Search for Gas and Oxygen kiln in Topics


How to make a kiln that works on gas an oxygen?

To produce a temperature of about 2000c how can one make a kiln at home? What are the raw materials needed?

Question by JilM3    |  last reply


oxygen percentage in plants

How much percentage of oxygen a plant produce in one day ? my project is here https://www.instructables.com/id/recyclereuse-gardening/

Topic by mangal singh yadav    |  last reply



Visible Gas? Answered

I wan't to fill a chamber with hydrogen, have a chamber of the same size linked with it, with a heavy visible gas in it, then as I pump out the hydrogen the heavy gas displaces it and I can see when I need to stop pumping and refill with hydrogen.  What gas can I use,  I know just about any visible gas will work because hydrogen is the lightest, but it would be nice if it was heavier than average air so I could allow air to flow into my heavy gas chamber to displace it.  Or can I just die the air with some kind of smoke from my smoke machine. Yes hydrogen is extremely explosive, so this would be on a very, very small scale with hopefully 0 oxygen.

Question by jj.inc    |  last reply


What kind of tanks would I need to store liquefied hydrogen, and oxygen or gas forms? But not h2o form.? Answered

What kind of tanks would I need to store liquefied hydrogen, and oxygen or gas forms? But not h2o form.

Question by nfarrow    |  last reply


High Pressure Oxygen Fitting?

Does anyone know what type of fitting/threads are used on common high pressure oxygen gas tanks used for welding/cutting.

Question by seedorfj    |  last reply


Does oxygen occupy less space when it is super cooled (When it is in its liquid state)? Answered

If i freeze oxygen to its liquid state, will it occupy less space when it is in its earth natural state (Gas)?

Question by jamesc4    |  last reply


What equipment is needed to fill an appropriate cylinder with oxygen generated by the electrolysis of water?

Update: I need someone that has experience with gas cylinders to point out potential dangers that would be present by filling this way, We've already discussed water vapor and oil potentially making its way inside. That doesn't sound good to me so I need certainty that its safe or those can be eliminated or reduced to safe levels. Right now I would really like to know what I need so I can refill tanks myself. I'm guessing its a special adapter or replacement valve, but I don't know where to start Original: Would it be possible to fill an appropriate oxygen tank with the right adapters/compression system with the oxygen generated by electrolyzing water and what kind of equipment would be needed? I know for propane you can buy adapters and refill/transfer from one to another, but obviously this is completely different, and I don't know anything about oxygen valves/adapters or compression systems. Yes I know this could potentially be very dangerous and also have no interest in collecting the hydrogen. Just to clarify we are talking about commercial grade tanks, not a 2 liter soda bottle. Also, if possible how high of purity would be expected using optimal electrodes and electrolytes to prevent corrosion and impurities. Any information at all would be very helpful.

Question by NathanE31    |  last reply


Using Tungsten to Ignite Gas?

Alright, so Tungsten (which you may or may not know, is my favorite element) is combustible when current passes through it while it is exposed to oxygen. Could I place a bit of tungsten I scavenged from a lightbulb in a small pool of gas (or alcohol) while running 9 volts through, and get a reaction? Would having the whole bit of tungsten under the gas work, or would I need a piece above the gas also? I'm not looking to blow things up, just trying to do a bit more "dangerous experiments" before school starts. Thanks all!

Topic by Bran    |  last reply


How do I collect the oxygen from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and manganese dioxide?

I believe that the reaction between the black, powdery manganese dioxide found within carbon-zinc batteries, and household-variety hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen. However, it is my understanding that oxygen is heavier than air, and will therefore that collecting the gas will not be as simple a matter as seen in steven07's Instructable on producing and collecting hydrogen.Unless I'm completely wrong, and a reaction that produces oxygen will inflate the balloon. :POr, does anyone else have another way of collecting the gas?

Topic by carbon    |  last reply


What keeps diy water torches from "back firing" ? Answered

I wish to make one using electrolysis. Electricity breaks the water into hydrogen and oxygen, then the gas then goes through a bubbler and then to the torch. Can water torches backfire because of the oxygen in the HHO gas?

Question by lol XD    |  last reply


Compressing hydrogen? Answered

I have a hydrogen generator and use the gas as i make it at the moment. I want to try compressing it, the issue is the gas is really a combination of pure oxygen and hydrogen in the perfect explosive mix. If i have flame aresters on all my pipes and have it well earthed as well as not using steel parts in the compressor so there is no chance of static or sparks from steel, will it be relatively safe to try compressing this into a cylinder? or am i insane to try this???

Question by benmurton    |  last reply


Volume of gas from given weight of dry ice?

I'm rusty on basic chem. specifically, molarity, molecular weight... Dry ice, frozen CO2 is sold by the pound. I'd like to know by working formulas, how much volume a pound of dry ice will fill once it returns to gas. Carbon has molecular weight ~ 12.  Oxygen ~16.  But I don't recall what those numbers represent. One mole of gas occupies 22.4 liters, but how much does a mole of CO2 weigh?

Topic by Toga_Dan    |  last reply


Does Hydrogen occupy less space when it is super cooled (When it is in its liquid state)? Answered

If i freeze hydrogen to -253 drgree (liquid state), will it occupy less space when it is in its earth natural state (Gas)?

Question by jamesc4    |  last reply


I need some one to help me make a 02wideband for the auto field are there any one willing to help me ?

an oxygen sensor {or lambda sensor} is an electronic device that measure the proportion of oxygen{o2} in the gas or liquid being analysed 

Question by dave20009    |  last reply


Rapid decompression cooling? Answered

Is a possible way to super cool a gas (nitrogen or oxygen) to liquid temperatures by using a sub-zero tank of 5000 psi compressed air to blast that gas over a radiator and therefore cool the gas in the radiator to a liquid, then quickly pump it to a chilled high pressure insulated tank.

Question by jj.inc    |  last reply


Wood gasifiers and safety - Carbon Monoxide poisoning - hospital

Sorry if it is in the wrong section of the forum. If it can be moved to a better place then do so. This is a quick mention to anyone that is playing around with any burners such as:    wood gas generator    bio-gas    wood gasifier    'hobo' stove I am not severely concerned but it did happen, I think it needs a mention, as it is for everyone's safety. After playing with wood gas and attempting methanol creation from a small gasifier unit for a few weeks, I had started to realize that each day I had a most annoying headache / migrane in my frontal area of my brain / head. They ended up getting so bad that my body could not tolerate them anymore and started to go into shock, causing a rather painful, endless throwing up session for many hours each time even.  It came to a point where after 3 weeks of playing with a bio-gas generator for about 4 hours a day had started to lead me into temporary blindness an hour and a half at a time. This was when I was concerned as I could not read any more instructables :( After a quick jot to the local doctors, I explained what I had been up to and I was correct. I had given myself the rather classic, and very close to death, carbon-monoxide poisoning where my doctor insisted I go to emergency at the hospital ( 2 hours away ) immediately and have someone else drive me. Pretty much equivalent to staying inside a garage with your car running for 5 hours, all the doors closed. I was very close to severe carbon monoxide poisoning and death.  At the hospital, blood was taken, analysed, and they had discovered large traces of C02 that they attempted to flush with some oxygen, but this only works to a point and they mentioned that nothing else could be done apart from telling me not to use or be near any smoke sources for at least 3 weeks and I should recover fine. I am still playing with my wood gas generators, and attempting to make methanol, but these days, after 3 days ago, I take further safety precautions to make sure it wont happen again. Such as: ventilation / exhaust fan ( I WAS OUTSIDE WHEN I WAS POISONED! DONT TAKE THIS LIGHTLY! ) keep a distance, find a better way to ignite / extinguish the burner keep your face and body out of the smoke dont watch the flames / smoke from above for any longer than 2 seconds do not taunt the Criosote by-product of wood. I am not sure which is more toxic. The smoke or this.   ( criosote / bio-crude, whatever you want to call it, it is the condensate of the burner unit containing more chemicals, very stinky) do not store criosote indoors withough a sealable container ( the smell likes to soak into things, like my kitchen ) if you know what you are doing, keep oxygen tank nearby use all protective clothing and masks, etc. There was a small arrogance in my head when playing with these units. And that is simply that I was thinking 'it is just smoke'. Wood gas generators are generating a much more toxic smoke than just sitting around your camping fire and should not be considered to be something to play with, without proper valves, pipes, burn off points etc. It contains on some scale: carbon-monoxide, methane, acids ( acetic ), tar and many other defects that will cause you issues if you are not careful. Keep it safe guys, this was a rather difficult one for explination, but I do not want someone other than me to be in that same sickness / position as I was with the poisoning, as it is the most painful experience I had yet had.  Worse than me hitting a tree head on at 80km/h. Worse than falling 2 stories off a cliff onto rocks. Worse than being hit by a car and thrown over it's windscreen. Worse than the feeling of an unsuccessful home made rocket launch. All of these above I have had happen to me, and the poisoning was by far the worst and I was scared more for my life than than any above accidents. It is not a very nice feeling, it is a deathly, sickly, useless feeling, blindness is not far away from death if found in this situation. Oxygen / fresh air is the only thing to help you if poisoned, even if in hospital. Keep it safe guys. If you want me to write up a full on poster on wood-gas / wood-heater safety I can or even just a propper write - up on general safety with this smoke and the wood gas units etc. Ask please and I will. Hospital staff will most likely give you 'items of interest' for instructables if you just ask them too. I have a heap of things from a stethoscope to vials to 'red dots' for homemade ECG machines. They tend to like crazies like me that make weird stuffs .. i hope ive gotten the point across anyway.   

Topic by AtomRat    |  last reply


Would this floating idea be plausable?

Basically, I was thinking in my sleep as I usually do. I thought about how less dense things float on top of more dense things. And this got me thinking towards this: Are there any gases that are more dense than the human body? If so, we could float on this particular gas (with gas masks or oxygen tanks of course). This also led me to think about: Are there any liquids which are lighter than air? We could have a swimming pool of sorts that floats on the ceiling. All we would need is the right chemical. Any scientists out there? (I know it is unlikely as states of matter generally mean that in terms of density, Solid>liquid>gas.

Question by The Jamalam    |  last reply


Compressing home made biogas

Hi I'm working on a project where we are using an anaerobic digester along with a series of gas scrubbers that yields biogas containing roughly 80% methane (ch4) and 20% oxygen. I know that this proportion of methane is well above the upper explosive limit of methane (about 15% methane by volume) but the presence of that much oxygen makes me nervous.  Am I going to have trouble compressing this gas mixture without blowing a new hole in my head? I am planning on compressing the purified biogas to about 20psi at between 60-80 degrees farenheight and in a respectably blast proof gas container.  please help! (Trying to help our planet!)

Question by Jdouenias    |  last reply


Producing Hydrogen to Function as a Lift Gas

The short version: I want to make hydrogen to fill model airship envelopes with, because screw helium. Help me make a cheap electrolysis device that can do this in under an hour (ideally), or come up with an even better system for production. My immediate problem is that I need a high-surface electrode that won't fail in a solution of sodium hydroxide.The long version:I've devoted a fair portion of my time to contemplating airships, primarily because they're awesome. Fell out of use with the rise of much faster aircraft, and the technology its fate sealed by the extraordinarily bad rep the Hindenburg gave it. It is still far from useless, however, in that lighter-than-air systems can lay claim to flight times measured in days, and sometimes months, thanks to the fact that they literally float in the air like a boat floats in water.Their day may have come and gone, but I still want to experiment with the technology and create some model airships of my own. Helium works okay as a lifting gas, but it remains expensive and isn't going to get any cheaper in the foreseeable future. It is for this reason that I am pursuing hydrogen, in the hope that I might be able to produce a cheap lifting gas for my projects. Unfortunately for my aspirations, hydrogen is surprisingly hard to get cheaply in decent quantities. Here's what I've figured out so far.For one, it is absurdly hard to find sites that don't veer into fringe science when talking about hydrogen. HHO production, Joe cells, power your car with water...it all keeps cropping up, and not only does none of this do what I want, the concepts are often poorly documented or riddled with problems. However, I have been able to glean some information from my research. First off, one of the easiest methods (and the one I'll be pursuing the most) of hydrogen production is through electrolysis. For those of you unfamiliar with the concept, you can basically take two electrodes, stick them in water, add some electrolyte (like regular table salt), and apply a decent voltage. You'll get hydrogen gas streaming out of the negative electrode and oxygen out of the positive electrode. Fancier systems use large tanks, platinum electrodes, and a strong acid or base as the electrolyte. To increase efficiency (yeah, it's not 100% efficient), there is ongoing experimentation with high-temperature electrolysis and ongoing research into an effective electrocatalyst.Now, when I did my research, I thought "Hey! This sounds easy! I'll just set the system up like explained, and away we go!" Unfortunately, those exclamation marks were unwarranted. My first attempt showed that production is mind-numbingly slow with small electrodes. Using salt had the wonderful side-effect of producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide, a.k.a. caustic soda. It's called that for a reason, and I'm lucky I didn't run it too long or I might have a chemical burn now. Now I know. Choosing a good electrode turns out to be a problem too, as most conductors oxidize quickly or dissolve in the solution (now I know why everybody uses platinum when possible). My aluminum foil electrodes in a sodium hydroxide solution? Yeah, that didn't work AT ALL. I had better luck with steel mesh, but I recently found that it seems to fail over time too. The only thing that isn't disappointing is the container and the collection apparatus: an inverted plastic bottle with some airtight hose running off it, connected to a gas valve. If the bottle is placed such that forming gas causes the internal water level to be lower than the external container water level, the gas will be pushed through the hose (no pumping necessary!). There was one good thing I discovered, however. Apparently there was a bit of soap or something left over in the container, and I ended up forming a bit of explosive foam as well. The hydrogen foam blows up like nothing else, and the oxygen foam makes a loud pop and sends (slightly) caustic foam all over the place. Totally useless but still somewhat cool, so long as you're not fool enough to do it in large quantities.So, as of right now, I've got a good container and collection system, but my electrodes suck and production rates are so low that it'd take me hours and hours to inflate a good-sized balloon anyway. I'll be using sodium hydroxide in the future as the electrolyte, skipping the chlorine production and observing the proper safety procedures. My top priority is finding a good electrode, my next is finding a good way to increase surface area, and my last is getting a higher voltage source than the 12V power supply I had lying around. Any ideas?

Topic by Cognoscan    |  last reply


Global warming & carbon emmissions

I may be off on a tangent to reality, but I wonder if there are any statistics available on the effect of all the Tonnage Oxygen plants around the world sucking in all the oxygen, separating the various gases & storing them in pressurised liquid form. I did a quick search today and 2 countries alone were 'manufacturing' (sucking in our air, separating the elements and producing) 26,000 tonnes of approximately 99% pure oxygen per day! To the crux of my question: Is this action (carried out on a worldwide scale and potentially growing) upsetting the balance of our atmosphere - we are all informed by the press and by the scientists that global warming is (or may be) attributed to mankind burning fossil fuels and dumping the excess carbons into the atmosphere. I just view this as the flip side of the argument........ has anyone ever considered the tonnage of oxygen drawn in from the atmosphere by these plants which is sold-on essentially as bottled gas or piped to be used for oxidising other materials (blast furnaces, basic oxygen steel-making, scrap cutting  etc), could be having an equal or bigger impact on our atmosphere and global warming than the straight burning of fossil fuels by power stations and automobiles etc? Just 'throwing the idea out there' (Liquid oxygen when spilt and viewed as a puddle, appears blue like the sky, the deeper the oxygen puddle, the more vivid the blue became ..... reminded me of when I was a kid the sky looked a lot bluer than it does these days).

Topic by Ttrick    |  last reply


Liquefaction of gases?

After separating Hydrogen and Oxygen from water (through electrolysis), how should I go about Liquefying and storing these gases? One method of liquefaction that I've come across is here ( http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_OGu0H7TFUno/SLI8QOVkemI/AAAAAAAAABk/Y0fenD3BvbE/s1600-h/ln2_generator.jpg ), and another is here (http://www.gizmology.net/liquid_air.htm) Both of these include compression, but the latter cools the gas by expanding the room-temperature gas, and therefore cooling it. Which method is best? Are there any others?

Question by Ryan Cooper    |  last reply


Converting a 12V Lead acid to a hydrogen generator? Answered

Is it possible to take a 12V lead acid battery, remove the acid from all 6 cells and replace with water and connect to a 12V power source, and get H2 and O2 gasses bubbling out the top? The reasoning behind this question is that the 12 volt lead acid batteries are made of 6 cells, each producing about 2 volts, connected in series.  If instead of producing 12V we could (by removing the acid and replacing with salt water) feed it 12V, wouldn't we have 6 hydrolysis cells running at 2V each?   6 cells of 2V hydrolysis cells is nothing new, but has anyone of you ever tried to convert a lead acid battery before? Is the lead going to be any good as electrodes? Will the lead oxidize too fast? Will the there be any chemical reaction that would change the produced gasses? Should I be worried about lead poisoning for even typing these words? Should I be asking anything else I haven't thought about? Thanks!

Question by Morgantao    |  last reply


Hydrogen Peroxide at home and in the Garden

Although the topic is quite old for some of us and mostly because I am too lazy today to make an Instructable: Hydrogen Peroxide ! Back in the day Hydrogen Peroxide was mainly known for the ability to bleech your hair, later it replaced chlorine based products for the preparation of paper and organic fibres. For me it is a good opportunity to go back in time and to pull out some of the remedies my grandparents already used. Who knows, there might be something that helps you or you might know other good uses that I failed to mention here, so feel free to comment. First off: What actually is hydrogen peroxide? We could check Wikipedia but I think it is enough to say that it basically water with an added oxgen mulecule which turn the stuff into a quite powerfull oxidizer. When hydrogen peroxide reacts the added oxygen is released and the normal water remains. Precausions and health risks. In the normal supermarket form hydrogen peroxide comes at a strenght of just 3%. This is just enough for wound treatment or cleaning off a fresh and small stain. The stuff you can buy at your hair dresser comes in concentrations of 5-15%, above that it is of little use to them. Pool grade peroxide however can come as high as 50%. It often requires a permit of at least leaving a copy of your drivers license to buy such high concentration but well worth it price wise. The downside of anything above 5% is a risk for your skin, eyes and airways. So when handling hydrogen peroxide you should waer long sleeve rubber gloves, safety or better swimming goggles and make sure that you don't create vapour by spraying it against the wind direction. Having water at hand to dilute and spillage on your skin is always good. What happens to me if things go wrong? Well, if handled correctly nothing should go wrong but of cause the worst would be eye contact. Getting concentrated hydrogen peroxide in your eyes means extreme pain and even with rinsing it out asap eye damage is more than just possible. Again: wear proper eye protection and if spraying use a filter mask, the paper type is enough!!! Nothing immediate happens on sking contact but a few minutes after contact the skin will turn slightly brown or goes white. This is caused by the oxygen release into your skin cells, if washed off quickly after noticing the discoloration will fade after a few hours. Prolonged exposure of the skin can cause skin cells to fully discolor and living cells might get damaged - a burning sensation is usually the sign that you need to wash the area now ;) Enough bad stuff said, let's see what we can do in the garden.... Fungal infection of your old roses or on your fruit trees? Sometimes the weather does not like our plants and by the time we discover a fungal infestation it is usually pruning time. There are commercial producta available that work quite well but especially the copper based ones tend to do more harm than good in th long run. An alternative is a solution of 10-20% hydrogen peroxide. Spray generously over all affected parts of the plant, leaves, twigs, stem and all. Make sure everything is properly wet! In some cases the fungus can act as a water replellent and it seems impossible to get any of the solution to wet these areas - a drop of dish washing liquid into the bottle will fix this! Watever runs off can be left as it only helps to get oxygen into the soil but of course you should not soak the area... Leave it on for about an hour, around 20 minutes if it quite warm. Rinse all off with clear water and repeat every 2 days for 5 treatments all up. After this time wait 2 or 3 weeks and check if the fungus still gows in some hard to reach areas. If so then repeat the treatment there until satisfied but wait another 2 weeks every 5 single treatments. In some areas of the world certain types of fungus on roses are refered to as "rust". ----- Moved into a new home and the garden beds smell really bad? The last house I moved into had a previous occupant with a big dog but no time to clean after his pet. The garden beds looked dead and I mean so dead that I could not even find weeds in them. And the smell was a distinct mix of old dog poo with lots of fresh cat poo mixed in it - the perfect outdoor pet toilet :( Trying to dig it all under made me recover that the top soil was more §$&*# than soil. I had to get rid of the bacteria of all the poo and somehow neutralize a lot of the unwanted "nutrients". The solution was to first loosen all the soil as deep as I could go. Then I added rice straw (but anything straw like or dry grass will do) to mix it through. At this stage I wished I had a gas mask LOL All up the contaminated garden beds covered about 20square meters. I got a 10 liter canister of pool grade hydrogen peroxide, from this I diluted down with 20 liters of water and a few drops of dishwashing liquid to help with the soil wetting. All was applied as evenly as I good with a watering can and then the area was covered with some tarp to try keeping as much oxygen on and in the soil as possible. A day later the tarp was removed and all beds watered with hose to drowning point. This watering was repeated every 3 days for 3 weeks to drive out all the excess and unwanted nutrients from the poo. The smell was already gone except for some cat urine residue which disappeared after some rounds of watering. Three months after the initial treatment I did some soil tests, added nutrients were required and the next season I had vegetables growing :) ----- Planting? Whether from seeds or seedlings, give hydrogen peroxide a try! I use a 5% solution to soak the potting mix I use before putting my seeds in it. Not only does it kill a few of the unwanted things that might still be in there but it adds a lot of oxygen into the soil, which gives the seeds a much better start. For seeds I use a 5% solution as well but only leave them in for about an hour before placing them between some wet paper towels until they start germinating. This way I can be sure all harmful bacteria and fungal spores are dead and I can use a sterile seed to keep going. Might just be my opinion but I think the germination rate is better and seedling in comparison start growing faster and stronger. Home uses.... As we learned before hydrogen peroxide, at least in higher concentrations is a powerful way to remove fungus. In our bathrooms we often have the problem that the ceiling starts to develop black spots as in the colder times water condenses here and takes a long time to dry off. If you now go to your favorite hardware store they will recommend the use of a chlorine based product, basically bleach... And although it does the job it also means your house will stink for days and if you scrub the ceiling you will get it on your sking and stink too. Hydrogen peroxide at 20% or higher concentrations can be sprayed onto the cleiling :) Of course you will need good protection for this and all things color should be removed, like towels or floor mats. By protection I mean a minimum of swimming goggles, a tyvek suit or similar to cover all exposed skin areas and at least a paper dust mask, better a filtered respirator like you use for spray painting or using insecticides. If you have a spray bottle with an adjustable nozzle then a stream is far better than a spray mist!! Not only is your exposure far lower but it much easier to wet the ceiling quickly. Wet all affected areas, then leave and the room, close the door and take off all clothes you used t protect you. The clothes can be left out to dry but double check that you had no soaked spot where your sking might have been in contact - if so rinse the skin with plenty of water! It will take some time to work and then dry, so best to do this in the summer time or if during the colder times you need to make sure the room is porperly heated and aired out to dry! Repeat until all black spots are gone, really bad areas will leave a permanent discoloration looking like a slight brwonish color is the ligh it right otherwise you won't see it. Once fully dry it is best to scrape off all lose paint and then to use a acrylic based sealer before giving the ceiling a fresh coat of white. The sealer will prevent the water to penetrate more than the paint level and if you get the fungus back on the paint it is far easier to clean ;) ----- Carpet cleaning.... When moving into a new rental with carpet on the floor you often are left with areas indicating the carpet might be "clean" but the underlay certainly is not. You can fix the underlay but you certainly can make sure all harmful stuff is gone from the carpet. Carpet cleaning machines can be hired but often much cheaper if you buy the "recommended" cleaning product with it. Rent is usually based on a daily base and price depends on how much cleaner you need. If you only want to desinfect the carpet which otherwise looks mostly fine than go for the smallest pack available and use it to spot clean areas you want cleaner first. For the desinfecting part I recommend to test how high you can go with the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide before using it on a big scale - keep in mind the carpet will never be fully dry and the remaining peroxide will continue to act! Test a 10% solution first before you go higher as you don't want to buy 30 liters or more of pool grade peroxide - just trust me on that one and only try to buy this much you do want to get into trouble a few days later! If 10 percent solution left on the carpet does not cause any bleaching of the fabric (unwanted bleaching that is) you can try higher for spot cleaning in demanding areas. A good spot to try the solution is under the cover or duct outlets, under these joining bars where carpet changes to tiles (if you can lift them off) or in wardrobes if the carpet goes inside. There are two way to treat your carpet once the general cleaning is done. a) use a garden sprayer or similar to wet the carpet This is good for single room treatment like for the baby room but especially on thicker carpets it requires a lot of solution and can become costly. Once wet leave for at least 30 minutes so the peroxide can do its thing, then use the machine with either the solution filled or just to dry off the carpet. I recommend to use the peroxide solution in the machine as it allows for better penetration and it will remove more soiled solution this way. If your catching container starts bubbling like mad it means you have a lot of §$%&#+ in the carpet and it might be best to first clean it all with the normal carpet cleaning agent before using the peroxide again - again tesing on smaller areas can help wasting the peroxide. If you need to store prepared solutions than it is best in a cold place. It will take several hours on an otherwise clean carpet for the peroxide to fully disappear so it best to use shoes and prevent skin contact during that time - especially if a baby crawls around ;) ----- Toilet.... We don't want to talk about it but everyone needs to clean their toilet sooner or later. For most things in there using the toilet brush when it happens will keep things clean and healthy. But what if someone in the house is sick or with a weak immune system? You could use all sorts of commercial cleaners and desinfectants but a wipe with wet towel or cloth soaked in a 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide will quickly eliminate all harmfull things on your seat, lid or bowl, including the buttons to press and the door handles ;) Just wipe and leave it wet for a minute or two then wipe again and ry - done! Personal use I always pack a small bottle of supermarket grade peroxide when going off road or camping trips. Although we now have modern desinfectants that won't stink or otherwise harm you I still prefer the old stuff ;) If you are far from civilisation than the last thing you want to need is medical attention for something that started as small as a scratch or graze.... Out in the unkown wilderness you will never know if the rockk you just crash landed on was used as a urinal by a fox the night before... A bit of gravel left in your skin might contain harmful bacteria... A cut with your own knife?? - What did you all cut since the last proper cleaning of the blade? You see where I am going here, a small thing might turn into something really nasty a day or two later. If you clean a freash and minor wound properly and then rinsie it with hydrogen perodixe most if not all harmful leftovers will be killed by the releasing oxygen. Of course this pretty much useless on bleeding wounds or where it is obvious that you won't be able to remove all debris from the wound - here it means you trip is still over in favour for proper medical treatment. The thing is that hydrogen peroxide was basically abandoned for all wound treatment once the modern "cleaning aids" became available as the peroxide will not only attack harmful things but also living tissue. The claims goes as far as causing bad scar tissue, damage to blood vessels and even "burning" of the tissue. One big problem I have with all these claims is that they were never really mentioned until the new meds came out. IMHO exposure time and how you use it it the key - common sense if you ask me. Noone should ever soak a wound in peroxide, if it is that big that you need to soak it you need medical attention anyway. And as said you should rinse the wound, that means all remaining liquid should be allowed to flow off - this will only leave a minor amount of peroxide in the wound and the exposure time will end with once all oxygen is released. For minor wounds I only use a paper tissue or cotton bud soaked in peroxide and wipe the wound.... ----- Smelly feet? Ok, maybe not the best way to start a conversation but we all know what sneakers do to our feet in the summer... Insoles with copper and activated carbon will help a lot and at least "cure" your sneakers while they are off your feet and have time to dry. But the smell is actually cause by bacteria growing from everywherey in your sneaker to your sking, actuall starting at your sking... If you wear your sneakers for long periods of time time or even whenever possible and also suffer from a bad smell hydrogen peroxide might be able to help you. Most sneakers will tolerate a machine wash and should come out germ free, if that is no option pack them in a sealed back and leaven them in the freezer over night - this will kill all bacteria and remove the smell. Now to break the endless cycle you need to remove the bacteria from inside your skin. So daily sock changes, freezing shoes and washing feet is a must! Your feet will really benefit from a foot bath in a 5% solution of hydrogen peroxide. To keep costs at a minimum use a container that is just the right size for your feet and prepare the solution from pool grade peroxide. I an ideal case you should not need more than 2 liters but all used product can be stored cool and re-used the next day, after that you need to make a new batch. Keep your feet submerged for at least 10 minutes. This will allow a deep penetration of the skin but might result in some white spots that will disappear after a few hours. Consenquent foot baths can be reduced to 5 minutes. After about a week you should notice that wearing your sneakes no longer causes and bad smell and you can stop the treatment. Freezing the sneakers over night, dialy (or more) sock changes and daily, proper cleaning of your feet should prevent any further bad smells :) ----- Bleaching your hair Althoug it was done for many years I really can't recommend using hydron peroxide for this purpose! Any concentration strong enough to have a proper effect in a reasonable time will at least cuase skin irritation. Back in the days they said your burning scalp is what you need to endure to get blonde hair :( And as said already you really don't want to get that stuff into your eyes... General uses If you have a fruit based stain then cahnces are hydrogen peroxide will remove it, especially if fresh. Even at supermarket concentration repeated application and proper drying off with a paper towel or similar will remove even red wine or beetroot stains. ------ Blood... On you skin blood is easy removed with cold water, same on other surfaces but washing off is no option a wet cloth or cotton piece will work fine. Hydrogen peroxide is good if things need to go fst or if the surface is porous, here the releasing oxigen will drive out the blood with the bubbles. ----- Fish tanks... If you love your tank then you really hate to medicate or even worse have a bad algea infestion, especially the stuff of the black kind. A change to activated carbon filter material is always recommended after a medical treatment to remove all leftovers from the system. However, certain medication simply won't be affected by a carbon filter and stay in the system until fully used or broken down otherwise. Especially in bigger tanks a partial water change is often out of the question as it would cause too much additional stress to the fish and plants. Hydrogen peroxide can help to break down most if not all remains of the used medication while at the same time adding more oxygen to the water. To be sensitive and safe in all enviroments I recomment to calculate the concentration based on the volume of your tank and to add the required amount of peroxide very slowly into the outgoing water stream from your pump. By slowly I mean in terms of a slow drip if using solutions over 10% to be added to the tank. If in doubt remove a suitable amount of tank water into a bucket and add the concentrated peroxide to reach the final tank limit. I strongly recommend to stay below 2% in favour over additional treatments a few days later if required. That means the diluted solution you add should be entered into the tank slowly if in doubt add a glass full every few minutes. For the treatment of the dreaded black algea you do the same 2% solution but be prepared that it will take several treatment until you see them die off. If you can then it is best relocate the fish for a few days so you can use a stronger solution of 5-8% just with the plants left in the tank. When transporting fish in a bag it can pay off to add a little bit of 3% peroxide to the bag to give additional oxygen for transport. I do this maually for every fish I buy from a store so I can be sure all fungus and bacteris is killed of before I introduce it to my tank. Really helps to prevent loosing a lot of fish just because you added one or two more to your tank ;) For the normal sized transport bags I use a good shot glass full of 3% peroxide in case you wondered. ----- Fridge and freezer Be it after long use or because you bought one second hand - once empty and warm some of our colling gadget just smell bad. A good clean with a hot water and your favourite cleaning agent is a good start, no need for aggressive stuff ;) If clean but still smelly, like after a power failure with fish in it you might want to go one step further. Best option is to use a spray bottle and a peroxide solution of at least 15% here. Use proper protection as mentioned above and spray all surface with the solution until soaked. What you can take out you take you take out, clean properly and then wipe or brush with the same peroxide solution. Bare aluminium should be handled with caution as in some cases it can oxidise badly, leaving a white and not removable crust behind. Here it is best to wipe and then wipe again with a cloth soaked in clear water to limit exposure time. No need to dry out - wipe out and check if it still smells, if so repeat and wiped off all areas as good as you can with a solution soaked cloth. Once the smell is gone dry out and enjoy smell free use from now on :) ----- Fruit and vegetables Unless you know exactly what happened to it you might want to clean your vegies and fruits properly before using them. Pesticides, herbicites, fungicites.... Not mention normal fungus and bacteria on the product.... On a commercial base hydron peroxide baths are often used to clean products for sensible people, hospital use or long term storage. For a personal use this only makes sense if you have free and unlimited access to the peroxide. An alternative are ozone bubblers. Expensive models can eb bought in shops or online, complete with timers or even a gauge showing the concentration in a room. On a hobby level for the kitchen sink we can use an ozone generator, air pump and bubble stone from the aquarium store ;) Let the pump bubble out the ozone for a minute or two, fill the sink with the fruit and veggies and move them around every few minutes. Best of course with an open window to limit you exposure to the ozone! Rule of thumb: If you can smell it is already too much in the air! The ozone in the water does the same as the peroxide: It breaks down harmful things with pure oxygen. The downside is that it is very harmful for your airways and body in general, so against all what youtube can offer I actually prefer to treat my fruit and veggie in a sealed bag. Place them inside, push out as much air as you can and then fill up with the ozone from the generator. Once the bag is full leave for about 30 minutes then wash and use or place the things in the fridge.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


propane machine gun simulator help

I like to make a small propane machine gun simulator, the kind they use in movies. I need to know how to make the firing circuit board, what type of solenoid's I can use & what type of ignition coil & spark plug to ignite the gas. Put it simply, I need a DIY on How to build an oxygen propane machine gun simulator.

Topic by elkaddalek    |  last reply


How can i compress a biogas from a compost tank without risk of ignition.

I already have minor semblance of a design but, i always prefer to consult the hivemind before doing something potentially stupid(i'm missing enough fingers). so, big picture is to create basically a sealed septic tank tied into the water lines of a residential house, which would produce methane to be stored year round then used during the cold season. not so much that i could cut off the natural gas line, but enough to reduce the bill.the design so far is a gas line coming from the septic tank connected to a bladder sitting inside a large tube. once the bladder reaches a nominal capacity, it will trip a sensor near the top of the tube activating a compressor until the bladder retracts to a lower set optical sensor turning off the compressor. somewhere in this mix i have the intent to set up a large air filter filled with that "oxygen eater" stuff they use in food storage applications. as well as several o2 sensors in the main line set up to stop the compressor and activate a solenoid valve to make sure no oxygen ever get to the compressor. what i dont know, is what kind of compressor i should be using to avoid any type of possible spark. proper placement of the o2 sensors, and if a giant air filter for eating oxygen already exists or is that something im going to have to make the hard way.

Question by snowfox222    |  last reply


Low voltage, high amperage transformer?

Hi! I would like to make, buy, or find, a low voltage high amperage transformer to power an electrolosis cell. I like playing with the hydrogen-oxygen gas produced. From what I have read, I only need about 1.8 volts for electrolosis, so I'd like a circuit or transformer that could take the power from preferable a 9 volt battery and convert it to 1.8v at as high an amperage as I can get. Thanks : )

Question by fozzy13    |  last reply


HCl obtention from bleach and acetic acid (vinegar).

I have always been curious to know if it is possible to obtain hydrochloric acid (HCl) from chlorine-based bleach and acetic acid (vinegar). I found a lot of answers saying that it was impossible and dangerous because you wouldn't obtain HCl; instead, you would get chlorine gas, which is a very dangerous fume that can cost your life. However, I found an answer saying that it was possible to synthesize it, but not directly from bleach. First, you have to mix equal quantities of bleach and acetic acid to obtain hypochlorous acid (HClO) and then you have to add a transition metal oxide (iron oxide, copper oxide, etc.) to get HCl and oxygen gas.  Filled with curiosity and keeping in mind that safety is the priority, I decided to try it out by mixing equal portions of bleach (NaOCl) and acetic acid (C2H4O2), obtaining an aqueous solution of hypochlorous acid (HClO) and sodium acetate (C2H3NaO2).  NaClO + C2H4O2—> HClO + C2H3NaO2 Then, I added copper oxide (rusty pennies) since I know that copper by itself reacts very slowly with HCl, so I could leave it there until the copper oxide had completely reacted with the HClO (leaving clean pennies).  Little but numerous bubbles started to come out which I thought to be the oxygen gas leaving the hypochlorous acid. I waited there until there were no more bubbles coming out which meant that the reaction had finished. To prove that it was HCl, I decided to add Aluminium foil and see if it reacted accordingly. However, nothing happened, so I tried the whole process of mixing bleach and vinegar again but when I got to the part of adding the metal oxide, I did not add copper oxide. Instead, I left it outside in the sun to react since I know that ultraviolet radiation causes fast disproportionation, forming HCl and oxygen gas.   HClO —> HCl + O2 After all the bubbles had finished coming out, I added Aluminium foil to prove that it was HCl. However, noting happened, and again, I obtained the same product as the last time.  I immediately stated to think of possible products that I could have obtained and the reasons why my reaction hadn't worked properly. It was then when I remembered that in the very first reaction (the one of the vinegar and the bleach) I had obtained a side product that I had completely forgotten about; sodium acetate (C2H3NaO2). And I suspect that this side product could have affected the whole process.  And that is my question; was it really the sodium acetate that one that affected the experiment or could have it been something else?

Topic by Joseluismi    |  last reply


**Please Define This Word. Everyone who replies wins a prize...**

PLEASE! At school today, this word came up. I know I have heard it before, but can't remember where, or what it means.Of course, i don't know the spelling...It sounds like DEL-FWAY-GOMaybee spelled like...Delfuaygo, Delfwaygo, Delfaygo, Delaflaygo.Anybody heard of this? Please let me know.By the way, the prize is.... a FREE GAS compossed of roughly 78% nitrogen 20.95% Oxygen 0.93% Argon and 0.04% Carbon Dioxide!It can be picked up where ever dust particles, dander, germs, and airborne carcinogens are sold!

Topic by evy-wevy    |  last reply


Ionized air principles? Answered

I've looked throughout the internet, but I still haven't been able to figure out this one When air conducts electricity, say when lightning strikes, the electrical field breaks down air molecules... So, it breaks the intramolecular bonds between gas atoms in nitrogen molecules, oxygen molecules, etc. The atoms are then ionised. But then somewhere, I got the information that ionised air contains BOTH positive AND negative ions. How is this possible if the gases are non-metal elements and only form negative ions?? When an electrical current does flow, what carries the charge? The negative air ions? or electrons?  I've found sites that say one, and sites that say another. Thanks in advance

Question by .Unknown.    |  last reply


What's the difference between an electric boiler and an electrolyzer?

Backstory: I don't understand how they create steam without hydrogen and oxygen. I've been researching the prior art on electric boilers. This involves the type that passes the current through the water. Here's one of many examples: Electric Boiler There are also jet flow boilers which seem to do the same thing. I thought it might be the ac current instead of dc which allows the creation of steam without the dissociation of the water molecules. I've actually been trying to create steam this way. But this has been driving me crazy. I started experimenting with a AA. I start small. Safety first. :-) Then a AA with a disposable camera circuit. It will charge up a cap to 319 Volts. Then I jumped to 9V, 12V car battery, 120VAC, then rectified 120VAC with a bridge rectifier. So far, I've just used regular tap water. My meter reads open circuit.  I've tried a couple different electrode materials for the 12V in the 2 gallon container: plated screws, aluminum plates, spark plug. The only thing I can think of is to decrease the size of the container, dramatically. Even then, I would still have the problem of dissociation. I've been told to throw in some chemicals to decrease the resistance. But that's how to get more hydrogen production as well, from what I've read.  I would think it should go something like this: As I increase the power, heat would rise, proportionally, till it starts becoming a vapor. As I continue to increase the amount of power, the moisture of the gas decreases as the hydrogen and oxygen content increases. That's not what happens. Production starts almost immediately, with very little heat. No steam. I'm going to try decreasing the chamber next, but I still think I'm going to be getting hydrogen and oxygen, just with a higher moisture content as the water starts to heat up.

Question by Vorenus    |  last reply


What is the Best Way for a Do-It-Yourselfer to make a few good Diamonds? Can I just Heat some Methane and add Water? Answered

I'm looking for practical ideas and expertise with making such things. I have a Wood Furnace that gets hotter than 1000 F and a tiny Camp Stove burning Pellets.  I have Propane for the Carbon. Water could be used to a little Hydrogen or Oxygen. I would like to make a 1 carat Round Brilliant Cut perfect Diamond and a 1 1/2 inch Maltese Cross looking Diamond as perfect as possible. I believe I could make the 1 carat Diamond in a 1/2 inch tube using a low quality Diamond as the substrate and target at the end of it. I would have to activate the gas mix moving through the tube just before the substrate. Do I need a Microwave or UltraViolet Light or something? I need some Know-How and Inspiration.

Question by Zues.gods    |  last reply


Paper two stroke hydrogen engine

 Ok so I have this crazy idea to make a two stroke engine out of paper that runs on hydrogen and well ive allready built part of it just the piston head and cylider and stuff but if i lined the inside of the cylinder with tin foil would that be enoth to keep the paper from burning? and so ya anyways the engine of i have made allready is very sturdy each peace is 10 sheets of paper or more compressed for over 24 hours  now the compression im not two worried about because its more of the sheer pop of the explosion that will push the piston down well i guess thats how it is anyways but if the gas ignites anyways with oxygen why have compression  for this anyways because the explosion is going to be soooo small anyways that it wont really matter much.  the overall size of the engine is about almost 2" tall by about 1" wide on the widest part the bottom . So um I know by now im classified as "CRAZy" but that asside can i get some opinions and ideas plz. thanks MRN

Topic by mrn    |  last reply


Tips and tricks for UV curing glue, resin and coatings

Only a few years ago your only option to repair certain plastics, glass or even a broken crystal was epoxy based resin or the good old superglue.You might have already tried one of the 5-seconds-repair pens or tried your own UV curing nail polish art at home.For the later you might be lucky as the resins used here are optimised for the purpose and lights you get with them.Sadly even the best nail polish is no substitude for a glue as the material properties need to be different.One of the most common complaints when it comes to using some UV glue, like Kafuter or similar is that it never comes with instructions.Sould be straight forward but it is not free of problems.For example almost all commercail UV curing glues that you can buy require quite stirct procedures and for the light the right wavelenth(s).Resins and coatings can be even more painful here as they might also require you to stick to the correct temperature.Let's start with one thing you might have encountered already...The glue is definately cured and rock hard but the surface tacky and smeary.Quite annoying if you want to fix a piece of jewellery and can't prevent it from collecting dirt and dust...The next thing you might have encountered is that despite having transparent materials it seems to be impossible to cure the clue.Both problems come down to wavelenght and exposure.UV curing glue is prevented from curing in the presence of oxygen - a factor utilised for example in resin based 3D printers.Uncovered glue is exposed to the oxygen in the air and won't cure easy.The glue or resin below this layer however with fully cure with ease in the absence of oxygen.For the second problem consider that not all materials that you can see through will let UVC light pass through ;)Bonding strenght is another complaint I hear a lot...Be aware that certain things just are no good for UV curing glues or resins.Take the molds you get for that purpose: on the material the glue won't bond!Teflon is another prime candidate here.But in a lot of cases it comes down to surface preparation.Don't be afriad to sand the surface!Not only will the surface area increase but the scratch marks will be invisible once filled anyways.Use sandpaper on your fingernails, then go over with clear nail polish -mirror finish ;)With curing often a problem consider to fully cover the glue.A bit of clear sticky tape, food wrapping foil....If that is not an option then eliminate the oxygen.You can use a container filled with inert (for the glue) gas like CO2 or just place a burning candle in it until it goes out....Either way the amount of oxygen should then be low enough to cure the surface of your glue.Not always is any of the above an option.Then you can still try more power and a lover wavelength.Mercury based lamps for example provide a very broad and powerful light that in most cases will cure within seconds.For a proper surface cure you need a wavelength of 265nm or lower.LED's offering this exist but at prices well out of range for the hobby user.A mercury lamp under high pressure is nothing for short term use and the limited lifespan does not always justify the costs of buying them.Like with most things in life certain inventions can have a dual purpose.Quality germicidal lamp systems for examples often state to go as low or even lower than 265nm.And they come at a fraction of the cost you have with a broadband mercury lamp.Even cheaper is the fre weather forecast.If the sun is siad to be strong enough so you need protection than even the worst glue will fully cure in seconds outside in the sun - tackfree!Don't be fooled and protect yourself!!These tiny LED lamps for your glue stick, the curing thingies for your nailpolish and everything else using UV light comes with warnings.For very good reasons!It might be hidden in the fineprint but you can not really see UV light.The blueish-purple glow you see is on the high end of what comes out and by that in the visible range of your eye.Just because a LED only gives a faint glow you see does not mean the UV light wouldn blind you if you could see it!Even worse for fluoroscent lamps or open cruning systems like those for your nailpolish.Reflected UV light is still UV light and you can still NOT see it!Stories of people getting sunburnt from germicidal lamps in a butcher shop or other people going blind from checking money as their living have a true base...In most cases lamps used well past their lifespan or simply the wrong type of lamp but still: the damage came from UVC light...If you just love creating your own artwork or jewellery with UV curing resins and glues than protect yourself.Proper sunglasses with a stated UV protection for example or just black nitrile gloves for your hands...

Topic by Downunder35m  


Integrating Highschool Sciences

Irene Duke, Kate Hoff, Lyndsay Carlisle and myself are participating in the MIT course 11.124, _Introduction to Teaching and Learning Science and Mathematics_. We have a variety of teaching interests: Irene hopes to teach chemistry, Kate to teach Physics, myself Physics or Mathematics and Lyndsay hopes to teach social justice / political history. Provided Make magazines as inspiration, we were tasked to design a joint activity, merging four high school classes of these topics for a period of weeks or months. We developed the ideas described in this first entry over the course of a class period. Hopefully, we'll take the time to expand each step into an instructable, possibly including trials by fire teaching 8th-11th graders. The material is structured by conservation of energy and resources, inspired by the articles of Tim Andersen. The final demonstration we envision motivates the particular material we wanted from each field. A bicycle wheel is drives an alternator transforming mechanical energy into electrical. The electrical energy is used to run a electrolysis process, rendering separate measurable quantities of Hydrogen and Oxygen. The Hydrogen and Oxygen are then combusted for the students. The amount of mechanical energy can be measured, as can the electrical. The binding energy of H_2O can be used to determine the chemical potential energy rendered. Finally, the combustion both demonstrates the energy's new form, and the difficulties in storing energy. The difference between power and energy underlies all of these experiments. Conservation of linear momentumn should be a familiar topic with the students. Conservation of angular momentumn can easily be introduced at this point, demonstrated with the bicycle and a fly wheel. Chaning the orientation of the wheel can be exteremely difficult. For the chemical portion of the experiment, stoicheometry should be familiar to establish the link between the amount of gas generated and the energy invested. The most appropriate mathemetical tools are statistical. Sampling, linear regression and averaging would prove useful throughout the experiments. Global economic relationships leading up from the colonial period would perhaps be the most applicable topic form history or the social sciences. Though not a technical detail, an important aspect of executing such an idea involves the actual deployment of resources. Students could, for example be broken up by their topic of interest, whether it be the physical, chemical or social aspects of the project. Next, new groups would be formed with one or two members from each subject area. These groups could then attempt to execute the design from the first slide, or one which is similar. Throughout, the students will present their thoughts or understanding to the teacher. This design project should perhaps be phrased as simply turning mechanical energy into hydrogen. Students with social scientific background might be responsible for estimating the costs of the implementation in different settings, and that would be used to drive a larger scale version. So, before getting started on building and documenting this project, do people have suggestions? What worked to combine the physical sciences for you? What might have worked?

Topic by mmt    |  last reply


Make Your Own Fuel from Wine

Mark Armstrong's Alternative Fuel PhilosophyIf you don't like the vehicle or the fuel it drinks, make some of your ownIt's on every billboard, bumpersticker and street placard: Let's Green This City! Urban Streets Greening Project! Each election ushers in new green initiatives, task forces, and elementary school awareness fairs. Another press conference, another earthy guy in an organic-cotton denim shirt and red Crocs stands in front of City Hall pointing an accusatory finger at the uninspired plebes who won't join us, who won't dare follow San Francisco on the righteous path toward a greener tomorrow.Meanwhile, eco-conscious drivers can't get a drop of biodiesel in city limits, while Berkeley, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and other surrounding cities offer it at public pumps. (In June 2007, city authorities closed the San Francisco Biodiesel Co-op, for - get this - having too many members.) Not one public pump in San Francisco sells ethanol. The few electric car-charging stations that remain are defunct, rundown or hidden in corners of musty garages, forgotten relics of a well-intentioned but poorly executed past. Our performance so far in fostering alternative fuels - the keystone of the green movement - is not just ironic; it's shameful."You know the easiest job in the world is to be a cynic," says Mark Armstrong, lifting his head from the hood of an electric-powered 1980 Plymouth Horizon. "In order to be successful you have to do absolutely nothing." Armstrong brushes his oily hands against his oily jeans and walks to the back of a cavernous concrete-floored warehouse, through a maze of Frankensteinian inventions: an electrolyzer that splits hydrogen and oxygen fuel, junky gas cars that run on golf-cart batteries, gutted petrol engines that gulp alcohol and a Mercedes motor that bakes bread and spits out edible olive oil."What I'm trying to do here is teach people to quit complaining about what they can't get," he adds, pushing his 6-foot-2-inch frame beneath a gutted 1976 Porsche 914 that he and his students are converting to a hydrolic hybrid. "I say if we really want alternative fuel vehicles, let's get off the couch and start making them."Step 1: Build a Carmore

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply


3X Gasoline Engines Sniff Vapors and Burn Water

Sounds ridiculous doesn’t it? How can water possibly be turned into a useful fuel by just burning it? Sure we can use hydrolysis to separate water into its hydrogen and oxygen gases, and then burn the hydrogen gas as fuel, but that’s not what I’m talking about. Believe it or not, jet engines do it, they have used water to enhance engine thrust, so why not have IC-engines do the same thing? There’s a catch here, since only vapo-engines (  http://goo.gl/QQ42k ) are capable of performing this trick successfully, they must first be introduced into the design mix. Since IC-vapo-engines burn very effectively they run hot, and water would be used as a better alternative than injecting extra wasteful fuel to cool down the engine as is done in today’s engine to prevent knocking. Why don’t we just inject water in today’s engines you ask?  Because they run so poorly already, that the water would extinguish the IC-combustion process. In technical jargon this is known as the ability for an engine to burn lean with an air-to-fuel ratio greater than ~15. Today’s engines can’t sustain a leaner combustion than ~22  without extinguishing themselves. By adding water droplets we further increase this ratio to unsustainable conditions. Unfortunately, this wasteful, richer burning keeps the engine running better by keeping the fuel cooler. In contrast, our vapo-engine is capable of burning unbelievably lean ratios of ~30+. Lean combustion means almost no pollutants and virtually green combustion exhaust products of only CO2 and water. No catalytic converters necessary here, as opposed to running today’s rich engines with their unavoidable polluting exhaust emissions and heavy reliance on catalytic converters. So the irony here is that since IC-engines already run ratty, let’s waste a little more fuel and run richer just to cool down the engine. This prevents engine knocking (the dieseling of an engine due to unwanted, poorly timed, premature combustion) which occurs from the pitiful amount of fuel that does vaporize and burn correctly. Sadly, engineers have cleverly learned to waste fuel for the sole purpose of keeping our IC-engines cool, above and beyond the engine’s normal water cooling system. It gets even better, as the richer the engine runs the more we need to rely on expensive catalytic converters to keep exhaust emissions in check!  Vapo-engines also require cooling, even more than today’s engines, but their advantage is the capability to burn very lean. So instead of ridiculously injecting extra fuel to cool them, like today’s engines, we inject water droplets mixed in with the injected fuel vapor. The water droplets perform three functions; 1) they reduce excess fuel consumption, 2) they cool the engine walls to prevent pre-ignition and knocking which provides better combustion, and 3) they enhance the fuel-vapor detonation force created on the piston from the expanding superheated steam which further helps engine performance. So in a way we are burning the water to generate steam power like a locomotive.   

Topic by RT-101    |  last reply