Search for Filtration in Topics

Water deionizer

Hi I was wondering if any one had a good idea of how to build a water deionizer.I'm just starting a car valeting business and need deionized water for final rinsing of cars to prevent water spots as we are in an ultra hard water area and normal rinsing leaves water spots no matter how well we chamois it. I have a 1000L IBC tank that we use to collect recycled and rain water which i want to use to rinse off the cars. As we are in a water controlled zone we have to recycle and filter our water and also it is a ultra hard water area the filters to deionize the water for rinsing cost around £90 plus postage and only last 10-15 cars which is to really killing our business. It is costing us around £9 a car to just rinse them and on a basic wash we only charge £10 which as you can see is not viable. Thanks in advance

Topic by msc    |  last reply

White particles in water?

Ok, this is now driving me crazy. When I pour a glass (empty glass, no ice yet) of water (filtered, old filter) the water is clear. Pour over ice and big puffy white flakes appear. At first, I think that there must be crap in my ice. So I buy a silicone ice cube tray and use filtered water to make ice cubes. Second iteration: filtered water over filtered ice. Results: BIG FLUFFY WHITE FLAKES. So, that didn't work. My next thought was that maybe I messed up with the ice cubes. So, I switched to distilled water for the ice cubes. Third iteration: filtered water over distilled water ice cubes. Results: BIG FLUFFY WHITE FLAKES. Again I found myself with nasty debris floating in my water. What's next? Oh, maybe it's the detergent I used to wash my glasses. So, I wash a glass by hand with Dawn soap. Fourth iteration: filtered water over distilled water ice cubes. Results: you guessed it... BIG FLUFFY ****** WHITE FLAKES. Gotta say, it makes me want to pull out my hair! I just don't get it. So, here's my question: what's causing the white flakes? I read somewhere that cold temperatures can cause certain salts (not table salt) to precipitate out of solution. This can also be the case with Magnesium and Manganese. Does anyone else have a solution? I just want to drink some nice clear water. I thought for sure a Brita filter would do it for me.

Question by kakashibatosi    |  last reply

Aquaduct: Mobile Filtration Vehicle

This is the winning entry from a Specialized Innovate or Die Pedal-Powered Machine Contest. The contest site is a bit frustrating to navigate because it's all slow flash, so skip that and go right to the Innovate or Die Youtube group to see all the entries. I'm skeptical of the developing world benefiting from a flashy tricycle with molded casing, but the concept is going in the right direction.

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply

Well Filter

Hi there, I need a water filter for my well, which i can hook up before the water riches the pressure tank. I got a lot sediment in the well. I was thinking of a filter like from a fish tank. My Idea is , i fill it with gravel from big to fein (Sand) gravel in at least a 6 inch pipe and about 4 feet long. The pump company ( Flotec) told me that i need a pipe with min. 100psi rating. I want use a clear pipe so i can see when i have to change (clean) the gravel.It should also be mounted in the basement ( freeze protection). I found on the i-net a clear pipe with treats on the top and bottom, but than it's not rated any more for 100 psi. so what can i do. Any clue?

Topic by germanudo    |  last reply

Duck pond filtration system

I have duck pond (used livestock tank 12' diameter 3' deep. I need to construct a pond filter system.I have an extra 55gal barrel for this purpose.  also have a variety of water pumps (pool and sump) Any ideas/suggestions for a reasonably robust system for this?

Question by ProfessorJWN    |  last reply

Rain Water Collection Filtration System?

We are in the middle of  designing a  rain water   collection system for a  commercial  building   that    includes: 1.  a  2500  gallon  in  ground  tank 2. 1/2 hp  submersable  well pump 3.simple  float  valve to maintain  minimum   water level  during  drought What we  are     trying  to figure   out   is  to exclude   purchasing a  complicated  expensive   store bought  filtration   system we were   trying  as we always  do to  keep things  simple.   we have to   provide  sometype of  secondary filtration  system    to  aereate  the  water as well as  clean  it   in order to  run  to  our  toilets.  Whatwould  be wrong with using a   small  pool filter  set   in a  1 hour  a day   cycle  that  would   provide  oxygen  to  the water ? Also we were looking  at   using  one of  the floating   chlorine  tablet  holders  like  a   pool would  use  to   maybe   kill  any pathegons    that would  be in  it. We  realize this is  too simple  to    not have  some   down side  so  all    opinions  and help would be greatly appreciatted.

Question by andy1917    |  last reply

Shop Vacuum Hose Adapters

The more I try and understand the nightmare that the shop vacuum hose and adapter issue has become, the more I have to believe Washington was involved in its design. There is apparently no more oversight of this industry than there was over Wall Street and the banks that led to the second great depression... Can someone tell me where a person can find a source that makes real problem solving adapters, and tells you the true inside and outside diameters of both ends instead of contributing to the confusion of this national mystery? Thanks

Topic by TerrifiedCitizen    |  last reply

What type of whole house water filtration systems are out there?

We moved to a house which is on well water. There is a whole house filtration system but it is not doing a good job of removing iron from the water. I see brown stains in commodes and they come back again one month after removing the stains. The system we have now is regeneration type which does not need any salt to be added. I want to know if there is a body of knowledge for layman home owner giving me a lay of the land about cost affective options available for filtering the whole house water efficiently.


I have a large in home filtration system but lost the book on how to clean it properly can anyone give me some tips??

No one in my family thought to keep the manufacturers number nor the instructions we've had it for 3 years and its never been serviced if i can save money and do it myself id love it if you know how to please leave a comment

Question by DarienS4    |  last reply

Ca huge drinking water filtration system be modified for a fish tank?

I got a few of these filtration units:For drinking usage far too big but I was wondering if it would be possible to modify parts of it for filtering the water in my aquarium.Inside the black canisters is a prefilter (big one) and a de-scaler cartridge (small one).As they are independent from the quad filter system it only leaves the question of modifying some pipe for the inserts and finding a suitable filter medium.Would be nice as a pre-filter to keep the worst crap out of the filter pump.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Gaming in school

Does anyone know of games websites/ links that are not blocked by a schools filtration system? I get so damn bored in ICT lessons

Topic by ti112    |  last reply

UV filtration in your fish tank or small fish pond

Year after year the topic "I have a fish tank" seems to go more out of control. What was once a hobby just to have some fish can now be a design feature both in your home and inside the tank. Realistic looking lasdscapes, optical illusions that make you think the tank is much bigger and the list goes on. But one thing that now always pops up is the must have thing of UV filtration. Or to be precise: UV-C sterilisation! Now, if we trust Wiki and our big water suppliers then UV-C will literally kill anything alive that comes into contact with. So of course it would be a good thing to have for your tank - or not? UV-C is very dangerous for your eyesight and quite harmful for your skin! Looking into a proper UV-C lamp without protection means you can go blind! Even good sunglasses might not have enough protection in the UV-C range, so only use them for additional protection but never without and glass between you and the lamp! Don't be a fool! Treat UV-C seriously! You would not look into the full sun with your sunglasses and would not expose your eyes or skin to a powerful laser, UV-C is to be treated the same way! Let's start by using some boring text to explain the concept a little bit. On a large scale special and quite powerful systems are used to treat our drinking or pool water. Here special UV-C lights with a wavelenghts of 260nm or below are used to shine through the water passing by. There are two key factors here. a) the wavelenght b) the water flow rate and the corresponding time the water is in contact with the UV light To ensure all bacteria, viruses, algae and other harmful organics are dead the water must circulate for long enough so even the last water molecule had a few seconds of exposure. All this only works good with "crystal clear" water for obvious reasons as otherwise the UV has to be even more powerful to pass through. Single cell organisms literally crack into pieces similar to being exposed to gamma rays, more complex cells like algae have their cell membranes damages and the DNA suffers as well causing reproduction loss and early death. Even some chemicals break down, most importantly here chlorine based substances. Differences within the UV-C range! If you bothered to check Wiki about the topic of UV-C you will already know that only certain wavelengths within this spectrum will actuall be powerful enough to do what we want it to do. And here is the first problem for us hobby users. Most cheaply advertised "sterlisation lamps" you find in places like Ebay are actually totally useless. Stating to be selling a UV-C light to sterilze your water in such a case is still not considered to be fraud though. Simply because it still does what it supposed to do, just very slow and with very little effect. Only the so called "short wave" UV-C range is powerful enough! To avoid loosing business during the times of the biggest hype in 20 years no seller will actuall state the available wavelengths. That means without this info anywhere you can be certain the advertised lamp is of little to no use. Even those advertised to be short wave UV-C might not be the real deal. However, if a decent manufacturer is behind the actual lamp used it is possible to check the datasheet for these performance figures - but again most cheap systems come with no-name lamps inside. Check the prices for a reputable UV-C light with the same lamp fitting, e.g. G23 and you will see it might cost more than your entire system. Ok, you have a poper short wave UV-C lamp or consider getting a canister filter with one in it.... Never, ever test your lamp without proper protection!!!!! UV-C will damage your eye within seconds! If you system or lamp does not provide a viewing port or shine through area then you have to place a piece of glass between you and the light! UV-C won't be able to penetrate normal window glass but will pass through quartz glass. Place the lamp in a box and cover with the glass. How make proper use of UV-C sterilisation... The replacement lights are quite expensive, so let's see how to get the most out of them. As said before exposure is the key factor so the flow rate of the UV system must match tank size and flow rate of your filter system. Canister filters with a build in lamp should be designed to match but I will tell you later what to look for ;) Most of us will prefer to have a in-line system if there is already a good canister filter at work, so I will focus on those and rop in solutions. If you compare in-line system you might notice that some quite small and low power units claim to allow for the same flow rates as for example 40W units. Some are fraud and just want to sell while others use simple physics to make the claim true. A good system will utilise an auger like "ramp" that forces the water to circulate around the tube many times - causing up to ten times longer exposure rates. Others create this sprial effect more like a vortex with some diverters and modified inlets. The later seems to be less efficient though with low power lamps. An in-line system should be on the outlet side of your canister filter so the best quality water will pass through it. A drop in solution should be used alone and without the existing normal filter pump you might have in there. Ok, got it, but how do I actually use it now? Despite common thinking a UV-C system should not run 24/7 like your normal filter. You really only need it to solve problems you should not have in a healthy tank! It is not a magical solution to make your underlaying problems go away ;) Let's start with the most common reason someone buys a UV-C system: An algae or bacterial outbreak causing greenish or milky water. If that developed slowly over a period of weeks then you would be better off to do a good clean of the tank and filter plus a decent water exchange. A few drops of meds will do the rest. And if you constantly get algae growing on your glass, ornaments and plants then your nutrient levels and water quality is not right anyway and needs a good check. But of course there is also the problem of light - too much for too long and unwanted gree appears everywhere. If in doubt reduce the light power, shade out natural light or reduce the on time for your lights. Having said that we now face the problem of a sudden outbreak after introducing new fish or plants. If you don't have a quarantaine tank chances are that sooner or later you get unwanted or even harmful guest into your tank. Here the UV-C will be beneficial, which is why a canister filter with build in light should have a seperate switch or power supply for the light. After an outbreak or while introducing new life into your tank the UV-C will remove a lot of the things that we don't want to bring along. For new life I leave the light on non stop for a week, that is for a small 4ft tank with 200 liters. To control an outbreak it depends on how bad it is. I assume here you can still see the back of your tank  but that the water either appears greenish or slightly milky from bacteria. As a personal thing I prefer to to remove and clean my filter material before treating a severe outbreak. Once done I fill the filter with a mix of activate carbon material and fine filter wool. Reason for this quite simple: The outbreak causing stuff is already in your filter material and will be a constant source of re-infection. And since breaking down all this bad stuff causes even more bad stuff to be produced as biological waste we want to discard it properly once done. Using just fine filter wool and activated carbon also reduces the flow rate bit if compacted ;) Now we can turn on the light and pump and forget about it for a while. It is not recommended to run UV lights on a timer as you want them on all time to prevent short lifespan and have ongoing treatment of the water. Good idea to take a picture at the same of a day from now on to compare and check results. After 3 days the water should definately be clearer, if not then either your filter material is packed too losse or the lamp is no good. Once the water appears to be clear do a readin test - take a newspaper behind the tank and check if the text is clear - blurry means the water is still not clean. You will reach a point where the water quality will not further improve as much as in the days before. This is the time where you discard or clean out to dry your filter material and put the original stuff back in. The activated carbon should be discarded of course. You cleaned filter material will now need a certain time to grow enough good bacteria to go back to the old performance. During this time you should still leave the light on. In most cases with enough fish and plants in the tank a week should be sufficient. After that you can leave the light off and keep the tank fit and healthy. Special case: Algae everywhere! Especially after getting a new plant you can end up with quite pesty algae growth. Be it these long ghost hair types or in a bad case the black stuff growing on plants, ornaments and the glass. I have even seen tanks with algae covering the entire bottom of the tank causing the gravel to look like carpet. Here I can only advise to set up a quarantaine tank for your fish. Then remove all infested material for manual removal and cleaning. Infested plants should be cut clean and what can be boiled should be boiled in water for a few minutes. Now start scrubbing in the tank with ongoing water replacements. I prefer to let everything settle over night without any bubbler or pump running. This way I can suck up a lot of sediment the next day. If you can remove all plants and fish you can now use hydrogen peroxide and add it to your tank water. But this is only feasable for small desktop tanks. Before using the UV as above to cure an outbreak you should consider all water one last time. Allow at least 2 weeks with ongoing water checks before adding plants back in and another week before placing your fish back in the tank. The week before adding fish should be used to monitor the plats for any signs of algae you might have missed - if you find any remove it! A week after the fish is back in you can turn off the UV light. Underwater UV-C light!? In most online stores you will find quite cheap UV lights to be advertised as underwater or in tank use. Although it might sound tempting you should be well aware of the dangers of using them. The glass of your tank will block the harmfull UV rays but the water surface won't, so either don't ever look at it or use proper sunglasses with real UV protection. Apart from the dangers to you these lamps are not just cheap in price but also cheaply produced. That means there is no way of telling how much or how little UV-C is produced. If they are good then you still need to know in what type of tank setup you can use them. As plants can tolerate a bit of UV a placement as far away from the nearest plant should do, especially if you can place a bubble wall betwenn light and plants. The fish is another thing as some seem to be unaware of the danger in their tank. This means they can get too close to the light but I have not found any articles explaining how harmful UV-C is to fish or their eyesight. I guess once your fish starts to bounce into everything you know... ;) My advise is to stay away from the idea of hanging a UV-C lamp in your tank, the risk for you and your tank is just not justified. If you need to go cheap then get two or thre of these lamps so you have spares. But use them externally ;) Meaning: Take a UV proof plastic container of small size and place the light in there. To be really safe tape the lid and all holes for the hoses with black tape. Place the container above the water level of your tank and if you only have an internal filter pump push a suitable sized hose into the outlet to feed into you canister. Check how high you pump can make it and place the outlet or overflow slightly below this level. When to change the light? If you made it all the way down here then you might already had the benefit of using light to "cure" your tank. Now we are faced with the high replacement cost for the lamp itself. Ususally only flouroscent tubes are used. It is always good to check after purchase what type of lamp and manufacturer (if there is one) was used. In some cases the system itself is like an inkjet printer: Just a cheap way to make you buy the consumables. Let's say you new in-line filter was priced at $100 to have a nice round number, some are cheaper some much more expensive. The lamp used might be an exotic type and not even be available easy, so before you buy your system check where you can get spares, not just the lamp of course. A replacement lamp can be as ceap as 20 bucks or cost even more than your system if you need to order it elsewhere. The quartz glass sleeve can break too meaning you then need a lamp and cylinder. Going with a reputable brand and paying a bit more certainly helps to get spares in the future. Let's just assume you either got your system in bulk due to the price of replacement lamps or can get them at a reasonable price. UV-C lamps are not like your normal flouroscent light tubes you have around or maybe even on top of your tank. Consider them like the tubes used in the now unhealthy tanning beds. After a certain amount of time they no longer produce enough of the short wave UV light that we need. As you can't see it and most of us won't have the means to specifically measure it we have to trust manufacturers recommendations. For most good brands the numbers are the same: 8000 hours max. Considering the costs it does make sense to keep written track of the usage. Not too hard since we won't use them like normal lights but instead have them on for a week or more without turning them off. I recommend to have a replacement at hand long before you need it. A lamp can fail premature, crack or simply burn out. The 8000 hours are based on 24 hour usage, so one day on, one day off. This could mean for us the lifetime can be slightly longer but I would not go over 9000 hours. As a rule of thumb: If the water does not show good signs of getting clear on day thre the lamp is due.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

how to bend a bubble?

I got this Brita water filtration system and it came with a plastic storage unit to keep it inside the box correctly.How would i bend this into a small airtight bubble about 1 1/2"in. high and around 2 1/2'ft in diameter,please help!?

Question by kolf3500    |  last reply

Is it possible to create a filter for a water-dispensing refrigerator?

We have a refrigerator that dispenses chilled water. However, our landlord failed to equip any sort of filter, and the tap where I live tastes gross. Does anyone have a suggestion on how we can make a water filter for our refrigerator for less than $30?

Question by boston515    |  last reply

how can remove chloride from ferric chloride?

First i dissolved iron ore with Hcl and then i filtered it and then i  titrated that filtrate  with NaoH then i got precipitated iron ore solids by filter that solution, but more than 10% chlorides are present in that solids, so can any body tell how to remove that chlorides from that solids ?

Question by suribabupandiri    |  last reply

How To Build an underground sandbag bunker complete with sewer and well and air Filtration system for under $2,000

I,m Planning On Building an underground sandbag bunker that will protect against most natural and man made disasters i would use bricks or concrete but that is to expensive and concrete bunkers are prone to leaking and molding unless you have a proper vapor barrier on all sides of the walls and foundation and the roof i am going to make my walls out of sandbags and have good strong posts every few feet or so to prevent cave ins the posts will be good strong 8 inch diameter logs also for the roof I,m going to use 8 inch diameter logs and on the roof i,m going to put 4 feet of packed dirt on it to act as a radiation shield my walls are going to be covered in plastic sheeting or polyethylene or both on the outside for a vapor barrier to prevent moisture from entering in a layer of plastic and polyethylene sheeting in going to cover the bottom of the hole then the floor frame goes on top of that and then i pack the frame with straw for insulation then another layer of plastic and polyethylene goes over that then the plywood goes on last and is screwed to the frame with woods screws i make sure the whole frame is wrapped in polyethylene sheeting and plastic sheeting then once the floor is in place i caulk where the floor and the walls meet with silicone for the roof i put vapor proof sheeting like plastic sheeting or polyethylene down first then the logs then straw for insulation then more vapor proof sheeting then dirt on top of that for the sewer i will use a pipe running from the toilet into a big pit with a lid on it and a pipe coming out of the lid with a fly screen on it for the vent pipe and of course i will reinforce the sewer pit so that it don't cave in and have a drain field and have a door for the bunker that can be locked or barred from the inside and for heat a barrel stove any ideas you may have any comments and suggestions would be greatly appreciated any problems with my plan please let me know because I,m looking for them so i can fix them in my plans

Question    |  last reply

can a automotive fuel filter be used to filter drinking water? Answered

I am working on an emergency water filtration system for when I go camping. This system would be used to manually filter out sediment before I purify the water. Automotive fuel filters are cheap and easy to connect to tubing, but I am afraid that the paper filter element might be coated in some sort of toxic chemical that will leech into the water as i filter it. I cannot find any information about this subject on the internet, so if you know anything please tell me. thank you.

Question by gooseloops    |  last reply

how do i separate, recycle, the silver from copper tinned wire and is it cost effective - chemical or smelting ?

I have 25,000 feet of military spec marine grade 26 awg high strand count 3 conductor helix braided shielded in plastic sheathing. I have no idea how many ounces of silver are involved but can guess at the copper, which is worth much more un-tinned and brite. some have suggested crushing it to remove the plastic as the 3 conductors are also sheathed in plastic but there may be enough of this for me to tool up to do it all chemically or burning it using the right filtration?? thanks,

Question by Steward in Good Fealty    |  last reply

How to test the power output on a wind turbine?

I'm on a team prototyping a water filtration system powered by a Savonius wind turbine; the energy from the spinning turbine is mechanically transferred to a reverse osmosis filter/pump setup. We're doing tests of various blade configurations and are trying to determine the power output by hooking up a small DC motor (1-3V, 5000+ RPM) to the shaft. We're seeing only mW outputs though and were expecting something significantly larger. How do we pick a motor for the job? Do we need to match the RPMs of the motor to the expected RPMs of the shaft (~150)? Any other ideas for testing power? Thanks for any help!

Topic by moisture    |  last reply

Update to my Instructable : Constructing A Small Fish Pond In The Garden

My Instructable Constructing A Small Fish Pond In The Garden, received some negative comments from couple of members. I reproduce a part of comment here from one of the honorable member : Quote " I do not recommend that anyone follow these instructions for a fish pond. There are major problems here. If you want to build a water feature in your yard, this may be passible, but this is not sufficient for a fish pond. " Unquote My small fish pond without any aeration and filtration is still thriving. My heartfelt thanks for the support provided by finton. I have posted an earlier update after three months and again a new update exactly after five months today (27 Jan 2014)... My water plants have flowered, my fishes are healthy and pond liner I used is in perfect condition... cheers

Topic by antoniraj    |  last reply

First project, Need help with materials selection :)

Hey everyone! This is my first post here and I hope someone can give me a hand, or I can contribute in the future.  For now I need some expert opinions.  For a project in school me and my partner came up with the idea of making our own air filtering baby canopy.  I made a drawing of what I imagine it would look like.  I just for the life of me can't come up with an idea to make the frame out of. Here's an image so you can see what I'm talking about... (side) (top) So I'm pretty sure I can make the base and the supporting frame out of 1/2inch PVC pipe with 45degree elbows.  The electrical and fan for the filtration unit and netting we have have sorted out already. For the life of me, I cannot figure out what to make the "filtration unit" out of.  It needs to be a shell basically so I can fit the filter and fan inside.  First I thought maybe use thin aluminum sheet metal and form it to a desired shape.  (I've even found stuff for air conditioning ducts that is almost in the shape and size where it would work for a prototype.  I even had an idea of using foam.  Use a foam cutting tool to make a top and bottom piece, paint them with an acrylic coating to harden it.  Then gluing the top and bottom piece. *Any idea what I can use to make some sort of "box" that doesn't look like junk to hold my internals? Also, taking any ideas of how I can make the folding joint for the supporting arches.  I was thinking maybe just making them less wide than the frame, so they can be lined up towards the center, and drill a hole through them and bolt them.  Any comments? If you've made it this far in my post, thank you!  And I look forward to any of your craft ideas. tl:dr; What material can I use to make a "shell" of a desired shape that can hold electronics and stuff? -Mike

Topic by de312    |  last reply

Age of Aquariums Special Guest Judge Announced!

For the Age of Aquariums Contest we are bringing in a special expert judge, Alex Andon! Alex studied marine biology at Duke and was always fascinated by the jellyfish exhibits at public aquariums. Jellyfish can't go in a regular fish tank because they would get sucked into the filtration system. They require a kreisel tank with a special water flow pattern to keep them suspended in the middle of the tank. There were no commercially available jellyfish tanks, so Alex started experimenting with large tanks and then made them smaller and more affordable until he had designed the first desktop jellyfish tank. He launched it on Kickstarter and raised $163,000, making it one of the first successful crowdfunded launches of a product. The company sells specialized jellyfish aquariums and breeds its own jellyfish, shipping them overnight to customers throughout the U.S. Alex's latest project is the Chargerito, the world's smallest in-wall phone charger.

Topic by Danger is my middle name  

Scholarship Idea/ IAQ irobot

Hello all, I like all the great ideas submitted on the forum. My Idea for the iRobot contest is To have an IAQ bot utilizing the OI interface. I would like to have an air filtration unit on the irobot, and possibly monitor air temp, humidity, air quality etc, and to have an alarm condition when something falls out of your given parameter. I envision the robot going from room to room monitoring the IAQ conditions and letting you know if there is a problem. This will be my main goal for the contest due date. Given further R&D I would like to add different extensions to the unit by possibly by allowing the robot to be linked with the homes HVAC unit for added zone control, and efficiency. I am new to Robotics, and I have always wanted to enter into this field, and figured this contest would be a great way to begin. To further extend my idea it could also be used in military or hospital applications for detecting harmful airborne disease, or help protect against bioterrorism.

Topic by wired up    |  last reply

diy pool heater

I have tried so many different ways to heat my pool water and have had little luck. One way I did it was to take about three hundred feet of black 1/2" drip line and run it around the pool rim. I supplied cold water from a smalloutlet attached to the return line,using the power of the filtration pump to move the water from the pool through thecoil and I adjusted the flow to about half of the normal, then at the end I had the heated water re-enter the pool. Iwould say the water got to about 100 degrees, by the time it went through the drip line. The problem is that it wasn'tefficient enough to have any real effect on the pool water temperature which stays at about 60-65 even on the hottest days. I live in the Sacramento area of California, and we get pretty hot summers, usually about 90-105. Any suggestions on how I could make this idea more efficient? My pool water temp is always too cold to swim in, and I have a capacity of 12,000 gallons.

Topic by dandaman1950    |  last reply

A kind request: Google Science fair vote

I recently entered my Science Fair project in the Google Science Fair, an international science competition in which entrants can build, research, discover etc. anything they want to. For my entry, I researched on how prosthetic limbs can be controlled by thought alone and found that much of the mathematical analysis of the brainwave data had to be improved upon in order to make such a technology usable. Here is a brief synopsis, in case you were interested: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- My project is, at its most general level, based upon the idea of the brain-computer interface.In this sense of the definition, anything we use to interact with machines is a brain-computer interface, including our fingers. However, amputees often face difficulties after the loss of such a vital method of interaction. Through research, I found that a current medical device, the Electroencephalograph (EEG) could be implemented as a direct brain-machine interface; in other inputs on a computer (such as a cursor) could potentially be operated by thought alone. However, I also learned that, although EEG technology has been in existence since circa 1920, it still suffers from the age-old problems of signal filtration and desired feature extraction. This means that current signal processing algorithms are not able to interpret the electrical signals exhibited by neuronal synapses very efficiently, thus making such an interface wholly impractical and inaccurate. My project sought to rectify this through the creation of custom signal processing scenarios that utilized new algorithms; specifically, the use of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Vector quantization compression/extraction methods for enhanced noise filtration and the removal of known artifacts (sources of electricity other than the brain, such as muscles). However, I decided it was not enough to run software simulations; to determine its true real-world applicability, I used a 14- channel EEG neuroheadset to gather electrical data from my own brain. I then built a prototype robotic arm with an onboard processor that would translate signals from the computer. Finally, I used the programs I created to "decipher" the incoming brainwave signals, and send corresponding messages to the robotic limb. I concluded that, by using my programs to perform the signal processing, I was able to increase the accuracy of detected brainwave patterns by about 16%. Although this may not seem like much, the brain processes hundreds of thousands of ideas simultaneously, and recognizing patterns requires a great deal of processing effort on the part of the computer. Finally, I reached an accuracy of about 91.35% using the programs I created. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Further in-depth details can be seen here: Recently, after submitting my project, I was notified that I was one of the 60 semifinalists world-wide; as part of the judging process, there is also an award called the "People's Choice Award." Essentially, the public goes online and votes once in each of the 3 age groups (13-14, 15-16, 17-18) for the project they believe is the best. I am kindly asking if you would consider voting for my project for this award; I believe this project holds many potential applications in the real world other than prosthetics alone; such technology could be effectively utilized by patients with paraplegia, paralysis, or even polio. The voting process is simple: 1. Go the Google Science Fair Voting website: (for my project) 2. Click the "vote" button in the upper right-hand corner Again, thank you for your time and consideration of my project, Anand S

Topic by tech industries  

Advanced Helmet

Advanced Helmet By: Arseny Ratnikov I want to create a helmet that looks like a sci fi helmet (mass effect, titanfall, halo, etc.) and that; **Want to make cool helmet, need help with having multiple camera feed output to multiple screens** * Protects my head (able to decrease force from impact by significant degree) * Can filter the air I breath (does not need to be super extreme filter, just filter out general junk, the better the filter the more pleased I am, but if it becomes too bulky/expensive then it is unnecessary)(Optional/Most Likely) * Has a HUD with my vitals on it. I would wear some sensors, such as HR monitor to have some cool biofeedback, maybe also include other information.(option) * Maybe even have it be a digital display where there are cameras on the front and maye back of the helmet that then are displayed on the interior screen, where I have voice commands setup for some different things. * Have the helmet be as sound proof as possible and have microphones where my ears would be, then inside the helmet speakers, so that I can modify the noise around me to be how I want it to be. I understand this would be rather difficult (at least including all of the bullets) and that it could even be a touch silly. Yet, I find this a rather intriguing pursuit and think it will help contribute to becoming a cyborg. Any tips would be greatly appreciated as I don't really know where to start for this. I can imagine a lot of the work might be done on an arduino, but I simply don't know the feasibility of modifying noises of the world around you and having the cameras on the helmet. So here's a little prioritization sheet I worked out, it is not exactly in order, and maybe you all have some suggestions on what might be more critical to design and functionality. Prioritization 1. Functionality a. Head protection a1. Padding/Inertia dampener a2. Sturdy/solid b. Control of phone through bluetooth b1. In helmet speakers b2. In helmet microphone b3. Voice control c. Control of other systems such as screens c1. Voice control of screens c2. Screen modification c3. Screen HUD and other functions (maybe GPS map, time, etc.) d. Camera view d1. Camera live to screen with little to no latency d1a. 360 degree view compressed to 180 degree screen (maybe) d2. Computer control of camera feed d2a. Visuals, different HUDs e. Sound modulation e1. Sound cancelling e2. Sound reproduction at low to no latency e3. Sound modification e3a. Changing pitch e3b. Change decibel levels e3c. Change relative level of external sounds f. The HUD f1. Display of vitals f1a. Heart rate, oxygenation, etc. (Requires some monitor) f2. Display of time and other running interests f3. Display of current location on google maps/GPS system g. Air Filtration g1. Filtration of air, relatively high quality g2. Seal on head or seal over mouth and nose or full body suit that connects to helmet h. Extra Features 2. Style a. Look good b. Look like popular sci-fi media c. Does not interfere with functionality and accents functionality How should I do this? I am planning on using some old phone screens if I can for the screen part and multiple cameras. I plan on using a raspberry computing system (might need multiple) to modulate the output from the cameras. How could I make multiple camera outputs lay onto multiple screens that looks good at three to five inches from the eyes? Also how can I make the raspberry pi control my phone and computer via voice, or at least change a screens properties? Thanks

Topic by ArsenyR    |  last reply

Advice on A centrifugal pump.

Hello, I recently was given a pet from a friend and after doing some research on what the little guy needs I came to the understanding that the current enclosure he is in is inadequate for his needs. Therefore, I wanted to save up some cash to get him the right size tank set up that I know he deserves. In the meantime though, I have plenty of things laying around the house that I feel could render him a more comfortable habitat till that investment goes through. After more research on the matter, I came to find that for most household aquariums, the bulk of the work falls on your filtration system. That being said, I wanted to go for a Wet / Dry Sump Filter setup as it would be  the most easiest system to setup at home with the various resources laying about. Unfortunately while gravity will be doing the work of siphoning the water from the tank down to the Wet / Dry Filter Media, it will not be moving it back up to the tank. For that I concluded there was no escaping the need of a pump in some shape or form to move that cleaner water back into the tank. From what I read the pump will pretty much determine how big I can make his tank.  So this brings me to my current dilemma. Presented with various motors around the house, I went for the biggest I could find (* excluding the water pumps in our cars mind you). That so happen to be a 1.25 HP Wet & Dry Shop vac that was collecting dust in the garage. I confirmed the motor is working and already came with the impeller attached to it. I was hoping to see if you fine folks could share some wisdom on how I can: 1.) Make it Waterproof. 2.) Adhere the right type of casing around the Impeller and Motor so as to benefit from the  Bernoulli's principle and get the most water moving through my system.  3.) I intend to have this setup not 15~20 feet from where I sleep, this motor is LOUD. I was reading online about creating a sound damping box for it and was wondering what suggestions you guys might have for that? I keep fearing there won't be enough ventilation and it will over heat. ....anything else you would like to throw in. TL;DR : 

Topic by Rensouken    |  last reply

Oil Spill Water Cleanups As Fast As They Happen

We live and survive on oil today. That dependence won’t go away for at least a few more generations. Today’s technology allows us to drill oil just about anywhere in the world, and then move it to anywhere we want using behemoth water vessels. Unfortunately, there’s a dark side to all this and it happens when our technology fails us, as periodically demonstrated by mankind’s great oil spill disasters. The most recent being the Gulf Oil Spill of 2010. The amount of oil actually dumped upon our ecosphere and contaminating the environment was mind boggling. The numbing numbers are so large that we can’t even get our minds around it. And we all know that the responsible drilling company won’t fess up to how much was really spilled because even they don’t know, don’t want to know and furthermore want to forget about it. Is there some way to tackle this oil spill problem through the use of the very culprit that created it, namely technology? Of course there is, but it will cost the billions they used to clean up the mess they created in the first place.  We want to develop a technological process to be used worldwide that borrows from what we currently know, and clean up these oil spills almost as quickly as they happen upon our seascape. Did we finally clean up the Gulf oil spill?  Yes, maybe? But it took too long and we either didn’t use the right equipment or not enough prepared and available equipment to check the problem. Time is probably the most critical factor involved in mitigating oil spill disasters. While Nature obviously works to clean up ecological disasters, she takes perhaps a decade or more to make a region whole again. We need to help nature accelerate her time schedule to a few weeks not decades! Oil cleanup equipment exists that is too painstakingly slow and inefficient to get the job done quickly and effectively, and to recapture ~99% of the oil spilled. Today’s processes are makeshift, disjointed, and not organized nor designed to tackle today’s mega-proportion oil spill problems.  We need a cohesive mega-solution to handle mega-problem oil spills. A virtual army of specialists with proper equipment to attack, gather up and capture, then deliver the spilled oil to vessel staging platforms. These huge platforms will separate 99.9% of the captured oil/water, dumping the water back.  Oil tankers on standby then take this recaptured crude oil to refineries. This process must be set up with the proper equipment to dynamically proceed in real time. Only high sea states should be capable of halting its operation. The process of oil/water cleanup requires the serial use of various sequential operations where each performs a key stage of the operatic procedure. The orchestration starts with techniques that initially yield the biggest volumetric punch first, then refines this processing by using less volumetric cleaning ability but greater oil separation capability. All the while we have deployed an improved form of today’s containment apron, capable of hundreds of miles of coverage to prevent spreading the spilled oil slick to shore. Having researched today’s available oil spill removal systems, their usefulness has been categorized according to volumetric processing capability per time. Fast surface skimming techniques plus “huge”, constant flowing centrifugal separators clearly win, but are not 100% effective. Sponge-type, oil absorbent techniques then come to play as they are useful in nearly recapturing the remaining 0.1% oil from the water, but are slow and will be used solely on the remaining 99.99% pure water expelled from our centrifugal oil separators. Today we literally use these absorbers like sponges, dunking them into the oil slick, waiting awhile and pulling them out after they’ve absorbed some oil. Such prolonged processing times are unacceptable. Absorbers are to be used differently than today, their performance is vastly accelerated as they now act as 0.1% oil filters to process the pressurized water expelled from the centrifugal separators. The final residuals of perhaps 0.01% that the high pressure absorber filtration misses will require oil break down chemistry whose end products are environmentally friendly and allows Nature to restore balance. So the actual water dumped back will be better than 99.99% pure. Now let’s break this process down a bit and address the pieces of equipment involved. Our attack vessels are special, high speed catamarans that ferry cars between different ports today. They use water-jet propulsion, are extremely fast, maneuverable, and will be equipped with a special front-end water scoop to pick up the oil/water slick in real time while propelled forward. Their scoop or nozzle articulates, performing real time adjustments responding to oil slick depths thereby avoiding too much water pickup. Once their holding tanks are full, they reconnoiter with waiting intermediate-sized tankers to quickly dump their oil/water cargo. When these tankers are full, they deposit their load to one of the huge vessel platforms. These staging platforms use centrifugal systems to quickly and efficiently separate huge quantities of the oil and water, and dump the 99.9% cleaned water overboard (Nature effectively handles the remaining 0.1% of oil). When their tanks are full of oil, they start emptying themselves into the large standby oil tankers for delivery to refineries. QED. For you science fiction/fact fans, this concept requires enormous equipment, is on a huge scale and if viewed as one harmonious system may be the first Oil-Terra-Forming machine to be used on our planet.  

Topic by RT-101    |  last reply

Pure cacsaicin from chilli peppers

I already had a quite long Ible in the making when it downed on me that not too many people should actually create such a dangerous substance at home.So instead I decided to just write a bit about the history, general procedures and what is possible or not.If you already made your own chilli exptract for a special hot sauce or your home made pepper spray then you feel right at home.Those who never done anything like it or at least some essential oil extractions might just find some other interesting stuff to read.I won't go into all details here as those with the basic knowledge will already know the precautions and most things.Capsaicin...The stuff that makes your exes run, clear you nose and makes you sweat like you on fire.At least if it comes within you favourite dish.In the pure form it is a severe irritant and should be handled like explosives or concentrated acids.You just won't make a mistake with this stuff twice - trust me!What really harms you is not the capsaicin itself, it is your bodies reaction to it!It stimulates the same nerves responsible to feel heat and pain, sometimes those for a severe itch as well.And unlike a normal reaction you would get from hot water, it won't stop until it is fully removed.Even after this the body keeps reacting for bit longer.On the skin you can end up with blisters like from a real burn, in your airways it can make breathing impossible!And lets just say that swimming goggles won't look as dumb and funny on your face once you realise you got some fine crystals on your face....If you dare to continue then I assume you are well aware of the risks, dangers and PPE requirements!Pure or extract?I checked tons of so called instructions on how to make pure or 99% pure capsaicin from chilli peppers.They all just produce a really crude mix of goo that happens to have a lot of capsaicin in it.If it is red or even darker it is nowhere near pure.If it has a weird smell that has really nothing in common with chilli than it is even worse.If it is more or less colorless, with a very strong scent that your nose does not like at all then we are getting somewhere.So why is it that we always end up with this color that is impossible to remove?Extracting chilli peppers....A thing most people ignore a bit when in a hurry is that an alcohol extraction requires DRY alcohol.You just won't tolerate water in it, which is why often methanol comes easier and cheaper than ethanol.Some people even think just because the alcohol is either evaporated or distilled off that all is good when using things like methylated spirit.Ever had the problem that you used that stuff and your hot sauce made you vomit after realising that it comes with a bad and extremely bitter after taste?That is the stuff that makes your home depot ethanol unuasable ;)If you use homegrown or otherwise fresh chilli you need to fully dry it first!Don't be fooled by people stating they did it with fresh peppers.What you get this way is some of the worst extractions you can get.Don't be fooled to think you need some Carolina Reaper either.A big bag of chilli powder from your grocery store will do just fine.So what is all in our extract?Alcohol or any other solvent usable for a capsaicin extraction also dissolves a lot of other things.Like the beta carotenes that give the extract the organge to red color.The skin and the entire fruit also contains oils, plus the shiny outside is mostly due to wax...All of this ends in your extract....You not only get what you want and might not mind but also everything else you don't want.Making the difference....The impossible we do right away, for miricles or wonder allow a day or two of processing ;)Assuming you end with a rather large qauntity of alcohol the concentration of everything is relatively low.If you used something like a Soxhlet extraction you already degraded a lot of the capsaicin due to the heat.And even after the best filtering you might have a clear solution but whatever is not a solid is still in there.Imagine you would put it all into a freezer....Surprisingly a lot of stuff won't stay in solution once cooled down enough.Especially if you give it a few days.Depending on what you started with you either get a slimy looking sludge or some crystals showing.Either way it needs to be filtered out and washed.For the washing use the same pure alcohol as before but make sure it is well cooled.If any cacsaicin was already forming crystals then they will be washed into your solution again now to a little extend.But you removed an awful lot of the wax if it was not capsaicin already. ;)Testing the slurry we collected.When using chilli powder from the shops I noticed that there is often no wax to be found at all.While for fresh produce the content is significant.Once dry you make a simple test with water.Capsaicin basically does not dissolve in water, so it would sink to the bottom while wax floats ;)I assume you ended with little to no wax but fine capsaicin instead.From the natural form it is very hard to get crystals bigger than a dust particle.This only happens if the temperature is cold enough and the concentration high enough.As my entire setup is quite small I usually prepare several 500ml plastic bottles that I fill to one quarter by height with chilli powder and then fill up to half with methanol.In the end I use a full 1kg bad of chilli powder but only a may of 5 to ten bottles.Making the most of it.When using alcohol extraction you want to use a little of the solvent as possible.Use means here wasting it instead of recycling it.Once I filtered my white slurry out I destill the remaining solution to reduce it by 50-75%.An almost dark red color is usually when it is time to stop.After this I place it back in the freezer for a day to check if more crystals or slurry forms.If so then I filter it off again.What is left is then mixed with recycled and fresh methanol to soak more chilli powder in my bottles.Means I discard the filtered of chilli poweder once washed, recycle what I can from the methanol and keep whatever the slurry produces that is not wax or dissolves in water.Depending with how much chilli you start you will get to the point where your filtered solution is already dark red.Since the final capsaicin won't dissolve in water you can destill with some added (destilled) water.This way you recover the alcohol without risking to get a sticky goo everyhwere that you need to clean off.It is quite possible to get some more capsaicin this way as with the alcohol leaving it will participate out.Simply filter the solution once the alcohol is recovered.As the beta carotenes won't dissolve well in water either it is best to perfom this destillation while all is mixed.If you can't do this then don't worry to much, it just means a few more minutes of cleaning later ;)Testing the final product....What you have left once the slurry is dried should be almost colorless with maybe a pale yellow in it.Fully dried it should appear as basically white.There should be no smell to it, nothing to tickkle you nose.Colorless and odorless.For whatever reason I still sometimes end up with a very faint smell.Not really chilli though...Depending on the temperature the products is either quite hard to almost britlle (when frozen) to almost wax like at room temp and above.I highly recommend against testing whatever you have on your skin or to ingest it!!!Waste some sauce base like ketchup (you can add it later to your sauce again) or some butter - I prefer the later.Butter become liquid well below the 65°C celsius decomposition temp for capsaicin, so it should dissolve very easy in it.Take a shot glass with just enough butter for a sandwich and dip a toothpick into your product.Make sure there it a tiny bit on it and not that the toothpick has a thick coating!Once cooled down while mixing every now then spread it on some sandwich and take a bite.After a minute or two you should definitately feel a difference to just butter - hopefully not too hot.If nothing happens repeat with a bit more on the toothpick.Still nothing at all usually means you filtered out only by-products and for some reasons managed to make the capsaicin disappear.Hints and tips that might safe your bacon....Methanol boils at about 64°C, ethanol at about 77°C.Capsaicin starts to decompose at 65°C.Not a big deal but if you get to the 80° mark, which is easy which ethanol you might have to use evaporation instead of destillation and waste the alcohol to your surrounding air...Water...For the final product it is not a problem but during the extraction process it is.Despite some people claiming otherwise both the quality and amount of what you end up with are lower.It seems some of the capsaicin binds to the water molecules with the help of some other stuff that the plant material provides.And when you try to destill a solution that was contaminated with water from the chilli it tends to foam up quite badly.While with pure alcohol and fully dried product there is no foaming.What to expect when collecting the end product...At room temperature you can dissolve what you get in product from one kg of dried chilli powder in under 10ml of pure alcohol.However at -20°C next to nothing dissolves in the alcohol.That means as long as you have still over lets say 1000ml alcohol extract then very little will participate out.Just one reason why I prefer to work with small batches - keeps the concentration higher from the start.The more you destill off and re-use the higher the capsaicin concentration in the alcohol will be.So before you start to add any water for the destillation you need to be aware of the consequences.I found out that first destilling most of the alcohol off the single rounds that got too dark in color helps.I just collect this conentrate for the final destillation process.Key is to destill this off to the point where it just starts to thicken up a bit.It should still be liquid but act almost like a thin oil.You don't want it so thick that is crates a coating on the walls when you move the liquid around.In case it did happen just add a tiny amount of alcohol again.Put in the freezer for a few days....Empty into your filter and let as much as possible drip out.Rinse with as little alcohol as possible - have the rinsing alcohol at -20C as well .Do not wash the filter with water but with the frozen cold rinsing alcohol.Cover the filter up and leave in a cool place for the next run - have something under it as it might still let a drip or two off.The remaining liquid leave to evaporate off until it just starts to thick up again a tiny bit - back in the freezer for a day or two.Filter out again then while still a bit wet turn the filter over to remove most what is in it.I prefer to empty onto a teflon sheet and to wear full PPE here....While still wet you try to remove more from the filter with a fine but short brush, knife or whatever you find suitable.Do not continue any action once the stuff starts to dry!Place the filter into a sealed bag and leave in your freezer for when you do anthoer extraction - this way you loose far less product ;)When doing a final destillation with added water to cover all the alcohol you are left with the remains of the original product, minus all solids.Beta carotene is quite beneficial, so it would make sense to include it into your hot sauce.Plus there will always be some leftover capsaicin in it.If you want to use this part of the extract as well to really get what is possible then IMHO slow is better.You can't just destill off or boil off the water to get a nice "sauce" base.The capsaicin that is left would be mostly decomposed and with no effect anymore.A clear sign of too much temperature is bad smell that really turns you off.Hard to define in words but trust me, if you smell it you know what I means as you woul refuse to have this smell coming from your final hotsauce.During the summer it no problem to just leave it out to evaporate in the shade !You can do it in full sun but must make sure no sunlight gets into the liquid.UV decomposes at least a lot of the karotenes....Special equippment at hand? If you happen to have a vacuum pump or at least a salvaged fridge compressor you can safe a lot of time.A buchner filter for 500ml in the top is quite cheap but you can build something similar with a normal funnel.Look it up it you want...A proper buchner filter however already comes with a very fine glass filter built in.Means you don't really need any filter paper - I still add it as it makes the cleaning easier.Instead of waiting several hours for gravity to do its work on a coffe filter you are done in a few minutes.Well worth trying out!For the water destillation of the remaining end product, or by-product if you like, vacuum also helps.CVD or Closed Vacuum Destillation sound complicated but is really simple.One pressure vessel is filled with the solution to be conectrated, the other is kept empty.Connected with a suitable pipe or hose and fully sealed.The extract is heated to about 40°C while the empty vessel is placed into an ice bath.With the pump and the help of a valve create just enough vacuum so create small bubbles in the heated vessel.Close the valve and a few hours later there should be far less water in the hot one while the frozen one builds up ice.Every now and then check the vacuum gauge and if require start the pump again.You can do with just the pump and one vessel....Problem is that the oil in your pump will quickly get far too contaminated with water.You could add a conatainer with something like an absorbent but it would have to be sufficient for all the water you need to remove.Most of all it must be able to absorb it fully before the airstream enters the compressor.The benefit is that the capsaicin can't decompose at all.In a vacuum or close to it anyways, a lot of the things that procude smell also disappear through the compressor.Won't help it was already a stinky mess but will certainly reduce the smell of the concentrate.If you prefer to keep this aroma for your final sauce then do not use a vacuum.Why not a Soxhlet or similar device as used for essential oil extraction?The benefit seems to be clear:You have a relatively large vessel to hold a lot of chille powder and can let the alcohol cycle and wash it out completly...Theory is not always reality.....Firstly the alcohol runs through it many times while it dissolves what it can from the powder.That means each round you actually wash with a higher concentration until there is equal amounts in the alcohol and the powder.You waste about 50% of the end product unless you repeat it all several times with fresh alcohol.Worst of all however is the temperature, even if you use methanol.To make the alcohol evaporate enough to make the process work properly and in a timely fashion it must be heated to above 65°C, in most cases even with a proper heating mantle you won't have the temperature control tight enough.It is quite possible to destroy 70% of the capsaicin this way....The condesers used are also not really suitable for these low temperatures.Means you should use ice water to cool.Either way you will loose a lot of what could otherwise be product.Funny things that might stumble you along the way.In the freezer the solution will participate out a bit.However, when back to room temperature most if it will still be there, only a fraction goes back into solution.I could not figure out why this happens but once heated to about 40°C it all dissolves again.Filter fully blocked by the product?The fine sludge can be a problem even with a proper vacuum filtration unit.Especially if the product is still not really a solid once fully dried.A paper filter can be re-used many times but whatever makes it past and into the glass filter is tricky.You should not get much here if the paper filter was fine enough but if it builds up to the point where it makes the filtration long and slow:Remove the paper filter and add a small amount of luke warm alcohol.If it does not start to trickle through already give it a minute or two before turning the vacuum on.Starts a bit slow but should clear up quickly, if in doub repaet with a large volume of alcohol.I prefer to do this cleaning before I start a new bag of powder or whever I need to restock.Means I can use the same alcohol I had to clean the filter to add to the bottles with powder ;)Nothing gets wasted if you are prepared....If you find any typos in the above then feel free to keep them.However if you decide to use the typos for monetary gain I would kindly ask for 5% of the net profit made from my typos.;)

Topic by Downunder35m