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Emergency heating.

Can you use a charcoal BBQ grill as an emergency heater for inside of a home if you were using wood as the fuel?How and what would be the safest way to do so?

Question by RonF70    |  last reply


How can I make a thermoelectric ipod charger using a mintyboost, a peltier, and lots of heat?

I recently found a article about a Japanese company creating a camp-fire ipod/phone charger. http://tes-ne.com/PDF/epan.pdf (not spam) It appears to use a peltier thermoelectric hooked up in reverse embedded in the layers of the bottom of the pot. And the black control box is either a joule thief or a circuit similar to a mintyboost. As it is so tiny I can not imagine it has a 7805 5v voltage regulator or other similar overly simple circuit. I thought why should I spend nearly $300 on something I can make for $10-$50? I have also noticed there is a thermoelectric powered lamp on this site. My question is this, does anyone see there being an issue if I modify the thermoelectric lamp project and instead hook it upto a mintyboost to charge a couple of rechargeable batteries. I am not sure what sort of amps lets say a 100w 12v peltier would put out when reversed. I have found one for $8.09 here. And if I did attempt this (and document it for an instructables), what might I need to do to modify the mintyboost to directly charge from the peltier? I know only very basic electronics, such as what every component on a mintyboost does. So this is basically a project to learn more about electronics. Should I simply follow a solar power mintyboost tutorial? I have a couple of ideas of how to create the temperature difference for my needs. I was thinking of buying a pack of sterno cans, so I can quickly produce the heat needed and charge my all-important ipod touch in an emergency "holy crap the entire electric grid was fried by a solar flare and I won't be able to charge it ever again" situation. And also experimenting with producing enough heat from direct sunlight using black materials and a "hotbox" (this method will come later as it takes more experimenting). Side note: This is not my only emergency ipod charging project I am putting together. I am also cannibalizing some garden solar chargers and their joulel thieves, but it's been done to death, and a thermoelectric charger is so much cooler is it not? .. or hotter..

Question by stakahashi  


D.i.y. (plastic) nuts (for any kind of thread)

For emergencies or simple application: how to make your own nuts out of (p.e.t.)-plastic bottles:take a bottle (#1 plastic, preferably smooth, w/o imprinted patterns or design etc) > cut off bottom and neck > start cutting (scissors) > the resulting ´tube´ into a consistent (width, depending on desired usage), slightly diagonally, thus sort of ´peeling´ it > wrap the strip around the screw/threaded-part/etc you need the nut for twice (for a start) > ´melt´ the edges of the wrapped part = joining them (i use a little solder-iron) > this way the wrapped beginning of the strip wont come loose > ´brush´ with the solder-iron (or whatever other source of heat) over the wrapped part (w/o) burning holes in it > this causes the plastic to shrink and press down into the thread and adopt its shape > once set keep doing more wraps of the rest of the strip until you reach a desired diameter > now, again, join the edges of the wrap with heat, and afterwards brush again over the outside of the created ´nut´, so that the plastic shrinks down & compacts > after having cooled off: unscrew the ´nut´ with pliers > ready for useps this is just a simple sketch. got no camera to take photos. sorry. so, please, ask whatever if you got any question. and any kind of feedback is more than welcome. bowing.

Topic by la xerra    |  last reply


Extemely simple automatic emergency light.

I'd like some help to settle an argument regarding my extemely simple automatic emergency light.According to my friend, who installs emergency lighting, this circuit is too simple and has too many components missing but I say he's wrong, if one part fails it can easily be replaced. I'm not and electronics expert either.I'll explain the circuit...5v comes from a 5v 2A phone charger. Battery is a 32Ah 12v SLA. 12v charger is a smart charger with built-in status monitor.SPDT 5v relay rated to switch 12v @ 17amp maxThe light is a 12v 5 metre LED Strip with built in current-limiters and draws arount 2A.Basically, 5v powers the relay which means the battery is connected to the smart charger that keeps it topped up while there is mains power (240v here in UK). If there is a power cut the relay turns off and battery is switches over to the LED light Strip. Its that simple.It works as designed, no parts have failed and I haven't found any signs of over-heating. My friend believes it should all be one circuit and not seperate parts and is a fire risk as it is.He just won't let it go, so does he have a point or is he just being a/an _________ (fill in the blank, lol)? I've included a schematic of the circuit. Not sure if I've drawn the relay properly though.

Topic by cyberraxx    |  last reply


Fire Kit

Here's an idea for a fire kit, not necessarily for survival or emergency. Someone want to make an ible out of it ? The idea here is that a coke can, once  completely dry, could provide both lightweight waterproof storage for tinder and lighting , and  also be an item to help structure the fire layout to provide proper draft and heat containment, . After the can is  dry you could stuff in some matches and cotton lint or vaseline balls, maybe a magneium stick. Maybe an obviously small candle.  Some items may need wrapping.  Then duct tape the hole When it came time to use, open with a knife. How exactly I would use the can to structure the fire is an open question.  

Topic by Wilmette    |  last reply


I want to know the best items to place in a 5 gal survival bucket to leave in my car permanently for emergencies. Answered

When we are forced to leave town in an emergency, we will grab our food supply, water, clothing, blankets, and valuables from our home.  My bucket will have all the little things you could use in any survival situation such as being stuck on the interstate for days in winter or extreme heat that you wouldn't think about  in your hurry to leave.  Batteries corrode, liquids spill, food  medicines become outdated,  What great survival tools are there and how do you use them.  I want to be the best prepared survivor on the interstate or stuck in the wilderness (with my car) until it blows over..

Question by ruthvan    |  last reply


What is my next step to finding electricity over usage?

I need some help! I just moved into a home in Marysville, Oh. Last month we were not living here, had the heat pump set at 65, fridge, and deep freezer and hot water heater were plugged in. Nothing else going, because we were at our other house, packing up. Electric bill came, we used 3200 kwh, I called and had heat pump looked at, everything is running correctly, ugh 150 dollars to find out it was perfect. Electric company came out, meter checked out, and was dead on, actually lagging by 1%. Everyone says heatpumps are more efficient, I lived in Fl for 30 yrs with electric central heat and air, never spent over 900kwh a month on electric bill. This is a small house, 1200sf.. no basement, what should I check next? I bought a kwh meter and tested fridge, its normal ussage, hot water tank is set at 120.. where do i go from here? Also the heat man told me to use emergency when its below 30, I did this for 24 hrs, and used 175kwh, so i switched em heat off! 

Question by mlvirsack    |  last reply


Has anyone tried to make a solar light tube

I already have sky lights installed in an unfinished attic. I figure I could try lining some heating duct with some of those Mylar emergency blankets, butt it up against the skylight and then install a modified recessed light fixture in the ceiling. Connect the tube to the light fixture and it should work the same as the $300 units. I understand the effect the dome could have on collecting light, I do have some security camera domes, but don't want to go cutting holes in the roof unless it will work. ???anyone Thanks

Topic by meisjedog    |  last reply


Something to block office lighting?

The office building where I work has a conference room that has 4 fluorescent light units, each measuring 28” by 44”.  The problem is, one of the four light units is an emergency unit, and is always turned on.  So when we want to show power point presentations, etc.  the room is never  fully dark.  With the 3 lights being off, it’s just barely dark enough, and it would be so much better not to have the light from the emergency unit.  Due to safety codes, turning off this light is not a realistic option for us.  So I was examining it today and was wondering if someone had an idea to construct some sort of temporary “cover” that we can quickly and securely place over this one light unit while we have our power point presentations?  The cover would have to be lightweight, secure (we would not want it to fall on any clients!), and I think made of some sort of fireproof material, in case someone forgets it’s up there and the heat from the florescent light tubes doesn’t cause any danger of fire.  Each light unit has this metal “grid” that I guess is meant to reflect and disperse the light in an efficient way.  This “grid” is made up of smooth 1/8” metal strips, which create 24 empty space “cells”. The inside of the cells measures 7”X5.5” and is 2.75” deep.  There is a small clearance between this metal grid and the fluorescent tube lights.  And the light unit is 10 feet off the ground. Any suggestions??  Thanks!

Topic by jim5150jvc    |  last reply


Scholarship contest idea: evolving navigation behaviors

I am interested in the evolution of complex navigation strategies. As a first step, I am using the Avida digital evolution platform (http://devolab.cse.msu.edu/software/) to evolve behavior that corresponds to chemotaxis in bacteria such as E. coli. Although they are very simple organisms, bacteria like E. coli have served as model organisms for studying the molecular biology of behavior, and have been studied extensively. Such simple organisms provide a good starting point for evolving simple behaviors that may eventually serve as a platform for the emergence of more complex behavior. Chemotaxis is a simple orientation behavior, performed by many different organisms, involving moving either toward (positive chemotaxis) or away from (negative chemotaxis) the source of some particular chemical signal, by sensing and responding to the chemical gradient in the local environment.The project I am proposing for the contest would port the software evolved in Avida onto the Create robot, and demonstrate the virtually evolved capability in the real-world environment. Since performing chemotaxis in air would involve dealing with turbulent dispersal of the chemical signal, I propose to use phototaxis or thermotaxis -- orientation to a light or heat source, respectively -- as an analog to chemotaxis. This will greatly simplify the experiments, since the problem will then be one of diffusion rather than turbulence. The robot will follow the light or heat gradient, tracking toward the source.Several things will be necessary to accomplish this. In software, the virtual CPU instructions of Avida will have to be translated to the robot. Because of the runtimes for Avida experiments, the evolution would be done offline; the robot would run the program that is the result of evolution. Hardware implementation would include the addition of photosensors or infared sensors, to allow the robot to sense the light or heat gradient. Care will need to be taken, both in the digital evolution and in the robot experiments, to ensure that the real environment is similar enough to the digital environment during evolution, so that the evolved program can function in the real world environment.Although tactic behavior has been implemented in robots in the past, to my knowledge it has never been done using digital evolution. An evolutionary approach has several advantages: 1) the finished program is discovered through evolution, instead of hand-coded step-by-step; 2) evolution may find novel ways of solving the problem that a programmer might not think of; 3) because of (1) and (2), the evolved solution may be more robust and adaptive than a top-down, engineered solution.

Topic by Laura Grabowski    |  last reply


Eee, when I were young...

In no particular order...We had a single telephone in the house, landline, rotary dial, and several neighbours didn't have that.One TV in the house. CRT, 15 inch screen.Only three TV channels.They weren't on all night. They weren't even on all day.Black and white, all the way - TV, camera filmOnly two transistor radios in the house, running off 9V batteries the size of my fist.Most stations were on AM & LW bands. Commercial stations broadcast from "abroad".One record player in the house, which still have a position on the speed selector for playing 78rpm discs.Headphones the size of scotch eggs were the norm, not a fashion statement.No mobile phones at all.No game systems.No hand-held units.No home computers (the ZX81 came out when I was 14).The internet wasn't even a pipedream.The largest libraries had microfiche.Foreign holidays were a luxury - the only £10 trip was a one-way ticket to Australia.I did not see a black man in the flesh until I was 13. Oriental later the same year.Seat belts were not only optional, they were often not fitted.Ladders were toys, not a risk to life and limb.No speed cameras. Speed traps involved measured distances and policemen with stop-watches.No central heating.No double glazing.No catalytic converters.Petrol had lead in it, but only cost pennies a gallon.If you spent an hour in London, your snot turned black. If you spent a day there, it stayed black for a week."CCTV" was just a random collection of consonants.Old factories were called "derelict", not "industrial heritage", and kids called them "playgrounds".The bombsites were still blamed on Hitler.Russia was still Soviet, and old folk thought of them as allies.Hospitals smelled of carbolic soap, and the only infections came in with the patients. Nurses had starched collars and pink-scrubbed hands.I was the only child with asthma in a school of 400.Nobody was allergic to anything, except powdered eggs.Terrorists all had Irish accents, and telephoned the police to tell them where the bombs were.Nuclear power was going to give us free electricity in only five years - just in time to power the robot maid.Nuclear war was a genuine fear.The Falklands War was news, not history.You could hitch-hike and expect to arrive at your destination alive.Alcoholism was a hobby, not a disease.Lager was for poofters, cider was for girls.Nobody knew how to play basketball, baseball or ice hockey, and football was only ever played with a round ball. The nearest thing to "protective clothing" in sport was a goalie's gloves.Rollerskates had wheels on the corners, and strapped to your shoe.Banks were as trusted as the police. The police were trusted.Policemen were tall.Emergency vehicles went nee nah nee nah! (except for the ones with bells).Flared trousers were original.Science fiction had ray guns and robots, and spacemen were spacemen.You could travel ten miles and find people who spoke a different dialect (not just a different accent).Kids who misbehaved in school got sent to the head for a caning, instead of to the doctor for a tablet.Health and safety meant "don't do anything daft", and if you fell off a roof and broke your leg it was your own damned fault, not the fault of the roof-owner for not warning you about the drop, and nobody sued anybody.Gay meant "happy", and camp meant "in tents".Teachers that hit you were firm professionals, not dangerous perverts.The phrase "two car family" hadn't been coined....and I didn't feel quite so old.

Topic by Kiteman  


Funny Labels

These are hilarious!!! There all REAL funny product lables that people have found. Here's the link to where I got them: http://www.rinkworks.com/said/warnings.shtml Product Warnings: • "Do not use if you cannot see clearly to read the information in the information booklet." -- In the information booklet. • "Caution: The contents of this bottle should not be fed to fish." -- On a bottle of shampoo for dogs. • "For external use only!" -- On a curling iron. • "Warning: This product can burn eyes." -- On a curling iron. • "Do not use in shower." -- On a hair dryer. • "Do not use while sleeping." -- On a hair dryer. • "Do not use while sleeping or unconscious." -- On a hand-held massaging device. • "Do not place this product into any electronic equipment." -- On the case of a chocolate CD in a gift basket. • "Recycled flush water unsafe for drinking." -- On a toilet at a public sports facility in Ann Arbor, Michigan. • "Shin pads cannot protect any part of the body they do not cover." -- On a pair of shin guards made for bicyclists. • "This product not intended for use as a dental drill." -- On an electric rotary tool. • "Caution: Do not spray in eyes." -- On a container of underarm deodorant. • "Do not drive with sunshield in place." -- On a cardboard sunshield that keeps the sun off the dashboard. • "Caution: This is not a safety protective device." -- On a plastic toy helmet used as a container for popcorn. • "Do not use near fire, flame, or sparks." -- On an "Aim-n-Flame" fireplace lighter. • "Battery may explore or leak." -- On a battery. See a scanned image. • "Do not eat toner." -- On a toner cartridge for a laser printer. • "Not intended for highway use." -- On a 13-inch wheel on a wheelbarrow. • "This product is not to be used in bathrooms." -- On a Holmes bathroom heater. • "May irritate eyes." -- On a can of self-defense pepper spray. • "Eating rocks may lead to broken teeth." -- On a novelty rock garden set called "Popcorn Rock." • "Caution! Contents hot!" -- On a Domino's Pizza box. • "Caution: Hot beverages are hot!" -- On a coffee cup. • "Caution: Shoots rubber bands." -- On a product called "Rubber Band Shooter." • "Warning: May contain small parts." -- On a frisbee. • "Do not use orally." -- On a toilet bowl cleaning brush. • "Please keep out of children." -- On a butcher knife. • "Not suitable for children aged 36 months or less." -- On a birthday card for a 1 year old. • "Do not recharge, put in backwards, or use." -- On a battery. • "Warning: Do not use on eyes." -- In the manual for a heated seat cushion. • "Do not look into laser with remaining eye." -- On a laser pointer. • "Do not use for drying pets." -- In the manual for a microwave oven. • "For use on animals only." -- On an electric cattle prod. • "For use by trained personnel only." -- On a can of air freshener. • "Keep out of reach of children and teenagers." -- On a can of air freshener. • "Remember, objects in the mirror are actually behind you." -- On a motorcycle helmet-mounted rear-view mirror. • "Warning: Riders of personal watercraft may suffer injury due to the forceful injection of water into body cavities either by falling into the water or while mounting the craft." -- In the manual for a jetski. • "Warning: Do not climb inside this bag and zip it up. Doing so will cause injury and death." -- A label inside a protective bag (for fragile objects), which measures 15cm by 15cm by 12cm. • "Do not use as ear plugs." -- On a package of silly putty. • "Please store in the cold section of the refrigerator." -- On a bag of fresh grapes in Australia. • "Warning: knives are sharp!" -- On the packaging of a sharpening stone. • "Not for weight control." -- On a pack of Breath Savers. • "Twist top off with hands. Throw top away. Do not put top in mouth." -- On the label of a bottled drink. • "Theft of this container is a crime." -- On a milk crate. • "Do not use intimately." -- On a tube of deodorant. • "Warning: has been found to cause cancer in laboratory mice." -- On a box of rat poison. • "Fragile. Do not drop." -- Posted on a Boeing 757. • "Cannot be made non-poisonous." -- On the back of a can of de-icing windshield fluid. • "Caution: Remove infant before folding for storage." -- On a portable stroller. • "Excessive dust may be irritating to shin and eyes." -- On a tube of agarose powder, used to make gels. • "Look before driving." -- On the dash board of a mail truck. • "Do not iron clothes on body." -- On packaging for a Rowenta iron. • "Do not drive car or operate machinery." -- On Boot's children's cough medicine. • "For indoor or outdoor use only." -- On a string of Christmas lights. • "Wearing of this garment does not enable you to fly." -- On a child sized Superman costume. • "This door is alarmed from 7:00pm - 7:00am." -- On a hospital's outside access door. • "Beware! To touch these wires is instant death. Anyone found doing so will be prosecuted." -- On a sign at a railroad station. • "Warning: do not use if you have prostate problems." -- On a box of Midol PMS relief tablets. • "Product will be hot after heating." -- On a supermarket dessert box. • "Do not turn upside down." -- On the bottom of a supermarket dessert box. • "Do not light in face. Do not expose to flame." -- On a lighter. • "Choking hazard: This toy is a small ball." -- On the label for a cheap rubber ball toy. • "Not for human consumption." -- On a package of dice. • "May be harmful if swallowed." -- On a shipment of hammers. • "Using Ingenio cookware to destroy your old pots may void your warranty." -- A printed message that appears in a television advertisement when the presenter demonstrates how strong the cookware is by using it to beat up and destroy a regular frying pan. • "Do not attempt to stop the blade with your hand." -- In the manual for a Swedish chainsaw. • "Do not dangle the mouse by its cable or throw the mouse at co-workers." -- From a manual for an SGI computer. • "Warning: May contain nuts." -- On a package of peanuts. • "Do not eat." -- On a slip of paper in a stereo box, referring to the styrofoam packing. • "Do not eat if seal is missing." -- On said seal. • "Remove occupants from the stroller before folding it." • "Access hole only -- not intended for use in lifting box." -- On the sides of a shipping carton, just above cut-out openings which one would assume were handholds. • "Warning: May cause drowsiness." -- On a bottle of Nytol, a brand of sleeping pills. • "Warning: Misuse may cause injury or death." -- Stamped on the metal barrel of a .22 calibre rifle. • "Do not use orally after using rectally." -- In the instructions for an electric thermometer. • "Turn off motor before using this product." -- On the packaging for a chain saw file, used to sharpen the cutting teeth on the chain. • "Not to be used as a personal flotation device." -- On a 6x10 inch inflatable picture frame. • "Do not put in mouth." -- On a box of bottle rockets. • "Remove plastic before eating." -- On the wrapper of a Fruit Roll-Up snack. • "Not dishwasher safe." -- On a remote control for a TV. • "For lifting purposes only." -- On the box for a car jack. • "Do not put lit candles on phone." -- On the instructions for a cordless phone. • "Warning! This is not underwear! Do not attempt to put in pants." -- On the packaging for a wristwatch. • "Do not wear for sumo wrestling." -- From a set of washing instructions. See a scanned image. ________________________________________ Assurances: • "Safe for use around pets." -- On a box of Arm & Hammer Cat Litter. ________________________________________ Small Print From Commercials: • "Do not use house paint on face." -- In a Visa commercial that depicts an expecting couple looking for paint at a hardware store. • "Do not drive cars in ocean." -- In a car commercial which shows a car in the ocean. • "Always drive on roads. Not on people." -- From a car commercial which shows a vehicle "body-surfing" at a concert. • "For a limited time only." -- From a Rally's commercial that described how their burgers were fresh. ________________________________________ Signs and Notices: • "No stopping or standing." -- A sign at bus stops everywhere. • "Do not sit under coconut trees." -- A sign on a coconut palm in a West Palm Beach park circa 1950. • "These rows reserved for parents with children." -- A sign in a church. • "All cups leaving this store, rather full or empty, must be paid for." -- A sign in a Cumberland Farms in Hillsboro, New Hampshire. • "Malfunction: Too less water." -- A notice left on a coffee machine. • "Prescriptions cannot be filled by phone." -- On a form in a clinic. • "You could be a winner! No purchase necessary. Details inside." -- On a bag of Fritos. • "Fits one head." -- On a hotel-provided shower cap box. • "Payment is due by the due date." -- On a credit card statement. • "No small children." -- On a laundromat triple washer. • "Warning: Ramp Ends In Stairs." -- A sign, correctly describing the end of a concrete ramp intended for handicap access to a bridge. ________________________________________ Safety Procedures: • "Take care: new non-slip surface." -- On a sign in front of a newly renovated ramp that led to the entrance of a building. • "In case of flood, proceed uphill. In case of flash flood, proceed uphill quickly." -- One of the emergency safety procedures at a summer camp. ________________________________________ Ingredients: • "Ingredients: Artificially bleached flour, sugar, vegetable fat, yeast, salt, gluten, soya flour, emulsifier 472 (E) & 481, flour treatment agents, enzymes, water. May contain: fruit." -- The ingredients list on a package of fruit buns. • "100% pure yarn." -- On a sweater. • "Some materials may irritate sensitive skin. Please look at the materials if you believe this may be the case. Materials: Covering: 100% Unknown. Stuffing: 100% Unknown." -- On a pillow. • "Cleans and refreshes without soap or water. Contains: Water, fragrance & soap." -- On the packet for a moist towelette. See a scanned image. ________________________________________ Instructions: • "Remove the plastic wrapper." -- The first instruction on a bag of microwave popcorn; to see the instructions, one first has to remove the plastic wrapper and unfold the pouch. • "Take one capsule by mouth three times daily until gone." -- On a box of pills. • "Open packet. Eat contents." -- Instructions on a packet of airline peanuts. • "Remove wrapper, open mouth, insert muffin, eat." -- Instructions on the packaging for a muffin at a 7-11. • "Use like regular soap." -- On a bar of Dial soap. • "Instructions: usage known." -- Instructions on a can of black pepper. • "Serving suggestion: Defrost." -- On a Swann frozen dinner. • "Simply pour the biscuits into a bowl and allow the cat to eat when it wants." -- On a bag of cat biscuits. • "In order to get out of car, open door, get out, lock doors, and then close doors." -- In a car manual. • "Please include the proper portion of your bill." -- On the envelope for an auto insurance bill. • "The appliance is switched on by setting the on/off switch to the 'on' position." -- Instructions for an espresso kettle. • "For heat-retaining corrugated cardboard technology to function properly, close lid." -- On a Domino's sandwich box. ________________________________________ Requirements: • "Optional modem required." -- On a computer software package.

Topic by LoneWolf    |  last reply


August 28th, 1963

On this day, a Baptist minister from Atlanta Georgia stood up in front of a quarter of a million people, and said this: I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. But 100 years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land.And so we've come here today to dramatize an appalling condition. In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a cheque. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of "Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness."It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of colour are concerned. Instead of honouring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad cheque which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we've come to cash this cheque - a cheque that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children.It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. 1963 is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual.There will be neither rest nor tranquillity in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: in the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.The marvellous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. They have come to realise that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights: "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating "For Whites Only". We cannot be satisfied and we will not be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed.Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed - we hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood.I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character.I have a dream today!I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama little black boys and little black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.I have a dream today!I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.This is our hope. This is the faith that I will go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope.With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.This will be the day, this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with a new meaning: "My country, 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring." And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.Let freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California.But not only that.Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.Let freedom ring from every hill and every molehill of Mississippi, from every mountainside, let freedom ring!And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free at last! Free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

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