DIY DNA profiling

I was curious if there is anyway to profile dna yourself.  I understand it may be challenging but are there any low cost alternatives to the PCR method or quicker than the RFLP method?

Topic by azice   |  last reply

DNA twisted into boxes

A news article in Nature reports on a group that has constructed three dimensional boxes, including a lockable lid, from DNA. Using specifically designed oligonuclitides, the boxes self-assemble chemically from long strands of DNA in solution. According to the article, "It takes only an hour or two for billions of boxes to form by themselves."The article include both "artists conceptions" and electron-microscope images of the actual objects.Update 13 May 2009: The Nature article above has been put into restricted access. Here is a Science News report which is not restricted.

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply

why everyones dna is not the same.? Answered

Humans have originated by evolving and adapting to environment.but the whole human race started from a women and men by reproduction in any stage.we know:a fathers or mothers dna matches with his or her childrens dna. then this would have happened:     parents                                                                   to                                                                  child 1      child 2                                                                       to                to       child 5 and child 6                                                   child3               child4   now as we see parent gave birth two child and so the two childs dna is same.then the child 1 gave birth two child 3 and child 3 and 4 s dna is same to child 1  then it should be same to child 2.and so the dna of child 3 and 4 and 5 and 6 will in this way when family keeps changing the dna will match with everyones dna would match now.but now it does not match why? it may sound stupid but i am a student of 13 years and so i dont know about it much.thanks for viewing and further answering   

Question by argha halder   |  last reply

Making a 3D DNA model

Hi, I was thinking about trying to make one of those 3D DNA models you see in schools, showing all the atoms in the molecules joined together and climbing up in that beautiful double helix shape.Trouble is, I don't have the money to spend on one of those several-hundred-dollar kits, and I can't figure out exactly how a single nucleotide should look, let alone how to make several dozen nucleotides and joining them all together.I've searched google without much success, so any pointers/helpful guide images would be very much appreciated. Thanks

Topic by schazer   |  last reply

Do It Yourself Genetic Engineering

From New ScientistKATHERINE AULL's laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, lacks a few mod cons. "Down here I have a thermocycler I bought on eBay for 59 bucks," she says, pulling out a large, box-shaped device she uses to copy short strands of DNA. "The rest is just home brew," she adds, pointing to a centrifuge made out of a power drill and plastic food container, and a styrofoam incubator warmed with a heating pad normally used in terrariums.In fact, Aull's lab is a closet less than 1 square metre in size in the shared apartment she lives in. Yet amid the piles of clothes she recently concocted vials of an entirely new genetically modified organism....Read the whole article in New Scientist

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply

24C3 Hacking DNA - A Lecture

Drew Endy, of MIT's Biological Engineering department, gives a lecture on hacking the only thing that is (for now) un-hackable: Us.The talk's all about the frontier on Biological Engineering, in particular DNA programming. Essentially, they're starting to develop abstraction levels for DNA programming, building modular components analogous to those used by mechanical or electrical engineers. Endy speculates that eventually, this will develop into a viable, hackable, source for materials and components that could be used by everyday hackers. I found this incredible, but mostly awesome! What do you think?

Topic by T3h_Muffinator   |  last reply

What is the DNA sequence for a human? Answered

Similar to -C-H- -A-C- And such. I beleive its 2000-20000 rows?

Question by PKTraceur   |  last reply

How much DNA does forensics need to get a good sample? Answered

I got my new drivers license today. I would have kept my old one, but the guy working there said they were sending it to Jefferson City, the capitol of Missouri. They already have all the info on the card in their database. How much material do forensics need to get a good dna sample? That would be a really clever way of building a database without people knowing if you could isolate a person's dna from the other people that touched the card.

Question by Vorenus   |  last reply

How to paint guitar body like Ibanez Jem DNA model guitar?

I think this gives you pretty good idea:

Question by foolevil 

(newsletter) Extract DNA, Build Halo Armor, Make Your Bike Glow...

Nov 13, 2008 Sign-up for this newsletter: function openSubscribePopUp(src){ var emailValidate = /\w{1,}[@][\w\-]{1,}([.]([\w\-]{1,})){1,3}$/ if(emailValidate.test(src.value) == false){ alert("Please enter correct email"); return; }"/newsletter/newslettersignup?email=" + src.value,"newslettersignup1","status=yes,scrollbars=yes,resizable=yes,width=420,height=250"); } Welcome back! The SANYO eneloop Battery Powered Contest has launched! Show us your best creation powered by AA, AAA, C, or D batteries and win a full set of eneloop rechargeable batteries!It's getting dark outside, and if you ride a bike that means you need to be seen. So find some way to make yourself more visible, and enter the Light Up Your Ride Contest! We're giving away three pairs of totally sweet Bike to Work Pants from Cordarounds, so enter soon!Coming very soon... an absolutely huge Craftsman Workshop of the Future contest! This will be our biggest contest yet, and any project using tools will be eligible, so start tinkering now! Toy Brick-shaped gummy candies by SFHandyman Build Halo Armor by indymogul Sparky - Web-Based Telepresence Robot by sparkyrust Turkey Recipe by noahw Ride safely and win some cool clothes! Win a sweet set of rechargeable batteries! Extract DNA in a Shot Glass by macowell Recycle an Old Light Bulb by msolek Build an Eve costume from Wall-E by drwave Bike Lite Glow Using CCFL by digitaltripper Make an Iron Man Arc Reactor by Honus Dalek Costume by jambot HDDJ: A hard drive rotary input device by nvillar Bright Luxeon LED Bike Light by kwschofi Some classic Instructables toinspire your next project Vote for your favorite entries! Galvanic skin response mouse by Alex Uyttendaele Build your own Electric Car! by bennelson Create a Book with Mechanical Turk by bpunkt RFID Reader and Tilt-Sensitive RFID Tag by nmarquardt Now go make something awesome, and I'll see you next week! - Eric Sign-up for this newsletter: function openSubscribePopUp(src){ var emailValidate = /\w{1,}[@][\w\-]{1,}([.]([\w\-]{1,})){1,3}$/ if(emailValidate.test(src.value) == false){ alert("Please enter correct email"); return; }"/newsletter/newslettersignup?email=" + src.value,"newslettersignup2","status=yes,scrollbars=yes,resizable=yes,width=420,height=250"); }

Topic by fungus amungus 

DNA Plasmids for use in transformation of plant cells? Answered

Recently, I found a kit to transform E. coli with GFP (green fluorescent protein) plasmids, causing the bacteria to fluoresce under UV light. I later found a kit for maintaining an African violet tissue culture, sparking the question if it would be possible to use the plasmids intended for use in E. coli in the African violet tissue, causing the violet tissue to fluoresce, which can then be transplanted to grow into a full glowing violet plant. Would the plasmids be usable in transforming the violet tissue, or would they be specialized to just the E. coli?

Question by ALogan97   |  last reply

what do you think of human evolution ?

You may thing  this sounds weird or stupid but i think we can evolve  like if your falling of a building if you concentrate and focuse on evolving like fly it will trigger and make you a mutant it just all a trick of the mind you control it doesn't control you.     

Question by the hellphantom   |  last reply

diy biotech? Answered

Any one know website or instuctable in which i can learn to do biotech  work like dna fingerprinting genetic recombination hybrid plant etc

Question by mihir.sahu.355   |  last reply

The "truth" about climate change - a little story

Global warming, climate change, jelly fish attacks, changed ocean currents...We all know the highlights from the news but what is the real deal behind all of this?It can't be denied that burning fossil fuels with no regrets has an impact on our globe.CO2 and other gasses or elements have been trapped for thausands of years.We release them all into our atmosphere and while doing so keep adding more harmful stuff.So, of course it is easy to say that if we would have nver used our fossile fuels to this extent then our world would be unharmed and a happy place throughout.Even if we would ignore the impossible task of making it where we are right now without having used any fossile fuels: How much would it be different?If we trust the offical climate data that has been collected then it clearly shows a rise in so called climate changing emissions since our industrial revolution started.Be it data from the ice, core drillings or just sample taken from old canyons - the results are all the same.Since the late 1800's there is a steady rise in emissions, CO2 and all the other things we don't really want in our air.And for good reasons all these green advocates try their best to stop us from doing more harm.Since the 80's we started to actually care more, better engines, catalytic converters, cleaning mechanisms for our industiral waste and chimneys.But did it make any change or difference?About 40 years now some countries try hard to do it right, so this must show up somewhere?!Well it does not.You see countries like the US never really cared about climate or the enviroment if there was a cheaper and easier option.Just check how long it took them to even acknowledge that our climate is changing due to our interference...Then there is China and as we have seen with the olympics they literally have to shut down production so you can see for more than a few km...But the same is true for so many other countries.Like everwhere else the industrial revolutions comes sooner or later and as always the cheapest way is done first and for far too long.And with the delay in reactions and consequences it is now certain that the worst is yet to come.Of course there is also another side to the entire story - nature itself.We destroy it where we can to safisfy our need for being cheap.Ever wondered where all this cheap furniture is coming from?Or all the wood used throughout the world?Rainforests are disappearing, flora and fauna is destroyed.In most cases with a lot of fires as it is still the easiest way to clean up when done.Now add the vulcanic eruptions that increased over the past 20 odd years around the world.And if you dare all the bushfires or natural causes.Combined this causes a higher impact than all our burning of fossile fuels - and it adds to the mix.And this brings us back in time.Taking the records of climete conditions all the way back to before the dinosaurs showed us that we had periods of much higher temperatures than what we might see soon.CO2 level at some periods were so high that the earth literally was a green house.So why did we humans amke it anyway onto this earth if chance were so bad?Species adjust, evolve or go extinct, new ones appear...Well, unless you are a croc or so and really don't care about Darvin and evolution ;)Does that mean we are on the way to become a new species?Sadly no, because we are the cause of all our problems.We now use technology and science to adjust nature and the enviroment to our needs.It gets too hot? Well add an airconditioner, will you!?The ground water is too contaminted to drink? Well, why do you think we invented bottled water?!You need room for new homes? Don't mind the flood planes, just drain them and build, there was no flood in over 30 years...See, even if we would go fully green and honur nature around the world from today on.Even if we try to clean up the mess we already created.The effects of what we did over the last 40 or more years are still in progress and far from over.Like a good stew it keep cooking until it is ready to serve.But strenght comes in numbers!Like a virus we keep multiplying even in areas with very limited ressources.After all, we just import what we need..Natural selection is being eliminated so pharma companies can make a living too.From just over 40 years our "natural" life expectency increased now to well into the 80's.You are not fertile? No problem we have means to fertilise your eggs with the sperm from hubby!Already suffering badly from diabetes, asthma or other chronical illness? No problem, have some kids anyway.And just to top it always make sure to avoid natural foods in favour for processed and artificial ingredients.In nature the weak, the sick, the old, the malformed and incapable are a food source.We took this food source away, keet them around, care for them and make sure really everyone has the same chance in life.In life - but not in nature anymore!Social evolution meant that natural selection was no longer a requirement to ensure a strong "tribe" or hunting party.We compensated the drain on ressources and all pharma companies are still very grateful for this.No this is no weird rant on humanity or the idea of some mad person, it is just the naked reality we like to ignore.A horse breeder will not accept a weak and constanlty sick horse for his breeding stock.A broken leg, like for a cow usually just means the animal is put down.Some dog breeders still prefer to cull a few pups just because the color pattern is not nice enough or the ears are too short.Even if you just breed fish you o through all sorts of troubles to ensure you have the best genes available in your tanks.You think this is already going to far with the ideas, I know :(But we have real world examples highlighting the results of the exact opposite: Inbreeding and ignoring the defects in genes and health.The british royal family destroyed the italian and russin monarchies the same was the spanish and protugise, even impacted on the french.In times when there was no clue about genetic defects or deseases that can be dormant in females but very active in males, the british royalty simply kept providing tainted bloodlines to the other royal familes.No offsprings that are male and of good health meant the end of their monarchies.The british survived by allowing the common folk to join the blue blood lines and now it is common in all the monachrchies left in the world.Remove the carries, provide fresh genes to get a better diversity.Really no offence, but just look at Charles and Camilla ;)Jokes aside: the story of the european monarchies shows what happens if things go too wrong.From hunters a gatherers that either kept healthy or died out we eveloved to having a gene pool that is full of nasty surprises.Again no offence meant in any way or to any person!If we compare our world with a big aquarium than it might have eveloved like this:Once there was a bowl full of plants, guppies and lots of other fish and creatures living on each other.Over time the guppies learnt when the feeding times are and made sure they get most of the food.Slowly the other psecies had not enough room and food anymore, only the hunter had a good linving with the huge supply of guppies.Then the guppies managed to reduce the dangers from all predators around and started to really take off.Soon every guppy had only conerns about having a good life and enough food.The waste got more and more, the sick and ill too.The last hunter able to fight them died off as he too suffered from the wasten the changed enviroment and gnetic defects transfered.Now there is little plants left, guppies everywhere, crap everywhere and even those guppies only living a few months still manages to find a partner to ensure their tainted gene pool spreads into the general population.We have no tank owner getting the balance right again, removing the sick and weak, we humans just keep going strong and if the crap pile gets too high we put grass and houses on top of it....We humans don't like to be compared with fish, a virus or any other lower being for that matter.These hings just don't affect or concern us.And anyone who dares to do so anyway has a long list of nasty words thrown at them.Is it because we humans can't tolerate the truth?Or is because deep inside we all know but refuse to think about it?

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply

Operation Immortality

Operation Immortality is a project to collect and archive the very best of what humanity is and has accomplished. On October 12, 2008, Richard Garriott, famed video game designer and the first second generation American astronaut, will take digitized DNA and human accomplishments with him to store in outer space when he journeys to the International Space Station.The archive will include information on humanity's greatest achievements, messages from people all over the world, and DNA samples from some of our brightest minds and most accomplished athletes. During the month of September, every human being is invited to come to the website to submit their suggestions for our greatest achievements and leave a message for the cosmos. A lucky few may also be selected to add their DNA to the mix and join Richard Garriott as he rockets out of the atmosphere.With the LHC ready to do its thing, I think this organization has surfaced at the right time, save the earth, before we might all die.To def.LINK

Topic by bumpus   |  last reply

brain wash Answered

Is i possable to program a human i look at cloneing and fans have dna samples so could i bring back the dead and acelate there age with cloneing and add there meroys by getting personel items and familes just a thought

Question by tinker234   |  last reply

How to chemically reproduce a product called crystal fx or DNA mutant crystals from just an MSDS? Answered

I have been trying to reproduce a chemical paint treatment made by Alsa Corp - Crystal FX.  All I have to go on is the MSDS.  A similar solution is produced by DNA Mutant Paints. Yes, I am trying to do this on the cheap, we are looking at spraying my entire Japanese mini truck in this solution come spring, so... why not make up the solution myself.  Ingredients from the MSDS - Water, Urea, Neocryl BT-175, Aqua Ammonia. Have been experimenting already with urea to some success and another product that is designed to reproduce crystal like ice patterns on your window glass for Christmas.  I found one can at a store that said that container had been sitting there for over 20 years, they don't even know where it came from.  No data solution on that.  Any thoughts, path forward ideas would be great, provided they don't exceed the price of just buying the solution pre-made - about $200.00 plus 150$ for shipping - I live in the middle of nowhere.... 4 hours south of Alaska.  The pictures are of the product applied, and the silly truck is my target, a 1991 right hand drive Mitsubishi Mini Truck

Question by iminthebathroom   |  last reply

Can you become half a chimp?

Hi,  I made a funny video, please can you tell me what you think of it and give me any pointers? It raises an interesting idea of what would happen if we combine with chimp DNA. Do you think that would happen? Would they take pity on Leo and give him an Oscar? Please look at my other vids on that channel and tell me if you think I'm doing anything right/wrong? Thanks a lot!!

Topic by WeLuvLouMinchin   |  last reply

Contest Rejection

I tried to enter my instructable for Altair's Sword in the Think Geek Sci-Fi contest and it got rejected. No reason was given and I was just told to check the entry rules, but I see nothing that would disqualify my instructable. Yes it's a sword, but it's from a game that is a sci-fi game about a guy who gets in a futuristic machine that uses his DNA to allow him to relive his ancestor's lives in the hope of figuring out where a mysterious alien artifact is to keep a secret society from taking over the world. They even feature several Assassin's Creed items on Think Geek, including a latex tomahawk. Could anyone let me know why it was rejected?

Topic by The Rambler   |  last reply

What can we learn from those Amazing old Sharks ?

Currently a Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is good for 400 year lifetime. I would do an annual harbor swim of port Nuuk and consume Hákarl  (cured shark)  followed by a jigger of Brennivín known as (Black_Death) for just another 100 years added to my life. Any ideas of a better method will be worthy of support and consideration. "Cold can also activate antiaging genes that help an animal better fold proteins, get rid of DNA-damaging molecules, and even fight off infections more effectively, extending life span. The cold-activated molecules “are evolutionarily conserved” across the animal kingdom, and thus these pathways very likely exist in us and these sharks too"

Question by iceng   |  last reply

Dinosaur contest - results!

RARR!! I'm happy to announce the winners of the mikeasaurus Dinosaur-Contest! This contest showcases dinosaur related projects, interpreted by the maker. I wanted to see what dinosaurs meant to you. The entries included dinosaur excavation, surviving a dinosaur attack, and sandblasting a t-rex in glass. You can forget remote tropical laboratories dedicated to cloning dinosaurs based on DNA found in mosquitoes frozen in amber, we got the real dinosaur goods right here: First Prize:  Chocolate Dinosaur by LostRite   Second Prize:  Dr. Magnetic Dinosaur (Or How I Learned to Stop Searching and Love the Earbuds) by Wasagi   Third Prize:  How to Properly Excavate Dinosaur Fossils by 94   Check out all the entries, everyone did an awesome job sharing all kids of dinosaur fun! Thanks to the judges: shesparticular, SinAmos, kcls and cokefloat. The Dinosaur group remains open for all dinosaur projects, add yours today!

Topic by mikeasaurus   |  last reply

(newsletter) Homemade Shampoo, Cryptex, RumbleMouse...

Sign-up for this newsletter: Welcome back! NEW Pocket-Sized Contest - Think small, and win a custom laser-etched Leatherman! Get in the Garden Contest - Enter any Instructable with a gardening theme and win an awesome computer-controlled indoor composting machine from NatureMill! Art of Sound Contest - Share any sound or music-related Instructable, and win an incredible custom hi-fi tower set with subwoofer, monster speakers, and more!! Get the LED Out! Contest - Closed for entries, but open for voting! Vote Now! RGBike POV - Open Project Make Your Own Seed Tapes Homemade Shampoo Double Helix DNA Model with LEDs Simple Sequencer Make an Onigiri (Rice Ball) Adjustable Modular Furniture Non-Slip iPod/phone Stand New contest! Get Started with Arduino Build an Alien Artifact DIY Audio Switch How to Cook with Herbs and Spices Win a cool computer-controlled indoor composter! Win these custom hi-fi speakers! Cryptex Design Audio for an iPhone Game Replace Low Voltage Halogens with LEDs RumbleMouse Sign-up for this newsletter:

Topic by fungus amungus 

$99 genetic testing, one day only!

This is cool:  23andme is having a one-day sale on their Complete Edition kits in honor of "DNA Day" for $99, or 80% off the standard price of $499.   The price is ONLY good on April 23, 2010. $99 to spit and a tube and get info on 148 diseases adn conditions, plus some info on your ancestors' migration patterns?  This is the next best thing to DIY genetics - totally sweet!  A bunch of us at Instructables have already signed up*. What do you think about the idea of genetic testing:  awesome, scary, or somewhere in between?  Are you interested in getting tested?  How much is this kind of informatino worth, and would you try it if it were free?  Are there things about your genes you wouldn't want to know, or is more information always good? *I find this sort of thing fascinating, and not just because my undergrad degree is in biology - for me it's about knowing everything I can about my body and how it works.  The more information I have, the more I can modify my behavior, and generally tinker around under the hood - it's an extension of the "if you can't open it, you don't own it" DIY ethos. 

Topic by canida   |  last reply

You can help save a rare frog from extinction!

First off, I realize instructables does not want pure advertising on their site through these forms. The voting is optional and I don't want this to be viewed as advertisement. If nothing else, I want to share with you our story in the project, and hopefully you'll see how awesome this is. We are doing something that no high school has ever achieved before, and I think it's more relevant to the site than some re-posting of a blog article. I hope that you take a few minutes and find out what the Frog Project is all about! Want to support the cause of helping endangered species, education, and advancing biotech in schools? Well, take 5 minutes and vote for our school to convince Khols' to give us 1/2 million $$! Unfortunately the contest is over, but we're going to go for a $250,000 grant for a Pepsi contest in November. If you become a fan of our page (noted below) you'll be updated. Check back in November! ======================================================== Not convinced? Well, here's our story: You can help save a rare frog from extinction, and it is free! Kohls the dept. store is donating $500,000 to the 20 schools with the most creative need for the money. Your vote can help our school win this money, and best of all it costs you nothing! We are working on a project to try and save a rare frog from extinction. And we need the cash. At our small high school of 300 students, we are trying to completely sequence the genome of a rare Arizona frog. We hope to accomplish 2 things from this work. 1) We hope to rescue this frog from extinction. 2) We hope to train a new generation of students in modern biotechnology, and rescue the State of Arizona from last place in quality of education in the United States. The Chiricahua Leopard frog is currently listed as a threatened species. We have been working in conjunction with the Phoenix Zoo and Arizona Game and Fish to develop a genetic test that could aid in conservation efforts. We have already spent a year working on the sequence of the mitochondrial chromosome of this frog. Our school actually owns a DNA sequencer. We have made pioneering efforts in the design of genetic tests for this frog. Our students have presented 5 posters on our work at the International Plant and Animal Genome conference (PAG), quite an achievement for a high school. Our project was recently awarded one of only three heritage grants: By the way, the other two Heritage grants were awarded to Arizona State University and Northern Arizona University. What we really wish to do is completely sequence every chromosome in this frog. This is a very ambitious project. Consider that the human genome project completed in 2003, cost $3 billion dollars and took 13 years. Our leopard frog is estimated to contain twice as much DNA as humans! However, we think that with appropriate funding, and new technology that has recently become available we can accomplish this task in 2 years! We wish to construct what are called “DNA libraries”, collections of broken chromosome fragments of known sizes. These can be sequenced quickly using NEXT generation sequencing technology. The Chinese genomic group BGI has agreed to cover the costs of NEXT generation sequencing, and genome assembly for our project (an estimated $1 million) if our school can come up with the remaining funds needed for the construction of the libraries. We need to purchase about $200,000 in new equipment, and extend our existing lab space. With the completed genome sequence, we would like to have a custom “gene chip” manufactured. This chip will have all the DNA of the frog physically printed on it. The chip allows experiments to be carried out without any harm to any frog. This chip could then be used to aid conservation efforts by the Phoenix Zoo and Arizona Game & Fish. It could allow the exact parentage of every Chiricahua frog that is discovered to be known. Eventually this technology will become the backbone of conservation work on all species, but at this early stage it is not possible for Arizona Game & Fish to raise the funds needed to generate a gene chip before it is too late for the frog. Our school hopes to be the first in history to carry out a genome project. We hope this will serve as a guiding light to other schools, and start a grass-roots movement in the conservation and education world. Help us save our frog! Here is the catch. Vote for us on Facebook, and convince all your friends to do the same (forward this message to them), or unfortunately the frog bites it! Everybody can vote up to 5 times for us. In this way YOU can help make the difference not only for this rare species, but if we can succeed you will help pave the way to help many others. Regards, -Mike Dr. Mike Brown Science Dept. Chair AAEC-Paradise Valley Phoenix Arizona 602 569 1101 Interesting references/links about our project and research (really, we are real!): Abstracts to posters presented by our high school students at the Plant ANimal Genome Conference (PAG) Our high school and its project The MoBio scientific supply company featured us in their 2009 catalog, and describes our project on their “where in the world” page of their website: See page 8 of the Phoenix Zoo’s Conservation Science Newsletter: A recent article from the press:

Topic by lukethebook333   |  last reply

Creation? Religion? Read this first.

Please, this is not the place for arguing about religion, especially creationism. Any proper scientist or engineer (and a true Maker falls into one or both of those categories) knows about evidence, and knows that there is no evidence to support the existance of any deity, and none to support the concepts of a divine creation, a Young Earth, Noah's Flood etc.Such discussions do not belong here.But, if you really feel the need to argue about such superstitious nonsense (and I was doing my best to follow the "be nice" policy when I chose those words), then, please, try any or all of these sites first: (not open 24hrs, but worth the effort) you're just interested in the biblical viewpoint, or just fancy gasting your flabber, then try: note, I do not not endorse the views of the four websites above, in fact I heartily condemn them as a bunch of lying, fraudulent hypocrits. You can tell them I said so, and they can take me to any court in the US or UK, but it's up to them to prove they're not a bunch of the most evil, wilfully-ignorant taHqeq.)

Topic by Kiteman   |  last reply

Lamarkian inheritance -- not just a straw-man "mistake"?

A new article in Nature reports on research indicating that developmental changes caused by environment can be passed on to offspring. The Universe is always more complex, and more subtle, then the textbooks and dogmatists would have you believe.Lamarkian inheritance is a theory of genetics where animals could pass on traits which they acquired during life. In the typical textbook oversimplification, the examples used are often the giraffe stretching to reach leaves would have children with longer necks; the blacksmith who developed a highly muscled right arm would have childred with bigger right arms; and so on. After the discovery and rediscovery of Mendelian genetics, Lamarkism was more or less ignored (except by Lysenko), leaving only this simplistic and stupid story of a "mistaken idea" in textbooks.There have been a number of discoveries in recent years of heritable traits (in humans as well as in other animals), for which no specific gene, or even combination of genes, could be isolated. The term "epigenetics" refers to the fact that many of our physical traits are driven, not by genes directly, but rather by the complex biochemistry of how, when, and how much genes are expressed. There have been some examples of epigenetic inheritance, but in all those cases, the pattern of gene expression is itself driven by the presence or absence of nearby "triggering" DNA in the genome.This new article is an example where an epigenetic feature driven by enviornmental influence appears to cause changes that can be passed on to offspring. What the mechanism is (i.e., how the pattern of expression gets "stored" in the germ cells) is not clear, but it is very intereresting to see the effect in real life.

Topic by kelseymh   |  last reply

Is evolution over?

Geneticist Professor Steve Jones has said that human evolution may be over, and that we may now, as a species, be on the slippery slope to extinction.He's not saying evolution in general has stopped, just ours.His theory is that our development and exploitation of technology has de-coupled human development from natural selection. Conditions which would have meant an early grave for our ancestors, through starvation or other side-effects, are now barely considered as inconvenient, let alone life-threatening.Personally, suffering asthma and 8 dioptres of short-sight, I would have quickly starved to death in our hunter-gatherer days, unable to keep up with prey animals or to see well enough to tell "nutritious" from "poisonous".What this means is that we have a rate of survival to age 21 that is almost 100%, double what it was in ancient times.At the same time, our supporting technologies, particularly in medicine, mean that there is a growing accumulation of deleterious genetic conditions in the general gene pool.Increases in world travel have also meant that the differences between different human populations, already low, are getting smaller, as openness and acceptance of other cultures has started to homogenise our phenotype.The result - we are isolated from natural evolutionary pressures, so there is nothing to stimulate natural selection, nothing to weed out potentially-dangerous mutations. We are stagnating.So, what next?On the one hand, the pessimistic view is that, at some point, our genome will become so laden with hazardous mutations that we will cease to be viable as a species. We will be unable to reproduce successfully.On the other hand, maybe other species, still closely linked with natural selection, will continue to evolve until they supplant us. The obvious choices are chimps and gorillas - if we don't drive them to extinction.Or maybe our heirs are currently underwater - dolphins, maybe? Or maybe they won't be mammals - octopus and squid are highly intelligent. Heck, even slime moulds have been shown to be capable of solving mazes!On the gripping hand, maybe we've out-evolved evolution? The optimist in me hopes that technology will out-pace the fuse on the genetic timebombs we have become. Maybe medicine will be able to edit our DNA, or write it afresh, truly triumphing over nature?Article stimulated by this BBC blog entry.Other linked news items.

Topic by Kiteman   |  last reply

Search button not working in certain places.

On Windows 8 x64 and Chrome 29.0.1547.66 (Official Build 220848) m Steps: 1. Navigate to 2. Ogle at the pretty search bar, typing in things to correspond with the background image, how nice! 3. Click on the pretty bar and type in "desks." Let's make it! 4. Click the search icon and watch as absolutely nothing happens. 5. Click to make the text field active again and press enter. 6. Stare down the pretty search bar as it still does not do anything. 7. Dismiss the pretty search as nothing more than a visual spectacle, not functional in any way, and feel slightly disappointed in the web designers. 8. Click on a random Instructable on the front page to get the familiar search bar on top. In my case, I clicked on "Inside-Out Baklava (Gluten Free, Raw) by DNA girl" on a whim. 9. Acquire familiar page setup and search bar on top! 10. Search for "desk," revel in joy as both search button and pressing enter works. 11. Check out those sweet desks! Decide to sort the results. 12. Change the type id from "Everything" to "Popular." 13. Press the search icon and enjoy as it does nothing. 14. Make the text field active again and press enter to search. Okay, this is where I have to stop doing step by step as there are too many inconsistencies to walk you through them all. From what I can see though, the type id selector is very very broken. Starting from the default "Everything," you can select "Popular" or "Featured to break the search button. Selecting "Technology," "Living," "Food," "Play," or "Outside" does nothing besides change the 3x3 square grid icon. The word "Everything" does not change to the selected "Technology" like it does for "Popular" and "Featured." However, if you open the selector again, you will see it highlighted in blue and pressing enter to search still applies the type id. On some occasions, clicking either "Workshop" or "Technology: will automatically apply the type id, without having to even search again, though I am unable to replicate this consistently. So that's that. I basically have no idea what's going on, but good luck, dudes. quick edit: trying to publish this forum topic gave me this error: Uncaught TypeError: Cannot set property 'innerText' of null lastpass_f.submit onclick This was not on page, discovered in Chrome's Inspect Element.  If I never find a way to post this, tell my family I love them. edit2: Finally managed to post this using Firefox Nightly, whatever the latest commit is.

Topic by Nxtfari   |  last reply

your opinion about the movie district 9

OK i just went and heard the whole plot of Neill Blomkamp masterpiece the Monalisa of movies D9. he was supposed to make the halo movie but Microsoft was complaining its multimillion dollar A$$ off so Neill felling sad thought up remixing his movie Alive in norunburg i think its called. so here this movie is a unsuspecting antagonist "Wikus van Der Merwe" is doing a documentary on MNU moving the Aliens to district 10 but he then goes into a shack and is screwing around with items of none of his concern and sprays a crap-storm virus in his eye that mutates his arm to a alien arm and changes his DNA so he can operate alien machinery MNU being the bastards they are jacks him up and takes him to there base for dissection he then daringly grabs a scalpel and holds a doctor hostage leading up to that he escapes to district 9 where he meets Christopher who at first is reluctant to kick Wikus's A$$ they soon befriend each other they then steal some alien weaponry and launch a counter attack on the MNU mercs were he retrieves a fuel cell to power a ship were Chris finds out that MNU have been experimenting on his people later on Wikus finds out that it would take up to 3 years to turn him back to a human,then a Emnite shamalan twist pops up Chris wants to go home for help before coming back to cure Wikus he then gets angry and kicks poor Chris's A$$ and powers up a ship were his engine is shot up and he crashes he than crawls out. soon cute Christopher's son Little CJ gains control of a mechanized battle suit from inside the crashed shuttle and helps free Wikus, Wikus then enters the alien walker battle suit and defends Christopher as the mother ship uses a tractor beam to lift the shuttle on board.he shuttle docks with the mother ship, Wikus is shot in the back and the walker suit ejects him after taking critical damage. Wikus drags himself away from the leader of the mercenaries, but is unavoidably caught. Just before the trigger is pulled, four aliens burst out of the surrounding slums and rips apart Wikus's attackers.The film concludes with another series of interviews and news broadcasts, showing the humans view on the events that unfolded. An interview with Wikus' wife reveals a small metal rose was left on her doorstep (one of Wikus' trademarks, he strongly believed a gift is worth more if it was made personally). She concludes it couldn't possibly be Wikus, no one has heard from him since he was last seen crawling from the mangled battle suit. An alien is then seen standing in a junk yard inside District 9 fashioning a small metal rose out of scrap metal, implying that Wikus is alive, his transformation from human to alien is complete, and is still awaiting Christopher's promised return. just tell me what you think about the ending

Topic by albylovesscience   |  last reply

Green and sexy car show

The Morgan LIFE car will get it's first UK airing at the Eden Project next weekend.The Morgan LIFE car, probably the sexiest green car in existence is a fuel cell-powered electricsports car built by Morgan Motor Company and startup efficient transport company RiverSimple. Research and development is by QinetiQ, Linde, Cranfield University and backed by BERR. This is its first UK outing.Four stacks of fuel cells convert the hydrogen fuel into electricity to run a super efficient motor generator attached to each wheel. Energy recovered in braking is stored in ultra capacitors rather than batteries, and end to end the performance is estimated to be equivalent to a 150mpg petrol engine. With a top speed of 85mph, 0-60 in less than 7 seconds and a 250 mile range, the mix of technology has been packaged by Morgan to add yet another unique twist to the project. Using only the best and lightest materials, aluminium, wood and leather, the Morgan DNA is clearly visible, adding a new dimension into an environmentally sensitive concept.And Lotus will be showcasing their most powerful Exige yet:The Lotus Exige 270E Tri-fuel is the most powerful version of the Lotus Exige ever, and it runs on any mixture of gasoline, bioethanol and methanol. It is the latest research vehicle from Lotus Engineering, the consultancy division of Group Lotus plc.Emerging technologies will allow alcohol fuels such as methanol, already a proven internal combustion fuel, to be made synthetically from CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. A fuel derived renewably from atmospheric CO2 would be a key piece of the jigsaw allowing society to transfer to sustainable, renewable, carbon-neutral internal combustion.Lotus Engineering is researching the use of sustainable synthetic alcohols as future fuels for introduction within 15 - 20 years.The Exige 270E Tri-fuel is part of Lotus' research into the complex combustion and calibration processes for powering vehicles on mixtures of alcohol fuels and gasoline, which will be important for a successful transition from today's fuels. Its flex-fuel technology gives a practical route to the introduction of sustainable synthetic fuels. Using an alcohol sensor in the fuel system and the advanced Lotus engine management system, the Exige 270E Tri-fuel runs on any mixture of gasoline, bioethanol and methanol. This is all happening at the Eden Project in Cornwall, one of the UK's flagship environmental projects, with some of the world's largest biodomes built into an old claypit.All the major manufacturers will be flaunting their newest, greenest models including Ford, Peugeot, Citroën, Fiat, Volkswagen, SEAT, Honda, Axon, Lotus, Saab and Morgan. Vectrix's electric motorcycle will also be on show, and the hydrogen-powered Morgan LIFE car will make its first public appearance (in the UK).There will also be exhibitors demonstrating how to maintain and even insure your car in a greener way. One stand will feature a driving simulator that they claim can teach you to drive in such a way that your carbon emissions are cut by 15%, there will be a pedal-car race track for the kids, and a Grow Your Own car trail around the rainforest.We visited last Summer, and can recommend it to anybody. If your not aiming for a specific event, go on a Tuesday (it's quieter) and check opening times - opening times on some days are several hours longer than others.Eden Project

Topic by Kiteman   |  last reply

your opinion on the movie district 9 (warning spoiler only read if you want to know the ending) ?

OK i just went and heard the whole plot of Neill Blomkamp masterpiece the Monalisa of movies D9. he was supposed to make the halo movie but Microsoft was complaining its multimillion dollar A$$ off so Neill felling sad thought up remixing his movie Alive in norunburg i think its called. so here this movie is a unsuspecting antagonist "Wikus van Der Merwe" is doing a documentary on MNU moving the Aliens to district 10 but he then goes into a shack and is screwing around with items of none of his concern and sprays a crap-storm virus in his eye that mutates his arm to a alien arm and changes his DNA so he can operate alien machinery MNU being the bastards they are jacks him up and takes him to there base for dissection he then daringly grabs a scalpel and holds a doctor hostage leading up to that he escapes to district 9 where he meets Christopher who at first is reluctant to kick Wikus's A$$ they soon befriend each other they then steal some alien weaponry and launch a counter attack on the MNU mercs were he retrieves a fuel cell to power a ship were Chris finds out that MNU have been experimenting on his people later on Wikus finds out that it would take up to 3 years to turn him back to a human,then a Emnite shamalan twist pops up Chris wants to go home for help before coming back to cure Wikus he then gets angry and kicks poor Chris's A$$ and powers up a ship were his engine is shot up and he crashes he than crawls out. soon cute Christopher's son Little CJ gains control of a mechanized battle suit from inside the crashed shuttle and helps free Wikus, Wikus then enters the alien walker battle suit and defends Christopher as the mother ship uses a tractor beam to lift the shuttle on board.he shuttle docks with the mother ship, Wikus is shot in the back and the walker suit ejects him after taking critical damage. Wikus drags himself away from the leader of the mercenaries, but is unavoidably caught. Just before the trigger is pulled, four aliens burst out of the surrounding slums and rips apart Wikus's attackers.The film concludes with another series of interviews and news broadcasts, showing the humans view on the events that unfolded. An interview with Wikus' wife reveals a small metal rose was left on her doorstep (one of Wikus' trademarks, he strongly believed a gift is worth more if it was made personally). She concludes it couldn't possibly be Wikus, no one has heard from him since he was last seen crawling from the mangled battle suit. An alien is then seen standing in a junk yard inside District 9 fashioning a small metal rose out of scrap metal, implying that Wikus is alive, his transformation from human to alien is complete, and is still awaiting Christopher's promised return. just tell me what you think about the ending

Question by albylovesscience   |  last reply

looking around for tutorials

I am suggesting tutorials on the following. All passive components and prefereably vacuum tubes can be used to build the following circuits.   Analog computers that are programmable and hopefully intellegent. with these you should process many signals at the same time. and instead of displaying results on an oscillscope, make a monitor and a gui.   I have a theory for a power supply. I think it works im not technically able to build the entire circuit yet. It's all passive. its a passive AM radio that sends a 60 hz sine wave. then on the other end you have many many antennas attatched to a passive receiver circuit. because each antenna will induce an electric field from the air, you should be able to get lots more power out of the circuit than you put in. and because its antennas, its compact and light weight.   And if you can figure it out, you can build plasma rockets too. I need some more information on how plasmas travel through an electric field.   but you know if you want to, you can build cars, boats planes, houses, cookware, sensors, surveilance, recording studios, 3d printers etcetera in passive electronics and post tutorials on it.   I am getting somewhat close to growing carbon based electronic components on a tree. I have some(a few) molecules in mind and I am starting to research and make progress on sequencing DNA.   If you want this information it is simply yours. but I need analog flight simulators, spaceflight simulators, weather simulators that use chemistry and math to predict the weather, ocean simulators that simulate all of the bathymetry of the ocean to predict surf and erosion.   aircraft designers. I have a motor that i am designing like the following. It only uses permanent magnets at the moment and it works similar to an alternator. If you can figure it out, you can build it too.   I have an alternate way to make bearings by using cylindrical magnets(the kind with the hole in the middle) and one is attracting and one is repelling. this should be able to make it so that the magnets levitate and spin freely.   Again if you want this information it is yours. YOu can also make analog computers compatable with software that exists today like linux. it is possible. it just takes some time and some thought.   ANyhow anything you want make it wireless make it programmable and make it and post tutorials on it.   I want EVERYTHING to be wireless from the computers to the recording studios to the rockets.   ANyhow thanks and have fun and stuff and it might be fun and it would help everyone and would help your compnay to produce these tutorial but you know wireless guitars, wireless amps, wireless record players wireless cnc machines, wireless laser cutters wireless induction cooktops etcetera. you can even make a record player that instead of using that metal thing to vibrate, you can use like sonar. You know this is just some cool stuff to consider developing. The radio based power supply will work, it just needs some fine tuning and same with the motor, but yeah have fun and be easy with this stuff itll take a while. but you know if you build rockets, spin the rockets to create a strong electric field, but you know i could use tutorials on how plasmas move and accellerate through an electric field etcetera. and for god sake, build EVERYTHING!  

Topic by tyandisi   |  last reply


First off, theres probably a million questions you can ask yourself. you need to take this concept, ask yourself these questions, or ask yourself your own questions. Get a friend to write out your questions. You can Kinda rely on there Input of you as they see it. First, write your own quick questions then have a friend do it if you want to go that route. compare your questions and the question of your friend in trying to determine your future. If they dont match up in around 75 percent, drop the friend. there more than likely to bring you down. also, it might open your friends eyes to change if you just cut ties, if he/she is really a friend they'll jump on the bandwagon and try to make a real future for themselves. The Reason for the questions and noteboon is because, Most of you dont know what you really want or have given up on dreams because it was easy to give up on them. Most of you arent determined to actually work hard for your dream. If your not ready to realize who you are, then give up and leave. "This isnt about YOU its About ME." You say that as you leave, and its understood with clarity. Its about you making a decision. Its going to be hard to trully realize yourself, your ticks and perks, your passions, and what you hate because the mind is always conjective and supplies reasoning beyond means. you could say hey "I could be the messiah." Not that you are or arent, who am I to say your not what you believe. the thing is, your mind can, without doubt, create and make you in reasoning "The Messiah". thats whats good about the mind and bad about the mind. acceptability. The messiah died 2000 years ago. rose up, went to heaven and it says he's returning from heaven on a white horse. Not Bluejeans and brain notification at the last minute. You have to set and determine reality without passibility. Its time to realize who you are and what it is you need, crave, and expect for the future and quit getting in debt to your passibility and work hard to independantly supply yourself without ever using a credit card, without ever buying another car on credit, without ever buying anything on credit, you need to be active and in charge and quit allowing these crooks to screw you out of time for your own personal dream and accomplishment, quit dying daily and rise up and make the sheet hit the fan in there directions , and dont look back. First, the questions need to be in specific and not an entire self bible. you want to be able to know when someone asks you about your family, who your mother, father and grandparents are, how they excelled or didnt excel in life, and infact who you are. People respect someone who is aware. Question yourself on HERITAGE. Thats your first question, find out about your life, what health problems you have might not be a God blaming you as some say "He mustve really made god mad" because those people are stupid. It most liely is an Inherited illness that you need to know about, you need to listen to the signs man, because i believe in God, and I respect your way in your belief, but the signs are there. If your father died from a heartattact, more than likely, your going to have the same dna link to what will trigger it, or your son or daughter will. you need to get intocuh with heritage, humble yourself, curse yourself. get intouch, that should be your first pages. how predestined life will incure with your life. Make plans, and set forth action in your HERITAGE IMMEDIATELY. Tommorow will be a new category to question, so lets take steps to success.

Topic by Ronald C. Kitchens   |  last reply

From My Brother: Halloween Advice

It's getting close to Halloween, so very strange things are about to happen, therefore please use these helpful hints this and every year. 1. When it appears that you have killed the monster, NEVER check to see if it's really dead. 2. Never read a book of demon summoning aloud, even as a joke. 3. Do not search the basement, especially if the power has gone out. 4. If your children speak to you in Latin or any other language which they should not know, shoot them immediately. It will save you a lot of grief in the long run. However, it will probably take several rounds to kill them, so be prepared. This also applies to kids who speak with somebody else's voice. 5. When you have the benefit of numbers, NEVER pair off and go alone. 6. As a general rule, don't solve puzzles that open portals to Hell. 7. Never stand in, on, or above a grave, tomb, or crypt. This would apply to any other house of the dead as well. 8. If you're searching for something which caused a loud noise and find out that it's just the cat, GET OUT! 9. If appliances start operating by themselves, do not check for short circuits; just get out. 10. Do not take ANYTHING from the dead. 11. If you find a town which looks deserted, there's probably a good reason for it. Don't stop and look around. 12. Don't fool with recombinant DNA technology unless you're sure you know what you're doing. 13. If you're running from the monster, expect to trip or fall down at least twice, more if you are female. Also note that, despite the fact that you are running and the monster is merely shambling along, it's still moving fast enough to catch up with you. 14. If your companions suddenly begin to exhibit uncharacteristic behavior such as hissing, fascination for blood, glowing eyes, increasing hairiness, and so on, kill them immediately. 15. Stay away from certain geographical locations, some of which are listed here: Amityville, Elm Street, Transylvania, anywhere in Texas where chainsaws are sold, the Bermuda Triangle, or any small town in Maine. 16. If your car runs out of gas at night on a lonely road, do not go to the nearby deserted-looking house to phone for help. If you think that it is strange you ran out of gas because you thought you had most of a tank, shoot yourself instead. You are going to die anyway, and most likely be eaten. 17. Beware of strangers bearing tools. For example: chainsaws, staple guns, hedge trimmers, electric carving knives, combines, lawn mowers, butane torches, soldering irons, band saws, or any devices made from deceased companions. 18. If you find that your house is built upon a cemetery, now is the time to move in with the in-laws. This also applies to houses that had previous inhabitants who went mad or committed suicide or died in some horrible fashion, or had inhabitants who performed satanic practices. 19. Dress appropriately. When investigating a noise downstairs in an old house, women should not wear a flimsy negligee. And carry a flashlight, not a candle. 20. Do not mention the names of demons around open flames, as these can flare suddenly. Be especially careful of fireplaces in this regard. 21. Do not go looking for witches in the Maryland countryside. 22. Machine-guns can't kill EVERYTHING. 23. If you happen to come upon a giant web or nest, DO NOT look for what made it. 24. If you find that your puppet is not how you left it the night before, find the axe. If you own a fireplace, that sometimes works better. 25. Don't wear extremely loose clothing, as it will catch on something as you are running away. 26. Do not chase after the big monster trying to camcord it, you WILL die. 27. Do not pet a foaming dog. 28. BELIEVE ALL URBAN LEGENDS. 29. If you have to pair up, do not go with the snobby rich guy, he will be one of the first to die. 30. If you find a secret doorway, don't go exploring it, chances are something happened in there. 31. Not all clowns are happy. 32. If the housekeeper never smiles and/or seems to hate you, do them and yourself a favor and leave. 33. Just because you come in peace doesn't mean they do. 34. Learn to scream AND run, it will save your life. 35. Never give hitch-hikers a ride. 36. If the crazy old man says leave, take his advice; what do you think made him crazy? 37. Unless your neighbor is a grave keeper or a gardener, carrying a shovel is not a good sign. HAVE A HAPPY HALLOWEEN!!!!

Topic by royalestel   |  last reply

Elefanternas passion för matematik och naturvetenskap - Edublogs

Http:// UB studenter att göra lärande mer hands-on, tillämpliga för pre-collegiate studenter Den endast lärande hinder Lavone Rodolph stött på gymnasiet försökte kombinera vad han lärt sig i klassrummet med det verkliga livet, sade han. Då var utbildning ibland immateriella bortom tjäna ett betyg. “Om jag lära ett koncept i klass, fysik eller kemi, ibland jag inte visste hur jag skulle använda det i mitt personliga liv eller jag visste inte nytta av lärande det än passerar en test,” sade Rodolph. Rodolph-nu en doktorand i datateknik – försöker förbättra lärandet för studenter vid sitt alma mater, Hutchinson Central teknisk högstadium i Downtown Buffalo, så de inte behöver möta den samma problem som han gjorde. Rodolph arbetar med tvärvetenskaplig vetenskap och teknik partnerskap (ISEP), ett femårigt program som leds av UB. Dess huvudsakliga fokus är att förbättra upplevelsebaserat lärande i naturvetenskap, teknik, teknik och matematik fält (STEM) för studenter i Buffalo offentliga skolor. Forskning har visat att en betydande andel − − 33 procent av barnen börjar tappa intresset för vetenskap så unga som 8 år. Av middle school ökar andelen till nästan hälften av dessa barn, enligt National Center for STEM grundutbildning. ISEP syftar till nytändning i en passion för vetenskap och andra STEM ämnen genom att erbjuda mitten och gymnasieelever en mer praktisk, tvärvetenskapligt förhållningssätt till lärande. Det innebär planering studiebesök att stärka förståelsen av lärande material och utformning laboratorieförsök som illustrerar abstrakta begrepp. Dessa aktiviteter gör lärande STEM ämnen kul, ett mål som Rodolph anser vara högsta prioritet för ISEP. “Huvudmålet är nr 1, att göra något kul STEM fält på högstadiet nivå,” sade Rodolph. “Sätt från högstadiet nivå, de vill fortsätta det på gymnasienivå. Och igen, målet på gymnasienivå är att göra det roligt och utmanande, så från gymnasienivå, de kan fullfölja ett STEM fält på kollegial nivå.” Som en examen assistent, har Rodolph hjälpt med samordna lärare i flera projekt. Dessa inkluderar undervisning Android-programmering, instruera eleverna på att skapa kol-dioxid-drivna racecars och planerar en resa till Buffalo Museum of Science att se hur DNA kan användas i rättsmedicinska undersökningar. Sedan starten 2005 har expanderat ISEP från två pilotskolor till 12 hög-behov mitten och gymnasier. Under 2011 fick det $9,8 miljoner euro i finansiering från National Science Foundation (NSF). − och andra stödjande partner som arbetar med tre viktiga partner − Buffalo offentliga skolor, Buffalo State College och buffel Museum of Science Roswell Park Cancer Institute, ISEP syftar till att uppnå sitt mål att förbättra elevernas lärande genom att samla resurserna. Lärarutbildningen är en stor del av ISEP’S plan. För att bättre förbereda lärare att göra STEM utbildning mer relevant för eleverna, kan ISEP och dess partner lärare att bli studenterna själva. Under somrarna, lärare utveckla deras professionella kompetens genom att arbeta med UB doktorander och tillägna sig färdigheter inom forskning och utredning undervisning. Under läsåret, både akademiker och studenter hjälper lärare utforma och genomföra mer hands-on lärande i klassrummet. “[ISEP] mål är att ge lärarna en ökad professionalisering, öka utbildning lärarna själva, så de kan få sin utbildning tillbaka till skolor och skapa bestående fördelar för studenter, säger Phillip Tucciarone, en junior kemiteknik stora. Han har varit involverad i ISEP för tre terminer och designar främst och genomför “hands-on laborationer” samordna lärare. ISEP har gjort framsteg sedan dess tillkomst, enligt UB News Center. För exempelvis studenter i ISEP klassrum på Native American Magnet School, en av de två pilot skolorna, har varit ungefär “30 procent mer sannolikt än distriktet jämnåriga att uppnå kompetens på den åttonde klass stat vetenskap examen”, enligt UB News Center. Innan sådan förbättring, var Native American Magnet School på listan skolor Under registrering granskning (SURR). SURR skolor är lågpresterande skolor som inte uppfyller statliga normer, enligt New York utbildning utrikesdepartementets hemsida. Native American Magnet School kan vara stängda, sade Joseph Gardella, chef för ISEP och John och Frances Larkin professor i kemi vid UB, via e-post. Native American Magnet School togs bort från listan i 2009, fyra år efter det blev inblandad i ISEP. Se skolans akademiska förbättring bland åttonde klassare har varit en av de många minnesvärda upplevelser för Gardella. Läs fler relaterade ämnen och video:

Topic by DELETED_jasmineyoung 

Why is it so bad that the small bakeries disappear more and more...

Everyone loves a good bread roll, a nice and freshly baked bread...But where does it come from and what is really in it?When it comes to bread and bread rolls we tend to think all is fresh, especially when you see that your favourite supermarket has a bakery with a real oven.Our local baker that took over the business from his father not only sees a thread but also is unable to compete with the price.The consumer only too often selects by price only if look and taste seem to be good.A bread roll for under 20 cents, a whole bread for just over $2 and I am not talking toast here...So how is such a price possible or how can a "bakery" provide 30 or more different types of rolls and bread with just one or two small ovens and a tiny kitchen area?The trick on a small scale is to use ready to go mixes, just add yeast and water and you are set to go.On a big scale we talk about dough that is frozen, sometimes pre-baked but alsways already in the shape of the finnished product.Since there is just flour, salt and yeast in it what could the harm?Like with soft drinks and alcohol not all ingredients are legally required to be listed.Enzymes, antioxidants, modifiers and more.The claim is that ingredients that disappear during the baking need not mentioning at all.If we check how these helping substances are made we get everything from bacteria and fungi over chemical compositions that are lab created and even things that are totally engeneered.Why use nature if you can made the substance in a lab...Most countries have authorities that deal with just these things and their use.So as long as every single ingredient is legal and does not require to be listed it is fair game.The problem here is that no one really knows what goes into the dough for these ready to bake frozen products.As we know from our chemistry lessons in school even totally harmless components can combine to a harmful endproduct.Especially enzymes are used to to modify everything from DNA over meat products to modifying the appearence and shelf life of a product.For most if not all the secret ingredients used we are assured they are conform with the local law and food regulations but we will never know where they came from or how they could interact with each other.Every dentist will tell you that cheap, white (so called) bread is pretty much the worst for your teeth.The usual claim here is that it is too soft, might contain too much sugar but in general the carbohydrates convert to harmful sugars and food for bacteria.These bacteria then harm your teeth...This alone however has shown to be a bit of a misjudgement.If you take the official ingredients on their own then their harm on the teeth is basically non existing.It is again the enzymes and their remains that do the hard work by providing the base to convert a lot of contents directly to sugars through these bacteria.If we now go a step further and consider that bacteria do a pretty good in our body to keep a healthy balance and convert nutrients for us we have to wonder...A thing of our modern time is alleries, same for intolerance to certain foods.The sources for these are plentyful but apart from shielding ourselfs agains all bacteria, viruses and germs in general food is a common factor.Regions with limited or no access to processed foods or drinks show little to no signs of our common allergies or common helth conerns like heart disease or obesity.When it comes to our bread products it is obvious that we consume a lot of it and simply trust the claims on the pack.Rich in omega 3 added fibres, wholemeal...A real baker starting shortly after midnight to produce fresh products for his customer will just shake his head.There are many studies that show us the quality of certain foods, also a lot that show how fast food is bad for you.But when it comes to investigating the bread we eat every day we only find meaningless informations.The long term effect of some of the "secret" ingredients in bread are however well studied in animal tests.Digestive problems, failing to make use of certain basic amino acids, an affected central nervous system and even behaviour abnomalities have been observed.Of course we can't really compare a rat or pig on totally overdosed tests with what we eat on a daily base.But if certain enzymes and other ingredients in our frozen bread mixes and also dry mixes can do this then it is safe to asume that some sife effects from long term exposure will happen too.An enzyme that might just cause a less sticky dough might also affect meat.Another ingredient that should keep the dough firm enough for production machines could cause your stomach lining to produce far less liquids that help digestion.And other ingredients that might just try to produce a more uniform expansion of the dough might break down other food products in your intestines so the body can not convert them into as many other building blocks as before.Sure, we trust the claim that the baking will totall remove all traces of all the things that are not required to be listed.But lab test will show quite opposite, especially when it comes to soft, fluffy "bread" in sliced form.Bread is one of the basic food items everyone needs, so if being able to provide it at an "affordable" price is possible than not too many will actually check the product as a whole.Imagine you buy a premium looking steak and on the pack it states it was made with meat glue - another enzyme.You would not buy it...Thankfully most countries banned the use of meat glues after to many cases of related food poisoning happened.Should have been obvious that cut meat will have more bacteria and that gluing such pieces will result in bacteria to grow inside the meat at fast rates.So if you now wonder why such things are not fully regulated and checked ask yourself: why do you buy the cheap bread from your supermarket instead going to support your local baker?Money...Don't trust my words here!Grab a bread from your supermarket and some bread rolls, then do the same at a real bakery and compare the products.After that check for the best time and grab a few cold beer to have a nice chat about factory made bread products with the guy who kowns how to make it.You might be suprised what he will tell you ;)

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply

UV filtration in your fish tank or small fish pond

Year after year the topic "I have a fish tank" seems to go more out of control. What was once a hobby just to have some fish can now be a design feature both in your home and inside the tank. Realistic looking lasdscapes, optical illusions that make you think the tank is much bigger and the list goes on. But one thing that now always pops up is the must have thing of UV filtration. Or to be precise: UV-C sterilisation! Now, if we trust Wiki and our big water suppliers then UV-C will literally kill anything alive that comes into contact with. So of course it would be a good thing to have for your tank - or not? UV-C is very dangerous for your eyesight and quite harmful for your skin! Looking into a proper UV-C lamp without protection means you can go blind! Even good sunglasses might not have enough protection in the UV-C range, so only use them for additional protection but never without and glass between you and the lamp! Don't be a fool! Treat UV-C seriously! You would not look into the full sun with your sunglasses and would not expose your eyes or skin to a powerful laser, UV-C is to be treated the same way! Let's start by using some boring text to explain the concept a little bit. On a large scale special and quite powerful systems are used to treat our drinking or pool water. Here special UV-C lights with a wavelenghts of 260nm or below are used to shine through the water passing by. There are two key factors here. a) the wavelenght b) the water flow rate and the corresponding time the water is in contact with the UV light To ensure all bacteria, viruses, algae and other harmful organics are dead the water must circulate for long enough so even the last water molecule had a few seconds of exposure. All this only works good with "crystal clear" water for obvious reasons as otherwise the UV has to be even more powerful to pass through. Single cell organisms literally crack into pieces similar to being exposed to gamma rays, more complex cells like algae have their cell membranes damages and the DNA suffers as well causing reproduction loss and early death. Even some chemicals break down, most importantly here chlorine based substances. Differences within the UV-C range! If you bothered to check Wiki about the topic of UV-C you will already know that only certain wavelengths within this spectrum will actuall be powerful enough to do what we want it to do. And here is the first problem for us hobby users. Most cheaply advertised "sterlisation lamps" you find in places like Ebay are actually totally useless. Stating to be selling a UV-C light to sterilze your water in such a case is still not considered to be fraud though. Simply because it still does what it supposed to do, just very slow and with very little effect. Only the so called "short wave" UV-C range is powerful enough! To avoid loosing business during the times of the biggest hype in 20 years no seller will actuall state the available wavelengths. That means without this info anywhere you can be certain the advertised lamp is of little to no use. Even those advertised to be short wave UV-C might not be the real deal. However, if a decent manufacturer is behind the actual lamp used it is possible to check the datasheet for these performance figures - but again most cheap systems come with no-name lamps inside. Check the prices for a reputable UV-C light with the same lamp fitting, e.g. G23 and you will see it might cost more than your entire system. Ok, you have a poper short wave UV-C lamp or consider getting a canister filter with one in it.... Never, ever test your lamp without proper protection!!!!! UV-C will damage your eye within seconds! If you system or lamp does not provide a viewing port or shine through area then you have to place a piece of glass between you and the light! UV-C won't be able to penetrate normal window glass but will pass through quartz glass. Place the lamp in a box and cover with the glass. How make proper use of UV-C sterilisation... The replacement lights are quite expensive, so let's see how to get the most out of them. As said before exposure is the key factor so the flow rate of the UV system must match tank size and flow rate of your filter system. Canister filters with a build in lamp should be designed to match but I will tell you later what to look for ;) Most of us will prefer to have a in-line system if there is already a good canister filter at work, so I will focus on those and rop in solutions. If you compare in-line system you might notice that some quite small and low power units claim to allow for the same flow rates as for example 40W units. Some are fraud and just want to sell while others use simple physics to make the claim true. A good system will utilise an auger like "ramp" that forces the water to circulate around the tube many times - causing up to ten times longer exposure rates. Others create this sprial effect more like a vortex with some diverters and modified inlets. The later seems to be less efficient though with low power lamps. An in-line system should be on the outlet side of your canister filter so the best quality water will pass through it. A drop in solution should be used alone and without the existing normal filter pump you might have in there. Ok, got it, but how do I actually use it now? Despite common thinking a UV-C system should not run 24/7 like your normal filter. You really only need it to solve problems you should not have in a healthy tank! It is not a magical solution to make your underlaying problems go away ;) Let's start with the most common reason someone buys a UV-C system: An algae or bacterial outbreak causing greenish or milky water. If that developed slowly over a period of weeks then you would be better off to do a good clean of the tank and filter plus a decent water exchange. A few drops of meds will do the rest. And if you constantly get algae growing on your glass, ornaments and plants then your nutrient levels and water quality is not right anyway and needs a good check. But of course there is also the problem of light - too much for too long and unwanted gree appears everywhere. If in doubt reduce the light power, shade out natural light or reduce the on time for your lights. Having said that we now face the problem of a sudden outbreak after introducing new fish or plants. If you don't have a quarantaine tank chances are that sooner or later you get unwanted or even harmful guest into your tank. Here the UV-C will be beneficial, which is why a canister filter with build in light should have a seperate switch or power supply for the light. After an outbreak or while introducing new life into your tank the UV-C will remove a lot of the things that we don't want to bring along. For new life I leave the light on non stop for a week, that is for a small 4ft tank with 200 liters. To control an outbreak it depends on how bad it is. I assume here you can still see the back of your tank  but that the water either appears greenish or slightly milky from bacteria. As a personal thing I prefer to to remove and clean my filter material before treating a severe outbreak. Once done I fill the filter with a mix of activate carbon material and fine filter wool. Reason for this quite simple: The outbreak causing stuff is already in your filter material and will be a constant source of re-infection. And since breaking down all this bad stuff causes even more bad stuff to be produced as biological waste we want to discard it properly once done. Using just fine filter wool and activated carbon also reduces the flow rate bit if compacted ;) Now we can turn on the light and pump and forget about it for a while. It is not recommended to run UV lights on a timer as you want them on all time to prevent short lifespan and have ongoing treatment of the water. Good idea to take a picture at the same of a day from now on to compare and check results. After 3 days the water should definately be clearer, if not then either your filter material is packed too losse or the lamp is no good. Once the water appears to be clear do a readin test - take a newspaper behind the tank and check if the text is clear - blurry means the water is still not clean. You will reach a point where the water quality will not further improve as much as in the days before. This is the time where you discard or clean out to dry your filter material and put the original stuff back in. The activated carbon should be discarded of course. You cleaned filter material will now need a certain time to grow enough good bacteria to go back to the old performance. During this time you should still leave the light on. In most cases with enough fish and plants in the tank a week should be sufficient. After that you can leave the light off and keep the tank fit and healthy. Special case: Algae everywhere! Especially after getting a new plant you can end up with quite pesty algae growth. Be it these long ghost hair types or in a bad case the black stuff growing on plants, ornaments and the glass. I have even seen tanks with algae covering the entire bottom of the tank causing the gravel to look like carpet. Here I can only advise to set up a quarantaine tank for your fish. Then remove all infested material for manual removal and cleaning. Infested plants should be cut clean and what can be boiled should be boiled in water for a few minutes. Now start scrubbing in the tank with ongoing water replacements. I prefer to let everything settle over night without any bubbler or pump running. This way I can suck up a lot of sediment the next day. If you can remove all plants and fish you can now use hydrogen peroxide and add it to your tank water. But this is only feasable for small desktop tanks. Before using the UV as above to cure an outbreak you should consider all water one last time. Allow at least 2 weeks with ongoing water checks before adding plants back in and another week before placing your fish back in the tank. The week before adding fish should be used to monitor the plats for any signs of algae you might have missed - if you find any remove it! A week after the fish is back in you can turn off the UV light. Underwater UV-C light!? In most online stores you will find quite cheap UV lights to be advertised as underwater or in tank use. Although it might sound tempting you should be well aware of the dangers of using them. The glass of your tank will block the harmfull UV rays but the water surface won't, so either don't ever look at it or use proper sunglasses with real UV protection. Apart from the dangers to you these lamps are not just cheap in price but also cheaply produced. That means there is no way of telling how much or how little UV-C is produced. If they are good then you still need to know in what type of tank setup you can use them. As plants can tolerate a bit of UV a placement as far away from the nearest plant should do, especially if you can place a bubble wall betwenn light and plants. The fish is another thing as some seem to be unaware of the danger in their tank. This means they can get too close to the light but I have not found any articles explaining how harmful UV-C is to fish or their eyesight. I guess once your fish starts to bounce into everything you know... ;) My advise is to stay away from the idea of hanging a UV-C lamp in your tank, the risk for you and your tank is just not justified. If you need to go cheap then get two or thre of these lamps so you have spares. But use them externally ;) Meaning: Take a UV proof plastic container of small size and place the light in there. To be really safe tape the lid and all holes for the hoses with black tape. Place the container above the water level of your tank and if you only have an internal filter pump push a suitable sized hose into the outlet to feed into you canister. Check how high you pump can make it and place the outlet or overflow slightly below this level. When to change the light? If you made it all the way down here then you might already had the benefit of using light to "cure" your tank. Now we are faced with the high replacement cost for the lamp itself. Ususally only flouroscent tubes are used. It is always good to check after purchase what type of lamp and manufacturer (if there is one) was used. In some cases the system itself is like an inkjet printer: Just a cheap way to make you buy the consumables. Let's say you new in-line filter was priced at $100 to have a nice round number, some are cheaper some much more expensive. The lamp used might be an exotic type and not even be available easy, so before you buy your system check where you can get spares, not just the lamp of course. A replacement lamp can be as ceap as 20 bucks or cost even more than your system if you need to order it elsewhere. The quartz glass sleeve can break too meaning you then need a lamp and cylinder. Going with a reputable brand and paying a bit more certainly helps to get spares in the future. Let's just assume you either got your system in bulk due to the price of replacement lamps or can get them at a reasonable price. UV-C lamps are not like your normal flouroscent light tubes you have around or maybe even on top of your tank. Consider them like the tubes used in the now unhealthy tanning beds. After a certain amount of time they no longer produce enough of the short wave UV light that we need. As you can't see it and most of us won't have the means to specifically measure it we have to trust manufacturers recommendations. For most good brands the numbers are the same: 8000 hours max. Considering the costs it does make sense to keep written track of the usage. Not too hard since we won't use them like normal lights but instead have them on for a week or more without turning them off. I recommend to have a replacement at hand long before you need it. A lamp can fail premature, crack or simply burn out. The 8000 hours are based on 24 hour usage, so one day on, one day off. This could mean for us the lifetime can be slightly longer but I would not go over 9000 hours. As a rule of thumb: If the water does not show good signs of getting clear on day thre the lamp is due.

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply