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Series and Parallel?

What is the difference between Series or Parallel if I'm hooking up a bunch of LEDs? Is one better than the other?

Question by Zem    |  last reply


Transistors in series

If I were to put transistors in series (and hook up there bases together through proper biasing resistors) would it increase the voltage capacbility of the circuit? I need a way of switching on and off about 1000 volts really fast. for example, would 2 750 volt transistors in series be able to handle 1500 volts or not? just a HV pic from my old, dead NST

Topic by guyfrom7up    |  last reply


Batteries in a series?

So if you were building an electric car and needed to up your voltage by wiring multiple Pb batteries in a series would you only get the watt-hours of one battery like you do with capacitor capacitance, or would you get all of them combined, or at least a little power capacity boost.  Also, would using lithium-ion batteries like these in a series be ok. lithium

Question by jj.inc    |  last reply


Series or Parallel speakers?

Quick question guys. I have two speakers I extracted from a laptop, and I need to use them for an iPod. The loudness is the goal here. So what's best for the volume - attaching them in series or parallel? Does it make a difference? I don't have time to get an amplifier, for it's due tomorrow morning, and I didn't think about using speakers until this morning. Thanks!

Topic by freethetech    |  last reply


LED Series Resistor

I just finished soldering a board to flash an IR LED using a 555 timer, and attached it to 9V PP3 battery, and the LED burnt out.The LED was rated at 1.7V 100mA and I was using a 100ohm series resistor. By my reckoning I should have only needed a 73ohm resistor, (9V - 1.7V) / 0.1A = 73ohms, so 100ohm was more than enough.Any ideas?

Topic by evilad    |  last reply


Wiring Capacitors In series?

What are rules for wiring multiple capacitors in series? Especially when The voltages are different. If i wire two 80v's with a 200v what would my WV be?

Question by erncar    |  last reply


Police quest series

Does anyone have the original police quest series (1 vga,2,3) in mt32 or higher quality? If so can you find a way to record and put up for download and in mp3 or midi please, Thanks.

Topic by builderkidj  


magic series Q's

Ok, im wondering if i should make a series of instructables for all of my things related to magic, or if i should make 1 HUGE instructable of them all together? which do you people that read this think i should do?

Topic by A.C.E.    |  last reply


Anyone know this series?

Its on youtube and its like: super mario 64 search for luigi part 1,2,3,4 and it cuts between sm64 and ssbN64 when he jumps into the sky PLEASE HELP!!!!!! btw does anyone have any wood gun tutorials(pistols)?

Question by builderkidj  


Batterys in parallel and in series? Answered

I am designing a circuit with some space restrictions. Unfortunately i can only put 3 AAA batterys in it. I need at least 1.8 volts for the circuit to be operational, so 2 AAA NiMh batterys in series is rated 2.4 volts. If i have this can i also add a single parallel battery, for added Mah. The diode i will be using has a forward voltage drop of .33v at 1 amp. These batterys will have a load of about 500 Ma. Will the (very bad) schematic i have work? Also, will the output voltage of the batterys be somewhere around 3v? One more question, will the load be shared between the batterys?

Question by astroboy907    |  last reply


Can you wire USB Ports in series?

Hi, All. New to the forums, but have used several instructables and love this site. I'm currently trying to make a notebook cooling fan using a 12 Volt fan pulled from an older computer. Obviously I can wire it to the USB ports, but the 5V I'm getting there aren't enough. Would it be possible to wire 2 usb connections in a series, giving me 10V at 500mA, or am I just asking to fry my ports? I've seen some external hard drives that use 2 USB ports for power, so I'm assuming it can be done, but I didn't know if you needed anything other than a series connection. Thanks!

Topic by doublec5    |  last reply


Can laptop power adapter outputs be wired in series?

I need a 24v DC power source, and I have a few spare 12v Laptop adapters lying around. I know you need to connect the positive end of one to the neg end of the other, but something tells me that's gonna create a short somewhere. Not sure how this is gonna work. Any advice?

Question by Fuzzy3D    |  last reply


What is the difference between the TR series and the BR series?

Yes, I know that the TR is the turret rifle and the BR is the battle rifle, but is there a fundamental difference between the 2, or is it all just preference as to the name?

Question by The Jamalam    |  last reply


Resistor Value for LED series?

I am new to electronics, just started it as a hobby, and tried my hands to make a LED Series. As I am not aware of the exact calculations to figure out the resistor value, I am facing problems - resistor is getting burnt. I am just seeing a led series bought from the market and trying to make another one based on its circuit & design. The overall scheme & design of the circuit was:  - I made a series of total 44 white led lights. - Added a bridge rectifier first (4 diodes joined in a systematic way), - then came three led's with 1K Ohms resistors each - then followed 38 plain led's, - finally three leds again with 1K resistors each. The last three resistors got burnt after 10 odd minutes. Obviously the resistor value is not right. What should be the general thumb rule to figure it out. I wish to make few smaller series of 12, 24 & 36 LED's, how many resistors do I add in each? Will be thankful for some guidance. 

Question by swatma    |  last reply


Question regarding series and parallel circuits? Answered

Hi Guys,              I'm a bit confused in parallel and series circuits and was hoping that someone in the instructables community could help me out. If I wire 3 Blue LED's (3v 20mah each) in parallel their amperage will add up but the voltage will remain same, which means I would be able to run those 3 LED's off 2 AA batteries and it would last for umm.. 2200/60 = 36 Hours. And if I wire those LED's in series the voltage would add up and I would be able to run them off a 9 volt battery for um.. 300/20 = 15 Hours. I wanted to know that if my calculations were right and that in both the ways will they be equally bright. Thanks in advance :). UPDATE I was a bit confused how to wire it up in parallel so I made a diagram can you guys tell me if it is correct?

Question by The Prickly Potato    |  last reply


Connecting batteries in series without wasting the mAh? Answered

Okay, if you connect two 1.5v 1000mAh AA batteries in parallel, you'll get 1.5v 2000mAh, right? And if you connect two 1.5v 1000mAh AA batteries in parallel, you'll get 3v 1000mAh, still correct? What if you connect seven 1.5v 1000mAh AA batteries in parrallel and one 1.5v 1000mAh AA battery in series, you SHOULD get 3v 7000mAh, will that work?

Question by j0rd4nkzf    |  last reply


Can I connect more DC motors in series to generate desired voltage? Answered

I just want to generate the voltage from DC motors. The one motor can generate 4VDC. I want 12VDC to charge Lithium Ion battery by connecting them in series. How can I do that?Is there any need of external circuit? If yes, please mention the diagram. Thank you :)

Question by Dev Bambhania    |  last reply


can leds do seies?

I know that this is a pretty noobish question but can LEDs be used in series or only in parallel like bulbs?

Topic by NetReaper    |  last reply


how to connect multiple small solar cells to produce more output voltage? Answered

How do you connect small solar panels (such as in landscaping lights) in series to produce a max output voltage? i have tested one solar panel and the output voltage is around 2 v in bright sunlight. i want to connect five or six in series to produce at least an output of 10 volts.

Question by LANGDEAU    |  last reply


How many LEDs i can connect to 240v AC supply using resistance?

Hello everyone, I just want to figure out how many 5mm super bright blue LEDs of  VF 3V , IF 25mA  i can connect directly to our 240v AC supply in series, only using a resistance in between. I google some circuits what i got :- 1) Android App named "ElectroDroid" can calculate Resistance for my 240v ac for 76 or 77 or 78 or 79 LEDs in series as 480 or 360 or 240 or 120 ohms respectively. I attached the screenshot with this question.. 2) A link http://led.linear1.org/led.wiz can calculate also but highest amount of supply voltage can be used 170V  and number of LEDs i can use is 56 in series with 82 ohm resistance in it. so i think option 1 can be more useful because i dont want to use extra thing ( transformer i think ) in my LED string to step down voltage in series. OR if anyone can simply tell me how many of LEDs 5mm blue VF 3 IF 25mA  i can use in a series directly to 240V AC supply with less complicated circuit

Question by redtulip4u    |  last reply


Need help with diy LED project

Hello, I am wanting to light my fishtank by using LED's... it is a really big fish tank so this must be a custom job, and i am interested in this field of work. I understand the basics of DC current, and i can solder... but i am still a n00b! I have 100 LEDs just like these http://cgi.ebay.com/100-5mm-6000mcd-LED-Lamp-Ultra-Bright-Blue-LEDs-DIY_W0QQitemZ350034574270QQihZ022QQcategoryZ66948QQssPageNameZWDVWQQrdZ1QQcmdZViewItemand i was wanting to use like, 50 or more if you guys think i need it. I understand the need for resistors and my goal, if possible, is to use as few resistors as possible! since they are not readily available to me. My plan is to use two long separate strands with, say 25 LEDS on each. Is this possible if i can find a 12v+? is this possible?Do i need to use series or parallel wiring? ( i want to use fewer resisters)Can i make two separate strands using one power supplyWhich values do i need to use to find resistors? http://cgi.ebay.com/100-5mm-6000mcd-LED-Lamp-Ultra-Bright-Blue-LEDs-DIY_W0QQitemZ350034574270QQihZ022QQcategoryZ66948QQssPageNameZWDVWQQrdZ1QQcmdZViewItemThank you guys so much, I have been wanting to work on this project for a long time, but these questions have always kept me.

Topic by punx777    |  last reply


Halo novel series order?

In what order should the halo books be read? there's: fall of reach the flood first strike contact harvest cole protocol and onyx i think

Question by RelyNupon    |  last reply


power supplies in series question

Just asking before I blow up 2 of my power supplies that I just made/salvaged/fixed/modified. I need 19 volts at 2.95 amps (practically 3) for a laptop that I found (yay dumpster diving, don't worry I'm not a guy who steals identity, it was actually my dad's lab and they're throwing away a bunch of stuff, it's a goldmine!) and it was marked dead. I pull out the battery and it has 0 charge. It had no charging adapter, so can I just make one? I have to power supplies, one from a computer that I modified and an adjustable one the goes up to about 15 volts at 6 amps (and they were throwing it away! it only need a new fuse). After all of that background info, here's my question: can i put the 5 volts from the comp supply in series with the 14 volts from my adjustable supply to get 19 volts at enough amps to power on this laptop? I don't want to buy a 60 dollar charger just to find out the comps broken cause of something else.

Topic by guyfrom7up    |  last reply


help needed to wire a series of toggle switches

Can anybody please show me how to wire a series of 7 toggle switches. The switches are 3 amp 2 or 3 pole, a diagram would be very helpfull with an explanation. Or a video

Topic by Woodycrafts    |  last reply


Question dealing with high volt capacitors in series

As we all know (at least most) you can get free cameras at places that recycle disposable cameras. After having my fun hooking then in parallel to attempt coil gun, or just melting holes in water-filled soda cans. But I wanted to try to hook some in series, so instead of 320V, i got 640. I know series adds up so both are fully charged to 320V, but heres my question. 1: Can they ever blow seeing that the output is 640 yet their rated 320? 2: If i discharged between then, can i have a greater chance of them exploding comparing to parallel hooked?

Topic by Killa-X    |  last reply


Can capacitors be wired in a series? Answered

I am pretty sure a series goes from + to - to + ext. and parallel is grouping all + and all - separately. Is it possible to wire capacitors in a series

Question by jj.inc    |  last reply


Two batteries in series, can I connect a load to only one?

I have two 12 volt batteries connected in series in order to supply a motor that requires 24 volts. But I also have a strip of 12 volt LEDS that I would like to power. What I want to know is if it is possible to connect the strip to the terminals of one battery even though the two batteries are connected in series? I realize the easier way to do this is to step down the voltage, but please answer my question. All comments are genuinely appreciated

Question by cobrien2115    |  last reply


How to connect 5V USB heated pads in series

Hi all,This is my first post here. I ride a motorbike and would like to do a DIY heated trousers and jacket. I found these pads 30cmx30cm that run off 5V usb sockets. I want to put 4 in my trousers and run them in parallel so I only have one connector to plug in whenever I ride. Is this even possible with USB ports or would I need another connector?Heated pads: https://www.aliexpress.com/item/32963771423.html?spm=a2g0s.9042311.0.0.78504c4dTlpjMrThanks,

Topic by RichyA1    |  last reply


Connecting small generators in series?

Hi all,I'd like to make a bunch of small generators, like Pleech turbines, for example. Each one might only be producing a couple volts and however much power. What is the best way to connect them together to get their combined power?I was thinking that I could just give each generator its own rectifier, and then connect everything together in series. Would that be efficient?My circuitry understanding is a little limited, so a simple solution that is 90% efficient may be better than a complicated solution that's 100% efficient.... :)Thanks for any suggestions!

Topic by Asbestos    |  last reply


Can I put Color-changing multi-color RGB LEDs in series??

I need to run a bunch of slow-changing multicolor off of 12vdc.  The LEDs are each rated 2.5-3.4V 20ma.  I'd like to keep efficiency up by reducing the number of series current-limiting resistors and the voltage across them.  So...  Can you put 3 multi-colored LEDs in series with a current limiting resistor (typ 150 ohms) to run off 12vdc... like you do with standard LEDs?  The datasheet specs a operating voltage range and 20ma current. Or...  Does the current draw (effective resistance) of the LED change as the colors change??... Example: When displaying purple, red & blue are both lit. But for red, only the 1 internal LED is lit. If the current changes and the different LEDs are out of time, it would change the voltage across the different LEDs and the series resistor. (I know you can't run an on-off flashing LED off a higher-than-spec'ed voltage because the current goes between almost 0ma and 20ma, putting nearly the full supply voltage across the LED when it is OFF.) So, can I put them in series successfully?? Also, how accurate is the color-changing timebase?   Will they quickly go out of sync.. assuming the same brand and lot.

Question by BarryS78    |  last reply


Help! LED series with Speaker

I recently got a little old stereo which I've been cleaning up/painting/tuning/etcetera. To me this thing is just so darn cute and I got really excited when I noticed some LEDs under the speaker grates. However they only light up when the volume dial is up to 9 or so, and the stereo is just way too loud! 1-2 on the dial is what I would consider a medium volume level, and don't see myself ever going much higher. I would like a way to fix the dial discrepancy, but I feel that I can live with it. What I'm really after is a way to get the LEDs on at a normal volume level. Ideally pulsing with the music(like they can do now.) I've included a picture of the circuitry. Let me know if you'd like a picture from the other side and I can take it out. I'm a super novice at this stuff. It seems like the LEDs are in a series(btw, each little circuit board is home to three leds, for a total of 12) but that the whole series is actually parallel to the speaker itself? Or is it all in series? Anyway, my first thought was to leave the blue wires going from the LEDs to the speaker, but to move the black 'power' wires to the end of the last LED series so that the power would go all the way through the LEDs before getting to the speaker. Is that a bad idea? haha. I'd rather not burn these LEDs out since they match the colors of the stereo. What do you think? Thanks in advance! Diane

Topic by foodcoloring    |  last reply


Adding capacitors. Series or parallel? Answered

I was building a curcuit and had no 0.05uf capasitators so I decided to use five 0.01 capastators. Should I wire them in series or parallel? Also they are ceramic. Thanks for any help. David.

Question by David97    |  last reply


Home-made weapons series?

I have for a few years now made my own home-made weapons knives, axes, bows and arrows, and the like. I had the thought recently about creating an instructables series on how to make all of these by hand. My question is how many of you out there would like to see something like this? Please leave a comment below just saying that you would. Or if you have a suggestion, question, or would like to send me a project of yours comment that too.                                                            thanks guys,                                                                              pbman123

Question by pbman123    |  last reply


Linking drill batteries in series?

I've been watching this video of a guy building a portable speaker powered with cordless drill batteries and i'd like to do the same for my project but my amp requires 30 to 36v. At around the 1 minute mark the video shows how he linked his battery up and i was wondering could 2 of those usb adapters be connected in series to allow 2 18v batteries to be linked together for 36v?

Question by ambientvoid    |  last reply


How to show change in current?

I am making a trainer kit for my students. The kit will show the operation of resistors in series and in parallel. In series circuit I connected an LDR with a piezo buzzer which shows the change in voltage. But the same thing does not work in the parallel thing. The change in current does not affect the buzzer. Any Idea what can be done to solve the problem is appreciated?

Question by artworker    |  last reply


DC Motor Problem?

Hi , to whoever is reading this .I wired 2  3v dc toy motors in series and I used about 4.5v as the power source. As I powered it up one motor spun fast and the other spun slower , so I thought the one running slower was defective an so I bought another motor and wired it in series with the  that was spinning fast and thought their speeds would be equalled, however the new one I bought started running faster and the old I one I had that spun faster began spinning slower than the new one. I tried the new one with the old one that had been spinning slower and arrived at the same result.. Could this be because I wired the motors in series ? I  Really need help s o please help me and thank you in advance and for taking the time the read this.

Question by Strontium    |  last reply


can i use capacitors in paralel/serial like resistors? Answered

I know about resistors that when u use them in serial, the ohm values should be added to eachother and then you have the total resistance, or when in paralel, count it up and divide by the number of resistors (right) what i want to know is, does this aply for capacitors as well? like when i use a 1.0 uF capacitor and a 0.1uF capacitor in series, i get 1.1uF please note that the ones im planning to use are ceramic. and if they weren't should i connect them like leds in serial? like positive of one cap to negative of the other?

Question by godofal    |  last reply


Why waste the resistors? Answered

So I see a lot of projects with like 60 LEDs of the same type or something like that, and they use a separate resistor for each LED. Why do they do this? Why not just get one resistor and hook it up to ground or VCC? Please explain, thanks!

Question by HavocRC    |  last reply


Another Star Wars?!

When I entered the lobby of our movie theater after watching the funny (yet disgusting at times) Zohan movie, I caught a glimpse of this trailer. At first, I thought it was a cartoony parody of starwars (perhaps a joke in that Panda movie, all I saw was Yoda). This could not be serious, the animation looked like something straight out of the Incredibles. After some investigation I discovered it was totally cereal. It is a trailer for a 90 minute long preview of a cartoon network series. Who would pay to go to the movies to watch a 90 minute preview?! This is the description of the youtube video:The 90-minute premiere episode of the CGI animated series Star Wars: The Clone Wars will have a limited release in U.S. cinemas starting August 15th.Not only will this be the first 3-D animated movie for the highly-successful saga, but this will also be the first Star Wars movie not released through Twentieth Century Fox. Fox released all six Star Wars movies, plus the original microseries The Clone Wars on home video.But Warner Bros. and Turner Broadcasting will release Star Wars: The Clone Wars this time. The principle reason is that Turner's and W.B.'s subsidiary, The Cartoon Network, managed to snag the rights to the series from creator George Lucas.Star Wars: The Clone Wars on The Cartoon NetworkThe new series will premiere this fall on The Cartoon Network, later airing on TNT."I felt there were a lot more Star Wars stories left to tell," said George Lucas in the press release for Star Wars: The Clone Wars. "I was eager to start telling some of them through animation and, at the same time, push the art of animation forward.""Nothing like this has ever been produced for television," said Stuart Snyder, President/COO Turner Animation,Young Adults & Kids Media. "For 30 years, Star Wars has shown that it appeals to a huge breadth of fans. Star Wars: The Clone Wars on Cartoon Network will be appointment television for everyone in the family. We're thrilled to be working with Lucasfilm again and very excited to be playing a role in bringing this remarkable adventure to viewers."The Star Wars we all know and love has been reduced to a cheap cartoon, made with the sole purpose of trying to squeeze as much money out of the name as possible. Star Wars looks like a cheap joke now, it's just sad, really.

Topic by Spl1nt3rC3ll    |  last reply


charging 10s5p battery pack

I'm working on an ebike conversion. I'm buying laptop batteries to take out the 18650s and put them in my pack. I'm looking at a 10s 37v pcm. If I make it in 10 sets of 6 to get 37v 14.4ah, then how can I safely charge the battery so that they don't charge unevenly in each set?

Topic by leaf26    |  last reply


Can anyone help with a simple LED Design?

Im looking to make a very simple circuit to add some lighting to a project. I want to create a circuit, powered by AA or AAA batteries that will power 6 LED lights (clear/white light) for up several hours. i know I need a power source (hopefully a simple battery holder with an on/off switch built in, a resistor and the set of LEDs (and wiring) what am I missing? which resistor am i looking for? How can I calculate battery life? Thanks for helping a new guy to electronics out!

Question by CriticalHitGames    |  last reply


How to wire a ciruit to charge a lead acid battery when needed and power a audio amplifier? Answered

I have a small audio amplifier i am trying to power off of a lead acid battery to make it portable.  I want to make it so when you plug in a power adapter it will be able to charge the battery and run the amplifier at the same time. It is a 30 watt amplifier.  Should i connect the power adapter to the charging circuit and the audio amplifier in parralel? And then connect the battery to the circuit in parralel? I was thinking of using a laptop power adapter as the power source. I forgot to put a diode between the battery and the amp to prevent the power supply from charging the battery directly through the audio amp parralel connection.  Would this work? Else what should I do?

Question by snowluck2345    |  last reply


Little League World Series!

The Little League World Series is being held in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. From August 15th to the 24th, Little Leaguers from far and wide will come to play for the biggest title in their 10-14 year old lives!Little League World Series WebsiteLLWS Game Schedule

Topic by bumpus    |  last reply


T.B.S (Thunder Bolt Series)

Here it is every one, The first of many guns in the Thunder Bolt Series.https://www.instructables.com/id/TBAP-Thunder-Bolt-Assault-Pistol/?comments=all#CL6VQQGFY3KSN4WKiller~SafeCracker

Topic by Killer~SafeCracker    |  last reply


1970s animated series -innovation

Does anyone here remember an animated series ca 1970somethin, in which a group of people travels back to the dinosaur age and harness geysers, crack rocks by soaking wood wedges in water etc? Kinda silly but fun.

Topic by Toga_Dan    |  last reply


Flash (knex gun series)

This will be my first gun series and will start of with a compact 1 shot rifle. I will also make: A pistol A sniper (slingshot) A knife (mabye) A large mag gun A heavy duty rifle. you thoughts are welcome. plus subscribe if you want to be the first to see them.

Topic by Tom Buckey    |  last reply


Best commercial series ever?

I absolutely love the Jack Links Beef Jerky Sasquatch commercials. They are really funny, this one is one of my favorites! Tell me what your favorite commercial is!

Topic by DELETED_Blue Mullet 2    |  last reply


KNEX MechWarrior Series PDF's

I was too lazy to dig out the instructions to make the MechWarrior line of KNEX and went looking for the pdfs. I couldn't find them any where online, so I dug them out and made pdfs to share with everyone who missed out on the line, lost the instructions or like me is too lazy to find the instructions. I'll upload as many of the pdfs as I can here; the rest are at this link: http://www.4shared.com/u/KpLjxBMX/clanknexer.html You have to make a free account to download them (UPDATE:  you don't need to make an account to download), but it's worth it. If you have a better website to share these files, please let me know. The pdfs include: The Cauldron Born & Owens The Mad Cat & Avatar The Shadow Cat and Sunder Series 1 Firefly Uziel Vulture Series 2 Hollander II Thor Uller Series 3 Converted MiningMech Legionnaire I am missing the Black Hawk (which i seem to have lost) from series 3 and the entire line of electronic armor (series 4) which includes the Fire Starter, Catapult and the Converted ConstructionMech. If anybody has a pdf of them or willing to sell them please let me know!

Topic by clanknexer    |  last reply


Connect transformers together in series? Answered

I've got 4 neon sign transformers, each outputting 12 000V at 30mA. I want to connect them together in series to increase the voltage to 48kV but I just wanna check on the right way of connecting them for safety reasons. The input for all transformers is the standard 220V AC.( I need such a high voltage for a fusion reactor) (the pic is one I found on google that's why the input voltage is 120)

Question by JunaidA44    |  last reply


Web design & development series

Hi, I am web designer & developer form Nederland. I've been looking around here for some time and it seems like there are not many series that cover everthing about how to design and then develop a website. I thought it would be awsome to create a instructsble serie that let's someone develop there own website in pure HTML & CSS. So I have a couple of ideas. - explaining the basics of flat design (todays standard in web design) - creating a website in pure html & css from the ground up - creating a compleet wordpress theme - much more If you like one of the above ideas or if you have one of your own, please let me know. Thanks for reading. And let me know what you think! Greetings from Holland.

Topic by Kevin Tipker    |  last reply