cell phone and eBook reader that will have a second life as "just an eBook reader"?What would it take to make a cellphone reusable as the core of a general purpose computer?1) extend and standardize display interface to allow page-sized display.2) extend and standardize keypad interface to allow keyboard (?)3) internal software nearly completely replacible with a general purpose OS.4) inappropriate radio functions capable of being removed, disabled, or converted to more appropriate functions (ad-hoc wireless networking)Some of those seem like things manufacturers would be doing anyway, just to reduce their own costs. Creating a reusable cellphone core may be more a matter of documentation than anything else (and politics. Not that either is easy.)Next, what other electronic devices do you have that you're likely to be done with before they break? An MP3 player could use the same standardized display link and reprogramability as cell phones. Your LCD monitor could implement the other half (old cell phone plus old monitor = general purpose computer?) I don't think there's enough standardization in the desktop computers to reuse them; their complexity makes reuse too administratively complex, and they're probably too power-hungry anyway.The "maker" community already spends a fair amount of effort reusing "appliances" as general purpose compute engines; usually "improving" the product in its original application space, or getting cheap cycles from a product that failed and is being sold off cheap. Creating intentionally reusable electronics would feed that community some, but it isn't big enough to absorb ALL the discards of our quick-moving society. A lot could be funneled into putting technology where it couldn't afford to be before.(some quick Google use says:In the US, we throw away over 400,000 cell phones PER DAY linkIn Europe, 27% of mobile phone user buy a new phone every year link; only 5% of the old phones are recycled.Overall, less than 1% of cell phones are recycled. link; cell phone sales are expected to exceed 1 billion per year by 2009.)(I pick primarilly on cell phones because they seem SO CLOSE to being a general purpose computer, AND small enough to possibly incorporate into a larger "second life" product.)

Topic by westfw    |  last reply


Tracking down the speed problems on a laptop.

I've copied the conversation here so we could remove the information from the original instructable's comments.  I figure this would also be of some interest to other forum viewers who may have similar problems, or may be able to chip in. The long and short of it is, 92033 (Ed) has a refurbished laptop that takes literal hours to run a YouTube video on.  I suspect that it's due to a bottleneck with his internet connection.  Here's the conversation thus far: ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033 (Ed): Thank you kindly for your prompt reply...appreciate it very much. I came across this site by accident in searching for something else and now I'm 'hooked' on it. :) So far I've read over 400 archived posts (whew)...as well as looking at the videos. The videos are somewhat of a problem because this new laptop only has 512 mg memory...LOOOOOng time to load. For example...to watch a SLOW 5-minute You Tube video takes 5-1/2 HOURS to load...keeps showing a couple words at a time...need to get two new memory chips to upgrade to 2gb. Thanks again...Take care. ---------------------------------------------------------------- eddems: I think you're basic download speed is killing ya, not the laptop. check you're speed at Internetfrog.com, if you see the link near the bottom for the old test, run it, I like it's graph of upload and download speed much better. ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Thanks much. I'll check it out. I ordered a 1gb SDRAM Memory chip which just arrived yesterday. Hope this speeds things up a bit. ---------------------------------------------------------------- harley_rly: i hear u man, my computer is hopped up, but i live out in the sticks and have dialup...i only get 24kbps at most :( ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Maybe there's hope for 'us' yet. :-) I phoned Tiger Direct to see cost of an upgrading memory chip to go from 512mg to 1-1/2gb. The guy I talked to suggested I get "PC TUNEUP 2.0" which bypasses the Windows Operating System (I'm using Windows XP Pro) and speeds up the system. I gave it a try and ordered the CD (cost $39.98 - $44.77 postpaid). It hasn't arrived yet but will let you know if it helps as he claims it will. He said that if I just ordered a 1gb memory chip my system wouldn't notice much improvement as it is, but this CD should do the trick. THEN...when I DO order the Memory chip(s) to get total of 2gb my system should zip through like a rocket with the CD just ordered. I'll let you know when I get the CD and about the results. Just hope I haven't thrown forty-five bucks to the wind. Thanks for the contact...appreciate hearing from you. TAKE CARE. ~ ED ---------------------------------------------------------------- Javin007: PC Tune-Up "bypasses the Windows Operating System?" This guy fed you a load of crap. (I work on computers for a living.) PC Tune-Up does nothing more than clean up registries, defragment harddrives (if your OS even needs it, some don't) and keeps drivers up to date (which you could do manually.) That guy's an idiot, or just a liar. Could be both. Unless you were buying PC Tuneup 2.0 from Tiger Direct, in which case we can add "sleazy salesman" to that. What are the specs of the laptop? Go to Start/Run and type in DXDIAG. This will give you a quick snapshot of the specs. Specifically, I'm curious as to the processor speed/type. For a 5 1/2 hour "load" you're more likely looking at network slowdown issues (although 512 megs for XP is WAYYYY too little. I HATE when they put PCs together like that). The RAM upgrade will show significant speed increases, but no improvement with YouTube videos or other downloads. I'm glad to see you are returning the CD. ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Thanks much for your input...appreciate it very much. I checked the DXDIAG as you recommended. Here's the info on it: IBM ThinPad Laptop PC. Model # 23738TU. Intel Premium M 1.70GHZ. 512mb SDRAM Memory chip.Page File- 351mb used,513 mb available. Direct Version-Directx 9.00 (4.09.0000.0904). 512 mb SDRAM-Actual 212 Ram. AVAST Anti-Virus. MS Windows XP-PRO.. Dialup Speed-40kbps. PC2700 SDRAM 512mb Memory Chip installed. I ordered 1bb memory chip which arrived yesterday. Now I have to figure out HOW to remove the bottom of this laptop to install it...lotta small screws on it. :-) Oh, total memory shows 32mb. I don't know if this means much to you. I note your comment that the added RAM memory WONT (?) speed up loading YouTube videos? Is that correct? If so, why not? Thanks again. Take care. ~ ED ---------------------------------------------------------------- Javin007: :) At the risk of boring too many people, here's how memory in a PC works: You have two kinds of memory: RAM, and Hard Drive (technically there's three, as there's also onboard video RAM on video cards, but this is primarily used for 3D video game textures, so can be mostly ignored.) Your harddrive's read/write speed is determined by the type of harddrive it is (most are SATA now) and the rotation speed (most are 7200 RPM, though the specs for your system say yours is only 5400 RPM, but there are 10, 15, and even 20K rpm models out there that are exponentially more expensive.) No matter what, harddrive memory will always be degrees slower than RAM. RAM on the other hand is a small chunk of memory that is "temporary" memory, but very fast. Its speed is determined by the type of RAM (DDR2 being the current common one for notebooks, though DDR3 is available with some motherboards (you can ignore this, though, as you can only handle 2 gigs max of DDR with your system). The motherboard will determine the limits for the RAM that can be installed.) When running *ANYTHING* on your computer, and I mean ANYTHING, it must first be loaded into RAM to be accessed by the CPU. The computer doesn't directly access the harddrive. So this means when your operating system is loaded (Windows XP) the entirety of all running processes for the OS have to be loaded into RAM. Now, Microsoft claims that Windows XP only requires a minimum of 64 megs of RAM, but recommends 128 megs. I challenge you to find me a Windows XP system that only uses 128 megs out of the box. It's not atypical for an XP system to chew through all 512 megs of your RAM, leaving no RAM available for other applications. (Interestingly, the default setup for your laptop is only 256 megs of RAM, yet yours is reporting 512.) What happens when there's no RAM left? The system has to then start trading things into what is called "Virtual Memory." VM is nothing more than a file on the harddrive that will temporarily hold information that SHOULD be in RAM, so the RAM can load more info. For instance, say you have a process that's using RAM, but you want to watch your YouTube video. As the video is ready to play, the system will take the other process's data that's in RAM, write it to the harddrive, load your video into RAM in its place, play a portion of it, write the video to the harddrive, load the data for the process to RAM, let it run for a split second (so it doesn't lock up), write it back to the harddrive, load your video into RAM and play a short clip, etc. etc. etc. The result of low RAM on your system is that applications will open slowly (seconds or minutes, instead of instantly or a few seconds) and they will seem slow to respond, will stutter, etc. With enough RAM, your system can freely open as much as it needs into RAM, and ignore the virtual memory and all the slowdowns that it causes. Now, all of this being said, NO lack of RAM will cause a streaming video to take 5 1/2 hours to play. This is 100% going to be related to your downspeed. (Go to www.speedtest.net and post your results.) RAM slowdowns tend to be most noticeable when shutting down, or starting up your computer, apps will open a little more slowly, they will be slower to respond to button clicks, and video will be very choppy. Anything that is causing a YouTube video to take HOURS will be due to the system simply waiting to get the video in the first place. RAM wouldn't slow down the receiving of the video, but it would cause the video to play weird once it's downloaded. So, all this being said, here's the summary: Your system has a 1.7 Ghz processor, and your RAM is most likely 333 Mhz DDR. If you bump your memory up to a gig, you should see a pretty significant improvement in that your computer will, overall, just "feel" faster. It'll be more responsive, and working with large documents will be many, many times faster. This won't, however, affect your YouTube experience (unless you were getting jittery video often, not the same as "buffering" video.) If you see "buffering" for a long time, your internet connection is your bottleneck. A test on www.SpeedTest.net will likely confirm this. However, if you get decent numbers on SpeedTest, then we could have something more sinister going on, though I suspect you'll find your numbers well below the 1 mbps rate. This brings us to actually changing the RAM. I've been out of the PC hardware realm (professional programmer now) for a few years, and was unable to find a manual for your particular model. However, if memory serves, this image should be a fairly accurate representation of the underside of your system: http://www.javin-inc.com/temp/thinkpad.JPG Don't quote me, but I BELIEVE the red circle will indicate the only screw you will need to remove to access the RAM. There should also be a small clip holding the RAM in place that you'll want to pinch to get the RAM out, and make sure that the new RAM snaps into place. (Sometimes you'll have additional empty RAM beds, and you can just put your RAM in there and end up with 1.5 gigs, but I suspect you'll have two 256 gig chips in there.) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Phew. Thanks again for your most indepth educational lesson. I appreciate all your help more than you realize. I attempted to answer this last night, typing in more than twice the amount of text as your to me, then suddenly realized there was a glitch and I was on another page...lost it all into the ionisphere. :-( Rather than try to retype all I wrote, I shut 'r down and went to sleep. Now I'm trying to recall all I wrote last night but failed to get mailed. I'm not a traditional typist, rather a one-finger bloke so you can understand the frustration there. I do, however, type at a reasonably good speed. With that said, let's continue. I went to search for Configuration of this IBM Laptop ThinkPad 23738TU and am copy and pasting it here. It's relevant to what I have to say...here it is: ********************************************************************************** Overview Specs Features Includes Warranty Supplies IBM ThinkPad T42 2373 Specifications Part # 23738TU Key Specifications IBM ThinkPAD T42 2373 Manufacturer IBM Manufacturer Part # 23738TU Processor Type Intel Pentium M 735 1.7 GHz Data Bus Speed 400 MHz Cache Memory Type L2 cache Installed Size 2 MB RAM Installed Size 256 MB Technology DDR SDRAM Memory Speed 333 MHz System Type Notebook Storage Hard Drive 40 GB, 5400 rpm Storage Controller Type IDE Optical Storage Type DVD ROM Read Speed 24x (CD) / 8x (DVD) Display Type 14.1" TFT active matrix Graphics Processor / Vendor ATI MOBILITY RADEON 7500 Video Memory 32 MB Max. Resolution 1024 x 768 Audio Output Type Sound card Audio Codec AD1981B Compliant Standards DirectSound, AC '97, SoundMAX Telecom Modem Fax / modem Max. Transfer Rate 56 Kbps Protocols & Specifications ITU V.90 Networking Networking Network adapter Data Link Protocol Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet Expansion Expansion Slots Total 1 x front accessible Expansion Slots Total 2 ( 1 ) x memory 1 ( 1 ) x CardBus - type II Interfaces 1 x docking / port replicator, 240 pin docking 2 x Hi Speed USB, 4 pin USB Type A 1 x parallel, IEEE 1284 (EPP/ECP), 25 pin D Sub (DB25) 1 x display / video, VGA, 15 pin HD D Sub (HD 15) 1 x infrared, IrDA 1 x modem, phone line, RJ11 1 x network, Ethernet 10BaseT/100BaseTX, RJ45 1 x display / video, S video output, 4 pin mini DIN 1 x microphone, input, mini phone mono 3.5 mm 1 x headphones, output, mini phone stereo 3.5 mm Miscellaneous Features Locking device keyhole (cable lock), administrator password, hard drive password, power-on password, asset ID, IBM Embedded Security Subsystem 2.0 Compliant Standards ACPI 2.0, ACPI 1.0b, FCC Class B certified, CE, MPR II, UL, BSMI, cUL, NOM, VCCI-II Operating System Microsoft Windows XP Professional Software Included Adobe Acrobat Reader, PC Doctor, IBM Rapid Restore Ultra, IBM Update Connector, InterVideo WinDVD, IBM Access Connections, IBM Access Support, Access IBM,(OEM) Battery Technology lithium ion Capacity 4400 mAh Average Run Time 5 hour(s) Installed Qty 1 Ambient Temperature Min Operating Temperature 50 °F Max Operating Temperature 90 °F Humidity Range Operating 8 - 80% Dimensions (W x D x H) Unit 12.2 in x 10 in x 1.1 in Weight Unit 4.9 lbs Warranty 3 Years Limited Warranty on parts and labor. IBM 23738TU Summary ********************************************************************************* NOTE...I DON'T BELIEVE THIS...I JUST TYPED FORTY MINUTES REPLY HERE and it instantly scrolled up like speed of lightning and disappeared like last night. I'll ATTEMP to try again later. So please don't reply yet as you need to read my discoveries in changing the RAM chip. Meanwhile, thanks again...take care. ~ ED ******************************************************************************* TRY #3...I'm Back :-) Your diagram showing where the RAM chip is located was right on. Thanks. Here's my DISCOVERY :-( The RAM chip installed was NOT a 512mg...but only a 256mg chip. The ads ans specs say it's a 512mg...NOT SO. I was lied to by either the manufacturer or refurbishing company who removed the original 512 chip and reinstalled a 256 chip. I was lied to by the Tiger Direct guy on the phone. There are NOT two chip slots...only one. So I now have a useless removed 256mb RAM chip. Replaced with the 1gb RAM chip I just installed. So instead of having 1-1/2 gb RAM, I only have 1gb. Here's the crux. To. go to 2gb RAM I'd need to buy a full 2gb RAM CHIP and discard the 1gb for which I just paid $39.99 ($45.00 with s/h). This means another output of almost a hundred dollars plus the $45.00 just wasted because they wont accept return once the sealed chip plastic was opened...even though I had no idea there was only ONE SLOT in this PC instead of TWO like the Tiger Guy said. Now...crux #2...this new 1gb RAM does nothing more to increase speed. I just watched a 2.01 MINUTE YouTube video which took a HALF HOUR to load, so I threw the money away for nothing, eh? There is no noticeable change except the 'speed' shows it now as 41.2 kbps instead of 40 kbps. Okay...now HOW do I get to speed this thing up to normal viewing in real time? I also saw an ad for 4bg RAM Gateway laptop with 120gb hard drive for $404.99 which is all suped-up with everything. I had to upgrade a LOT since I got this only four months ago...taking over a hundred hours to load it, like Internet Explorer 5 to 6 and then to 8 and now to 9. I'm using AVAST Anti-Virus, after trying for 23 hours to get ADVAR, then find out it didn't load because of problem on the servor's end. Added Firefox and upgraded twice. Loaded MS Protection but it created more problems so I deleted it...now with AVAST which I like. Soooo...I've literally spent over 200 hours to get this thng where it's at now, plus the wasted money for the upgraded RAM chip.and I still don't have increased speed. HOW do I get it? IF the processor has to be changed does this mean I have to gut the thing and install a new motherboard? If so, what kind of money cost are we talking here? I bought this four months ago as a refurbished unit only because I was able to get it on payments of only $25.00 a month. If I had to wait to get $400.00 cash I'd never have it. :-) Okay...that's it for the moment. Thanks much again for your help offering and detailed instructions...appreciate it more than you realize. Best Wishes And God's Blessings To You And Yours In Everything Always. Most Respectfully... ~ ED  ---------------------------------------------------------------- Javin007: Well, let's start with the RAM. If you're running windows XP, you can assume all the extra processes (virus scanners, and whatnot) will be eating up about 512 megs of the RAM. First thing to do is check DXDIAG again (start/run) and verify that it's now reporting the correct amount of RAM. (Don't be surprised if it's like 9 hundred something megs or slightly more. It won't report 1024 or 1 gig.) This being said, that will leave you with the other 512 for your applications. This box won't be running the latest and greatest 3D games, but I suspect it was never intended to. If the heaviest hitter you'll have running is along the lines of photoshop, the 1 gig of RAM you have now should be plenty sufficient. I wouldn't worry about getting 2 gigs. Not for this rig, anyway. Also, Avast is a great (and free) virus protection, every bit as good as Symantec's Norton, so good choice there. If your youtube videos are choking out, we need to start by verifying that it's an actual speed throttling problem. Go to www.SpeedTest.net and run the speed test. Come back with the results.

Topic by Javin007    |  last reply


Damaged disc(s) in the lower back - what to do and what not ;)

I got diagnosed with a damaged L5 and L6 disc in my lower back about 8 years ago and I thought writing about my experience might helps others facing the same problems. Keeping your back straight when lifting or moving heavy things was a thing I already learned and followed during my school times and as you might have guessed it helped to keep my back healthy - at the expense of my knees... But the knees are a different story, today I want to help you understand lower back problems caused by damaged or bulging discs and how this will affect your life. For me it began with a little shock. One day I got out of bed, wanted to grab something I dropped and got stuck half way up. Knowing that there are some nerves that can cause the same issue and that a simple injection will fix me I called a cab to be dragged laying down on the back seat to my GP. As you might have guessed his diagnosis was a bit worse than what I wanted to hear... Many painful hours and some scans later it was confirmed that my L5 and L6 disk have collapsed on one side and started to push on the nerves next to it. Funny side not that I never really checked was that my doc said not everyone has a L6 disk... Anyways, as with most first "accidents" involving your lower back the so called recovery was long and painful. Sure the painkillers help to numb the worst, the anti inflammatory stuff covers some pain too but actually I did not want the full pain free package deal. Pain is the bodies way to let you know something is wrong, so I kept the pain medication at a level where I got that information when making a wrong move... The first 6 months I was literally confined to my bed, the shower and the toilet. I tried to keep a position with the least amount of pain for as long as possible and for obvious reasons was not too happy that my body not only required food intake but also the disposal of the waste products - getting out of bed and onto the toilet meant experiencing huge amounts of pain every time. But after those 6 months I started to adjust, to the pain as well as what my limited body was now capable of in terms of movement. Needless to say that all this time of not doing anything really meant my scale started to scream tripple digets at me one day... Luckily around the same time my pain levels went to a level that allowed my to walk around 500-600 at slightly slower speeds than normal before the pain got too much. My doctor also got quite concerned about my blood work and body weight recommending to loose a lot if I every intent to get back to a more normal life. So I started to walk several times a day, no matter how bad the weather was, just a bit up and down the street. The distance got longer, the fitness a bit better and the pain levels a bit lower too. Using my old weight lifting belt to keep the back supported helped me a lot during these times, especially when driving or doing housework. During those times I was still on 6-8 panedine forte tablets (paracetamol and codein) plus 2-4 tablets of 20mg oxicontin and not happy about the last anyway. Despite the added levels of pain I started to reduce the level of oxicontin and started to exercise more. My focus was getting the core muscles stronger and to get better support for my back. Also started riding my bike again, although I had to replace it for a bigger model to allow me a more upright position with less stress on the lower back. The kilos started to tumble very slowly but I was already quite proud when I got bak to 90kg. :( Good thing was that I got motivation to continue as every kg I lost and every little bit more on distance I got out of my walks and rides without getting too painful also meant that my average pain level went down too. Two years after it all happened I got rid of the oxicontin completely and reached the 80kg mark. My doc was happy too, my blood work looking good but of course he still suggested to loose a few more kg. Being able to move around again also meant being able to work again and with that came more food, less exercise and a lot more stress. I did manage to hold my 80kg but after about 6 months or working I noticed my back problems started to limit me again. My back belt covered for me and I was able to keep going a while longer but in the end I got hit by another attack on my back. The diagnosis was not good at all as now on top of the pain goind through the back and leg I also hab numbness and a feeling like ants crawl over the leg and chew on it every few mm. As with most lower back "revenges" this one only needed strong pain killers for a few weeks until I was back to something more normal in terms of pain and movability. Sadly the ongoing side effects did not go away the way they did the first time. This meant especiall finding the right position to sleep with the least amount of pain was becoming a nightmare on it's own. Either you got pins and needles keeping you awake, you lost your feeling in the leg to the point where it becomes useless or the pain in the back is just stabbing you all the time. Starting some projects here on Instructables kept my mind busy and gave me some welcome distraction from the daily routine. Eventually I manged to find a job again that allowed me to have enough different movements with only a bit of lifting so things started get back to normal. My doc put me on some amitriptyline to help with the pain at night and although it took some time to get used to the stuff it really started to help after about two weeks. The job was only for a fixed term but it gave me back some confidence that not all is bad or lost. Life went on and I actually manged to get down to just 75kg and only used some painkillers once or twice a week if it was really bad. Then, a few weeks back I started to notice that the top of my foot and the outside of my leg felt different to touch, especially in the shower with some brush or rough sponge. Not being happy already I agreed to some new scans to check if the discs started to cause problems or if the nerves are just inflamed. You might have guessed already, the scan confirmed that my two discs desintegrated further putting more pressure on the already suffering nerves. With the "help" of some quite strong anti inflammatory stuff, cortisone and other meds my doc managed to get me back to "normal" but he also informed me that this won't last forever. The current outcome (without surgery but more on that later on) I have two choices to keep going: a ) I continue with pain killers and other meds to keep the problems at bay. b ) I limit myself to basically not doing anything involving the movemnt of my lower back, keep to a strict calory intake and hope for the best. The first option won't do me any good in the long run except liver, kidney and digestive problems. The second option will allow me some sort of a normal life at the expense of never finding a job to support me again. So once again we soldier on knowing that it will only make things worse as giving up and relying on social services is no option for me. Hoping that you might just had your first encounter with lower back injuries and pain I will give some advise on the things that helped my most so that you might not have to suffer as much I did and still do. So read on please... Diagnosed with a damaged or bulged disc in the lower back - what does it acutally mean? If you check all the available images of the human skelleton you will quickly notice one thing: Our lower back is not really straight and not designed to carry a lot weight when it is put on the wrong way or direction. Noone with a sane mind would use a support beam shaped like that but the human body adapted to this problem caused by changing from using all four limbs to walking on just two legs. The muscles and tendons in our back work in such a way that they support the fragile construction of discs and bones that keep us upright. Sadly modern life, personal decisions and only too often a busy work shedule prevent us from using our body the wa we should. Be it too much lifting, being far too short for your weight or simply laziness the factors causing our muscle to degrade are too many to count. But once you are in the worst pain you ever felt and your doc tells you that there are damaged discs you suddenly wish you had it all done differently years ago - trust me, I have been there and I have done it ;) Or it might be like in my case that a healthy and fit person just cracks one or more discs for no obvious reason. Either way it means you have to change your life to be able to keep going. Pain killers help to ignore the problem and pretend all is good but they should be used with great care as most are highly addictive and the long term side effects are no fun either. The one thing you must never forget is although being a life sentence it must not mean you will be crippled forever! What can I do once it happened to help the pain and my sanity? Nerve pain is one of the worst pains there is and there are only two more or less working medications to deal with it. The first meds are opiates to literally numb the pain but due to source of the pain very high levels are required until the body adapted to deal with the wrong pain information. The second group of meds that offer help and that are often used together with pain killers are old sty anti depressants like the try-cyclic (was that right?) amitriptyline. Back in the days they were not really good for the advertised job but one of the common side effects was how they worked on the pain centers of the brain. In much lower dosages as used to treat depressions these meds help the brain to deal with the pain caused by the damaged or pinched nerves. As a long term solution they should be prefered over opiates so that the strong pain killers are only taken when really needed. If you are anything like me than not getting enough sleep over weeks on end will take a toll on your mood. So being able to sleep at least a few hours in one go is a real thing to aim for unless you prefer to harm your body with pain killers. What is there to help with the pain so you can sleep? I know that you now already think you tried it all and that nothing good comes out of here but keep reading as you might be surprised... The first thing that jumps into mind when it comes to sleeping is a bed - be it you by yourself or with a partner. And here also is the first point to improve! In many countries a bed for two persons has one bad feature: A single mattress! Any movement from the person next to you is transfered more or less onto your body - you don't want that! So if you own a big bid that you share with someone think about investing into a bed with seperated matresses and support frames. That brings us to the mattress itself. A lot of people think being soft and flexible is a prefered thing, not so much if you have back problems. You want enough support to keep the back straight without everything feeling like you sleep on wooden floorboards. Keep in mind though that when changing from soft matress to something much firmer you will need to adjust. Really the best option is to seek professional advise in a bedding studio or similar. And no, you don't have to go to the most expensive place to buy a mattress, you just try them out, get expert advise and use that new knowledge to find a suitable mattress to fit the budget. With no offence meant: If you are over the normal weight you really want to loose the excess and that means selecting a new matrress on your weight goal and not on your current weight! It is also good to have adjustable supports under the mattress itself, this way you choose a thinner and bit softer mattress but still get the firmness your back requires - again seeking proffessional advise on the right combinations is highly recommended here! Ok, your bed is sorted but still there is that nagging pain in certain positions or the tingling in your leg preventing you to go to sleep. Believe it or not but what you do before you go to bed affects how you feel when you hit the sack. So sitting like a bag full of water in front of your TV until just manage to crawl into bed won't do you any good. Same for having your dinner and hour or two before bedtime... What does help is to move your body and to burn a few kalories! If it helps you use a weight lifting belt but just a walk around the block with a little bit of bending and flexing will get the tension out of muscles. A nice partner giving you a proper massage might help too but I doubt you will get one every night ;) And before you start to complain: Yes, I know there are times where simply can't do any exersise as you will be happy to make it to the toilet or to make some dinner. For those times and especially during times of experiencing higher than normal pain level ther is something you can do to ease the pain. Some doctors will tell you but a lot of them wont: Cold actually helps to numb the pain and the symptoms like tingling, pins and needles or the constant stabbing when you made a slightly wrong move. But you need to apply the cold in the right way to get the benefit! The key here is timing. Using real ice in a suitable wrapper, so no vegetables or meat, you apply the cold where the damage is - not where the pain is! You want to cool down the area around the damaged discs for about 5 to max 10 minutes. Put the icepack back and repeat every hour! Nothing will happen after the first two or three round but then you will notice improvement - how much depends on the individual and extend of the damage of course. When I have bad days I usually start around mid-day and keep going every hour until either the pain is gone or it is time to drag myself to bed. The worst you can do is o apply heat! A warm (not hot!) bath can help to ease some muscular tension but hot packs or heat lamps will make your pain get worse quickly. Just imagine and inflammation somehwere else, the area is already hot and painful so you really don't want to add more heat, do you? ;) What can be done to keep mobile and improve? As said earlier the key is support for the damaged areas and of course a limitation in movements that put additional stress on the damaged dics - this includes weight, be it from your own body in terms of excess fat or simply be lifting things! You will have times of no pain and where you think you are 20 years younger again but never use that as an excuse to think your discs have improved! Once damaged they stay damaged and everything putting more stress on you dsic(s) will make things worse. A friend of mine loves to play golf - if you have back problems you want to find a different hobby! Coming from three digits I can tell you without being offensive in any way that being fat means having problems that you don't want to add to your list caused by a bad back! So like it or not you really need to loose all the excess you can find wobbling around your body! For me every single kg I lost was a step forward to being more fit and being able to more things for longer before my pain got too much. And no, there is no excuse for keeping those kilos if are able to leave the bed for more than a few hours. Turst me, you will feel better, need far less medication and like yourself much better once the benfits of less weight kick in! Exercise is the key to getting your life back to a more or less normal level! If you are a "first offender" than you have a good chance that a change of habbit and maybe job will make sure it stays a single incident and that you can have a pain free life after the initial recovery! Getting a higher core strenght and overall fitness level helps your body to heal but most importantly gives you the option to gain muscles where needed to support your back. You might think there is nothing you can do if you are in pain and can't really move anyway but if you do then you are wrong. I am not a personal trainer but I found a lot of ways to use my muscles without using my back for it... There is enough info on the web for exercise methods without any training gear and if you think "really hard" you might notice you can use a lot of positions to exercise your arms and legs without stressing you back ;) And even for the back you can do good without damage: If you lay flat on your belly you just slightly lift your arms and legs off the ground - this will need the support of the muscles in lower back! No need to actuall lift anything high, just enough to only slightly bend your back up - you might not even notice any bending at all. What you don't want is exercise like running, jogging or even contact sports, really nothing that might force your back to move more than what is possible without stressing your discs... Better fitness and more strenght means you will get better flexibility and movablity but never let that fool you into thinking the damage is gone! I can not stress enough than even if you don't need medication and feel fine a single wrong move can make all null and void! What are the options if despite loosing weight and excercise my pain is not going away or syptoms get worse? Well, we can ignore it, we can hope it all goes away but the sad reality for most is that sooner or later you reach the point where the damage is too much too handle. The first one to tell you that your lower back is now due for a pit stop is your foot. The pain might be more than what you ever experienced the pins and needles might drive you mad but as long as it just that you are fine, really :( For me it was during some light gradening when I got my "first hit" so to say. I brushed it off thinking I tripped over something that got kicked away while I struggled to keep my balance. A few days later I noticed that I had to put some extra efford to prevent my toes from scraping the floor while walking. It was there when I also realised that most of the feeling on top of my foot was gone. Same story for the outside of my calf by the way... For me, thanks to a non working medical system and no private health cover the story ends here... Since you might have more luck: Modern medicine has gone a long way when it comes to minimal invasive operations and they are the key to performing operations that otherwise would be impossible or require months of recovery. For the "treatment" of damaged discs in the lowest part of the spinal area the old conventional treatment was to fuse the bones together using some steel or titanium rods. To give the patient relief the dmaged disc was more or less mutilated to free the damaged nerve(s). Several weeks of bed rest and great loss in movement was the price to pay for less pain. Today we are much further and can use micro instruments to perform operations deemed impossible only a few years ago. One of the operations with the greatest and fastest recovery rates is actually quite smart if you think about it: A small portion of bone is removed to give more room for the nerve and to aid in the healing - without fusing the bones! The next step is remove the part of the disc that is bulging out - without removing the strong support layers around it, only the mashed up bits are taken away. The patient is literally pain free ( from the back pain) right after the operation. Healing takes about 2-3 weeks but by then even the pain from the cut bones will be gone. Some health insurers see these operations as a means to get a person back to work and into a normal life, so they support it. Others use simple math and decide pain killers are cheaper... In any case you should seek professional advice from your doc and health care provider before it is too late! Diagnosed and operated early can mean you get the option to have an almost normal life again, or at least a few years of being able to enjoy life much more than before the operation. There are of course risks involved and an opration might not be an option for every case but knowing your options and what form of treatment might be available for you can be reall life changing... Ok, but what's the worst that can happen to me if a simple operation is no longer an option? One of the first things you will notice after loosing control and feeling for your foot is a more or less contant need to go the toilet. Despite having an empty bladder or just using the toilet minutes ago you can develop the feeling that you really must go the toilet again. Sadly this is only the beginning... If things get worse you can loose control over your bladder and bowel. Simply put it means you no longer control the muscular tension required to keep you vital openings closed when required. Usually at this point your doctor will recommend to operate one way or the other. For you, if affected, this means you have to decide between the risk of an operation that might only last for a few months or years or wearing adult nappies... If you already had one or more operation or the damage to the disc(s) is too severe it can mean that there is no other option but to fuse the bones into place to prevent further damage and allow for some healing. But trust me, for your doc to even consider an operation you need to loose all the weight you can! What are my limitations after having my back bones fused together? Well, as it reads you will be fused together, meaning you level of movement will be severly limited. It also means you beep all the time at the airport security or when entering a court or other place with metal detectors - but that is the least of the worries I guess... The main problem after such operations is getting back to a life as normal as possible. You get a lot of help in rehab and will learn what you can and can't do, plus of course how to keep you fit despite these limits. Some people cope really good with the new limitations but others struggle a lot. This especially true if before the person was really active and doing a lot in terms of sport and outdoor activities. Learning to adapt to the changes allows you have many more years without too much pain or limitations. Sure, Golf is out of the question, playing soccer or riding a normal bike too but life goes on and being a part of it is always better than just looking at it through your bedroom window ;) In any case giving up should not be an option for you! No matter how bad it looks when the pain is too much, there are always more good days than bad days ahead of you! Go ahead, share your experience with back pain, what you do keep going and handle the pain. Share you information about what treatments helped you the most and share how you recovered to where you are now. Be an inspiration for those facing what we already went through! Real back pain based on nerve damage will only be understood by someone who experienced it - what did you do to make the people around you understand it? Whatever helped you might help someone wha just started to learn how to deal with damaged discs and back pain, so sharing is caring! ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Looking for a cheap compressor with a high pressure rating or for airbrush use?

Today a friend of mine asked me if I know a way to reduce the noise level of his compressor in the work shed. With the current heat he prefers to work in the evening and nights, which does not make his neighbours too happy. His main use for several airbrush guns and sometimes for mormal airtools or the big spray gun for an undercoat or similar. So his main concern is oil in the airline and the actual flow rate is of second concern as he has an old 25kg propane cyclinder as an additional air tank. For relative low air volumes I would suggest an old fridge compressor. With a thicker pipe at the outlet that is filled with stainless steel wool most of the oil stays in the compressor. That is if this pipe is a) long enough b) upright c) of sufficient diameter so there is enough for the oil to avoid it being pushed up A second, standard oil seperator will be enough for the oil level required for airbrush stuff - and most other things too. If there is no pressure regulator on the airbrush system it is best to add a small air tank and shut off valve for it. In our case however a fridge compressor would be just enough to keep the bigger airbrush gun running but not to fill the tank at the same time. Not to mention the problem of fluctuating pressure levels. Since we already had a tank and pressure shut off connected to the loud compressor it was only a matter of finding something that keeps the neighbours happy. The first thing we did was to check how often the compressor comes on and how long it runs till the tank is back to pressure. With that and the stated air volume on the compressor we guesstimated that something a bit bigger than the compressor of a window airconditioner should be sufficient. The search begins.... If you don't know what to look for I give you a few hints: Older airconditioners often run on R22 or R12 - both use quite high system pressures which is a bonus, but more on that later. As a rule of thumb for these compressors you cans say: the bigger the higher the flow rate. At the local wreckers and scrap yards we found a few units but noticed the bigger ones often used three phases and not just one :( So we opted for the R22 compressor of a 4.5kW unit. Keep in mind the 4.5kW is for the entire system, so the quite massive fans can be removed from the sum. Usually the compressor alone is the 2.5 - 3kW range. Ok, we found the big thing but how does this help us? First things first ;) The oil was removed as the housing stating the original oil amount. This allowed us to use an oil rated for air use that has little to no water absorption qualities - you don't want water in your compressor. With the usual heat the water should be no problem anyway. Next was a pressure test to make sure the thing actually still works, so we added some plumping in the form of standard connectors to the inlet and outlet. We got well above 200PSI and abondoned the test at this stage as it was more than enough already. The air volume seemd to be well more than expected too so let'S move to the next stage. A fridge or aircon compressor always needs to have a certain amount of oil in it as it will otherwise seize and overheat quickly. But they are also designed so that the oil mixes with the refrigerant to cool all moving parts. So the biggest hurdle is to make sure the oil stays where it should stay and won't enter or get lost in the tank. Only real option for this to use something to catch the oil that is capable of releasing it into the compressor once it shuts off. Now there are several options for this so I start with the most basic: A "catch can" will get most of the oil, especially if filled with stainless steel wool or similar. Downside is that you have to find a way to get it back into the compressor. A step better is a thicker pipe filled with stainless steel wool to catch the oil. If placed upright and the outgoing pipe can be bend a bit upwards you have a good chance that most of the oil will sweep through the valves and get back down into the compressor housing. But only too often the cheap or even free compressor is better than expected and the oil won't get back into the housing as the vlaves are just too good. The last and IMHO best option is a pressurised return system. Most compressors for bigger aircons have a seperate filling port or sealed off piece of pipe. In this case you can do a simple check to see if they are usable for our purposes. Open the port of pipe and use a simple bike bump or similar to get some pressure in it. With a dedicated oil filling port you are best off but they are hard to find. The air you pump in should come out of the high pressure side - you might need a little pressure to overcome the valves. If you hear any bubbling in the housing (use a pipe on your ear or a sensitive microphone) it means you are going through the oil inside the compressor - perfect! You might not hear any bubbling but the port or pipe is still usable. Get ready with your fingers and start the compressor. The fill pipe should be sucking air in, same for the service port if there is one. A dedicated oil port should not suck but instead force some oil up if you cover the high pressure outlet. I assume all is good and no oil is splashing out of the open pipe or port. Add a small amount of oil with a syringe or similar into the port/pipe. If you see an oil mist coming out of the high side it is bad news. Clean outlet air is good. To get the oil back from the catch pipe or can we have to add a hose or pipe with a needle valve. It needs to be adjusted so that there is only a very little airflow (or oil mist) coming out. This regulated outlet is now being connect to the port/pipe with a bit of suction that we found earlier. Now every time the compressor runs the collected oil is forced back into the compressor :) Please double check the port/pipe used is not directly connected to the intake port! The last thing you want is a puddle of oil going into the cylinder and damaging it! They are designed to move gas but not liquid! If in doubt use a hardened sttel nail or similar to create a small puncture in the top of the compressor housing if there is nothing else to use. Check first if the material sound very thick, if so it might help to drill with a 5 or 6mm drill first - only about 1mm to make sure you won't enter the housing and conimate it with metal shavings! Once you have a small puncture hole of about 2mm in diameter get some 2 component metal repair glue mix and add a suitable connection for the collecting pipe/can. If you feel up to it you can of course use a blow torch and solder the connection on. Now we have the compressor working with a oil return system that also gives up very little to no oil at all in our system. You might now think you are good to go but you should at least add a decent and fine filter to the air inlet ;) The compressor noise of a bigger system can still be an issue if thicker pipes are used that allow the noise to travel out. Keep in mind they usually run in a fully closed system.... As we only need to match the noise level of the compressor itself a solid steel can like an old fire extinguisher in the 1kg rage is a good way out. Fill it with filter wool and a fine filter pad after adding some hose connectors either end. You can misuse the trigger nozzle and keep it to seal the top if you braze a connector on it. If the intake here is about 5 times larger than the pipe connection to the compressor itself the air flow going into the thing is low enough for a cheap paper air filter can or box if you have a quite dusty enviroment to work with. The real trick is to have a hose or pipe on the inside of the fire extinguisher connected to the compressor pipe connection. A garden hose is great here as is reduces the noise quite good and is dirt cheap. Make a lot of about 2mm sized holes in this pipe and close the other end of it off. Now the compressor will suck it through the small holes and the soft garden hose reduces the noise, the surrounding padding brings it down to basically nothing. The special case of clean air for airbrush.... If you read this for the sole purpose of airbrush use then this chapter is just for you, all other might want to skip it. The two things you don't want to enter your gun is oil or water. Both are a common thing in normal compressors due to lubrication and pressure difference resulting in condensation of the humidity in the intake air. Oil free compressors of good quality can cost quite a few bucks and often require ongoing replacement of membranes or piston seals. A refrigeration compressor with the above modifications already provides clean enough air for most airbrush users if a proper tank is used to store enough of the compressed air. So you might just want to add a basic oil filter or very fine paper filter close to the regulator. For very detailed work with very sensitive paints you might want to build a filter box containing of several layers of oil absorbent paper. This stuff is often used in the industry to clean up minor oil spills and bind oil very well. A PVC pipe (pressure rated please) with 5-8 layers of filter screens should last about a lifetime before the filters need changing if the diameter is in the 10-15cm range. That leaves us with the dreaded problem of condensation and water contamination. Depending on the type of paint and gun used a small amount of water vapour is usually no problem. Solvent based paints usally show their disliking by unwanted drops or run offs caused by water droplets. Of course you just go and buy a professional dehumidifier and accept the ongoing replacement costs for the cartridges... But if you are in a climated that has above 30% humidity for most of the year than you will have to remove the water one way or the other. A big enough storage tank for the air that is upright usually helps to release any condensated water prior to usage. But if you use a homemade tank you might want to avoid this problem completely and forget about water in the system altogehter. Silaca gel is the answer here, specifically the indicating variety that changes color once "full". A spaghetti glas or similar should be big enough unless you are in a very humid climate - is so just use multiple in a row. The air intake side for the compressor has to go through the silica gel to be effictive. This mean we need two holes in the lid. One with a pipe or hose going all the way to the botom - that is the air intake side. The other right on the lid - this is the air outlet side which continues to the compressor intake. With the color change in the silica gel we can estimate how much usage we have left until we have to heat it up to remove the water. If this color change happens quite fast from the bottom to the top, let's say within three days or less than you really need to use more jars with silica gel in a row or a longer one - like using a long and clear acrylic pipe instead. Of course you can always just cut holes and "viewing glasses" along the length to a PVC pipe.... No matter how wet your climate is you want to get at least 100 hours of compressor run time before you need to recharge the silica gel. This brings us to the recharging.... Once the color changes and you only have about one quarter left to the top you want to get the water out of the gel and re-use it. To do this you simply heat it up in your oven to around 120-150°C - the supplier should state the max temp for this. If you use a gas oven or one with limited accuracy here it is best to stay within the 120° range. You need to stir and mix the gel or use something big enough like an oven tray. But be aware that these little balls are like glass! The roll and bounce like no tomorrow! IMHO it best to use an old cooking pot that has no plastic handles for this and not to overfill it. This allows for easy mixing without making a mess that might cause a bad trpping hazard on your kitchen floor tiles! Once the gel is back to original colr it is time to let it cool of to a safe temperature and to fill it back into our canister or pipe. Tanks and shut off systems.... We have a refrigeration compressor working for us, and since it was for R22 we can use much higher pressures as a simple compressor from the hardware store. The low pressure side is used to 70PSI or around 5Bar of pressure in normal working conditions. The high side often works at pressure in the range of 200-300PSI or 14-20Bar! The tank we used is a big propane tank that was restamped at some stage in his life for the use of LPG - so it was tested to quite high pressures. The lower pressure limit is what keeps the stored gas liquid at the given temperature. For Propane at an imaginary 30°C this would around 155PSI or 10Bar. The stamped test pressure, although outdated, showed 600PSI or around 40Bar of pressure with no problems - and the thing was thick in the walls... The old shut off switch from an old air compressor was adjustable after removing the safety cap with a bit of force and the help of few cold beer. With a little tank attached we adjusted it to turn the compressor off at 250PSI or around 17Bar of pressure. If your tank is old or has no test pressure stamped on do your own test in a safe location. Make sure the area is secured so there is no chance of debris from a brusting tank can go anywhere - this includes to chain down the tank itself ;) Use the aircon compressor to fill it up to 300PSI or 20Bar of pressure - this should be tolerated with ease by any propane or LPG tank. Shut the valves and let it rest for a day or so. It is best to do this in the early morning so the heat from the day will slightly increase the pressure. At the end you still want to have a working tank and no major pressure losses. All of our mods on this tank were done without actually harming the tank. This was possible as the original valve had a release port for filling purposes - as it standard on most refillable ones. Here we removed the valve and added a pressure guage instead - better to know what is happening than to assume things. As this "port" had a seperate connection to the bottom of the brass valve we added as T-connection to allow for the connection to the compressor. Just be be really sure a thin piece of copper tubing was brazed to the exit hole of this port so all incoming air will be going down and away from the outlet connection with the big shut off valve on top - which we use to actually isolate and close the tank when not it use. Last thing required was something to connect the pressure shut off switch and regulator to. That was the only major expense on this project as we had no old BBQ hose or similar to get a suitable connector to the tank. We bought a simple adapter for the use of smaller hoses and cut the unwanted bits off we there was only the bottle conntector with the nut left. After removing the rubber ring we brazed piece of copper pipe onto it. Here we drilled holes and fitted severy connectors. First for the pressure switch, then for the connection to the pressure regulator and two standard ones with a ball valve for air hose connections. One air hose connection female, the other male so a standard compressor can be connected as well or "backfilled" for additional and mobile storage use. As we wanted to avoid any reduction in the safety and burst pressure no release valve was added at the bottom on the tank. The added silica gel filter stage was used instead so no water will get into the system to begin with. Additionally, and painfully for me and me friend, the inside of the tank was coated with a layer of acrylic paint to prevent and rust as it was free from it when we checked it at the beginning. This involved filling a suitable amount of paint into it, closing the top while keeping the thread clean and then to move the tank around to cover the inside evenly. If you do this be prepared for some weird movements with your friends LOL Once we were sure all ust be covered by paint at least three times we released the exxess paint and allowed the inside to dry with the assistance of some air forced to go in with a length of pipe. This was repeated 3 times... Then another two just for the bottom third of it where there might be some moisture after all... Now you don't want to remove the brass valve with everything connected to it just to turn the tank over to releae the collected water. Instead we made sure the added pipe on the former relese port would go all the way to the bottom of the tank. If any water collection is suspected only the connection to the compressor needs an additional valve for the disconnection so the water will be force back out here. To make this easy and fast we used standard quick connectors and a piece of flexible airhose rated to 20bar of pressure for the connection to the compressor. We checked the performance of the moisture removal and oil removal only for a few hours of running time while priming some surface for later use. The compressor oil used was very smelly to say it nice but nothing coul be smelled in the first paper filter after the pressure regulator. To check for remaining moisture levels (65% humidity in the house) we used a 10m length of clear PVC tubing going through an ice bath. After 30 minutes of moderate air release there was no condensation on the inside of the tubing visible. Of course if you only need it for air supply and don't care about a bit of moisture and oil you can keep it simple ;) Benefits of doing such a stupid thing: For starters noise and the peace of mind that you can do a lot of airbrushing until the compressor needs to kick in again. Then of course the benefit of an almost silent system compared to a standard compressor - something you can actually tolerate while doing art. But the real deal is knowing YOU did it and you did it for cheap. Warnings and some advise... I know, it should be at the very beginning but I just hope you read till the end ;) If the compressor fails from overheating you are up for a new one. This means the tan size should be within the limits of what the compressor can handle - same for what you actually use on air. You want an empty tank to be filled before the compressor feels hot to touch - quite warm is fine but if you can't leave your hand on it then it is too hot. Same story for the usage. There is no point in using a tiny 10 liter storage tank if you need that capacity every few minutes. The compressor would only have little pauses and overheat quickly. You want a good balance of usage time before the tank goes below supply pressure and running time of the compressor to get it to full pressure again. This brings us to the safety of high pressures. Where possible only copper tubing or sufficiently rate hoses should be used, the later as short as possible to avoid them acting like a whip if something goes wrong. When it comes to the safety of the tank you want to make sure to stay withing it's rated limits. All benefits of a compressor capable of producing over 500PSI otr close to 35Bar is wasted if your tank and pressure regulator can't handle it. This must not mean that you try to use a gas cylinder of unknow age and pressure rating and assume it will work! If in doubt use a lower shut off pressure and stay within the limits of normal air compressors - which is around 120PSI or 8Bar. Never, ever use a tank that is compromised by inside rust or bad corrosion on the outside! If you don't know how to braze copper tubing, pipes and connectors then check out some of the great Instructables about it! Whenever you know you won't use any compressed air for more than a few hours close all valves especially the ones going back to the compressor on the high pressure side! Some compressors really don't like a huge pressure difference constantly pushing on the reed valves. If your tank is big enough to allow for more than one hour of operation before the compressor has to top it up you might want to consider a one way valve right on the compressor outlet. This will prevent any massive pressures going onto the valves - especially helpful for modern compressors that only rely on the sealing capabilities of the clyinders or rotary system used. One thing you should always consider is a pressure relief valve rated for about 50PSI more than your tank pressure - it can be added to the pipe ;) If the shut off valve ever fails the relief valve gives you the ease of mind that it will blow before your tank does. Maintenance... If modded correctly the compressor should stay in the compressor and the compressor itself should not overheat from use. Having said that your compressor might force out a little more than your best catch system can handle. If that becomes a problem it might help to use an oil with a lower viscosity. If all fails it just means you need to top up oil once the last last paper filter is filthy or use slightly more to begin with so the intervals are longer. The silica gel, if used should be recharged before all of it is wasted - no point in adding it if you use it once full of water. If no gel is used there will be water in the storage tank. Even with the added paint and a good air filter it is possible that nasty things grow in there. Making sure the tank is emptied of any water after long uses and again before the next use is good practise. If no pressure gauge is used on the tank you must make sure the shut off valve is always working fine and within set parameters. I strongly recommend using a gauge and if not to perform a pressure check of the system every now and then to confirm all is within parameters of normal operation. A compressor constantly running means you either use far too much air or you have a leak - same story if the compressos kicks in after some of forgetting to shut it off and close the valves. If you keep the above in mind the salvaged compressor should work just fine for many years to come. Troubleshooting and alternatives.... You put everything together the right way, double checked and something is till not right? Maybe my crystal ball helps me to find something... 1. Always oil coming through the catch system. It usually means you use too much of it. A salvaged compressor, if the refrigent was removed legally from the system should still have a "correct" level of oil inside. Too much oil would mean is being pumped through the system at an excessive rate. Very thin compressor oils tend to do that in the compressor is misude like we do. Changing to standard mineral oil can help here. As a last resort you can use a pressure gauge or good judgement to allow more flow through the needle valve from the catch system back to the compressor. Too much backflow here would mean we loose system pressure to the set level of this needle valve! 2. The R22 rated compressor seems to be unable to produce enough pressure. First do a leak test using soapy water to rule out any leaks. Do a back pressure test on the ports. If you can push air through them in the reverse way with ease it means the valves are damaged making the compressor useless. You need to replace it. A regular cause with our type of usage is a constand back pressure from the storage tank to the compressor. To prevent this it might help to mount an electric solenoid between the compressor and storage tank. Such valve should be off when the pressure switch is engaged and on when the pressure switch is disengaged. This prevents the coil from overheating but requires a "normally off" type of valve. A good source at the wreckers are cars with LPG systems installed, they usually have suitable 12V valves somewhere on or near the tank and filler cap. 3. I am using several kg of silica gel but still get a lot of water in my storage tank. Going overboard in a humid climate can be a good thing here but if moisture makes it into the tank even with great amounts of silica gel there are only two causes: a) the tube or cylinder used is not long enough or not wide enough to allow the absorption of all the moisture going through. b) the flow rate is too high and the temperatures are too. For the first the solution is obvious enough. The second is related to the first for the diameter and lenght but temperatures constantly above the 30°C while operating somehow limits what the gel can do. Using a cooling coil on the intake side or simply putting the gel containers in icy water will help to a great deal here. If that is not an option than I suggest to layer the gel and to seperate it with fine paper filter screens. This will slow and even out the airflow allowing for more contact time with the gel. 4. The compressor gets very noisy after some time. If "some time" means more than 30-45 minutes you simply have it running too much and it overheats. If the noise increases too much when reaching the shut off pressure it can mean the pressure is too high for it. 5. Can I use multiple compressors from smaller units or refrigerators to get enough air volume? Of course you can but it might mean you have to lower your pressure expectations. Consider that each individual compressor would get the back pressure from all other compressors running while it's outlet valve is closed. To avoid premature failure you want to make sure the compressors are shut off at a lowver pressure. 6. I don't want to use a big tank but require a good airflow for airbrush. Two or three fridge compressors working one after the other with a small tank to keep the output pressure even can allow for about 30 minutes runtime per compressor. With three it gives one hour for the the first to cool off and should be enough for ongoing work. Downside is you need to make some sort of automatic switch to "rotate" to compressor working. Last words.... Is you find any spelling mistakes you can keep them. However, if you use them in any way to make a profit with them I kindly ask for 10% of your earning from it ;) Why did I not make an Instructable out of all this? Well the day was very hot, the beer very cold and my mobile phone at home, so I did not take any pics. To top it up the whole thing is now in a seperate box for additional noise reduction so it can be used in the same room where the guy is working. Of course he just used a nailgun for the job without any regard of access or at least easy view of the two pressure gauges. Typical if you have a great idea and the cold beer tells you to forget all about screws or hinges ROFL Only comment was: You created it and it works fine, why would need more than the pipe connections for the gel and regulator? Maybe he will reconsider when the service is due....

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Magnetmotor - really impossible or just supressed?

When someone starts talking about a so called magnetmotor than most people judge right away.Laws of physics, perpetuum mobile is impossible, magnets are static....We all know the limitations nature puts on us... That however did not stop quite a few people since the 1950's to build working magnet motors. Or, to be precise: To make the claim, show them and then somehow disappear. A few though seem to have survived and even claim to make good business. Securely closed machine, stellite tracking and 24/7 online monitoring. Either just a bad and long running hoax or a real attempt to keep a secret secret. Even the somewhat famous Yildiz motor showed off around the world only to disappear.Some like them, some don't. Either way all this sounds like the perfect conspirary theory LOL So lets take a look on what is fake and what might be real but missing some vital clues. You can find several good Youtube channels created by people trying to build a working magnet motor. Some of them have no problems to admit failure and still keep trying and updating their projects. Did long enough and you see two outcomes. The first is giving up or "realising" that it will never work. The second often seems like a user is getting some relly good results and is really close to keep the magnetmotor running. Both disappear without and updates or traces. Now of course this is just confirmation that it will never work, but then again: What if it did already quite a few times? Even Tesla had patents for a magnetmotor and so far none of his patents were a hoax. Although none of his patents allow to actually build a working devices without some additional info and knowledge. And that is the key that I am trying to get: The lost knowledge.How can a magnetmotor never work? That one is quite simple from the start. If a linear model won't work no matter where you start then a rotary version will fail as well. And if a linear version works, it has to do so far at least 5 segments and with preferably increasing or at least constant speed. Having said that and assuming you know a little bit about magnetism: Ever wondered about shapes of magnets?? The common types are block, round like a bar and those disk like ones, some even with holes. A less well known version is the ring magnet. You can look them up as well as their corresponding magnetic field geometry - or what is assumed to be the right geometry. To give you a clue: All those floating spinning toys use a ring magnet in the base and onother one in the spinner. In the center is a dead zone for the magnetic field that is far lower than further out on the ring. And the strnger outer fields also reach further - giving the entire spinner a bowl like area to float on, the spinning just stabilises it like a gyroscope. A similar flat disk magnet wouldn't have this indentation in the field but rather a dome like sphere. The ring just kicks a dint into this sphere if you don't mind the simpification. Similar changes in the field structure happen when you combine two or more magnets. One example we all know is stacking identical smaller magnets. And often we are suprised how much stronger two thin disk magnets are compared to a single. Distance however sets a certain limit. And take those hook magnets... Just a small ring magnet in a metal pot with core. Remove the magnet and just by itself it is far weaker. Why? Quite simple.... The same way a transformer core directs the magnetic flow, the metal part of the hook magnet provides a shortcut for the magnetic field - and in return all is much stronger ;) Now you have some more clues, but still there are tons of options for failure... The most common is the sticking effect. No matter how well you planned and designed in most cases you linear or rotary prototype will stall sooner or later. Even if started manually at high speeds some seem to run very long but once they slow down and stop it is obvious they always stop where the magnetic field won't allow the binding effect to be overcome.Wouldn't dare to say that I have a working magnetmotor, but I might have some clues you want to try if you decide to give it a try yourself. So how COULD a magnetmotor actually work? Like in the Perendiv examples all over the web, you could aloow a moving responder to the rotor. Like a piston the responder will be lifted in areas it would otherwise limit or reduce the speed of the system. Well designed only a few mm would b required but it also means wasted energy to move the responder. Then there is the nice way of modifying fields by adding magnets in different angles and polarities. Lets say towards the end of your stages on the linear model it is hard to overcome the binding effect from the end of the previous stage. The perendiv model would now somehow change the distances. But you can also add magnets to lower the binding effect ;) Like a ring or hook magnet you can shape the field and offer a stronger repulsin field or a lower binding force. Last but certainly not least is the option of adding magnetic metals like iron or somehow weirder ones like bismuth. So, do we have any examples of something very common utilising any of this? We sure do :) Take a speaker apart and you end with the cage, the membrane, the actual work coil and the magnet. We don't need anything but the magnet so take a good and very close look. What in the audio world is called a shield to prevent the magnet from messing with things close by is exactly the same as on a hook magnet ;) Only difference is the tiny gap for the coil. The magnetic field is directed into two paths, one by the metal core, the other by the inner enclosure of the magnet or the magnet itself. The coil operates in the area of maximum flux.Last hints... If you take two identical and strong magnets with north or south facing up then it is quite hard to push them very close together. But check what happens if you try the same wen both soth poles (or both north poles) are placed on a magnetic surface - if in doubt your standard fridge door. Suddenly you can move much closer together with the same amout of force (not considering the added friction!). And similar story for opposing configurations. Where in free air or on a table the magnets would just jump together, on a metal plated you can move them much, much closer before this happens. Copper pipe and magnet fun :) Ideally you would have a straight copper pipe and a cylindrical magnet that has a loose fit in the pipe. Aluminium pipe work too or even a roll of aluminium foil if you have nothing else. A magnet in the pipe will travel very slow down the pipe, friction is not an issue here. So what is slowing it down? The magnet creates a field in the pipe and through that the pipe generates electicity. And funny enough this electricity creates an opposing magnetic field in the pipe - the magnet slows down. Even if you glue it onto a wooden stick it won't rush through it. Trying to push it by hand and you feel the created resistance. The faster you push, the harder it is to push! If you made it all the way down here with the reading then I have to assume you fit into one of three of my categories. a) You are a total sceptic and just read it for your amusement. If so, then please don't post a reply with usual negative feedback, instead see it as the same fun you had reading it ;) b) You are at least curious and like to play with magnets. In this case take the above as inspiration to explore more ways to have fun with your magnets! c) You are more or less frustated because you wasted a lot of time and some money to build a magnet motor that just won't work. A and B might go on and enjoy the fun, C however might want to read very attentive now ;) If you take some indicator sheet for magnetic fields, like these funny green ones, and play with moving magnets then you see a very interesting effect on the "screen". The otherwise static field lines change chape and sometimes even seem to disappear or shrink. With a small rotor assembly it almost looks like flashes when the magnets move past each other. This effect is often totally neglected and to be honest I overlooked it for a long time as well. Being able to see how the magnetic field changes gives the thing an whole new dimension so to speak. Creating a magnet with a complex shape is difficult to say the least. Only ferrite or ceramic ones can be used and you would cut of machine them according to your desired shape and with regards to the orginal center of the magnetic field. So most people revert to the classic way of shaping by adding magnets of various types, sizes and amounts. Modern neodymium magnets make this trial and error process easier as there are many sizes and strengths available. Add a detector shield of suitable size and you have hours of fun time ahead of you. But doing so in any rotary assembly is next to impossible. So what did Yildiz differently and what was missed so many times? Yildiz took it a step further and not only provided "shunts" to create very strong magnetic field from the generated electricity but also a second rotor. Since we all start small lets focus on the basics first. Remember the hook magnet and speaker or the copper pipe? Some examples for shape shifting your otherwise static magnetic fields: 1. A magnetic metal "connection" from one (low in the armature) pole to an opposing (high in the amature) pole with cause the field from the "high" pole to "bend" towards the connected magnet. 2. A magnet with an orientation of 90° to the last magnet is the sequence will severely influence the field of this last magnet! This goes for either orientations! 3. Adding a non-magnetic "shield" around a magnet, like a piece of copper pipe, will not affect the static field of the magnet. However it will severely alter the field of the enclosed magnet when another magnet passes it! It will also affect the overal field during the passing as the moving magnet will also induce a field in the copper by affecting the field of the enclosed magnet! Thickness and lenght of the shield influence the strength of these effects. 4. In a simple perendiv motor design the bar that creates the attraction for the spinning part is a magnet too. Either a long bar type or two small ones with an iron or nickel rod between them. There is no need for a piston or something that drives the bar up or out of the way ;) Just use the right magnet at the right spot on your rotor to repell the bar ;) Mount the ar with suitable springs and you suddenly can have multiple stages on your rotor instead of just the usual one! Don't forget the moving magnet on the opposing side of the segment in question though as otherwise you still will get stuck. (Hint: You can place a small but powerful magnet in the center of the opposing bar ;) Just make sure you limit the springs movement so the bar won't be pulled closer)Ok, hold on now! Does a magnet motor actually work or not? I can only give hints and say the laws of physics as we know them apply to magnetmotors the same way as everything else. Unlimeted motion without supplying energy is not possible. Limited motion with adding or using energy however is still possible and real. The same is true for being able to machine, 3D print or otherwise manufacture at very tight tolerence and accuracy levels. This includes bearings or bearing systems with very little friction losses. Just check these floting and rotating magnet toys that look like a spindle. Only a tiny needle like pin makes contact with a glass surface - next to no friction loss. A proper and supposedly working magnet motor should provide more energy than what it uses - one way or the other. No law of physics lets us get around the fact that such a motor could only keep spinning if the produced power or motion energy is at least the same as what is required to make it move. Magnets lose their strenght over time, they are like a very slowly depleting battery. So, isn't it funny that all magnet motors so far that claimed to work also had the requirement to replace the magnets once the things fails to work or start? And if you leave a very strong neodymium magnet shielded from outside fields or magnetic stuff than your grandkids will still find a quite strong magnet. Do a little performance test with your new magnets, like how much force is required is required to lift them off a steel plate. Make the same test with the magnets once you played around extensively with them in your motor. Now take a spare magnet that was never used from the orginal batch and compare both against each other ;) If the motor would not use energy then why are the magnets depleted to a certain degree, realted to runtime and usage time? Wait a minute! Does that now mean it actually works? Lets just say energy is certainly used. We only know similar effects from electromagnetic systems. But did anyone ever really check how much actual energy is in magnetic field generated by a non electric magnet? Get a good sized N52 neodymium magnet and check how much force is required to pull it off a steel surface. Now try to get the smallest sized electromagnet capable of that force and check how much energy it consumes at the level that equals the pulling force of the N52 magnet ;) Makes no sense to even try to compare these you will say now. I just say energy is energy and we were formed to only think in certain ways and don't even try silly things like this ;) To keep the fun up let us imagine we would actually have a similar energy available than what our electro magnet would require. In reality more because we wouldn't have electrical or flux related losses in the metal around the coil. Or is the imagined reality, no clue ;) If true it would mean even a motor with very bad efficiency would be able to create huge amounts of torque. Well, torque is basically acceleration. Which would mean our motor would not just be happy to spin, it would speed up until the bearing fail or the thing is ripped apart. Imagine a dental drill of that size and weight suddenly falling apart at full speed... Every example of motors claimed to be working, that are not fakes, seem to be happy no matter what the load is. It the thing turns a generator than it would have to slow down a bit with the increased load but they don't. With no limited factors otherwise this makes them a fake. Even a perfect motor would have to react to load changes.... Don't we agree that the stronger the magnetic force or field in a conductor the stronger the resulting magnetic and opposing field of the conductor? We use the difference to either drive a motor or take out electricity... But if you take the "open" shielding of a magnet in a changing field than the influence of the shield on the overall field gets stronger with stronger field changes. And properly desinged and orientated they would actually double as a natural limiter for the rotation speed. Once the electrical energy in the shield becomes too strong it will be able to cancel out the field of the enclosed magnet...If we assume a magnet motor is really possible and works with the intended output to keep it spinning or even take energy out: Then what would be possible downfalls that stop this thing happening in everyones garage? We can explore the stars but so far no one bothered to invent anything to visualise magnetic field in a 3 dimensional way other than by simulation. No realtime and true observation like this. The few working technologies that exist rely on sensors, interpretaion and filling in gaps. But imagine something like a detector shield as cloud! And then even better with selctive spacing to get a realtime view of where exactly the field lines go. All we can do is forget our teaching and try it out anyway ;) If by some mistake a magnet motor would really work right away, then chances are high the inventor would wonder why that thing takes off like mad and how to stop it. Unless well prepared it would certainly end in the destrution of the motor. But the inventor would know what to look for in the next prototype. The logical conclusion would be to the couple the energy taken to the speed while physically limittin the free load speed. The other one would be the design the electrical generator around the and within the motor. To even get close to this point you would have to spend endless days and nights working on finding a solution. The closer you get the more disappointment when the final model still fails to keep spinning for more than a few hours. Most people will then accept defeat and move on... Still not saying it actually works but if you made it to this point in time where it could be easier to move on and do other things:Ever wondered what would happen if you "shield" a magnet with a coil? Of course nothing would happen as we know. But try this in some fixed assembly that allows you move another magnet through the field of the shielded one. Perferably witha force gauge or some option to read out the energy required to move it through the various stages of the field. See what happens if you short the coil or add a resistor to it ;) Now if this coild is able to produce electricity then the more we use the more the effects on the required force would change. What do you think would happen if you combine common coil relations of electric motors to a "coil shielded" magnet motor? Right, all these coils would interact with the magnetic fields of the coils they are connected to... And through that with the overall field surrounding the enclosed magnet..... I leave up to you to imagine how these interacting coils could provide "resistance" or "acceleration"/"surplus electricity"...Like they say: You can only find out if you try ;) To keep up the positive thinking: A permanent magnet just sticks to any magnetic surface and does so with the same force. But the real energy loss in terms of getting weaker can almost be neglected. Any electromagnet capable of the same holding force woul require ongoing energy supplies to keep it up. It is using energy the same way the permanent magnet does! The difference is the permanent magnet is not seen as anything that would provide us with energy.... And if it can't provide energy other than passing through coils then why the heck does it keep sticking to the fridge year after year? It does require energy to keep this weight up doesn't it, even if you add a thin teflon disk and oil to reduce friction? ;) No magic, no "free energy" bogus, just plain physics viewed from a slightly different angle than what we learn in school ;) Have a good laugh and a good beer, then read it again and just consider some of the things here that are not mentioned in any literature about magnetism that we commonly use. Now I got you thinking, didn't I ? ;)

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