embedded systems

Hai sir.i am a electronics and communication engineering student. i want to buiid embedded systems but dont know from where to start.i am thinking to start from reverse engineering of basic embedded systems like calculator,old mobile phones but i dont have knowledge on how to access the hardware,display etc.so please guide me how to know about basics and where to start from.

Topic by shankar gowd 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


embedded computing system and embedded program?

Embedded system is combination of hardware and software that perform some specific task I don't understand what is meaning of embedded computing system design 1)both embedded system and embedded computing system are different or same ? same question 2)both embedded software and embedded are different or same ?

Question by vead 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Embedded Systems Using Arduino

Hello! I am a Filipina, Computer Engineering Student. I would like to ask for your help and also to seek ideas about the possible projects I can make in my Embedded System Class using Arduino. I'm eyeing "Biometrics Attendace System" as my project but I decided to look for a simpler project. Thankyou very much. :)

Topic by Rosas25 3 years ago


Can you give me some ideas to make a great project on something in embedded systems ?

I need to make a final year(of bachelors degree) project on embedded systems. I have knowledge about robots and various software languages. Please give me some ideas or hint or something you know that can help

Question by swakit 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Simple embedded point-of sale system

Hi, I am currently thinking about making an embedded point-of-sale system, with a fixed price, i.e. no computer, just a microcontroller that subtracts a specific amount from the card being used as payment. The money would be stored on the card itself i.e. no centralized database. Currently, I do not have a preference regarding the type of card to use i.e. whether to use an rfid card, a contact smartcard or a magnetic card. The magnetic card seems the cheapest, but most examples seem to favor the contactless card. Therefore, I have two questions I was hoping you could help me with: ·         Which media offers the best security against duplication (as the money is on the card itself, I would prefer if the card was hard to copy)? Do some cards have, for example a unique, read-only-identifier, that would prevent any copying (assuming the microcontroller is pre-programmed with those unique ids) ·         Do you know of any example source code that would talk with the card reader, read the amount on the card, subtract a fixed amount and rewrite the new total on the card? For security purposes, some encryption in the driver would be helpful. For the embedded controller, I was considering the arduino, because it seems to be the most popular option (I am a newbie, I will have to learn whatever the microcontroller is). Please let me know if you have any suggestions. Thanks.

Topic by MorrisVian 6 years ago


how can i get 2.4'' lcd tft spfd5408 in proteus library?please help me?

Question by Akshays54 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


What is List and Queue in Embedded Programming

Hello What is List and Queue in RTOS Programming. what is use of List and Queue routine in RTOS. Generally list means number of tasks. and queue means number of task run in queue   

Topic by vead 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


Robosapiens india and IIT-G presents

'Short Term Internship Program in Robotics and Embedded 'C' certified by Techniche'09 IIT-Guwahati and robosapiens India.http://www.robosapiensindia.comSTIP or Short Term Internship Program is a career oriented program which gives the participants the opportunity to have a tété-a-tété with the industrial approach to Robotics and Embedded C. It gives you an insight into micro controller and what goes into the making of an embedded system. This duration specific program has been introduced as a result of popular demand from participants of our previous programs.We fell proud to present you with this unique internship variation which will not only change the perception of an internship but will also improve its credibility and efficiency. The course outline is as follows:Course Outline:- • Embedded System Design and Robotics: An Introduction• Microcontrollers & their Architecture• Introduction to Embedded C Programming • Interfacing of peripherals to Microcontrollers • Project Building • Introduction to concepts of RTOSThis course includes the Free Embedded system SDK to all participants.Why this course is a ‘must’?So why should a student go for STIP. We think the following summarizes the plethora of reasons why STIP is a dream for every embedded system and robotics enthusiast:• Embedded System is best understood by applying it in robotics.• Robotics and Embedded systems have a lot of scope in college projects.• The AVR series that we will be using is the most commonly employed series for micro controller at both academic and industrial level.• A participant gets to learn and apply Embedded C programming which is the main programming language for embedded systems with resource constraints. • This is the best way to get to know other robotics enthusiast around the country. • One gets to be in touch with the most talented and experienced professionals in this area of academics and interact with them.STIP benefits in a nutshell:• Exhaustive training with extensive guidance by our panel of experts.• The project based completion of curriculum with both theory classes and hands on sessions.• One can also buy development boards and other robot parts that we’ll use throughout the program.• Certification by IIT Guwahati; Techniche’ 09.• Accommodation facility for participants coming from far away locales.Free Embedded system SDK kit includes :• AVR series microcontroller Based Reserach plateform.• 1 Atmega 16 Microcontroller.• AVR series Universal Programmer.• Connecting cables.• 1 LCD display.• Robosapiens india AVR Loader v1.0 Beta software package.Certification by Techniche'09 IIT-Guwahati and Robosapiens India.Robosapiens India ties up with Techniche'09 India Institute of Technology. All the participants will get a valid Certificate from us.STIP Program cost includes:• Two weeks instructor led exhaustive training.• Two weeks of industry defined, project work.• Take away Embedded system SDK Kit.• Post Training assistance for Project work.• Accommodation assistance.Course Curriculum Details :Embedded System Design: An Introduction Introduction to micro controller is the first step to know about embedded systems. What is a micro controller? What’s inside it? What makes it an embedded system? What are the different families of microcontroller, its derivatives and its applications in industrial projects? Why AVR is the most widely used micro controller family? What goes into designing an embedded system? Its criteria and handling resource constraints.Introduction to Microcontrollers and AVR Architecture This session includes introduction to the AVR series of micro controller, especially ATMega16, which we will be using in our program.Introduction to ATMega16 features viz. • I/O Ports. • Data Registers• Interrupts. • Timer/Counter. • External/Internal clocks• ADC (Analog to Digital Conversion using ATMega16). This session is for familiarization with various functional blocks of the microcontrollers and knowing the inside story of it. Introduction to Embedded C Programming • Embedded C-Programming for Microcontroller. • Introduction to C, Flow control statements, functions. • Data Types, operators and expressions. • Program structures and debugging. • Program Burning and Execution Interfacing of peripherals to Microcontroller(Atmega 16) • Actuators. • Geared DC Motor. • Stepper Motor. • Motor Driver. • Relays. • Solid State Drivers. • Integrated Circuit drivers. Interfacing of various kind of Display devices• Displays. • LED. • LCD. Interfacing various human interface devices with the microcontroller.• Input Devices. • Switches. Interfacing and Study of Sensors to enable microcontroller to acquire environmental data.• Sensors. • Temperature Sensors. • Light Sensors. Project Building and implementation of ideas• Designing• Devlopment• Programming and customizing • Debugging

Topic by meetbajwa 9 years ago


Embedded video solutions

I'm working on a project that requires the playing of short videos based on some physical conditions. The microcontroller and more general electronic end of stuff I'm fine with. What I haven't yet figured out is the mechanics of the video player mechanism. I want to use digital video stored on removable media (preferably CF or similar memory card storage). The videos will have no sound, be black & white, and probably low resolution (640x480 being the max size). I had originally planned to use an embedded linux system (gumstix verdex or some such thing) hooked to a TFT display. With some software running on the computer, it shouldn't be hard to control with serial communication. However, I'm not sure how well (if at all) mplayer would run on the Verdex. Also, if there's a cheaper solution I'd rather take that. I guess this post is to see what my options are. I know there are mp3 decoders on a chip (like the STA013) that produce output that you feed more or less directly into a DAC. Is there such a thing as a hardware mpeg video decoder (or divx, or quicktime, or avi, or whatever?) If something like that existed, I could connect the CF reader straight through my uC to the hardware decoder and pipe it out directly. Either to LCD or CRT (depending on which signal is easier). So, does this exist? Is it feasible? Thanks,

Topic by deadbilly 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Can Anyone help me to buy a system on chip solution for tablets? what is the best performing and affordable solution?

How much those system on chip solutions cost? how can we get it and test it? any help topics or references can be shared please. I am looking forward to develop a low cost embedded system for my own application developments. Please share me some details

Question by dmitritech 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Bite force transducer embedded in a gumshield

I am a quadriplegic and paralysed from the shoulders down. I am working on a project to allow me to control a go kart. I have limited use of my arms which should allow me to control the steering but I am trying to get another degree of freedom to control acceleration and/or braking One of the ideas is to use a piezoelectric type force transducer in the mouth to control and acceleration via an arduino or similar. The transducer would detect bite force and it would be converted into control signals for the throttle and/or brake. It would be embedded in a gumshield and it would be acceptable to have a cable coming from the front of it to the control System. I am wondering has anyone worked on such a project and could anyone point me in the right direction please. The gumshield may end up looking something like the image here.

Topic by greenonyx 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Serial/Console Interface for Video Brochure?

Hello All!  I recently acquired one of those cheap video brochures (the kind that loops a video on full volume until you want to dash it against a wall)... Anyways, I couldn't resist the urge to hack with it, so I pulled the enclosure apart to expose the electronics. Inside I found a magnetic switch, a USB mini connector with all pins wired (two power/two data), a motherboard with three ICs and a scattering of other components, and a rechargeable battery (seems to be LiPo) all wired up to a 5.5" display. I plugged the usb to my computer and it mounted as a drive labeled "MediaPlayer". Inside was the original video file that I replaced with one of my own videos in the same format. It now plays my video with sound. Where I am stumped is with the circuit board. I have not found any markings on the board itself, however it has some pins around the edge to which the switch and speaker were connected to (I'm guessing these may be GPIOs.....). There is also an unpopulated four pin header (to the right of the display connector) that looks like it may possibly be for another USB port. There are also four solderable connections (on the bottom of the left side of the board) that are labeled GND, HRP, HRL, and DET... I wasn't able to find any meaning for those, but is it possible to establish communication through that? Last but not least, the three ICs on the board seem to be a CPU, and two flash chips. The markings on the center one (which I'm assuming is the CPU) are: F1 E200 F8148DA 19H1  The second IC, to the right of the "CPU" is marked: hynix 812A HY5DU121622CTP-D43 KOR N7EAX553Q2 - also engraved with the letters JHY The final IC, left of the "CPU" is marked: hynix KOR HY27UF082G2M TPCB 604A M8SD53321 According to Google, the E200 refers to the all winner E200 SoC that supports UART, SPI and TWI... It also says that it runs OS Melis 2.0... I would like to hack into this system if possible and/or find a way to interface the LCD through SPI for my Pi Zero... Any help is greatly appreciated! Thanks! I included a couple of High Res photos to show the PCB (the display ribbon cable has been removed to show the third IC). 

Question by JoeW79 2 years ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


Powering sensors and wearables

Hi Makers :)I am working on a project that aims at substituting batteries (or increasing their lifetime) to power embedded systems, sensors and wearables by exploiting body movements.I would love to know about some of your experiences with creating and experimenting with such devices i.e. embedded systems, sensors and wearables.https://goo.gl/forms/W3V0X6C1YWxmqv1B2Please let me know what you think on the link above.Thank you!Hans Paul

Question by hansalbi 8 months ago



Need a list of the best tools, e-books & tuts, ide's etc. for embedded systems and devices development

Hello Everybody!!! I Just recently dedicated myself and career to the development and design of embedded systems, devices and technology. I just wanted to know if anybody had a list or a link of the most essential tools and other resources to help learn and develop a highly efficient setup and environment for this field of study and employment. Thank You AO!

Topic by Da_Real_ApacheOmega 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


please tell me where i will get internship?

I am final year student of M.Sc(tech)digital signal processing and embedded systems design in andhra university,andhra pradesh,india. i have interested in do the internship on digital signal processing or communication systems. please help me.....

Question by msprasad63 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Hello, how to read video from usb port.??

We are developing an embedded system project based on ardunio equipped with transmitter which transmits video from remote location to the receiver connected to laptop. my que is how to read that video. Is there any freeware tool or any program to read the video..??

Question by RohitB53 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Addicted to Instructables Tech? Consider doing it full time at Amazon!

Hello instructables Addicts! I manage a group of engineers at Amazon.  We're the team that gets to design, prototype, and build new devices and machines for Amazon's warehouses. I'm looking for new people to join the team who are interested in joining us on our mission to build cool new technology.  We cover a lot of of diverse areas, from industrial image acquisition and vision systems to embedded device development, so be ready for a challenge!  If you love embedded systems design, aren't afraid of the soldering iron, and want to work with some incredibly bright people every day, check our our job posting! All of the jobs are here in Seattle and are full time.  Read more about qualifications and apply directly by checking our our posting: https://us-amazon.icims.com/jobs/116465/job .  Alternatively, if the link doesn't work, go to amazon.com/jobs and search for 116465. Have a great day!

Topic by gashalot 8 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Scrolling Issue

I have run across a rather peculiar bug while viewing instructables on the site. Whenever there is a slideshow or an embedded video (like a YouTube one inserted into a step/description), and I scroll down, about 10 pixels or so of the Slideshow/Video stay on the top of the body portion of my web browser. My browser is Mozilla Firefox 3.6 Beta 5, running under the operating system of Windows 7. An included screenshot is below.

Topic by Raikou-san 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Integrating Access Control System with Hackerspaces Passport and Membership Software

Jigsaw Renaissance are looking into integrating Nadine and Hackerspaces Passport with our door locks. If you are able to commit time to help us designing or building, please post to: Inscape Access Control System - If you are interested in the project, please go to the group and sign up. - There will be opportunities to work on embedded firmware, electronics, mechanics, encryption, and the membership software application. - You can then control whether to get each email separately or receive a digest once a day. About the project: This project will provide an electronic door access for our new building. The project will involve providing several badge readers (probably RFID), and door lock controllers as well as a car park induction loop. Finally there is a need for software that manages the keys and access privileges. This software must be easy to use as the building landlord will use it. -- Jigsaw Renaissance is a learning and making community, a collaborative community dedicated to collective education and creation. Our mission is to create an environment in which success, failure, and most of all discovery are celebrated. Our vision is that this environment will foster an enduring sense of wonder and a drive to effect change in ourselves, our communities, and the world. For more information about JR (www.jigsawrenaissance.org), please visit our wiki page at wiki.jigren.org/Starting_Classes or this page: www.element14.com/community/groups/jigsaw-renaissance/blog/2011/03/25/who-we-are Contact us, so we can chat about scheduling something cool together. Thanks!   Ultimate Regards, -- Budi Mulyo +1.206.571.8430

Topic by Wise Cricket 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Adobe Flash Virus ? Answered

Hello, I have an imac. This appeared a few days ago and sits over any youtube or embedded video clip. I have run a full system scan using Sophos but it gave the all clear. I cleared all my cookies. I've clicked Deny but  it stayed there. I've looked up imrworldwide.com but it all seems to relate to PC'c. Has anyone with a Mac had this problem and, if so,  what did you do. Thank you

Question by FriendOfHumanity 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Quick rundown various Linux and BSD operating systems:

1.  Debian - one of the older base distributions and currently one of the most popular.  Uses the "apt" package manager for software installation.  Excellent server distribution. 2.  Fedora - the free community edition of Red Hat Linux.  Sponsored by Red Hat Linux.  Uses the "rpm" package manager for software installation. 3.  openSuse - sponsored by Novell, originally developed largely in Europe. 4.  Mageia - fork of an older distribution called Mandriva Linux. 5.  PCLinuxOS - also a fork of Mandriva.  Looks to provide out-of-the-box support for graphics and sound cards. 6.  Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) - based on Fedora, RHEL includes many enterprise-level enhancements and is supported Red Hat corporation. 7.  CentOS Linux - free enterprise-grade operating system that is built from the same source code as RHEL without the proprietary enhancements or support from Red Hat.  8.  Puppy - very small Linux operating system that boots the OS and applications completely into RAM.  Can operate on older computer equipment.  Excellent for use in emergencies and to recover data from hard drives. 9.  FreeBSD - operating system that is based on BSD code. 10.  Ubuntu Linux - easy to use operating system that is based on Debian Linux.  Supported by the Canonical corporation.  Ubuntu means "humanity to others".  Excellent server distribution. 11.  Linux Mint - currently one of the most popular distributions, based on Ubuntu Linux.  Looks to provides complete experience by including browser plugins and media codecs (ie: Flash) upon installation.  Excellent desktop distribution.  Also comes in lightweight editions for older hardware 12.  NetBSD - based on BSD code.  Can be run on a wide range of hardware.  Currently there are 57 different hardware architectures that can run NetBSD. 13.  OpenBSD - based on BSD code.  Source code built from the ground up with security first and foremost as the goal.  Ships "secure by default", that is, all non-essential services are disabled.  OpenBSD has embedded cryptography throughout the operating system; it utilizes OpenSSH, Pseudo Number Random Generators, cryptographic hash functions, cryptographic transforms and crypto hardware support. 14.  ClearOS - server and network distro designed for small businesses.  Based on Red Hat Linux.  Web-based interface controls anti-virus, anti-spam, VPN, content filtering, bandwidth manager, file services, SMTP services, print services, SSL certification, and web services. 15.  Kali Linux - distro that specializes in penetration testing and security auditing.  Over 300 penetration testing tools.  Based on Debian Linux. 16.  Lubuntu - lightweight version of Ubuntu Linux for older computers and netbooks. 17.  Gentoo - highly customizable distro that uses a package system called portage written in Python.  Mascot is Larry the Cow.

Topic by matt392 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


How to start with AT89S52 MC?

I am new to embedded systems of 8051. i coded At89s52 and dumped my code for blinking LED. when i trying to get out put from a bread board no result dont know where i m doing wrong i m sure with connection fittings and circuit exactly matches with what ever available in internet. i have doubt on my crystal and 22pf capacitors and how to check them...?   can any one help me on this ..

Question by Vijaykum_ar 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


RFID Project Assistance

I am Software Engineer and need to build an prototype. Please can you recommend the hardware according the requirements specified below     I have an Arduino UNO starter Kit here, also have an Arduino DUE     The basics of the system are as follows:     * RFID scanner (with buzzer if available) and Tokens required.     * Display LCD/VFD/Serial, Need to have 16 characters x 2 lines.     * Also need an PUSH button to control when the RFID needs to Stop/Start Scan - If its embedded in RFID/Display, my job is easier. Regards, jainvikas8

Question by jainviaks8 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


XinCheJian - A Shanghai Hackerspace

XinCheJian is a Hackerspace in Shanghai, China. XinCheJian provides a community environment with open hardware setup for hardware thinkers, digital artists, designers, DIY hobbyists and everyone interested in figuring out how things work and are happy to get their hand dirty to build some fun stuffs with some like-minded people. XinCheJian will provide workspace for people to work on projects, organize workshop and courses on various subjects ranging from electronics, embedded system, and programming and host speakers and workshop session. Also, XinCheJian will act as fund raising and supporting platform for people interested in prototyping their ideas and launching new projects.  Check out our website for more information: http://xinchejian.com

Topic by xinchejian 8 years ago


Help with code on 4 x 4 x4 LED cube with Arduino?

Recently i made a LED cube, on my own, and  i want it to display characters, alphabets numbers going layer by layer using the concept of multiplexing and POV (persistence of vision) , i googled a lot, searched on instructables too!! but was unable to find an easy code to do what i want, i am only a begginer and don't have very much knowledge . Please provide a way i can go for. By the way this is what i did a day ago:- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5gODIqwUPEk

Question by jatinbatra 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Sound card configuration problems

Want to configure my 7.1 sound card, which is embedded in the motherboard. Run windows 7. I used to just split the 'green' channel between my small 2.1 computer speaker system and home built full range 'rear' tower speakers with passive crossover, powered by an old 2X 100W RMS Sony amp, with very satisfactory results (movies, mostly reggae music). But finally I got a nice 10" subwoofer!  Time to make a proper setup! So I tried to plug the tower speakers in the black channel, and for now, the headphones, in the orange channel (while wiring the sub into a 4 X 40W  mono setup- Parallel , I assume????). To the control panel, sound, manage audio devices, speakers, configure (5,1 for now). Works like a charm: all tests OK, can hear all test sounds.  Restart... But W Media player, as well as other players (want to customize with Foobar_X_over eventually) don't provide any sound, except for the green channel. What am I doing wrong?

Question by BobS 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


I want some one to help me at making RC car controlled by wifi esp2866 and AVR atmega 32?

Greetings,iam mustafa,working right now as it technical support engineer for 3 years and 7 months .I have never made project for RC car or any project related to embedded systems as i was always scared and think that people who create these things are super smart and iam not smart enough .i always wish to work as embedded software engineer but i've never made a project in real life. i studied c programming and materials related with avr architecture and had many interviews but i fail always .At last interview, i'd failed and the interviewer asked me to do a project so that i get better .i decided to challenge myself and build an rc car .i asked a friend of mine to help me in project& i made a code using atmel studio IDE and simulator(proteus) to test my code..my code could move the dc motor right ,left and backward and forward till this moment on the simulator (proteus software) .After while i was sick and my friend was busy as he traveled abroad cause of his work.and iam very disappointed as i didn't finish my project .i get older and i want to make a shift career and work as an embedded software engineer but iam afraid that i won't achieve my dream . i hope this post will give me a hope to continue the path of achieving my dream careeri have bought this things: 4 DC motors 12 vwifi moduleH bridge moduleresistors and wires and breadboard===============================i hope that i find some one who is patient and keep an eye on me while i do the project .Thanks all

Topic by MustafaS72 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


Help requested for purchase of components

Hi. I'm a newbie to embedding but I have a project that needs this and there is no commercially available solution that I can find so I need to learn how to build it myself. This can and will be done in modules... I figure I can tackle one task at a time until I end up with a complete working system, but use the system in the meant time, as I get it completed. The main goal is for an electric motorcycle conversion dashboard,  which will include a password protected relay switch "ignition key" to power the vehicle on securely (Task #1), a user configurable display to show speedometer, odometer, tripometer, clock, battery pack voltage, motor rpm/temp, controller temp, coolant temp, etc via a waterproof rugged tablet (probably a Windows 10 tablet, probably with an Android emulator installed). I'm finding that there are so many different options available, I don't know what to purchase. I want to spend my hard earned money wisely and just buy what I need the first time. Instead of learning the "hard" way, I want to learn the "smart" way. Please help me get started. Thank you in advance!

Topic by Stevonator 1 year ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


RFID query: Programming RFID lock to accept "pre-existing" RFID chips?

I have no prior programming skills, and only a basic understanding of RFID technology. As my initiation to Arduino programming, I would like to build an RFID door lock/catch. I know you can buy RFID tags to program the system to accept, but can you also program the reader to accept other items you may have with an RFID chip? I'm not sure what other components might be in place to prevent that from functioning. Disney has RFID chip embedded bracelets, for instance which are used for a variety of things around the park.  They way I imagine the programming is that the reader reads an RFID and then records that ID to accept? Is there much more to that? Apologies for my ignorance at this point. Thanks to anyone for their clarification!

Topic by davidandora 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Nearly continuous crashing of Firefox, Camino and Safari by I'bles

UPDATED 9 Mar 2009: This seems to have been a "one off." I haven't had any problems with any of my browsers on I'bles since last week. I did update Flash, per NachoMahma's suggestion, so that may have been the issue.All day today, I have been struggling with extremely frequent (many times per hour) crashes of all three of the browsers I normally use -- Firefox, Camino, and Safari -- on my MacOSX desktop system. In every case, the crash occurs while I'm access some page at I'bles. Not always the same page, but presumably always one with some form of advertising.I don't know whether I'bles has a new ad server, or whether one of their partners is dishing out new and crappy embedded objects. I have not seen this behaviour before today, and it is not restricted to any particular browser. I hope that by reporting it, Staff may be able to identify something that changed today and deal with it appropriately.

Topic by kelseymh 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Sound wave heart beat detection

I love to graph things. Everything from outside temperature to server room temperature to the number of users on the network to my weight.I just read an article in Make magazine about DIY ECGs, and it got me thinking.. i want to graph more things about my body :)Would a microphone embedded in the bed be able to pick up the heart beats and calculate the BPM? This way I could graph development in resting heart rate over time. The microphone would pick up lots of noise from the person moving around etc.. but that doesn't mather. It only needs to get a few clean heart beats in order to calculate the bpm, right?What hardware and software would be suitable to create something like this?Any ideas?Yeah, of course there are other more traditional ways of measuring heart beat.. but I'm to lazy to do that.. I'd rather spend some time making a fully automagickal system.

Topic by chr 11 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


15 steps to starting your own electronic-kit business - ladyada's tips for success

Voices: 15 steps to starting your own electronic-kit businessLadyada, of MintyBoost! fame among others, gives EDN the step-by-step process for building a successful kit-building business. I've seen her operation, and she's a total pro. If you're interested in doing this yourself, this information is gold.After Limor Fried received her master's degree in computer science and electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2004, she started her own business designing and selling electronic kits, targeting customers who want to explore embedded-microcontroller-based designs or create their own GPS (global-positioning-system)-based systems, among others. She has made Adafruit Industries into a successful electronics-kit business, and, based on her own experience, offers these 15 practical steps for engineers who dream of starting their own kit business. Plus Step 7:Put basic documentation of your project online. You can use the Wordpress.com or the instructables.com site. Put the picture at the top of the project page. Below that, place a one-paragraph description of the project with specifications. For example, if you built a DMX-controlled RGB LED light, your paragraph should describe how bright it is, the DMX-control functions, how many LEDs it has, and why it's innovative. People who will give you publicity are busy, and you should make it as easy as possible for them to copy and paste your photo and description to their blog posts. Repeat this step for each project.Check out her site at http://ladyada.net/

Topic by ewilhelm 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


How can I build a RC car from scratch?

I'm searching on the web for this but I can't get all of my answers. I want to build a RC car from scratch, and I just want to buy this: Microcontroller Motors Wheels Parts to connect motor to wheels Sensors External communication (e.g. bluetooth, wi-fi) Material to build the chassis I have a Computer Science degree and I work with embedded systems, so my major problems here are: How to choose the correct motor for the job (type of motor, torque, consumption, velocity that I can expect, etc) The best way to control the chosen motor  How to connect the motor to the wheels ( I want to make a car with gears, but for the first project it will be fine if it's just a DC motor connected to some wheel, without any axle) I don't expect you to give me these explanations but only pointing me to some good information source (books, websites, other instructables). The idea with this project it's to make a small RC car controlled by bluetooth/wi-fi with some sensors and using the PCB as part of the chassis. Thanks

Question by rnunes 6 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Arduino UNO not working with Arduino WiFi shield

I'm having a lot of issues regarding interfacing an Arduino wifi shield with the Arduino Uno. My Arduino works fine when the shield is not attached to it but when I attach the shield, I'm unable to upload the code; I get: avrdude: stk500_getsync(): not in sync: resp=0x00 I also tried to change my board and uploaded the code on Arduino due, then it gives: device not found on COM 8 as error Otherwise the boards are perfectly fine, they are working usually they should. Also, I'm unable to reset the board when the shield is mounted on the board The code i uploaded is simple blink code,however none of the code are uploading The shield i'm using is this , the arduino's official WiFi shield shield These are the things i have already tried but none is working : -powered up the arduino from external power supply (12 V, 1A) -removed the shield and programmed it (code loads on board ) but then mounting shield on board, the led on pin 13 cease to blink -without using the shield , arduino works as usual (like that Rx, Tx pins work and pin 13's LED and power led blinks /lit up) but with the shield stacked on board , nothing seems to work

Topic by jatinbatra 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Electrical / Electronics Engineering Position in Chicago - RAW THRILLS

Hi everyone, We have one of the ultimate electronics positions available. We make coin-op arcade games and constantly innovate our electronics to differentiate our games from the home consoles. We're looking for someone that can hack innovative technology and make it work in our market. Official job posting is below. Please check out www.rawthrills.com for more information about our company! JOB INQUIRIES SHOULD BE SENT TO jobs@rawthrills.com. Please include a resume and an explanation of your qualifications and interest. ====================================== Available Position: Highly Motivated, Entry Level Electrical or Computer Engineer Raw Thrills, Inc. - February 2010 Raw Thrills, the leading US manufacturer of coin-operated video games, is looking for an enthusiastic Electrical or Computer engineer to join our Electronics Engineering design team. You will be working as an efficient member of a small team on products that continue to gain domestic and international market-share. Immediately, you will contribute to the design and verification of electronics, firmware, and software. In addition to the internal team, you will work with partner engineering companies to develop & maintain products, and interact with contract manufacturers to troubleshoot issues on-the-fly as they arise on the production line. You will collaborate with several experienced engineers and programmers, all the while working independently most of the work day. At Raw Thrills, our arcade games are designed entirely in-house, from the ground up. They are composed of custom mechanical parts (wood cabinet, plastics, metals, etc.), an off-the-shelf PC, a monitor, custom wiring, custom electronics & interface devices, and custom game software. As part of the Electronics Engineering team, you will be involved in much of the arcade game’s design, from low-level circuitry to high level software, and everything in between: * ESD testing & EM compliance * Custom circuit & firmware design * System integration & validation (peripherals ↔ PC ↔ API ↔ software) * Operating System (Windows Embedded) maintenance * Device driver & device-application interface (API) programming * Device functional & longevity test design (including GUI PC software, firmware, and mechanical construction) * Coordination between mechanical and electronics design * and more! Required Skills: * Demonstrable working knowledge of C/C++: need examples of work and debugging proficiency * Solid understanding of digital circuit design & troubleshooting digital systems (from circuit to PC software) * Experience designing & implementing a digital system from the ground up (school project, internship, etc.) * FPGA (VHDL or Verilog) and/or MCU (c or asm) programming competency * Self-sufficient and motivated to independently learn * Proficient with standard bench tools: soldering iron, oscilloscope, DMM, etc. Bonus Skills: * Programming experience with PC↔device communication: USB, RS232, LPT, etc. * Schematic capture and PCB layout experience * GUI programming experience (Win32 or Linux) * Active knowledge of Linux / home Linux user * Working knowledge of common scripting languages (Python, bash, Windows batch, etc.) Example Projects: * Design low-cost circuitry to robustly control addressable LEDs for eye-popping lighting effects * Design, implement, and perform game system latency testing (create hardware/software as needed) o EX: What is the round trip time from button-press to in-game feedback? Where are the bottlenecks? * Design hardware diagnostic software to allow automatic system diagnosis by end-user * Design automated functional test software for completed PCB assemblies * Design circuit and layout PCB for contact-less sensor module o Determine and perform validation testing * Add interface firmware features (i2c, Dallas 1-Wire, etc.) to MCU based board and update PC API so that game programmers can leverage the new features

Topic by rawthrills 8 years ago


Starting point for designing an android handheld game device?

I've had plenty of ideas before, and one of them was to design my own game system.  Specifically, a handheld. Years back, it was just something that was like the DS - basic system with some random ideas, and of course, could play games.  Now? Figured I'd hop on the bandwagon and now I wanna do something with android - or something similar to it. Think to those PSP knockoffs that use android.  Only 1000x awesome. Fairly high density screen (not quite retina display quality... but a decent resolution) CAPACITIVE Multi-touch screen Physical buttons Sleek case This is the type of thing I'd want.  Probably some kind of modified SD Card would be used for non-downloaded games, or something.  Or SOME kind of chip-based storage device. If anything, this is first and foremost intended as a personal project for the sake of learning, and creating something.  Even if it doesn't become something that's sold to people, I'd love to eventually invest cash into this, if only to say "Hey, I made this".  So money and everything isn't an object... I just have to actually save up the cash, and of course figure out the final cost of this thing. Unfortunately, while I have built a PC before, I can't say I fully figure out what I'd need for this project.  The following is what I assume I need: Power source (AC Adapter, batteries/battery pack (lithium ion probably?). LCD Screen+Digitizer Motherboard Ram Flash storage (SSD or mini HDD?) Embedded OS (or dedicated storage for the OS and any updates?) Speakers Buttons PCB board ... It's rather early, and there's plenty of other things I figured I'd need for this stuff, including various tools, whatever is used for etching the PCB, solder, etc...  The main thing though, for the barebones stuff - excluding a case, and anything else... What are the very specific things I need?  The basic electronics... input, video (output), some sort of storage/ram.. I'm not quite sure how I'd go about doing this.  Nor have I found anyplace online to start reading up on this.  How would I have to deal with the screen?  What kind of board do I need?  Where would I find a place that can create custom chips (if needed) or, where would I find the various processors I need for this (ARM processors?  intel instead?)

Question by anthonyloprimo 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Job opening at MIT working on wireless sensors

Thought I'd pass this along in case there are electronic hackers looking for a job. Unfortunately, you need at least a master's degree.Post Doctoral Associate or Research ScientistMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MAIndividual will work under the auspices of the House-n Research Group to contribute to the development of a hardware and software system that will measure physical activity type, intensity, and location in very large populations of adults using ordinary mobile phones (see http://web.mit.edu/wockets). Responsibilities will include developing and field testing wireless accelerometer technology that sends data to mobile phones, extending past work at MIT, developing housing for those wireless sensors so they meet a set of design constraints identified by prior research and so they can be easily produced in prototype and larger quantities, writing academic papers on the design and use of the technology for healthcare with colleagues at MIT and Stanford, fostering an open-source community of developers to use and extend the technology, and collaborating with other researchers working on developing technologies for the NIH's Exposure Biology Program. The appointment will be for one-year. Minimum Qualifications:An M.S. or Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering or Computer Engineering (or closely related subject), with expertise in embedded systems design (hardware) and RF design (e.g. Bluetooth or any other RF protocols used in sensor networks). Microcontroller programming and knowledge of interfacing microcontrollers to analog and digital sensors is required. The candidate must possess 1-2 years of research or development experience designing, prototyping, testing and debugging electronic circuits, and the candidate must have past experience demonstrating the ability to independently develop wireless sensors from conception to manufacturing to enclosure design. Expertise in rapid prototyping of enclosures, pattern classification algorithm development, and/or ubiquitous computing helpful. Interested candidates should send a cover letter indicating why they are interested in the position and a CV/resume to intille@mit.edu. Please indicate earliest date of availability.

Topic by Vsayuni 10 years ago


Technology Category: Artificial Intelligence/ Machine Learning/ Data Science

I would like to see AI/ Machine Learning/ Data Science be a Subcategory in the Technology Category on Instructables. The field of Data Science/ Machine Learning is on the rise. Machine Learning is being integrated into various products & services we use on a daily basis. Below is the Developer Roles chart from the Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2017; It shows that the field of Data Science & Machine Learning combined accounts for approximately 12% of those surveyed, compared to the combined 1.6% in 2016. A large number of Open Source Machine Learning libraries like TensorFlow, SciKit, etc have been made available to developers across the world. These libraries enable developers & engineers to integrate ML models, Computer Vision, Chat Bots, Speech & Text recognition, etc into their projects. The Google Assistant & Amazon Alexa AI both AI Assistants are now compatible with the Raspberry Pi. Android Things - An OS built for connected embedded systems which can run ML & AI programs is now compatible with Hardware Platforms like the Intel Edison/ Joule & the Raspberry Pi. Platforms such as OpenAI conduct fundamental research & provide free software for training, benchmarking & testing AI. Kaggle - a website for hosting Data Science Competitions has a large collection of high-quality public datasets. There are many other platforms & frameworks like these. With the growing number of resources being made available in these fields, it is only natural that a large number of people will be looking for tutorials & instructions to help them integrate these resources into their projects. Instructables could become the repository of ML/AI based projects. E.g: AI-based Security System, a Line following robot which uses ML algorithms to follow the line, etc. I hope we can have a constructive discussion in the comments as to how we the Instructables Community can make Instructables the best repository for AI/ML projects.

Topic by Jonathanrjpereira 1 year ago  |  last reply 10 months ago


How to seal unused drain pipe?

The short version: I have an old PVC sewer drain pipe that comes up out of a concrete slab floor.  Under the floor, the other end of the pipe connects to other drain pipes in the house, so before I cover the area with more carpeting, I'd like to seal that pipe off permanently to avoid any possible leakage in the future.  I'd like to avoid disturbing the concrete floor, if possible.  I'd like to put some kind of plug in the pipe and glue it into place with common PVC primer and cement, but I don't know if there's any kind of plug made for this purpose. Any suggestions? The details: I've taken down a non-load-bearing wall in my house.  The wall used to carry pipes for water (coming down from the second floor above), natural gas (embedded in the concrete slab floor), and sewer (also embedded in the slab).  These were all used for a poorly-positioned laundry room.  I've easily sealed the copper pipes for the water and natural gas, but I'm left wondering what to do with this two-inch sewer drain pipe. At first, I thought of covering it with a PVC cap, but to do that, I would need to chip away part of the concrete floor far enough down so the cap wouldn't be above the floor surface.  I would also need to be careful not to break the pipe as I chipped away the concrete.  If I were successful with that and then glued a cap on at the right height, then I would need to fill the space around it with a small amount of concrete.  Besides not wanting to damage the pipe, I'm sure I'd make a real mess of the carpet nearby. Then, I thought, rather than gluing a cap over the *outside* of the pipe, maybe there's some kind of cap that I can glue on the *inside* of it istead.  However, I don't know of any such pipe fitting.  It seems that all the home improvement stores around here sell fittings that go on the outside of the pipe.  So I'm looking for creative ways to plug up the end of this pipe. The other end of this pipe connects to other sewer pipes in the house that are currently in use.  I thought of possibly pouring a cement-like substance into the pipe to seal it, but I can't guarantee that it wouldn't go into the rest of the system and cause a disastrous plug for the whole thing. PS:  Excuse the orientation of the photos I've attached to this posting.  They looked fine on my phone, but when I upload them to Instructables, the site insists on rotating them. PPS: I do plan to cut the PVC pipe off even with the floor just before sealing it.  I'll use my trusty Dremel Multi-Max for that.

Topic by lsloan0000 3 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Proposal for a Multitasking Robot

Greetings, I am a senior EE major at Polytechnic University. I spent most of my time working with robotics and electronics. I always wanted to enter one of these robots competitions but finding the time and funds was always the problem. Its really interesting that iRobot is deciding to sponser a few teams. After brainstorming I came up with a few robot ideas that I believed novel. Then I thought about it some more and came up with more ideas. Instead of narrowing them down I thought how great would it be if all of them could be made. That led me into designing an idea for an iRobot Butler that can do many tasks. The idea is to create a modular robot that has the ability to dock with its base station and perform multiple tasks with different specialized modules. The project I propose is to develop the modular autonomous docking system and several modular tools for the robot to utilize. These tools can be used for entertainment purposes or for human aid. Here are a few concepts 1) Mobile Music docking station and amplifier - You have a stereo system, great! Only down side is its always stationary so you have to blast it till the neighbors know the lyrics if you want to hear it everywhere in the house. With this kind of a docking station just come home plug it in and let the music follow you. 2) IRobot key fob (that thing that opens your car) - Why have robot if you can't command it when you need it. With a IRobot linked to some off the shelf electronics you could have it meet you in whatever room you are in. 3) Where's the remote? Who knows? But iRobot can help you out by using a embedded universal remote following the sony ir protocol. Just give iRobot a buzz and he could come in and change it to your liking. 4) Not so Clocky Alarm Clock - Clocky is a robotic alarm clock. It rolls off its nightstand, hides somewhere in the room and then starts to wake you by forcing you to find where it hid. With the modular IRobot when you go to sleep it can hook up with its Music docking station and do pretty much the same thing. 5) Life Alert System - Many of us have been hurt at times where we wished someone could come to our aid. If you are in a accident and unable to reach a phone, press on IRobot's key fob and him lock onto another tool which brings you a cordless phone module to call for aid. The Docking Station The docking station for the robotic butler could be tracked using the same method as the self charging station. In order to remove platforms or add them a servo would be placed on the iRobot which would lock or unlock the tray. To maintain electrical connection between the two trays an array of spring header pins could be used. There are many great robotic ideas out there for the iRobot however the expense for one robot to only do one thing is pretty great. In order to compensate for the overhead expenditure a multifunctional robot with inexpensive and optional tools is a possible solution to suit home needs. This way all of the design entries can be utilized. Regarding my qualifications, I taught for three years as a teaching assistant to a freshman engineering course. My most recent completed project is the development of a chemical model car experiment and an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle design project for freshman engineering. Both of these projects underwent a rigourous amount of work and will be shown at the American Society of Engineering Education 2007 conference.

Topic by cooblades 11 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Tracking down the speed problems on a laptop.

I've copied the conversation here so we could remove the information from the original instructable's comments.  I figure this would also be of some interest to other forum viewers who may have similar problems, or may be able to chip in. The long and short of it is, 92033 (Ed) has a refurbished laptop that takes literal hours to run a YouTube video on.  I suspect that it's due to a bottleneck with his internet connection.  Here's the conversation thus far: ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033 (Ed): Thank you kindly for your prompt reply...appreciate it very much. I came across this site by accident in searching for something else and now I'm 'hooked' on it. :) So far I've read over 400 archived posts (whew)...as well as looking at the videos. The videos are somewhat of a problem because this new laptop only has 512 mg memory...LOOOOOng time to load. For example...to watch a SLOW 5-minute You Tube video takes 5-1/2 HOURS to load...keeps showing a couple words at a time...need to get two new memory chips to upgrade to 2gb. Thanks again...Take care. ---------------------------------------------------------------- eddems: I think you're basic download speed is killing ya, not the laptop. check you're speed at Internetfrog.com, if you see the link near the bottom for the old test, run it, I like it's graph of upload and download speed much better. ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Thanks much. I'll check it out. I ordered a 1gb SDRAM Memory chip which just arrived yesterday. Hope this speeds things up a bit. ---------------------------------------------------------------- harley_rly: i hear u man, my computer is hopped up, but i live out in the sticks and have dialup...i only get 24kbps at most :( ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Maybe there's hope for 'us' yet. :-) I phoned Tiger Direct to see cost of an upgrading memory chip to go from 512mg to 1-1/2gb. The guy I talked to suggested I get "PC TUNEUP 2.0" which bypasses the Windows Operating System (I'm using Windows XP Pro) and speeds up the system. I gave it a try and ordered the CD (cost $39.98 - $44.77 postpaid). It hasn't arrived yet but will let you know if it helps as he claims it will. He said that if I just ordered a 1gb memory chip my system wouldn't notice much improvement as it is, but this CD should do the trick. THEN...when I DO order the Memory chip(s) to get total of 2gb my system should zip through like a rocket with the CD just ordered. I'll let you know when I get the CD and about the results. Just hope I haven't thrown forty-five bucks to the wind. Thanks for the contact...appreciate hearing from you. TAKE CARE. ~ ED ---------------------------------------------------------------- Javin007: PC Tune-Up "bypasses the Windows Operating System?" This guy fed you a load of crap. (I work on computers for a living.) PC Tune-Up does nothing more than clean up registries, defragment harddrives (if your OS even needs it, some don't) and keeps drivers up to date (which you could do manually.) That guy's an idiot, or just a liar. Could be both. Unless you were buying PC Tuneup 2.0 from Tiger Direct, in which case we can add "sleazy salesman" to that. What are the specs of the laptop? Go to Start/Run and type in DXDIAG. This will give you a quick snapshot of the specs. Specifically, I'm curious as to the processor speed/type. For a 5 1/2 hour "load" you're more likely looking at network slowdown issues (although 512 megs for XP is WAYYYY too little. I HATE when they put PCs together like that). The RAM upgrade will show significant speed increases, but no improvement with YouTube videos or other downloads. I'm glad to see you are returning the CD. ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Thanks much for your input...appreciate it very much. I checked the DXDIAG as you recommended. Here's the info on it: IBM ThinPad Laptop PC. Model # 23738TU. Intel Premium M 1.70GHZ. 512mb SDRAM Memory chip.Page File- 351mb used,513 mb available. Direct Version-Directx 9.00 (4.09.0000.0904). 512 mb SDRAM-Actual 212 Ram. AVAST Anti-Virus. MS Windows XP-PRO.. Dialup Speed-40kbps. PC2700 SDRAM 512mb Memory Chip installed. I ordered 1bb memory chip which arrived yesterday. Now I have to figure out HOW to remove the bottom of this laptop to install it...lotta small screws on it. :-) Oh, total memory shows 32mb. I don't know if this means much to you. I note your comment that the added RAM memory WONT (?) speed up loading YouTube videos? Is that correct? If so, why not? Thanks again. Take care. ~ ED ---------------------------------------------------------------- Javin007: :) At the risk of boring too many people, here's how memory in a PC works: You have two kinds of memory: RAM, and Hard Drive (technically there's three, as there's also onboard video RAM on video cards, but this is primarily used for 3D video game textures, so can be mostly ignored.) Your harddrive's read/write speed is determined by the type of harddrive it is (most are SATA now) and the rotation speed (most are 7200 RPM, though the specs for your system say yours is only 5400 RPM, but there are 10, 15, and even 20K rpm models out there that are exponentially more expensive.) No matter what, harddrive memory will always be degrees slower than RAM. RAM on the other hand is a small chunk of memory that is "temporary" memory, but very fast. Its speed is determined by the type of RAM (DDR2 being the current common one for notebooks, though DDR3 is available with some motherboards (you can ignore this, though, as you can only handle 2 gigs max of DDR with your system). The motherboard will determine the limits for the RAM that can be installed.) When running *ANYTHING* on your computer, and I mean ANYTHING, it must first be loaded into RAM to be accessed by the CPU. The computer doesn't directly access the harddrive. So this means when your operating system is loaded (Windows XP) the entirety of all running processes for the OS have to be loaded into RAM. Now, Microsoft claims that Windows XP only requires a minimum of 64 megs of RAM, but recommends 128 megs. I challenge you to find me a Windows XP system that only uses 128 megs out of the box. It's not atypical for an XP system to chew through all 512 megs of your RAM, leaving no RAM available for other applications. (Interestingly, the default setup for your laptop is only 256 megs of RAM, yet yours is reporting 512.) What happens when there's no RAM left? The system has to then start trading things into what is called "Virtual Memory." VM is nothing more than a file on the harddrive that will temporarily hold information that SHOULD be in RAM, so the RAM can load more info. For instance, say you have a process that's using RAM, but you want to watch your YouTube video. As the video is ready to play, the system will take the other process's data that's in RAM, write it to the harddrive, load your video into RAM in its place, play a portion of it, write the video to the harddrive, load the data for the process to RAM, let it run for a split second (so it doesn't lock up), write it back to the harddrive, load your video into RAM and play a short clip, etc. etc. etc. The result of low RAM on your system is that applications will open slowly (seconds or minutes, instead of instantly or a few seconds) and they will seem slow to respond, will stutter, etc. With enough RAM, your system can freely open as much as it needs into RAM, and ignore the virtual memory and all the slowdowns that it causes. Now, all of this being said, NO lack of RAM will cause a streaming video to take 5 1/2 hours to play. This is 100% going to be related to your downspeed. (Go to www.speedtest.net and post your results.) RAM slowdowns tend to be most noticeable when shutting down, or starting up your computer, apps will open a little more slowly, they will be slower to respond to button clicks, and video will be very choppy. Anything that is causing a YouTube video to take HOURS will be due to the system simply waiting to get the video in the first place. RAM wouldn't slow down the receiving of the video, but it would cause the video to play weird once it's downloaded. So, all this being said, here's the summary: Your system has a 1.7 Ghz processor, and your RAM is most likely 333 Mhz DDR. If you bump your memory up to a gig, you should see a pretty significant improvement in that your computer will, overall, just "feel" faster. It'll be more responsive, and working with large documents will be many, many times faster. This won't, however, affect your YouTube experience (unless you were getting jittery video often, not the same as "buffering" video.) If you see "buffering" for a long time, your internet connection is your bottleneck. A test on www.SpeedTest.net will likely confirm this. However, if you get decent numbers on SpeedTest, then we could have something more sinister going on, though I suspect you'll find your numbers well below the 1 mbps rate. This brings us to actually changing the RAM. I've been out of the PC hardware realm (professional programmer now) for a few years, and was unable to find a manual for your particular model. However, if memory serves, this image should be a fairly accurate representation of the underside of your system: http://www.javin-inc.com/temp/thinkpad.JPG Don't quote me, but I BELIEVE the red circle will indicate the only screw you will need to remove to access the RAM. There should also be a small clip holding the RAM in place that you'll want to pinch to get the RAM out, and make sure that the new RAM snaps into place. (Sometimes you'll have additional empty RAM beds, and you can just put your RAM in there and end up with 1.5 gigs, but I suspect you'll have two 256 gig chips in there.) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 92033: Phew. Thanks again for your most indepth educational lesson. I appreciate all your help more than you realize. I attempted to answer this last night, typing in more than twice the amount of text as your to me, then suddenly realized there was a glitch and I was on another page...lost it all into the ionisphere. :-( Rather than try to retype all I wrote, I shut 'r down and went to sleep. Now I'm trying to recall all I wrote last night but failed to get mailed. I'm not a traditional typist, rather a one-finger bloke so you can understand the frustration there. I do, however, type at a reasonably good speed. With that said, let's continue. I went to search for Configuration of this IBM Laptop ThinkPad 23738TU and am copy and pasting it here. It's relevant to what I have to say...here it is: ********************************************************************************** Overview Specs Features Includes Warranty Supplies IBM ThinkPad T42 2373 Specifications Part # 23738TU Key Specifications IBM ThinkPAD T42 2373 Manufacturer IBM Manufacturer Part # 23738TU Processor Type Intel Pentium M 735 1.7 GHz Data Bus Speed 400 MHz Cache Memory Type L2 cache Installed Size 2 MB RAM Installed Size 256 MB Technology DDR SDRAM Memory Speed 333 MHz System Type Notebook Storage Hard Drive 40 GB, 5400 rpm Storage Controller Type IDE Optical Storage Type DVD ROM Read Speed 24x (CD) / 8x (DVD) Display Type 14.1" TFT active matrix Graphics Processor / Vendor ATI MOBILITY RADEON 7500 Video Memory 32 MB Max. Resolution 1024 x 768 Audio Output Type Sound card Audio Codec AD1981B Compliant Standards DirectSound, AC '97, SoundMAX Telecom Modem Fax / modem Max. Transfer Rate 56 Kbps Protocols & Specifications ITU V.90 Networking Networking Network adapter Data Link Protocol Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet Expansion Expansion Slots Total 1 x front accessible Expansion Slots Total 2 ( 1 ) x memory 1 ( 1 ) x CardBus - type II Interfaces 1 x docking / port replicator, 240 pin docking 2 x Hi Speed USB, 4 pin USB Type A 1 x parallel, IEEE 1284 (EPP/ECP), 25 pin D Sub (DB25) 1 x display / video, VGA, 15 pin HD D Sub (HD 15) 1 x infrared, IrDA 1 x modem, phone line, RJ11 1 x network, Ethernet 10BaseT/100BaseTX, RJ45 1 x display / video, S video output, 4 pin mini DIN 1 x microphone, input, mini phone mono 3.5 mm 1 x headphones, output, mini phone stereo 3.5 mm Miscellaneous Features Locking device keyhole (cable lock), administrator password, hard drive password, power-on password, asset ID, IBM Embedded Security Subsystem 2.0 Compliant Standards ACPI 2.0, ACPI 1.0b, FCC Class B certified, CE, MPR II, UL, BSMI, cUL, NOM, VCCI-II Operating System Microsoft Windows XP Professional Software Included Adobe Acrobat Reader, PC Doctor, IBM Rapid Restore Ultra, IBM Update Connector, InterVideo WinDVD, IBM Access Connections, IBM Access Support, Access IBM,(OEM) Battery Technology lithium ion Capacity 4400 mAh Average Run Time 5 hour(s) Installed Qty 1 Ambient Temperature Min Operating Temperature 50 °F Max Operating Temperature 90 °F Humidity Range Operating 8 - 80% Dimensions (W x D x H) Unit 12.2 in x 10 in x 1.1 in Weight Unit 4.9 lbs Warranty 3 Years Limited Warranty on parts and labor. IBM 23738TU Summary ********************************************************************************* NOTE...I DON'T BELIEVE THIS...I JUST TYPED FORTY MINUTES REPLY HERE and it instantly scrolled up like speed of lightning and disappeared like last night. I'll ATTEMP to try again later. So please don't reply yet as you need to read my discoveries in changing the RAM chip. Meanwhile, thanks again...take care. ~ ED ******************************************************************************* TRY #3...I'm Back :-) Your diagram showing where the RAM chip is located was right on. Thanks. Here's my DISCOVERY :-( The RAM chip installed was NOT a 512mg...but only a 256mg chip. The ads ans specs say it's a 512mg...NOT SO. I was lied to by either the manufacturer or refurbishing company who removed the original 512 chip and reinstalled a 256 chip. I was lied to by the Tiger Direct guy on the phone. There are NOT two chip slots...only one. So I now have a useless removed 256mb RAM chip. Replaced with the 1gb RAM chip I just installed. So instead of having 1-1/2 gb RAM, I only have 1gb. Here's the crux. To. go to 2gb RAM I'd need to buy a full 2gb RAM CHIP and discard the 1gb for which I just paid $39.99 ($45.00 with s/h). This means another output of almost a hundred dollars plus the $45.00 just wasted because they wont accept return once the sealed chip plastic was opened...even though I had no idea there was only ONE SLOT in this PC instead of TWO like the Tiger Guy said. Now...crux #2...this new 1gb RAM does nothing more to increase speed. I just watched a 2.01 MINUTE YouTube video which took a HALF HOUR to load, so I threw the money away for nothing, eh? There is no noticeable change except the 'speed' shows it now as 41.2 kbps instead of 40 kbps. Okay...now HOW do I get to speed this thing up to normal viewing in real time? I also saw an ad for 4bg RAM Gateway laptop with 120gb hard drive for $404.99 which is all suped-up with everything. I had to upgrade a LOT since I got this only four months ago...taking over a hundred hours to load it, like Internet Explorer 5 to 6 and then to 8 and now to 9. I'm using AVAST Anti-Virus, after trying for 23 hours to get ADVAR, then find out it didn't load because of problem on the servor's end. Added Firefox and upgraded twice. Loaded MS Protection but it created more problems so I deleted it...now with AVAST which I like. Soooo...I've literally spent over 200 hours to get this thng where it's at now, plus the wasted money for the upgraded RAM chip.and I still don't have increased speed. HOW do I get it? IF the processor has to be changed does this mean I have to gut the thing and install a new motherboard? If so, what kind of money cost are we talking here? I bought this four months ago as a refurbished unit only because I was able to get it on payments of only $25.00 a month. If I had to wait to get $400.00 cash I'd never have it. :-) Okay...that's it for the moment. Thanks much again for your help offering and detailed instructions...appreciate it more than you realize. Best Wishes And God's Blessings To You And Yours In Everything Always. Most Respectfully... ~ ED  ---------------------------------------------------------------- Javin007: Well, let's start with the RAM. If you're running windows XP, you can assume all the extra processes (virus scanners, and whatnot) will be eating up about 512 megs of the RAM. First thing to do is check DXDIAG again (start/run) and verify that it's now reporting the correct amount of RAM. (Don't be surprised if it's like 9 hundred something megs or slightly more. It won't report 1024 or 1 gig.) This being said, that will leave you with the other 512 for your applications. This box won't be running the latest and greatest 3D games, but I suspect it was never intended to. If the heaviest hitter you'll have running is along the lines of photoshop, the 1 gig of RAM you have now should be plenty sufficient. I wouldn't worry about getting 2 gigs. Not for this rig, anyway. Also, Avast is a great (and free) virus protection, every bit as good as Symantec's Norton, so good choice there. If your youtube videos are choking out, we need to start by verifying that it's an actual speed throttling problem. Go to www.SpeedTest.net and run the speed test. Come back with the results.

Topic by Javin007 8 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Long Range Off the Grid WiFi Repeater

Hello Everyone,  I've got quite the project that I am undertaking and I am looking for a bit of advice. This will be my very 1st forray into long-distance wifi, as well as off-grid power resources, so Im biting off quite a bit at once! I have a friend who has been helping me with the research who has a much firmer understanding of both electricity and hardware, but he will be out of town for the next week and I would like to get a bit of progress on this while he is gone. SO, I shall consult the hive mind known as the internet. Alright, this project consists of creating an uplink between a remote shed, and a home in a nearby city, with a broadband connection. The rub, there is 10,000 ft mountain range in between the two. We have a site were we can put a repeater node at approx. 10,000 ft elevation, that has wonderful line-of-sight to both locations. However, this site is very remote, and will have to run off the grid obviously. The distances are as follows: Home to repeater: 3.96 miles (thats with Google Earth following the contours of the          mountain/valley, not sure how to make it just do a straight angled shot, so thats a rough estimate) Repeater to Remote shed: 2.68 miles (same issue) Background environment info: shed has generator + 60w solar array with 3-4 deep discharge lead RV batteries at 7400 feet. Has spring fed running water, which could be utilized for power as well, as obviously its always running. Repeater location is at 10k, as stated. Moderate to high winds very likely (data from peaks of similar altitude in the general area show gusts ranging from 40-60 mp/h, temperature ranges of  averaging 7 to 90+ for a the later part of July and August (F). Obviously, its very possible to get soemething below this, though the lowest Ive ever seen at the shed has been -15 (f), I would say most winters we could get a few nights that see temps below 0, but not often. Equipment Ideas: So to pull this off, we have come up with two ideas for the network equipment, which I shall discuss 1st, then I will show you what we have come up with for power.  - Network    - Repeater Node: rb433 wireless access point ($99.00) http://www.routerboard.com/pricelist.php?showProduct=43         with 2 r52h mini PCI wifi chips ($59.00 x2) http://www.routerboard.com/pricelist.php?showProduct=69         2 8-18 inch satelite dishs converted for long-range WIFI use (20.00 x2) http://www.engadget.com/2005/11/15/how-to-build-a-wifi-biquad-dish-antenna/ OR instead of a rb433, we could use 2 WRT54G Linksys routers like this. (I also have 2 BEF 801.11b routers that are legacy to the WRT54G. I would like to use this if possible! http://hackaday.com/2005/08/23/how-to-greyhat-wifi-repeater/ Now, I know that this later choice would increase power use by about double. From what I have been able to find, the WRT's would at anywhere from 4.2w to 8w of power. Anyways, I like this later choice because it would be significantly cheaper for the equipment, but do you have any other ideas? I know that the RB433 would work great, but its rather expensive all said and done after I throw up the power as well. Plus, if it takes a lighting strike, its out of commission, and 2 cheap linksys routers are much cheaper to replace! Anyways any input here would be great! - Power  so power to the repeater node is the real challenge. We crunched the numbers and came up with something almost exactly the same as below: From the datasheets, a routerboard will draw between 6-10W. So design for 10W. Over 24 hours you will need 10Wx24h = 240 Watt.Hours of power. For 7 days, you need 7x240Wh = 1680 Watt.Hours. A single, large deep cycle 110Ah 12V battery gives you about 1320 Watt.Hours of power, almost meeting the requirement. Now, to look at the solar panels: A good rule of thumb is to install 6 times the wattage that is drawn by the device. This is because only about 8 hours a day in sunny weather gives you maximum power output from a solar panel. So the other 16 hours you need to draw from the battery. (So already you need 3 times the wattage drawn by the device to break even each day) To generate 1 full day of extra battery power per sunny day, you need another 3 times the wattage. This is how we arrive at 6 times. 6 x 10W = 60W. So at a minimum I would recommend 60W of solar panels. That qoute comes from http://diywifilink.wordpress.com/ and http://mybroadband.co.za/vb/showthread.php?179547-Advice-needed-Setting-up-wifi-repeater-11km which is a project from a guy in South Africa almost exactly the same as the one that we are working on. The numbers came out to be about the same (Though they were a bit different when we calculated for the WRT54G option.) so, 60w of power generation to keep a decent charge on a battery. Now, we have a 60w panel at the shed, which is rather large to take up to 10,000 ft and place on the side of a mountain, and given the consistent wind element up there, we are hoping to do a hybrid system of both solar and wind. This is where things get tricky. A perfect balance, or even a more wind heavy balance would be great, such as 30-40w wind 20-30w solar. That keeps the panel size down, and uses a power source that runs 24/7. A Faroun Savonius wind turbine seems like the best system, but the controller to prevent overcharging etc is where I get nice and lost, having breached into very unknown territory. https://www.instructables.com/id/Faroun-Savonius-Wind-Turbine/ http://www.fieldlines.com/board/index.php/topic,129060.html This looked at 1st like a good, cheap system to use a controller board for the wind, but my question is would the controller board that comes with these solar panels (see below) work for both. That below is the setup that we use more or less at the shed, with some mods, such as a better alternator. http://www.costco.com/Browse/Product.aspx?Prodid=11298029&search;=solar&Mo;=5&cm;_re=1_en-_-Top_Left_Nav-_-Top_search⟨=en-US&Nr;=P_CatalogName:BC&Sp;=S&N;=4001192&whse;=BC&Dx;=mode+matchallpartial&Ntk;=Text_Search&Dr;=P_CatalogName:BC&Ne;=4000000&D;=solar&Ntt;=solar&No;=3&Ntx;=mode+matchallpartial&s;=1&topnav;=&Nty;=1&s;=1 So, can a small, 30-50w wind turbine and generator be built, with a small solar array to power this thing? I dont care if we have some down time, this is primarily going to be used as a system to get a weather station with web cam to send in hourly photos during the peak hours. I can have the system at the shed shutdown automatically  using some cron jobs in linux during the evening to conserve power. When there are people at the shed, we would like to be able to get a good enough wifi connection to use a wifi device (such as an android phone or ipod) to use as a voip phone in essential communication. The teenagers aren't going to be chatting with their friends for hours, but we would like to be able to put a short call through in case something goes wrong, or we just need to get ahold of someone at the shed or in the city. Next the equipment at the shed should be comparable to the repeater node,  sans 1 antenna and just some low power embedded system. We would like to get a webcam and weather station hooked up on this end, but that can wait for upgrades later if needed, if power doesnt allow it. like I said, a simple water turbine could be used (something similar to the wind turbine perhaps?) and even another wind turbine could be built to add extra power dedicated to running any system at the shed, though I dont think the wind is quite regular enough to be viable here, but if its cheap, we could throw it on anyways. equipment at the home in the city is simple, just use an extra laptop or desktop we have laying around to be server/router, hook up antenna to this, broadcast connection, run the weatherstation/webcam web server off of this. So, thats the plan, but load of input is needed to try to come up with this. We hope to try to keep this sub $1000.00, but the budget could go higher. This is DIY at its finest! Thanks in advance for you help!

Topic by kydan 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Bug, Suggestion, Feedback! Community sections

Since there is no place for it right now I just created a topic for the purpose of collecting bugs we find.Let me start with a little list I collected so far:1. Confusion!When I create a new topic I need to select a category and channel.So where exactly are these categories and channels?Somehow I struggle to find them anywhere else than in the two drop down menus when creating a new topic.If we have all those drop down options then why can't we make proper use of them?2. List problems!I know there is planned work on the way we see the cummunity section but still...When I create a new topic then it seems to be nowhere.I check again a few hours later and still nowhere.Next day often the same storey.Where does a new topic go and when does it appear in the community section?3. Sorting - this one is already being worked on I guess.We really need a working option to sort postings and replies by time and date and relation.I get notified about a reply and check...Hmm, about 80 replies and somehwere, someone wrote something new...Good if you can copy and past a part of the preview to search for it in the browser manually...Comfort and logic is needed to replace the current confusion and inconsistences.As for suggestions to get the section up to what what both developers and users turn into happy campers:1. Editing options!!!For years this is my number one that not just got more and more ignored but also reduced to nothing.Anyone creating a topic should have direct control over it.This means beain able to create the post in a way the poster sees fit for the purpose.The basic text editing options any Vbulletin or PhPBB board would offer should be available here in a similar way.Embedded text and images in the size and place that fits - either by posters choice for the size on the screen or by providing a fixed sized preview that opens a fullsie view when clicking on it.Code is more important these days than back then when I first asked for option to embed it here.Tags are useful for a lot of things.Add a quote from a previous post or reply, add a code window that allows proper copy and past action for both poster and reader (preferably with highlighted syntax like in Notepadd++, ....You can only provide dedicated help if you have the right tools for it.And you can not ask for dedicated help if you can even properly post the problem due to restrictions and limitations in the editing system.Coloered text, other than for code is not really required but all the basics anyone knows froma real forum would be a great addition.2. Tagging or otherserwise highlighting the areas of the topic.If I already create a post in the technology section than it would only make sense to see a corresponding icon next to the topic in the community section.Same for coding help, mechanical problems and so on.The current sections and categories are outdated and a lot of things are missing.Mabye not in terms of Intructables but certainly for the community sections.3. Structure....Currently it is all one big blob and not even the sorting works (yet).This is perfect for people like me wanting to quickly check if something new was posted but not so good for someone trying to have some fun browsing.Imagine you want to spend some quality time checking what problems people have or what help they seek when it comes to woodworking.No search options, no list options, no categories to explore.Back in the day we had a few sections and a basic sorting option, like by most recent.Someone only interested in helping with coding on Arduino wouldn't even bother here and move on.On the other hand, people with no clue how to fully specify their problem might find a solution just by browsing through the corresponding section.4. Linking Instructables....I don't know the reason for it or the idea behind it but why again is the question section filled with Instructables?And why look lot of Tips like Instructables?I mean if it is for the user to find stuff than it might bind him on the website, but I doubt it will be satisfactory for the user.Questions or tips in regards to an Instrubale should be there- with the Instructable but not in the community section.Add it a tab for the Ible instead...I see little to no point in answering to a question someone has in regards to a specific Ible unless "I made it"....5. Voting and closing...When it comes to forums then one thing all have in common: bloat.People only register to post something but never come back.Topics are solved, done and dusted.Topics gone dormant for months or even years.Great answers or vital details get lost.The list goes on....What it comes down to is that order needs to be restored and maintained.Open an archive section and start moving out.Topics of certain age and with no new replies - gone.Topics where the user never again logged in - gone.Topics voted or request to be closed, closed or gone to the ariche as well.Topics voted to be of general interest pinned somewhere for easy reference - like this one ;)A thread starter got his answer and is happy? Then for crying out loud let him vote or credit the best answer and close the topic.More than three people voted or tagged a topic as useless, not possible or similar - close it so it can one day go in the archive section too.All this and more should create a community section that once again can become an active playground for everyone.A place to seek and find help.And who knows, maybe some of the good old guys might even consider a return and more time spent here....

Topic by Downunder35m 6 months ago  |  last reply 5 months ago


Eric Wilhelm wins TR35 Innovation Award

Sharing your projects and ideas on Instructables is now officially a Big Idea. Eric just won the TR35 award for top innovators under 35 from MIT's Technology Review magazine for his work with Instructables; check out the press release below, and read about the other winners.I'm pretty psyched to be part of this site, as we're clearly doing something exciting and important -- it's especially neat to be an early adopter with the power to change the way society works.-- ChristyProject-Sharing Website Creator Named Top Young InnovatorSan Francisco, CA - August 19, 2008 -- Eric Wilhelm has been recognized by Technology Review magazine as one of the world's top innovators under the age of 35 for creating Instructables.com, the Internet's #1 project-sharing website.Instructables.com began as a way for Eric to document his engineering work and grad-school kitesurfing projects, and has evolved into a world-wide hub for documenting and sharing creative projects. The site's simple, elegant step-by-step format provides an intuitive platform that allows anyone to publish their project, complete with pictures, text, and embedded video.In a world of mass-produced culture, hand-making and personalizing is experiencing a resurgence, and people everywhere are reviving classic skills and technologies. Instructables is the hub of this movement, providing a social and interactive environment to demonstrate amazing projects and ideas. The site dramatically lowers the barrier to sharing projects, enabling crafters, modders, engineers, artists, cooks, bicyclists, and techies to gather and share their work freely, and where cross-pollination is actively encouraged."Everyone wants to be a creator, not just a consumer," Eric explains. "We bring passionate people together to learn from each other. Instructables makes it cool to be smart." Instructables is also a valuable educational resource. Parents and teachers rely on Instructables as a source of project ideas, and students maintain their personal portfolios at the site. By coupling old-fashioned tinkering with thoughtful discussion and long-distance collaboration, Instructables has begun to revolutionize learning and innovation.Eric Wilhelm and the other TR35 winners for 2008 will be featured in the September issue of Technology Review magazine and honored at the EmTech08 Conference. "The TR35 honors young innovators for accomplishments that are poised to have a dramatic impact on the world as we know it," said Jason Pontin, editor in chief and publisher of Technology Review magazine, "We celebrate their success and look forward to their continued advancement of technology in their respective fields."About Eric Wilhelm:Eric earned his SB, SM, and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from MIT, where he developed methods to print electronics and micro-electromechanical systems using nanoparticles. He co-founded Squid Labs, an innovation and design partnership, and a number of Squid Labs spin-off companies including Potenco, producing a human-powered generator for cell phones and laptops; Makani, an energy company seeking to harness high-altitude wind; OptiOpia, developing low-cost portable vision-testing and lens-fabricating devices; and Instructables, a collaborative how-to site that helps people document and share a process or skill. See Eric's How To Start A Business Instructable for the more detailed story.About Instructables.com:Instructables is the most popular Do It Yourself community on the Internet. Started in August 2005, Instructables provides accessible tools and publishing instructions to enable passionate, creative people to share their most innovative projects, recipes, ideas, and hacks. The site is currently home to over 14,000 projects covering such diverse areas as crafts, art, kids, electronics, pets, bikes, cars, robotics, green projects, and cooking.About Technology Review, Inc.:Technology Review, Inc., an independent media company owned by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the authority on the future of technology, identifying emerging technologies and analyzing their impact for leaders. Technology Review's media properties include Technology Review magazine, the oldest technology magazine in the world (founded in 1899); the daily news website TechnologyReview.com; and events such as the annual EmTech Conference at MIT. ContactsFor Instructables:Christy Canida, 510-931-5622press (at) instructables (dot) comFor Technology Review:Sarah Mees, 978-208-1499press (at) technologyreview (dot) com More news and press about Instructables here.

Topic by canida 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Oculus GO - The little sideloading guide

It seems making an Instructable these days requires lots of pictures, detailed steps and tons of instructions.So before I try to paste my attempt here, I will point something out for the support team:1. There is little point in including pictures of a VR headset or how to plug a USB cable in. Same for images showing a DOS window and the command typed in it - they are the same as in the instructions...2. With little to no option to create an Instructable that requires actual code usage and properly embedded picture, let alone good editing options: How do you suggest one would accomplish this taks?3. With no category to post such Instrucables it is my personal opinion that these catergories need quite some updates! They are still the same as years ago despite life evolving around it...If you just went into the mobile VR world then you might feel a bit restricted compared to what you know from your smartphone.Over the months firmware updates provided us with some much needed things but a bit is still left out. In this Ible I will try to show way to get a bit more out of your GO. Be aware that a lot of it still requires a bit of manual work and a computer.If you are just curious then please read on and you might still find something interesting that you did not know yet.Getting started...One thing we certainly need is a way to access the GO and to install additional apps on it that are not available in the store.For this we need to activate the developer options. Unlike your normal Android device this step works only from the device you paired with your GO. Go into the settings and there look for the developer mode. Once you try to activate it Oculus requires you to sign up for a developer account. All this of course needs to be confirmed through Email activation, you know just to make it complicated and get more info about you ;) From there it is straight forward and like on any Android. Activate USB debugging, pair with your computer by USB cable and on the GO authorise the connection. Please also tick the box to make this permanent as otherwise you will be prompted every time. In case you are not so familiar with this just Google how to use ADB on Android - it is simple. I will add the required files and drivers in a later step dedicated to it.If you need more help getting the right options done or where to find them, please consider the great help for this offered on the Oculus developer sites. It makes sense to spent some time there as you find a lot of good info that might come in handy once you really want to get serious.ADB - A must have...You will find the drivers and all, as said, a bit later. ADB is the Android Debug Bridge. It allows us to get access to the (user)available file systems, do some basic tests and if supported even flash a firmware or make a backup.If you already used ADB for another Android device then you will only need the drivers for the GO. Otherwise you need to set up the enviroment for the Debug Bridge first. In the downloads will be a simple installer for this purpose. It is vital that you authorise your computer on the GO, best to tick the box to make it permanent.If you open a command prompt where you have ADB installed you can do some simple tests. Setting all required paths and system variables in Windows would allow you to access ADB functions from any folder on your computer. The later might be easier if you do not want to copy all related files into your ADB folder. Makes no real difference though and is up to your preferences.The command ADB devices should show you now that your GO is connected by listing it. If nothing shows up then please check the USB debugging option is set in the developer options. A reboot might help too in some cases. With this sorted we are good to go, almost at least...How to install "unknown" apps?As you might have noticed there is no playstore and all available stuff in the official store is VR based.Getting some essential apps on it seems to be impossible.Again the help offered by Oculus in the developer sections is a vital source, so please don't be afraid to read there ;) There are two basic ways of doing things on a device with so many restrictions.1. Just use ADB install packetname Where packetname is the filename for the app in question, for example Netflix.apk. With all apps you need in one place this is quickly done.2. Use a dedicated app installer or manager for the job. I will include one that actually works with the downloads. Same fore more detailed instructions.The thing is though that only apps designed and signed for VR will show up in your normal launcher. All other (supported) Android apps will show up in "unknown sources" in your library. Apps not supported for this purpose won't show anywhere! For them you need a dedicated launcher, which will be placed in the "unknown sources" section ;)Why do I spoon feed you here you might wonder? To be honest: If you already read some terms and basics it will be much easier to remember. Repetition is the key ;) I see little point in providing a simple to follow list of intructions as a week later you would struggle to do it again without the list in front of you.Our first unknown apps!Deciding what you might need in apps is one thing, knowing in what order you can safe hours of your life is another. I simply don't think you want to juggle with ADB whenever you want a new app that is not available in the official store. So for starters we will need something that is able to install apps for us. And since we can't use it without something to find and start it we also need an app starter. Basically like HALauncher for Android TV.The detailed instructions for this can be found with the downloads. First the app starter is installed, it will provide us with a living room like view onto a big screen. On the screen you will find all apps that are otherwise invisible to you. Some might tempt you to try them out - just don't! Unless you really know what you are doing you have a good chance to do something bad. Use the apps you know and the apps you added but none of the tempting system apps you might see.The APK installer will show up there too and is used to make installing apps a bit easier. You can copy them now onto your GO's internal storage and use the app installer to install them - how easy is that? Another option I included is the Aurora store - a fork of the YALP store and able to work without any playstore requirements. Downside is that the VR controllers are not fully supported yet as it is more aimed at TV sets. A BT touchpad works though if the controller or a gamepad fail. I only included Aurora as it could be a nice alternative one day with full VR support. Just search or browse for all the apps available in the playstore and install what you like. Be aware though that not everything will work with the remote. Some games and apps can be operated with a game controller though.It is getting nicer already ;)By now you might have already installed some things as you just could not wait to skip to the downloads.Well, can't really blame you, can I?Anyways, we now have the option to install more apps that we know from our non-VR Android devices. Oculus might make it harder in the future though - or they see it the same way and offer ready to go options one day. Till then it is up to you....Youtube VR might be nice but it is also still quite buggy and lacks some basic features. So getting a modded Youtube app could be a way out if you need comments for example. Kodi is still a must have for many Android users, especially the sport nuts with us. A filemanager is also something most Android users value. I will include some but again it comes down to what YOU prefer here. And with a basic way to install apps now you can also remove them again if you decide they don't work as expected.Get a bit used to the app launcher and how to install apps. Sideloading is fine for those used to it but some might prefer to just copy some apps on the GO and them use the installer with the remote. In the near future we will get support for external sorage, so using a USB stick or SD card in a reader will make the USB cable obsolete for file transfers. Some headsets already support it, so chances are by the time you read this yours will too. Although it still is a good way to keep your GO charged while copying big files ;)Precautions and Words of WisdomIt all sound nice and easy now but there are dangers you need to be aware of! Installing apps or games that are not fully designed for the GO or VR use can mean crashes. A lot will work but that does not mean it will keep doing so. A firmware update could one day end the support for sideloaded apps that are "non-VR". Especially messing with the app launcher can mean sudden disaster. Things you normally can not see are often hidden from you for a good reason. I will take no responsiblity for problems you caused by misusing system apps !Console emulators are a lot of fun and there are ways to even stream them from your PC in reasonable quality on a low end computer. But these and some demanding games also cause a lot of CPU usage. As the system is not optimised for 2D content it can mean that your battery runs out faster. In some cases you might not see the warning to charge, so be aware of time when immersing yourself.Stay away from any app or game that requires playstore components! Play Games for leaderboards might be no issue, especially if you don't need this feature. Online gaming like multiplayer actions will not work if it requires Google services for it! Similar story for hardware you don't have. If it is only designed for touchscreens than it might not work with the remote. And if it does not support gampads either... Apps that only support the wrong display orientation are a no go too.What Non-VR Stuff Actually Works on the GO?A lot and it will be possible to do even more. There are already streaming options for your own videos like Skybox, Moonplayer and they all support DLNA servers too. So watching normal, 3D or VR movies from a media server is no problem at all already. Getting games to work is another story all up. ALVR is a good platform to stream VR games from your PC to the GO. Unlike the Rift you won't even need an overpowered gaming PC for it. Virtual Desktop is a paid app but well worth the money if the support and features keep going as they do right now. With it you can use your computer or laptop from the GO. Watch movies, surf the net, play games. The GO more or less becomes a normal Windows computer only that you have the screen right in front of you.It will certainly be possible to code a simple VR app that works as a shortcut for non-VR apps. Like how right now you get the pic and description for a VR exerience and a button that starts the stream in the player. Downside is the requirement to certify such an "app" to make it visible in the normal launcher.Downloads and Instructions....Finally you get to the point where you can actually download something :)To make it all a bit easier and to ensure I won't miss a vital bit I did a factory reset on my GO to start from scratch :(Things might change in the future, so I will include the instructions as texfiles with the download.If I see a real requirement for screenshots I will include them with corresponding filenames.I think this way it is easier than scrolling through an Instructable as you can just print it all directly.Those without an account (yet) might value this too.Based on the feedback, questions and general comments I will change the contents of the download accordingly.Same for download links to avoid bloating up the download with outdated files.Easier for you (if you read this a few months from now) to download the newest files directly from the source.So don't be too disappointed if the download seems to contain less than what you expected.What seems to be missing will have links in the instructions.No files will come from unverified or unsecure sources!Whatever I include in the downloads directly will be checked for malware of all kinds.The same standards are true for the sources I provide.So no clickbait, ad sponsored re-directors or such crap.Please read the detailed instructions carefully, then read them again while actuall following the steps on your GO or computer.Do not blindly read it and jump onto doing it the first read!For ADB commands just copy and paste them - I might write some batch files though, so check for them in the instructions and make use of them.Things might not work out as planned, so if in doubt double check all the steps taken.What is in the provided instructions is tested on my GO's and works on the firmware version current of this writing.Download the guide and files from FilefactoryIn case the PDF in the download is not detailed enough, just ask in the comments ;)

Topic by Downunder35m 5 months ago  |  last reply 2 months ago


Is my book good ?

Well i hate to bother anyone but can you please take some time to read this book i worked hard on ? i spent  countless hours of my free time over the weekend developing the plot and creatures so can you please take some time out to read the whole thing tell me what it needs or what would be good i already am 16 pages into the sequel so tell me if this is good so i can post the sequel ! enjoy Times come by Alby Chapter 1- beginning It was the night I would never forget,the night.......i....the......the last night I would enjoy life. It was spring of 2017 the night air was heavy in my lungs and you could faintly smell the BBQ and charcoal smoke from cookouts that died down hours ago I could here people talking and having a good time but I think my drink I grabbed the wrong beer it was Sarah's it was spiked I never would have noticed who did it at least it wasn't her to drink it. I simply enjoyed the sky line of Chicago filled with sky scrapers and mirror like office buildings it all seemed like a Bokeh picture to me the drug is taking affect on my body I feel dizzy . I hopped on the train, it was empty as for the weather gave a good reason to walk but I needed to get home safely. In about 30 minutes I was home. I clumsily walked up the stairs and almost fell it took about ten minutes before I opened the door, I then plopped down on my bed and ran to the bathroom and regurgitated everything I ate that night. i starred at the ceiling. I saw every detail to the nearest centimeter and then blurry the specks the marks swirled in my vision and I felt weightless for a while. I starred at the clock and noticed it was about 4:00 am and cursed myself for going to that bar with Sarah I threw up all over my bed. I tried to grab the phone to call the paramedics but I fell and hit my head on my night stand. I passed out from the concussion i fell into a deep sleep a very deep sleep. Chapter 2 Change I wiped the crust out of my eyes and felt my head a sharp pain rippled thru my scalp it was a Gash about two inches in length. i walked into the bathroom I pulled the faucet but all that came out was a wisp of air. I snatched a baby wipe and cleaned off my face I cleaned my wound with alcohol the sting ive gotten used to I used to get hurt pretty bad in the army, I got shrapnel in my knee and they sent me home the first year. I noticed a dead silence on the street I thought they probably closed it off for some type of repair. I put on my white tee shirt and noticed its softness and how it fit snug on my semi-muscular figure I was in good shape for a twenty-four year old, my mom would always tell me most of the people in America are fat but I guess she loves to tell stereotypes for what they are. I put on my jeans and not forgetting the belt this time either. I snatched my keys off the kitchen counter and headed for the door. I walked outside and paused too look at the empty streets filled with litter and carnage . My mouth wide open in amazement I asked myself what happened and pondered the different reasons riot,panic,fire what could cause such a mess, I walked towards a police squad car and smelled something rancid I slowly proceeded, I instantly veered back in panic I could not believe what I saw a dead police officer lying face down with half a chunk blown clean off his head. There were pieces of it every where splattered on the windshield and door of the police car and some on the concrete. I instinctively inched towards him and thought to myself that something bad is happening and I need protection. I unhooked his holster off his waist and placed it on mine I pulled off his Kevlar vest and put it on weirdly enough it barely was messy or smelled bad. I checked the pockets of the vest and took out a pair of keys I knew it belonged to his squad car. I first popped open the trunk and saw it glistening in the sun a Ar-15 assault rifle. I picked it up and the memories of my army training it just instantly popped into my mind. I guess it applied the same here, I slung it around my back and walked into the silence. I took out the pistol put in the clip pulled the slide back and switched the safety off and cautiously held it. I believe the gun made me more nervous than whats in the shadows, I walked down the narrow street and saw it the skyline of the city filled with smoke and fire. I stood in anger and confusion my home town ravaged broken and charred blood stained the streets and walls, but why.....why....how could this... I mean what could....d..do such a thing. I walked away in the opposite direction and then cut into an alley way to piss and paused as I heard a roar I looked up and saw a quick glance of the belly of a apache attack craft it quickly zoom by and then another. I looked away and ran out of the alley and then down the street to see what direction they were heading. They sped towards the lake area and then I saw a tiny black object fall horizontally from the choppers belly and it slowly fell, then a explosion. I could feel the vibrations. the explosion ripped the lake area into nothing....nothing..but....but...smoke. My heart skipped a few beats thinking what if the next one falls in this area I quickly broke my daydream and bolted as fast as I could as far as I could until I saw a woman crawling on the concrete she was Moaning and holding her stomach. I came up behind her and asked for help. She turned on her back “ Sarah? Ohh my god sarah are you okay ?” and she held a gun in her hand a Glock 22 model the slide locked all the way back and no clip in the gun. I kicked it out of her and and sprung on her she begged for mercy “albert you have to stay away from me im turning” she saw that I was armed and quickly told me the gun was unloaded and that she was sorry she told me she would do anything just get away from her . I told her “Im not here to hurt anyone I just want to help” I starred at her beautiful figure her perfect face and thin hourglass body but ragged cloths and red eyes from crying. How and what did she go thru that could turn her into such a wreck. She got up and put her arm around my shoulder kissed me on the cheek and passed out. I dragged her to an fenced off alley where there was a mattress I put her down and sat next to her .she hugged me and began to cry she than jumped on top of me “Sarah what are you doing no we cant do this now no!” I told her I will help her but I dont think she understood a word I said. She looked at me in my eyes I could feel her touch my soul, her blue eyes glared in the sun. “i dont want to die alone please” I stood up nervously, I was concerned for her health when suddenly I heard a bang then felt a sharp pain in my leg. I collapsed in agony and saw the cause of my pain a bean bag round I looked up and saw a gas mask wearing figure he shot me with another bean bag round in the knee, from his shot gun he then walked over my numb body and. picked up both bean bag's and threw it aside two people in hazmat gear grabbed Sarah and took off her clothing I screamed “what are you doing to her!!!” they did not acknowledge me they looked at her body like they where searching for something. Her passed out figure limp as a rag doll they removed her pants then her underwear I screamed “No!! you son of a bitch don't do it ill kill you” they studied a bite mark on her upper thigh they made some type of hand signal and left. the soldiers then they came and started pouring gasoline on the mattress and her body. the one with the kriss super V took his cigarette out of his mouth and then flicked it at her it rolled of of her shapely belly and hit the mattress her body bursted into flames and she spasmed and kicked wildly. Then the man pointed it me and said in a British accent “ knock that fuckin Yankee an put em in da ACP double time, thoes hungry bastards are comin” Chapter 3 world gone mad I awoke on a bed in clean clothes and a hair cut. I stood up and walked into the hallway and noticed that this was a hospital. Suddenly a hand grabbed me. “aey where do you think your going ya damn runner rapist” I starred at him & his arrogant look and heavily customized ACR bushmaster. “get the fuck away from me im leaving what ever the hell this place is” he then sprung up and pushed the barrel of his ACR into my neck. “look if you want to get devoured by those runners be my guest buddy but dont go exposing this place to the infection” I looked at him like he was retarded “infection what infection and why the hell is the army bombing populated areas” he looked at me the same way. “ where were you 2 days ago ? There was a virus it was originally H1N1 but it evolved up to 10 times now its got Chicago by the balls and its spreading across the world as we speak turning everyone into animals devouring and ripping people to shreds and then the virus takes over the dead body and brings it back as a runner also know as a fresh undead body that has the ability to run or sometimes sprint god forbid but after 2-4 weeks without food the tissue breaks down from constant use without fuel and they start to get slow and shuffle around” my mind felt overwhelmed I wondered how my parents were doing in Dallas. “so what am I supped to do here but be a waste of space” he grinned. “well you obviously know how to use a weapon and our records say you have been in the military. you cant take care of yourself out there so we will make you part of out kill squad. “kill squad ?” “ohh shit you mean you have never killed or seen any infected yet ? that means your fresh you can be put to good use in our kill team” he told me his name was henry the specialist of his team kill team Charlie-mike. He directed me to the staff sergeant who looked at me and said “well well well we got some fresh meat hope you ready for 3 months of hard core trainin cuz this wont be easy now get yo ass in the garage and clean every APC tire the armory I think the kill teams ran over a little too much runners” 3 Months later........ the training was more rigorous than the basic military stuff a the armory where there was at least a 100 others conversing and grabbing into boxes of gear. Henry took me to the gunny of the armory where he helped me choose my gear. I picked up dragon skin Kevlar with implanted ceramic & alloy inserts. I took some gloves which I cut the fingers of. My boots where the basic digital camo color probably a left over from the war in Iraq which ended several years ago when our president simply drew the troops out. And European troops and some Russians finished off the big time terrorists soon after we heard no more from any our genocidal efforts finally payed off. I went to the weapon stand where I had to fill out a ID sheet to make sure they knew I had training with combat rifles. I chose the ACR which was in stock by the thousands as a gift from the weapon companies to the American army. I pulled all the safety clips and then grabbed a eotech scope out of a box and locked it onto the rail system of the weapon. I attached a mag pull the every one of my carbon strength reinforced clips. The gunny looked at me with a grin and we left for briefing. Chapter 4 things get messy we met up in the garage of the hospital every runner hunter of this kill force a total of 300 men and women in the huge elevated parking complex of the hospital, a general arrived in the elevator his chrome glasses shined in the evening light so did the many badges pinned on his suit which fit his old figure rather awkwardly. he had two formally dressed men with him they both had desert eagles on there side holsters but the general had a FN 2000 slung around his back. it was worn and scratched its polymer body was embedded with and insignia that I did not see so well as it was obscured by the scuffs and grime he looked at us and smiled his mouth opened and he flung his cigar off the ledge of the building he then begun and explained in a dominant voice. “there are 40 spec op Humvee's set up in formation ready to patrol the streets of Chicago you all will be in sector 6 the most dangerous sector of Chicago but no need to worry we have full fledged firepower of 4 APC's which will Carrie your kill team to your objectives take as much time as needed the runners arent going any where. you will clear the sears tower area a hot spot for runners. look all you men and woman, its time to revolt and fight back. its time to say we will not be scared, we will not be intimidated, we will win back our freedom!!” the whole complex light up with cheer. As the two men in formal wear took out PDA's and started directing people to there kill teams the first man shouted “ Chavez,Williams,buck, and,Samson go to APC #1” I quickly advanced thru the crowd to APC 1 I slowed my pace and saw its matte paint job of digital camo and its pop up dillan machine gun turret mounted on top. I pounded on its steel behind and its back door unlatched I stood waiting for the rest of my team I saw all three walking in a line towards the door I saw him ,the man with the kriss super V he smiled at me and said “no fuckin way you tha yankee we picked up in tha alley way you mad cus we killed your little runner girlfriend” I sprung towards him and grabbed his collar and punched him in the stomach then elbowed him in the mouth all the color drained out of his face. “ if you wouldn't of shot me with a fucking bean bag I would of blown your brains out back at the alley” he looked at me and with blood dripping down his mouth “i was just doing my job. welcome to foxtrot 3 by my names john samson you can just call me hunter” I let him go and he limped into the APC then another walked towards me he wore a Grey baklava and tight fitting clothing and a vest that barely covered his chest which awkwardly bulged out he walked towards me and took off the mask. She looked at m surprised face and said “what ? a woman cant be in the military” “well I..I...I just did not expect to have such a high rank personnel on our team” she looked at me and frowend “were both specialists grade one my names Kelly williams” “a heavily armored male in a hijab walked towards me playfully he came up to me and pulled off his hijab he was a African American . “hey specialist now look Im basically here to keep the moral you catch me ? I was in the navy im Ricky buckman Just call me squid now what do you want to go by kid?” I smiled “echo” “nice choice” Albert “echo” chavez I thought in my head I figured that sounds good. We all jumped in the APC while a kill team of rangers in a heavy Humvee with a mounted sentry gun rolled behind us as the whole convoy of kill force 6 prepared for battle. I thought about all my training aim for the head,short controlled bursts a shot anywhere else just stunned them. They move fast so they have to be neutralized if you get bitten or infected kill yourself with the poison capsule that was given or a team mate would do it. I grabbed a Kukri blade off the weapon rack that was provided in the APC I looked at its razor sharp edge its brushed steel surface reflected no light I sheathed it and strapped it to my leg. I caught the eye of Kelly who was fiddling around with the UAV control panel she looked at me and smiled. The APC's lights blinked red prompting us that we are in a hot zone. The APC vibrated as the co pilot took out a pack of runners with the Dillon remote controlled mini gun. We all loaded our weapons and packed up some ammo. Hunter and squid looked at each other and they bumped fists. I put a clip in my ACR and cocked it I turned on the eotech scope and strapped on my helmet and then slid on a black baklava. The APC driver prompted a alarm which was the signal that the door was opening, the big metal door slowly lowered its platform to the ground and we all got out Kelly was the last one out she grabbed that control panel and slid it into her bag she ran out and flipped the close button on the APC. We met up with the four other teams in our sector who already exited there Humvee's. A black Humvee that I never knew was in the convoy rode up and a military adviser jumped out and barked orders like some scared little dog and then jumped back in glad that he wasn't us. He positioned eight snipers on the roof who where each divided into teams of four they zip lined up the roofs and soon each team where picked up by two little bird helicopters the rest of us where on the ground either Humvee calvary hit teams or long range grenade support foxtrot was positioned on the magnificent mile at least it was magnificent. We cautiously walked down the street with another team of 6 watching our back and little birds with snipers covering us and telling us where the nearest pack is. It was empty until we got a report a pack of twenty runners where heading straight for us about 3 blocks away we had about a minute to prepare, snipers took out some and only six broke there steady aim and where 5 feet away, I drew my weapon and just before I could fire a Humvee rammed half the pack of runners over my team shot at there heads to finish them off . I stunted back and fell startled by a runner with broken legs dragging its smelly corpse towards me, my team did not even notice as they where pre occupied with finishing off the pack it grabbed my boot and pulled itself onto my chest I pushed it back and hunter tackled it and shot it once it grazed its ear he then rad up to it and curb stomped its head in over and over, like an egg it crunched under his boot he then walked towards me and picked me up and then our comm's screeched with a danger code: sector red REPEAT SECTOR RED!! this is not a drill!! squid looked at Kelly “OH shit radio the APC radio the APC!!” Kelly hastily radioed the APC and it arrived around the corner ASAP she got in and took the panel out of her backpack all the rangers got back in there Humvee's and formed up a line of vehicle's and the APC was in front we all jumped in and squid popped open 3 of the four combat hatches. We took stance and poked our body's out of the hatches while Kelly was typing away at the panel. “Kelly get us that predator drone NOW!!” “on it Echo..about.....NOW!! get ready for some boom boom boys” she said over the comm a predator drone deployed from a building somewhere and roared across the city's night sky. The little birds shot flares into out immediate area and the military advisor said nervously over the comm “formation green zone ASAP make space for one more hummer!!” his hummer screeched into our circle formation at the middle of the block intersection. We all could hear the uproar and the screaming rage of the Runners it was 9:00 PM and my stomach dropped as runners came at us from every angle swarming in between all the vehicles as we took out as much as we can the advisor yelled. “Break formation head for lane 3 of sector 5 Kelly yelled “but thats a dead end we have no where to go !!” “exactly now MOVE !!” we hastily rammed out way thru the crowd of runners it was easily about 200 to 300 runners we reached the street which was a dead end it was blocked by a collapsed building from all the beach bombing runs. We waited for 5 minutes until we saw it our doom three times as much runners appeared and headed for the convoy. The driver looked bewildered “Get ready im breaking position” he advanced the APC towards the crowd its massive tires gripping the rubble and concrete so agile and quick. He opened fire the Dillon mini gun until there was not one round left. the APC swiveled madly like a dog chasing its tail, all the blood and body matter stuck to the tire made it impossible to control. The whole interior rocked forward on impact with the flipped car. suddenly a screech and the APC flipped over on its side. the runners ignored the APC and went for the group of Humvee's ripping the rangers out that had not locked there Humvee door and devouring them. We herd the screams despite layer after layer of Kevlar and Armour of the APC. My radio started to squawk. “ Pindad Panser down repeat,flipped on its side calling in little bird for support !! bring in UH-60 shadow for medivac ASAP!” I groaned in pain the impact was hard,i could taste blood in my mouth my world was spinning. my team mates did not move they where all laying face down. I soon passed out Chapter 5 delta crimson “Delta crimson GO GO GO !!” I awoke in a sweat, I felt normal again I wiped my blood crusted face off. I leaned up and saw them. “Squid Kelly Hunter Your all alive !” hunter smiled “the crowds not givin up. Hurry mate we got to get outta this APC or crimson is just gonna have to save us” Crimson was an elite rescue squad of some of the best rescue force members in the military marines,rangers,green berets, you name em they can save you. Suddenly we heard the roar of helicopters. Then the door of the APC light up and blew of its hinges a soldier in a crimson baklava shined a light me and my team he latched two metal hooks onto our APC and then the helicopter lifted us into the air, this vehicle the best attack helicopter crafted by the engineer crew over at Hudson base they called it the Shadow because thats all it was, a quick killer in the night. A man made machine manufactured to kill and thats what it was best at. I broke for the chopper and jumped in then squid then Kelly it started to take off right before it left ground hunter grabbed the bay door and climbed in. “forgetting something ?” He threw me my ACR bushmaster which started to look like the generals FN 2000 it was scuffed and marked in every crack and crease. A crimson medivac specialist handed us some refreshments and snacks he said he picked it up at his last raid. He gave me some meds, adrenalin shots use them as a last resort of energy he said. I looked at squid who was holding his dog tag “ man echo you see how that APC flipped on us I almost crapped my pant's” I laughed at the joke even if its not funny my team needs the moral. I looked it the pilot he caught my stare. “where going to the main objective” I sighed and looked away hunter looked at me and made some type of hand signal. “hey Kelly you think we could of died back there” “easily hunter luckily the runners did not find our APC interesting” I looked over at Kelly who was looking at the cracked screen of the control panel. “hey Kelly what all did you use that panel for” “i saved the whole platoon with this thing while you where taking a nap, now its gone and base is a long fly away. The screen broke when the APC flipped. And the predator drone crashed without me controlling it” “damn, nothing good ever lasts long does it” “well echo thats not true your still alive aren't you ?” I we both smiled and when the happiness broke it was back to work. chapter 6 Raid The shadow landed on the roof of a building about 3 blocks away from objective R.R.T.R (runner ruled territory raid) our forces had to kill all runners and take back the sears tower. Kelly was stationed on the roof with hundreds of other snipers .with her barret M82 which ripped into 2 to 3 runners at a time with its large caliber amour piercing rounds. Military advisors sent Ground troops they marched the streets for the main attack on the R.R.T (runner ruled territory). Soldiers of all pact creed and faction marched side by side. the ISF (Iraqi Security Forces) the IRA (Irish Republican Army) even the CIA and DEA forces were marching along with whole police precincts including the bulk of the U.S military. This battle was inevitable and we are going to win.

Topic by albylovesscience 9 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago