Where to find old tube radios?

I am looking for old tube radios to collect and/or restore for fun. I have so far checked most of my local thrift stores about once a month for a while and I also checked a lot of local antique stores but found there prices to be ridiculously expensive for a beat up old radio. Now I am stumped as to where else to find these beutifull old radios loclaly, because the shipping for the heavy tube radios from E-bay can get incredibly exspensive as well. Anyone have any suggestions as to where to get them? I have already asked both my grandparents and my imediate family is keeping and open eye for them. Also if anyone knows of any good stores to buy this type of stuff in the DC/MD/VA area then I am open for that to.

Topic by jackillac92   |  last reply


How can I Find help to repair an old-time AM Silvertone radio and the best place to buy tubes for it?

Maybe you can help me. I live in Kobe, Japan and am trying to restore a Silvertone 6327 (1947) radio (American). Recently I tried to replace the electric cord that plugs the radio in to a wall socket (the line cord). In doing this I soldered the "radio" ends to two terminals on a 35Z5GT tube. I then plugged the radio in. turned it on, and waited for it to warm up. At first the radio simply made a low humming noise even when I tuned it across the dial (no reception). After about two minutes the 35Z5GT tube briefly lit up and then died (like a "nova"). I'm afraid I may have done something wrong when I tried to attach the new cord line to that tube's terminals. I need to find someone who knows about repairing such a radio to see what the problem is. I want to do this before I replace the 35Z5GT so I don't just keep burning it out (which may happen). Do you know of any such radio repair shops in the Kobe/Osaka area? By the way, I know the radio works as I tested it before I did my "repairs." Also I would like to know is there a source of old tubes anywhere in Japan so I don't have to have them shipped from America? I have read the instructable on how to restore old-time radio; it was very good! Maybe the author of that piece can help me. Below is a picture of the radio from the Web (mine doesn't look quite that good. Thanks for taking the time to help me on this if you can. Bob Austenfeld

Question by austen23   |  last reply


Best Electronics Kits For Adults

There's an excellent thread over on Slashdot ( yeah - who knew, right?) about electronic kits for adults. *Lots of great suggestions and links - check it out!Best Electronics Kits For Adults?Posted by kdawson on Friday June 20, @10:19AMfrom the resistance-is-futile dept.An anonymous reader writes "I'm an adult looking to learn how electronics work and have some fun building projects. But all the kits I've found online are for kids 8-10 years old, and they don't really explain the principles - they just color-code where to place components on boards. Are there any kits aimed at adults? I know if anyone has got the answer, it's this community." Here's a short selection of good links - many more to be found in the Slashdot thread itself:HeathKit and Velleman - The classics, but mostly mentioned as an example of the "not aimed at adults" or the "not as good as they used to be" categoryQuasar Electronics 200-in-1- 200 projects in one kit! MakerShed - bunch of cool projects, many of which you've seen here at Instructables! Electronics Learning Lab Designed by Forrest Mims and sold by radio shack.What is a Microcontroller - Another "exception to the rule" good Radio shack kit.Ramsey Electronics - Including some nice radio transmitter kitsAdaFruit - Including the MintyBoost USB charger and Arduino kits.Nerdkit - For microcontroller and real-world/computer interaction.One other common recommendation is "You're an adult, you don't need to put up with big brightly colored components and "put tab A in slot B" diagrams - make your own kit!"US Navy Electricity & Electronics Training Series (NEETS) - All the practical electronics training you could want, in a free online PDF book format.Lessons In Electric Circuits - A free series of textbooks on the subjects of electricity and electronics.Sparkfun tutorials - Dozens of cool projects and tutorials from a major parts supplier.Getting Started in Electronics - By Forrrest Mims; cited by several readers as the de-facto standard for learning electronics.

Topic by Patrik   |  last reply


Heavy duty UHF CB radio antennas and why cheap can be much better....

If you not a fan of normal road cars then you might get some 4WD and go off road every now and then.There are even those doing trips to remote locations that take a few weeks.An essential piece of equippment these days is a UHF radio.In a convoy you might get away with a handheld one if the cars are not too far apart and the terrain suitable.Most peole however opt for a permanent installation in the dash or roof console.After that decision comes the hardest and often costly part: What antenna to use....If you trust certain online reviews and manufacturer claims then one thing becomes quickly obvious.If you need a sturdy and powerful antenna then you have to pay top dollar.Some come with heavy spring bases claiming to protect the heavy fibreglass rod if you hit a bush or trees branch.There is always a compromise between weight and stability.And trust me, on the right corrugations you prefer not to look at your antenna....So how are these expensive antennas made?As I don't have any own pictures and don't want to steal them from the net: Please search for the terms used if you don't know them already.To answer this let me go to the other types of antennas you can get for your UHF radio.There is the famous rubber ducky - a stubby antenna best suited for short range on difficult terrian.Then we have the fibreglass whip antennas that have more or less coils integrated or even consist of one single coil with different spacings in sections.Good for normal road use, not so much off road as they won't tolerate too much vibration, they often snap off the base screw.Most people now just ignore the short whip antennas of 15 to 30cm length as they usually only come with a gain of around 4.5-6db.I will explain later why that might be a misconception.The last ones are those steel whips with one or two "loading" coils.These coils electrically shorten the antenna.They also provide a matching to the 50 Ohm required for most transmitters and antenna cables.Usually they are designed to be 5/8 Lambda antennas.A good antenna for just receiving, like when using a scanner is not critical in length.Transmitting however means you need a proper Standing Wave Reflection or SWR ratio.For this the antenna needs to be tuned.To be of any good use your antenna needs to match the transmitting frequency.This works best if the antenna length is at 1/2, 1/4 or 5/8 of the corresponging frequencies wavelength.Also called Lambda if you look for antennas.In the good old 27-MHz days we were used to quite long antennas in our backyard, for the car we then opted for 1/4 of this - usually around 2m in length.For UHF however 1/4 wavelength already means you are down to about 16cm...Going for 1/2 is a good thing here as it is still quite short at about 34cm.Real difference when it comes to these Lambda factors is the radion angle produced.You can imagine a 1/4 to look like a huge donut with no hole, about 25° for the radiation angle.At 1/2 this will be flattened out to around 20°.A 5/8 Lambda ntenna can get as low as 16°.Imagine it like a flashligh that has adjustable focus.The light source is of fixed output as your transmitter.The lens does the job of the antenna.If you make the beam more narrow then the light intensity of a certain areas at a certain distance will increase.Means for the radio you get a longer distance your signal can travel with enough energy.This however comes at a price!Imagine you are at the bottom of quite stepp mountain and your mate is up on the top about 2km above you.A high gain antenna with a narrow radion pattern might not even reach up there, while a short stubbie with just 3db still has a chance due to the more spherical radiation.Also explain why low gain and with that short antennas work best in hilly terrain...Back to the thick ones...As you can see you can basically hide any type of whip antenna into a fibreglass rod.But most of the are as said "ground independent", means unlike your normal whip they don't need the spring or foot to be of low resistance to your car's body.How does that work?Well, exactly like these ground independent whip antennas with a spring base or metal pole base work.You know the earliest antenna was a dipol - look it up on Wiki ;)For our CB radios that means you have a metal rod or spring that is about 1/4 or in some cases 1/4 of the wavelenght long.This is connected to the shielding of the coax cable and provides the required ground for the mounted antenna.The big difference is that only too often a dirt cheap dipol is hiding in your expensive fibreglass rod ;)The complete antenna might bring over 2kg on a scale, but the actual thing allowing you to receive and transmit is a few grams of coax cable...HOLD ON A MINUTE!! Some will say now...My whip is 70cm long and my expensive heavy duty one with 9db is 2m long - how does that work with your wavelength theory??Well, it is not my theory, just a fact ;)Imagine a 1/4 Lambda dipol, then it would be all up around 35cm long.And funny enough, that is about the length of a $180 heavy duty stubby if you just tak the rod itself.Go 1/2 of Lambda and you get an overall length of the dipol of around 65cm - add the metal rod making the crew that holds the fibreglass rod and you have the common 70-75cm heavy duty antenna...Anything above this length usually is either just a long rod with noting above the 75cm mark or simple has the 75cm long dipol made from the coax cable at the top with the antenna cable going down the otherwise empty rod.Ok, I got it, either 1/2 of the wavelength or 1/4, so about 35 or 16cm long.Ground independent we add either 1/4 for the spring base and rod or 1/2 for the longer ones.And how again does it work with the gain of an antenna?If you trust Wiki then it comes down to the radiation pattern.These heavy duty antennas usually come with around 6 or 9db, the short ones with 3-4.5db.These values might give you an indication about the theoretically possible distance you can transmit but nothing about the terrain it is suited for.Common rules of thumb created by those selling antennas and radios is that you a high gain antenna on flat terrain and a low gain antenna in a hilly area.Around 4.5-6db seems to be the golden ratio here as these anteannas are equally bad for both extremes in terms of terrain options.What you really would need to know is the actual radiation patterns in a three dimensional plane.A straight whip or dipol as a more or less donut shapead radiation pattern.However, location affects this!Mounted in the middle of the roof it is closest to perfect, while at the corner of your bumper bar you will distord the donut and also block parts out with the body of your car.This is why for this type of mounting elevated antennas are prefered.Makes no sense to have a 16cm long stubbie mounted so the top is still lower than your bonnet...Any antenna with a loading coil (or several) or top load will have a distinctively different pattern.We speak of so called "lobes".If you see it in 2D then for example a 1/2 lambda straight whip will look a bit like the infinity symbol.A 1/4 Lambda of the same style looks more like two ping pong bats joined without the handles.Those with loading coils or linear arrays made from coax cable however can produce multiple, prefered lobes.Usually they are in the 4-6db range and claim to be "universal" or as "allrounder".Here you get a quite narrow main lobe of 12-16° with one or more but much shorter lobes going upwards at about 10-30° depending on the configuration.At short range, like in hilly terrain both lobes overlap while you get a dead area at greater distances.You can sometimes notice that when you are on a low level talking to someone up high.There are cases when with a bit more difference in angle to each other (in terms of height and distance) the signal jumps up a few numbers.You just went from the dead zone into the lobe ;)With just a db value for the anteanna but no details about the actual design, heavy duty antennas can fool you badly.In mayn cases a 1/2 Lambda straight whip on the roof will outperform a costly, heavy duty antenna mounted to your bullbar.This is the reason why the expensive ones are the biggest cheat - they just elevate a quite small antenna above your roof line.And since it is heavy it needs a big spring and you hope it will not break if you hit something on a narrow track.All while the thin stainless stell whip with the cheap magnetic base just flexes under all obstacles with no damage at all.Plus, if you really get into the thick jungle you can just take the magnet off until you are through LOLWhy is a SWR and power meter still an important tool to invest into?Those remembering or still using 27-MHz radios only know too well why you need a proper SWR and power meter.With the lenght of the antenna at these low frequencies and affecting factors new the antenna proper tuning is a must.The bandwidth of the channels also means you have to tune the lowest and highest channel so the are basically even, anything else and the old guys would scream "UNACCEPTABLE!" ;)Especially it you want to get the last out of your system without going illegal.For some reason we accepted the claims that an SWR reading of around 1:2 is fine and acceptable.Most of the radios lower the power output to protect the transmitter if the SWR goes to far out.Allows for simple mass production of antennas with fixed cable lengths that are usually well overpriced.The most expensive bit is the cable itself here...I had no time to build an analog SWR and pwoer meter that works properly on 27 and 470MHz, so I ordered cheap SW30 from China.With that I first checked my little collection of antennas then those of some of my friends.This includes everything from short rubber duckies over loaded and straight whips to heavy duty models.One thing that was obvious right away: most are far away from an SWR readin anyone with a 27MHz groundplane antenna on a long mast would accept.And only one heavy duty antenna had a SWR readin of below 1:1.6 for channel 1 AND channel 40!That one was relatively cheap noname brand.With that sorted I decided to tune at least my steel whip antennas.To my utter disappointment they were all just a tiny bit too short - a thing that would have caused a proper 27MHz antenna manufacturer to to keep a large stockpile of his antennas...I had one though that was longer than needed.And before you ask: Yes, I tested them on both my elevated bullbar mount AND a direct mount on the roof rack.Did not change much for the bad ones so I ignored the mounting position for the tuning.I checked the power once for both channels on my prefered antenna and got 4.4W.Mind you that one has a SWR reading of 1:2.2 and will no longer be used as I can't be bothered to make it longer.For some reason I thought I check the SWR and power everytime I cut a bit off the antenna instead of just watching the SWR reading.At original length I had a SWR of 1:1.9 on ch40 and 1:1.75 on ch1 with 4.6W.I kept trimming down by about 2mm increments until I got an even readin of 1:1.07 on both channels.And with every trim the power went up a little bit.I have a friend that is or better, was just at the brink of being unable to reach from my driveway when he is parked in front of his house.A radio check after the tuning revealed that instead of coming with a lot of static noise and sometimes cut out I got a solid reading of 2 on his end with a much more acceptable level of noise.However, I still struggles as badly to hear him...Funny thing is that test was with just a plain and straight whip of 1/2 Lambda, in my case the tuning resulted in a length of 38cm from the base of antenna screw to the tip.My fancy 9db high gain antenna that is just over 70cm long did not even reach him while I could hear him slightly better than on my tuned one.Changing the mounting to the roof rack gave me a clear reception and a signal strength of 4 at my friends end with no noise.Elevation and nothing around the antenna does matter...After all this, would I still bother to buy a ready to go antenna for 470MHz?Only if I had to.Getting some RG58 cable or re-using it from on old antenna is cheap enough.A standard screw mount with a grub screw to hold a steel whip sets you back less than 10 bucks, from China even cheaper.And most will find a soldered on connector on the other end of an old antenna to be salvaged if required.If you don't have any sring steel wire of about 40cm length then think out of the box ;)The packing of pillows and such often come with a sring steel wire to make the plasitc floil keep its shape, some old suitaces have thicker wire doing the same.And if you ask nicely you might get a bristle or two for free from a street sweeping machine at your councils depot ;)After all we only need a maximum of 40cm to have enough left to trim and tune down.What is left to do?Of course some distance tests to check how well such a simple antenna really really works in comparison to commercial models.I only have one 9db antenna and will check it first to see if on flat terrain there is much difference in distance for transmitting.Unless this difference is well above one kilometer I will not bother with a high gain antenna like this anymore and instead opt for a longer mast and 1/2 Lambda.Another thing on the to do list to try a ground plane antenna with topload to squeeze the radion lobe down to under 15°.The resulting antenna would be quite short here and using an elevated mast is a must have to get over roof level with at leat a few wavelengths of distance to the roof.I guesstimate that an optimised antenna of this style should result in a distance increase of about 10-15km of flat terrain while being utterly useless in a hilly areas.Plus, such a design is not really suited for a vehicle going fast on a freeway, so it will go on my house instead.

Topic by Downunder35m 


Daft Punk Table, DIY Hot Air Soldering Iron, The Best Mop in the World...

Sign-up for our newsletter here. Sept. 20, 2007 Welcome back!We love Halloween so much that we just announced our DIY Halloween 2007 Contest! We're looking forward to seeing all the gruesome entries, but until then, check out these cool projects. How to Create a Lightfish Install LEDs in plastic fish and set them free in water to see some magic happen. Fishing poles included.posted by karlklar on Sep 18, 2007 How to build a Daft Punk Table Replica Bring the disco action to your coffee table with this reproduction of a table that has disappeared from stores.posted by mrgalleta on Sep 5, 2007 How to Make "The Best Mop in the World" Build a mop to last forever with things found around the house. posted by brendanconnal on Sep 16, 2007 This week's newsletter is sponsored byToyota Color Picking 101: It's easier than you think Learn to confidently choose colors for fabric, paint, tile, or any other material. posted by antelucandaisy on Sep 18, 2007 How to make a round thing without a lathe (plus model making tips) Get round and lovely compound curves into your model with simple tools.posted by KaptinScarlet on Sep 13, 2007 Building an Electric Racing Car A small team of school kids built and raced an electric racing car. This is how they did it. posted by rickharris on Sep 16, 2007 25MM Pneumatic Sniper Rifle Why use PVC pipe for plumbing when you can glue it together to form a sniper rifle with a scope that can shoot at over 300 fps?posted by irwinner on Sep 9, 2007 Insanely Hot DIY Hot Air Soldering Iron @ 15 Volts DC and 3.5 amps From the pieces of many electronics a new super soldering tool emerges.posted by OzzyRoo on Sep 18, 2007 Retro DVD Player Transform a beautiful old vintage radio into a slot-loading DVD player. posted by alinke on Sep 20, 2007 How to make a vertical, ergonomic (tie-fighter) keyboard Prevent soreness by keeping your hands in a neutral position while typing.posted by ewilhelm on Sep 14, 2007 Check out all the entries! Halloween Contest 2007! Get a free shirt! Now go build something awesome, and I'll see you next week! -Eric

Topic by lebowski 


The dirty little secrets about switching to LED lights

Some years ago we were told to invest in more energy efficient lights for our homes.Incandescent was using too much power, so CFL's, Compact Flouroscent Lights were the ting to buy.Much higher price than the normal lightbulb but hey we save a lot of money in the long run.No one liked the long warm up time to get full brightness...And even less people actually got the claimed lifespan out of them.Add the recycling costs and hazardous waste created and the costs of using CFL's is actually much higher than standard light bulbs.The only savings were for the power companies.LED lights had a slow start but once mass production started price went downhill fast.What started in the EU was made compulsory in other countries soon after: A ban on incandescent light bulbs.Thee are only a few exceptions left like bulbs for your oven as LED's won't cope with the temps here.So why was the ban necessary?An incandescent light bulb was available for often under a buck, so having some spares at home was no issue at all.Making people switch to LED lights that often cost 20 times the amount of an old standard light is impossible.Biggest incentive of course was the short boom to the local economy as the initial batches were all sold as high quality items.The scam started to evolve when it became clear that even with LED lights the overall savings hugely depends on how you use your lights.As a factor on your electricity bill the lights are usually at the bottom of the list.Things like heaters, airconditioners, fridges, freezers and of course TV's are the main users of electricity in many houses.During the winter times this changes as we need more light but still the impact is not as high as you might think.What did change though was the behaviour.Since we now save so much energy we don't really worry as much if the light is kept on for no good reasons.Again, the main savings are with the electricity providers.I won't deny though that a house with 100 60W incandescent lighs will have some benfit on the electricity when switching to 8 or 10W LED lights....Lifespan...Like so many others I have some stories about incandescent lights...For example the one had in the basement when I was a kid.Often on for several hours, sometimes just for a few seconds to quickly grab something.But it still worked fine when I was an adut and never had to be replaced.Or the house that destroyed lights on a regular base thanks to power surges from the nearby industrial areas.LED light were meant to make the difference here.Put them in and never worry about replacing.10.000 or more hours before the LED's fail...Nice claims but never fully true.10.000 is a bit over a year of constant use.Most people won't just leave the lights on for the entire year.So you would expect that a good LED light will work just fine for at least 5 years, under normal conditions close to 10 maybe.There is several problems with this claim - none of them are explained in the warranty leaflet and nothing was explained by your government when you were forced onto LED light.Electronics even as simple as a resistor come with a limited warranty.Some will remember the disaster when bad capacitors turned thausands of flat screen TV's into flashing lightbulbs.The parts used to make the lights can be a year old already before they are soldered together.Then there is time for shipping, storage, distribution.Sadly not all countries require to print the manufacturing date on the packing or LED light.Means that by the time you put a new LED light bulb into use it might be two years old already.Similar for the claim that the light won't emit heat.Sure the LED light itself is cold but the heatsink the LED's are mounted on is far from it, same for the often underrated electronics inside.In return the electronics suffer from the excessive heat, espcially if mounted in lamps not designed for them.Which makes the entire replacement a scam for most people.It is not uncommon that a LED light fails within a few months.If you are lucky to have kept the invoice for it you might be able to get a new one from your store.Now I replaced 20 lights when I moved in here.Only the first three that failed got replaced, after that the shop claimed I would misuse the warranty.I inspected them and it was not easy to get inside.The switching IC used should have had a heatsink according to the datasheet, without it the circuit board got toasted until the IC finally cracked.Without a sufficient heatsink the IC was only rated for a max of 5W while the light had a LED assembly of 15W...I kept doing these destructive examinations whenever a LED light fails.So far they ALL had sure signs of overheating, either for the switching IC or the tiny transformer.No one really bothers though to keep track of the hours a light was actually used and with that we just keep buying new ones with no worries in the world.Recycling....An incandescent light was never really worth much to begin with, so the final grave was the normal rubbish bin.CFL's required proper disposal due to the hazardous materials in the tubes.A comparison between the amount of sold lights and what ended up in recycling centers reveiled that the ,ajority of them ended in landfill because people tossed them in the normal rubbish.The long term impact of those chemicals on the enviroment will be hidden under fresh grass by then.LED's claimed to be the way out as they were meant to be fully recycleable.What really happend with our collected recycling bins was clear when China stopped taking it.....Means all the still usefull materials in those expensice lights again just go into landfill.A total waste on so many levels.So what is the real cost then?Electricity prices are only going up, so saving Watts wherever possible is a good thing.But ask yourself:How much energy and ressources were required to produce an incandescent light bulb?How much more is required to produce a LED light?We are told to focus on our electricity bill alone without considering the overall costs.Since we already pay the extra of making them we tend to forget what happens once they fail.More waste, more landfill, no recycling of the lights at all.But does it prevent your next blackout when the grid is at max capacity? Nope...Keeping your big airconditioner off for a hot day or two would save more electricity for the year than changing from incandescent lights to LED's ;) Does that mean we get way more efficient airconditioners? Nope...Where in developing countries cheap and highly efficient compressors are used we invented inverter technology ROFLMakes no difference at all on max power to have an inverter.The only real difference is that it runs slower at lower capacity while a normal airconditioner turns the compressor on and off.Forcing the use of highly efficient compressor technologies and replacing our old style systems would have made a real difference on the overall electricity use.We "save" electricity with LED lights and only turn them on if we really need them.Still the 5 or 7kW airconditioner runs all summer long and in the winter it heats the house and uses even more electricity.Makes you wonder, doesn't it? ;)

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


Amazon.com® and Instructables Science Fair Results!

Amazon.com® and Instructables are pleased to announce the winners of the Science Fair! The entries were sweet, and I personally learned quite a few new things. Check out all the projects here.Grand PrizeThe grand prize winner for will receive a USD $1,500 Amazon.com gift certificate, a custom laser-etched Leatherman Juice S2 multi-tool, and an Instructables Robot t-shirt.The Rubens' Tube: Soundwaves in Fire! by yourtvliesFirst PrizeEach first prize winner will each receive a USD $250 Amazon.com gift certificate, a custom laser-etched Leatherman Juice S2 multi-tool, and an Instructables Robot t-shirt.Build an antique style crystal radio by OhmWiimote Rubens Tube: Control Fire With Sound! (And a Nintendo Wiimote!) by ScaryBunnyManKitchen laboratory II: The CO2 trap by syribiaThe Hilsch vortex tube by thecheatscalcRunners UpThe runners-up will each receive a USD $25 Amazon.com gift certificate, an Instructables patch, and stickers.A simple mechanical resonance demonstrator by 5VoltHow to make plastic by aaPreparing your own thin layer chromatography plates (and then using them) by allanf0Make a Voltage Controlled Resistor and Use It by BioteleElectromechanical Transducer Out of a Polystyrene Conical Section! by BookburnMake Potato Plastic! by Brandon121233The Bio-Battery - Power for the future. (So easy a 10 year old can do it.) by chowdeshellMotor Speaker by guyfrom7upHow to make air muscles! by HonusMeasure the drag coefficient of your car by iwilltryBarbie Doll Electric Chair Science Fair Project! by jessyratfinkMake an Evaporative Terra Cotta Beer Chiller by jolshefskyBe a scientist: make your own force meter. by Kiteman8X10 foldable pinhole camera by lennybBuilding a better Guinea and Feather by Luke LuckGrowing Mushrooms: PF Tek by nakKelvin's Thunderstorm - Create lightning from water and gravity! by NK5Be a Scientist: Learn about Triboluminescence (or Lightning in your by RedNeckOreoLet's go green! Build a Solar Powered Parabolic Cooker! by WeissensteinburgGeodesic Dome Greenhouse by yes2techFamily CollaborationThese collaborating families will receive a matched set of Instructables Robot t-shirts and an acrylic Robot plaque laser-engraved with their names!The Bio-Battery - Power for the future. (So easy a 10 year old can do it.) by chowdeshellLaunch it: the Huffin' Hoopster by KitemanAll winners should watch their inboxes for a private message with prize-claim instructions.The following Instructables were rated high enough to be runners-up, but the authors already had a winning entry:Hack The Spy Ear and Learn to Reverse Engineer a Circuit by BioteleBuild a solar hot dog cooker by iwilltryMeasure the specific heat of water and other fluids by iwilltryBe a Scientist: map your skin by KitemanThe Chaos Machine (Double Pendulum) by Luke LuckKitchen laboratory: Proteins and Cheese making by syribiaMake Rheopectic slime in less than 15 minutes! (It is not Oobleck) by syribiaGive a big round of applause to our awesome judges who spent hours going through each project:Bill Burkland, CameronSS, canida, dan, dave spencer, ewilhelm, fungus amungus, jeffkobi, KaptinScarlet, lebowski, noahw, Peanut, turkey tek, viron, and zieak.From complete voting results, go here.Amazon, Amazon.com and the Amazon.com logo are registered trademarks of Amazon.com Inc. or its affiliates.

Topic by ewilhelm   |  last reply


How do you make an annoying buzzer?

I want to do a practical joke at work.  I want to use IR LED'S to make a sender and receiver so that when I push my remote it will activate the buzzer, but when I let off of the button, the buzzer will stop. I am assuming that the sending part would be easy, pretty much a battery, button, and perhaps a resistor (and the LED), but how would I make the receiver so it will set off the buzzer? Thanks! Edit: I just went to radio shack and got this emitter and detector: http://www.radioshack.com/product/index.jsp?productId=2049723 I also bought this buzzer: http://www.radioshack.com/product/index.jsp?productId=2062394 I did a quick hookup (with electrical tape).  I used a momentary switch from an old computer for the emitter.  I know it was working because I used my video camera to detect it.   When I pointed it at the detector/buzzer nothing happened.  I was using about 2 volts, (buzzer votage is 1.5-3VDC).  I just went to the site to look up the detector and it says the phototrasistor detector is 20V at 25 mA.   On the package the max is 70 V.   My question, If I use the following configuration, should it work?  I dont want to try this and blow out  my buzzer before I get an opinion.   Thanks I cant seem to get the pic to upload here, so I put it on my site: http://www.gamesfree4u.com/detectorsch.html EDIT: 12/30/09 Well, I bought a breadboard and tried to wire it up.  Not a lot of room on those things.   I used 3 9volt batteries for the receiver.  According to the site, they use from 20 to 70 volts, unless im reading something wrong.  I didnt use any resistors, which I should have.   As soon as I hooked up the power the diode burned up. lol.   Oh well, lesson learned = $1.00.  I'll have to give this  more thought.

Topic by pennsteve   |  last reply


Green Science Fair Winners

Instructables and Discover Magazine are happy to announce the winners of the Discover Green Science Fair for a Better Planet Contest!We asked you to show us some great green ideas and you responded with a flood of them. Over 200 Instructables were submitted over the past few weeks and tons of useful information has been put out there to help others with their own green projects. You are all an inspiration, truly.Thank you for putting so much time and effort into these Instructables. As always, we wish we had more prizes to give out. Now, on with the winners! First 10 Entries For jumping into the contest early, the authors of these Instructables will receive a Discover Magazine t-shirt. Ways to be green How to get FREE 9 Volt Batteries Recycle plastic grocery bags into Loons! Tips on how to improve gas mileage All-Natural Incense Burner Science Fair Display Board How to recycle an old sweater How to Boycott the Bottle Easy Seed Starter Supercharged Lemon Runners-UpThe authors of these Instructables will each receive a copy of 20 Things You Didn't Know About Everything, a book from the Editors at Discover magazine. Mini Wooden Portable Compost Bin How to build a 72Volt electric motorcycle How to Make an Easy Inverted Planter £5 Japanese lamp from recycled materials Trickle charging auto-switching LED helmet Make your own plastic tote bag from recycled plastic bags From old Tourist Map to Gift Bag How to Make A Solar Powered Fan! solar lawn mower How To Smell Pollutants Third Prize The authors of these Instructables will each receive an Eton FR150 Microlink, a Solar-Powered, Crank-powered Portable Radio with Flashlight and Cell Phone Charger. Cheap solar tracker Organic planting pots from newspapers Bike Generator Recycled Denim Shopping Bag The Green Pail Retained Heat Cooker Second Prize The authors of these Instructables will each receive a Sansa Express 1GB MP3 player, Instructables Robot t-shirt, patch, and stickers. Solar Powered Trike Urban Homestead Garden (squarefoot gardening abridged) First Prize The author of this Instructable will receive a Celestron Skyscout that uses advanced GPS technology with point and click convenience to identify thousands of stars, planets, constellations and more. Plus Instructables Robot t-shirt, patch, and stickers. Make Your Own Biodiesel Processor Thank you to all of our judges for helping to choose the winners. Colin Bulthaup (CTO of Potenco, co-founder Squid Labs)Christy Canida (Instructables)Stephen Cass (Senior Editor at Discover Magazine) Saul Griffith (President of Makani Power, co-founder Squid Labs, MacArthur Fellow) Corwin Hardham (CTO of Makani Power, co-founder Squid Labs)Jeremy Jacquot (treehugger.com, USC student in environmental sciences) Tom Kostigen (co-author of The Green Book: The Everyday Guide to Saving the Planet One Simple Step at a Time)Ed Lewis (Instructables)Corey Powell (Executive Editor at Discover Magazine) Sarah Richardson (Senior Editor at Discover Magazine) Gemma Shusterman (Media Lab grad, Juror for the 2008 SIGGRAPH art gallery)Tyghe Trimble (News Editor at Discover Magazine)Eric Wilhelm (Instructables, co-founder Squid Labs) Daniel Wilson (Roboticist, author of How to Build a Robot Army) Laura Wright (Senior Editor of On Earth Magazine, published by the Natural Resources Defense Council)

Topic by fungus amungus   |  last reply


nerf ranges

(NO MODDED NERF GUNS)ok i was wondring what are ALL of the ranges of nerf guns lleave a comment of its lowest range and its highest rangeand what gun it isBuzz Bee:Big BlastDouble ShotLaser Tek Mega Missle Mustang Six Rapid Fire RifleSingle Tek Tek FourTek Six Tek Ten Lanard Blasters:First Shot Big Salvo Blast Bazooka Maxshot Over and Under Sonic Bazooka Speed Loader Triple Shot ERTL BlastersPump Action Shotgun Rapid Fire Pump Action Shotgun Nerf Blasters:Airtech 1000 Airtech 2000 Airtech 3000 Airtech 4000Airtech Jet SquadronArmor Shot ArrowstormArrowstrikeAuto GripBig Bad BowBlastfire Bow N' Arrow BuzzawChainblazerCommlink IICrossbow CrossfireDart Tag BlasterDefender T-3 Disc Shot Double CrossbowEagle EyeEliminatorExpand-a-BlastFireflyGatorHidden ShotHornet Hydro BazookaIron Raptor Laser Fang Lightnin' Blitz Lock N' Load Longshot Longshot Front Gun Mad HornetMagstrike Manta Ray Maverick MonoblastNB-1Nite Finder: min:16' 7" max:23' 4" (thanks to zack scott from you tube)Nitro Quad Pen Blaster Powerclip PulsatorRapid Fire 20Ratchet Blast RattlerRazorbeastRazor Fin Reactor Recon Rip Chord Courtesy of DraconisRoto Track Sawtooth Scout Secret Shot 1 Secret Shot 2 Secret Strike Pocket Blaster Sharpshooter 1 Sharpshooter 2 SlingshotSneakshot Spiderman Dart Tag Gun Splitfire Stinger Stinging Scarab StrongArm SuperMaxx 250 SuperMaxx 500 SuperMaxx 750 SuperMaxx 1000 SuperMaxx 1500 (New) SuperMaxx 1500 (Old) Supermaxx 2000SuperMaxx 3000 (Blue) SuperMaxx 3000 (Green) SuperMaxx 5000 Switch Shot Switch Shots MaxSwitch Shots Super Switch Shots Ultra Tech Target Titan Triple Strike Triple TorchVulcan Warthog Whiptail Scorpion Wildfire Promotional Blasters:Kung Fu Panda Commander CrossbowPirates of the Carribean Flint Lock BlasterSpiderman 3 Blaster Spiderman Wrist BlasterStar Wars Rebel Trooper BlasterThe Batman Light Signal BlasterThe Two Towers of Uruk Urukai Bow Wayne Tech Tri-Fire Blaster Other Blasters:Air BazookaAirzone 8 Shooter Air Zone Arrow StormAir Zone Dual Fire Dart BlasterAirzone Scorpian Bow Halo Ma5c Rifle Kids Stuff Bow n' Arrow Kilroy Magnum PistolLightstorm 2 Optimus Prime Blaster Periscope BlasterPistol Splat PS-800Pool Blaster Roto RocketSplatmatic Thundersplat Spy Gear Signal Launcher Star Wars Clone Troopers Blaster SuperSoaker MaxD2000 Super Soaker 50 20th Anniversary EditionThe Proffesional Trigger FireUSB Missle Launcher Vortex Firestorm Vortex TornadoXxl BazookaXxl Skeet ShooterBlast HammerElectric EelJust Toys CrossbowMarshmallow ShooterMissile StormPreceptorQuick StrikeRam RodRocket StormUltrox Quadra CannonWrist Blitzerthanks for helping! =)

Topic by knexsuperbuilderfreak   |  last reply


Top 50 2008: Instructables

Yesterday we looked at the Top 50 commenters for 2008 and today we'll be looking at the numbers for the top 50 Instructables of 2008. Since there's no one way of declaring a list of Instructables, we created three top 50 lists. These cover Instructables in order of rating, pageviews, and comments. Instructables on these lists were all published in 2008.Let's go to the graphs and charts!Top 50 Instructables: Pageviews   Instructable Views 1   Body-Mod: Elf Ears 347738 2   Use your laptop as an Xbox/Xbox 360 "Wireless Adapter" on Windows XP/Vista, and Mac OSX 220780 3   Fix the Red Ring of Death! (without towels!) 177285 4   Laser cutter, start slicing stuff for under 50 dollars 159647 5   Run Backups on any Wii Without a Modchip 159408 6   How to build a 72Volt electric motorcycle 159261 7   How to make out 145713 8   Inverted Bookshelf 137198 9   Munny Speakers 124736 10   Awesome led cube 118293 11   Firefox Pranks! 117449 12   How to make an Iron Man Arc Reactor 116481 13   How to French Kiss 115958 14   How To: Make Bath Bombs 108287 15   Gift Ideas 107914 16   DIY USB "Hard Drive" 96588 17   Safely Shaving Your Pubic Hair 96144 18   WinXP Overhaul Guide: How to make it look like Vista, run like lightning, and stay productive, fast & smooth 94980 19   Laser Tattoo 94705 20   DIY Vinyl Wall Art 92752 21   How to refill a "disposable" Brita brand water pitcher filter with activated carbon. 89724 22   Make your own Roll-Up Keyboard 89558 23   Hidden USB Storage 86430 24   how to add EL wire to a coat or other garment 84340 25   Build a 60 Watt Solar Panel 82286 26   Grow a square watermelon 82275 27   LeGummies brick shaped gummy candies 81368 28   USB 80875 29   How to remove most of the seeds when cutting up a watermelon 80822 30   How to Make a TRON Style Lamp: The MADYLIGHT 80281 31   LED Cube 4x4x4 78936 32   Covert Spy Sunglasses 78633 33   Build a water mortar 77090 34   Super Nightvision Headset Hack! 76634 35   A better laptop stand for bed 76101 36   Amazing plasma globe tricks that you never knew before!!! 74842 37   How to get a Free Itunes Account (No Credit Card Needed) 74490 38   Make an iPod Video Projector 74026 39   Homemade Gifts 73478 40   Lasers 73242 41   Remote shutter trigger for Digital Cameras 72911 42   Ergonomic Laptop Stand Made From a Coat Hanger 72321 43   MAKE A HIGH VOLTAGE SUPPLY IN 5 MINUTES 71744 44   Protect Your Home with Laserbeams! 71387 45   Iron Man Helmet 71358 46   Get Big Money for Dead Batteries 70261 47   How to Put on a Condom 69805 48   How to make an Iron Man Mask 69617 49   How to build a 96-Volt Electric Motorcycle 68924 50   Nintendo Lunchbox 68164 Top 50 Instructables: Ratings   Instructable Rating 1   Build A Plasma Speaker 4.64 2   Build A Net Gun 4.62 3   Wall-E Robot 4.60 4   Sew your own Instructables Robot Plushie! 4.60 5   How to Make a Portable Game System 4.54 6   Build Your Own Butler Robot!!! - Tutorial,Photos, and Video 4.54 7   Electromagnetic Floater 4.52 8   LED Cube 4x4x4 4.50 9   LeGummies brick shaped gummy candies 4.49 10   DIY Vinyl Wall Art 4.49 11   5-minute Chocolate Cake 4.48 12   When a Phillips is not a Phillips! 4.48 13   Airgun with eXplosive air-Release Valve 4.47 14   How to Build a Robot - The BeetleBot v2 ( Revisited ) 4.45 15   How to Start a Business 4.45 16   Gandhi: 17' Tall Cardboard Avatar 4.44 17   turn signal biking jacket 4.44 18   Hidden USB Storage 4.44 19   Cyber/Steampunk Futuresque Sci-Fi Hand Gun 4.43 20   LED Chess Set 4.41 21   Build your own Electric Car! 4.41 22   LCS-1M - A Full-Featured, Low-Cost Hobby Oscilloscope 4.40 23   Build a World's Smallest Electronic Shocker! 4.39 24   Lego USB Stick 4.38 25   MAKE A PILLAR WITH A DECORATIVE CAPITOL AND BASE 4.38 26   EGG FLOWER VASE 4.38 27   Aliens Powerloader Halloween Costume 4.38 28   Munny Speakers 4.37 29   Giant 100mm LED 4.37 30   Coilgun Handgun 4.37 31   How to Thank Instructables 4.36 32   Guitar Tube Amp 4.36 33   How to get a Tshirt for GoodHart 4.34 34   Creepy Cobweb Shooter! 4.34 35   Grow Your Own Bioluminescent Algae 4.32 36   How to make a Portal Gun 4.31 37   how to add EL wire to a coat or other garment 4.30 38   Duct Tape Messenger Bag + Hardware 4.30 39   Firearm Safety: The "do's" and "don'ts" of enjoying guns safely. 4.29 40   The Stirling Engine, absorb energy from candles, coffee, and more! 4.29 41   Recycle Old Light Bulb 4.28 42   USB Batman Spotlight 4.28 43   Coffee table upgrade! 4.27 44   Steampunk Dystopian Sniper Rifle (Mercury Bow) 4.27 45   Building Small Robots: Making One Cubic Inch Micro-Sumo Robots and Smaller 4.27 46   How to grow flowers on a military base in Iraq 4.26 47   How to make your own LED lightbulbs 4.26 48   Iron Man Helmet 4.25 49   Cardboard/Fiberglass Halo 3 inspired Master Chief Costume 4.25 50   Build Halo Armor 4.25 Top 50 Instructables: Comments   Instructable Comments 1   Build a World's Smallest Electronic Shocker! 812 2   Knex Heavy Cannon 645 3   Awesome led cube 637 4   Simple Xbox 360 Rapid Fire Mod 591 5   Build A Plasma Speaker 494 6   DD-27 V2.75 compact AST rifle 454 7   WinXP Overhaul Guide: How to make it look like Vista, run like lightning, and stay productive, fast & smooth 453 8   The accidental pocket jet engine... 427 9   Scavenge free electronics, food, and help the environment 400 10   How to make your PSP "Better" or how to have more fun on a Sony PSP 379 11   Laser Tattoo 376 12   Amazing plasma globe tricks that you never knew before!!! 376 13   DSman195276's sidearm --updated-- v1.5 is here! 371 14   MAKE A HIGH VOLTAGE SUPPLY IN 5 MINUTES 363 15   Wall-E Robot 352 16   Knex Heavy Cannon v5 - Handheld 342 17   Fix the Red Ring of Death! (without towels!) 341 18   How to Build a Time Machine (Vortex Distortion Space and Time Dilating Device) 340 19   Knex Heavy Cannon v2 - Mini 339 20   How to get a Tshirt for GoodHart 338 21   Run Backups on any Wii Without a Modchip 336 22   Make A Water Leyden Jar 331 23   Park 52 knex sniper 327 24   Build a simple Marx Generator 323 25   Knex Guinea Pig Trap 318 26   TRUELY semi-auto knex gun 315 27   L96 308 28   How to Build a Knife 307 29   Pineapplebob's Sniper Rifle 306 30   True Trigger, 10 Round, Auto-Loading, Knex Concept Rifle 299 31   Fire Shaving 290 32   DJ Radio's knex SPEC-9 sniper rifle 285 33   How to UPGRADE from Vista to Windows XP on an Acer laptop 283 34   How to dodge a draft 279 35   Protect Your Home with Laserbeams! 279 36   Hidden USB Storage 277 37   Knex Compact AST Pistol 276 38   Cyber/Steampunk Futuresque Sci-Fi Hand Gun 276 39   Steampunk Dystopian Sniper Rifle (Mercury Bow) 275 40   Pocket sized survival kit 274 41   Knex Pistol "TDS" With Simple Slide Action *Updated as of 8/26/08* 271 42   Use your laptop as an Xbox/Xbox 360 "Wireless Adapter" on Windows XP/Vista, and Mac OSX 269 43   Body-Mod: Elf Ears 266 44   Knex M4 Carbine (True Trigger) 257 45   How to make a Portal Gun 255 46   DSman195276's sniper rifle 254 47   Reaper Crossbow 254 48   fully automatic knex gun (UPDATED) 252 49   Build your own computer 252 50   LeGummies brick shaped gummy candies 252

Topic by fungus amungus   |  last reply


TV antennas and what is possible indoors

Back in my young years a TV antenna was on the roof, quite big and only required to get 3 or 4 channels at best.The basic design of these Yagi antennas has not really changed since then.Same for the antennas required to get UHF and VHF channels at the same time.They either comes as two seperate antennas with a mixer or as a UHF antenna with some added loops for UHF.To talk some basics:For UHF you can get away with quite small dimensions for your antenna bits.After all a quarter wavelengths here is only around 15cm long.With VHF though we get already 30 to 40cm here depending on the channels.So called bradband antennas claim to be able to get a wide range of frequencies.That however is only true for their dedicated frequency band.If you take a normal whip style antenna then this becomes obvious - just compare the lenghts required and you realise "going the middle way" will mean neither UHF nor VHF would get any usable reception.For a long time now there is the option of so called "fractal antennas" to get better TV reception....Fractal antenna? What the heck is that?The theories behind them are about as old as fractal antenna designs that were not even considered to be fractals.Let me explain with the example of a standard FM radio antenna.For them we use frequencies from about 88 to 108MHz.And of course, for our cars they are always on the roof or mounted somewhere around the wheel arches.Some cars however does not seem to have any antenna depsite having a working radio.In this special case rest ensured they do have one, usually behind the plastic bumper bar ;)I like to go off road every now and then and lost count how many times I had to replace my antenna after getting to close to some bushes and trees.As a solution I used some thin wire to create a L-style anteanna on the inside of my windscreen.And funny enough it picks up more stations than a "proper" antenna outside.Really old design and if you think about it then an antenna with a kink that looks like L is ""self similar" - the definition of a fractal ;)More complex shapes like the Sierpinski models do exactly the same just in one more dimension.Cell phones use them as well as you WiFi router that has no external antenna anymore.Their designs and looks are so different that it is next to impossible to list the currently used shapes here.What it comes down to, when you just take a very basic flat or wire shape is that the straight single segment of the active antenna is split into one or many shorter segments that change the angle.They all have similar relations to the wavelenght still.Means really long segments might be half of a wavelength while the shortest bits are just 1/64 of a wavelength.Think of it (far too simple of course) like amny matched antennas combined into a single one.With that often comes a destinct radiation pattern, usually with a quite narrow beam angle that provides a quite high gain.Are fractal antennas any better than for example a proper Yagi antenna?You can ask 100 people and you get 100 different opinions for this one.This is mostly due to some simple facts like:Not caring about actual comparisons.Not being accurate enough when building the fractal antenna.Using just very basic equippment to compare results.For example when you have a 30 year old and quite small TV antenna on your roof and struggle with digital TV reception than you might want to just replace it all.In some case even the old rabbit ears on your TV set will work better.But take modern Yagi antenna with 12 or more segments and even station that are 100 miles away have a good chance.Comes down to possible gain, frequency match and of course how well the antenna is aimed at the transmitter.Then why is it that some fractal antennas still seem to perform so much better?The big antenna scam....If you paid attention during the intial DVB-T rollout in your country then noticed two things.a) You were told you need a TV or set top box capable of receiving DVB-T signals.b) You need a suitable antenna.Well, A is obvious but for B a lot of people got scammed badly.You see, in almost all cases the frequencies allocated for TV signal did not change at all.And an antenna really does not care if the incoming signal is analog or digital - it only cares about the frequency.But more and more local stations often meant that the trnsmit power is limited.After all it makes no sense to have a 500kW transmitter if the area to cover is only about 20 square km big.So people were told they need new antennas once the noticed digital TV is more like playing Tetris, blocks everywhere....You analog TV had no problem with a slightly weak signal, you did not really notice it unless the weather was really bad as well.All the benefits of digital TV however only work with a proper signal strength.If your areas still has both analog and digital TV channels then have a look on how your local transmitter provides the signals ;)Part of the big scam was hiding a very simple fact:All analog TV is transmitted in a horizontal orientation while almost all digital TV is transmitted in a VERTICAL orientation.Ok, we already gain and ignored it but why would the orientation be important?Your radio antenna is vertical because the FM signal is transmitted the same way - the "waves" if you like go up and down like a sine wave.You still get reception if you turn the antenna 90° to make it a horizontal one but you will realise that weak station are no longer available.The same happened with digital TV.And if there is only digital TV left in your area then simple turning your antenna 90 on the mast to have the single elements vertical instead of horizontal gives you top reception again ;)If you struggle to get all station then just try it out before buying a new antenna ;)Modern fractal TV antennas come paper thin and often with rediculous claims in terms of gain and range.On Fleabuy you can even find models claiming to get stations from over 2000 miles away LOLSome even come with the fake claim of being omnidirectional, meaning it does not matter where you place them or how you orient them.A fractal antenna can't change basic phsyics though...High gain mean highly directional or at least with a very flat radiation pattern instead of being more like a sphere.A high bandwidth means you compromise on the gain and/or the phsical dimensions.For example a thin whip antenna is quite limited in the optimum bandwidth while a piece of tubing provides amuch higher bandwidth but at the expense of gain (and some other problems).A fractal antenna can compromise between the two worlds much better than anything straight.And you would even need to make the traces on the plastic extremely wide because you can simply add different lengths for different frequencies.Means a wideband fractal antenna for FM, VHF and UHF basically is three different antennas combined into a single one.It also means that there is usually always more than just one single element of the antenna that is receiving a signal.If you experimented with WiFi antennas for your router or modem than you certainly found the famous Pringles can antenna - highly directional and with an insane amount of gain.Works exactly like a simple directional microphone.And you could, at least in theory do the same with a TV antenna - if there wouldn't be the problem of the wavelenght.A pringles can works for WiFi because the wavelenght only requires an antenna of about 3cm in lenght.You might not want a row of steel drums with a diameter of around 80cm on your roof just to watch the news though...Ok, if I need a new antenna anyway then should I get a fractal antenna or not?I try to make it simple:Roof option not possible or too costly AND your transmitter is not too far away then try one of the cheap paper thin antennas you find online.If you already have an antenna on the roof that is suitable for the frequencies you need then check it to know if it is still any good.With age and weather comes corrosion and some antennas are connected badly in this regard.Sometimes you are lucky and all it takes is to cut off a few cm of cable to get back to clean copper and to give the terminals on the antenna a good fine sanding or a wire brush treatment.In other cases you might find an amplifier under the roof that has faulty power supply ;)And well, certain animals love to chew through your cable...If all is goo from antenna to TV then as said try to flip the antenna 90° to get it vertical.No, I did not mean to point it up to the sky..... ;)I mean rotate it around the x-axis if X is pointing in the direction of the transmitter...

Topic by Downunder35m 


The little moonshiner....

Found an old topic that someone reactivated with a reply, so I though I do a new one to make it easier. "Moonshine" can be as tasty as any good spirit from the shops. I have done a few liters back in my days... There are a few things to consider right from the start though. What type of sugar is used, e.g. fruits, corn, wheat, potatoes or plain sugar and water. Equally important is the yeast, some prefer natural fermantation, others use baker's yeast, most prefer dedicated yeasts for wine. Even the water used plays a role in the final taste!Hygine is another thing that many people overlook or neglect. Anything that can grow in a warm and sweet enviroment will grow rapidly! That means if your yeast is not good or fast enough, other cultures can take over and sometimes totally change the outcome and quality. In some cases, like with fruits to the better but usually to the worse. Imagine you want to bake a nice cake with vanilla in it. But since your vanilla stick is already quite old and you stored it together with your garden herbs in one jar.... You get the idea of taste I hope ;) Just go from start to finnish like you would prepare chicken meat together with fish - keep it clean, keep it healthy.The still.... Now, if you trust some old blokes doing moonshine since they were kids then it all sounds so easy. But for the hobby brewer there are now tons of options available. Basic pot stills you can put on your stove, electric ones that are basically just an electric boiler with a cooling tube, tower models with several levels of control or the good old "reflux" still in copper. Why is it important to know your way around stills? Again, if you ask a cook then he will tell you why he uses a certain pot for certain dishes or why he won't work with certain materials. Sometimes it is for taste or ease of handling, often just preference. Lets check the main differences in material. We have the modern stainless steel and the classic copper. Stainless steel is easy to clean, won't affect the taste and won't cause any chemical reactions that would alter the taste of your product. That is true only if you trust the manufacturers ;) To compensate for the problems I will explain in a bit they use all sorts of gadgets. I call them brewing helpers and explain them in a bit. Copper on the other hand is now quite expensive and also deemed to be a pain to clean and sanitise. To be honest: how hard it is to clean a still only depends on the design. If you can seperate it into nice straight pieces with good access you can clean anything. But copper was and still is the prefered option for drinking vessels and cookware in a lot of cultures - and it is coming back into our kitchens now as well. Why is that then? Copper has natural sanitising abilities but also reacts with a lot of chemicals. And since copper is considered to be a "good" metal, these reactions usually happen only directly on the copper. Meaning all reaction products stay on the copper as well. Work with fruits or potatoes and a copper still can look dark black and really ugly when done. Do the same in a steel still and then compare the taste ;) Copper produces a far better taste! Especially sufur based compounds react strongly with the copper but also anything causing bad smells or tastes is reduced big time. To flux, reflux not not to flux at all!? A basic still heats the mesh to a set temperature, a cooling coil or similar lets the steam condensate and the alcohol (and everything else) drips out. More complex models have a more tower like appearance and with that allow for a better temperature control. Here the steam will cool down in the tower and at the right height you have the outlet. Brings a much more refined product. The best is still the reflux still however. Here the steam is allowed to travel further and cool down completely. Only a fraction is allowed to come out while the rest runs back down into the heated pot. From first to last model the quality, taste and purity improve. Lets take a closer look on what actually happens inside a still:Once the mix is hot enough that something can turn into a vapor or gas form it will try to escape. That is why we usually discard the first "head" coming out - it contains the most methanol for starters but also the worst of tastes. Again more on heads and tails later ;)In a simple still all steam produced is now turned back into a liquid.One reason why the alcohol concentrations is quite low, around 40%.But also the reason for the low quality taste that can happen.Even with a generous amount of head removed literally everything that is in the opt ends up in the spirit.A good temperature control is a must have and the less deviation the better.And as with all pots running low, once you are low enough all impurities left in your mesh will be concentrated.If the bottom now gets too hot they release unwanted tastes...We skip the tower models and go right to the reflux as the later is just better and includes all there is to say about the tower models anyway.At least on a hobby level a reflux still already starts with a quite tall boiling vessel.It just allows a better and more evenly heating of the mesh inside.While the bottom part is hotter than the top currents form that constantly mix what is inside.The heat is controlled so there is no real boiling, in the best option so that no part of the pot will go over 85° C.When all is hot enough so the first alcohol could run out the system is actually still closed.All vapour has to run back down the tower - which is why some towers even come with cooling fins...As a result all things with a low boiling point will stay in the tower as vapor and once the still is opened they come out first.The heads can be much smaller then too ;)Since the outlet is set at a suitable height and is naturally cooler than the steam, a lot of steam will condense above the outlet.Much more below it and only a fraction is collected to run to the outlet.That means that once the system has reached stable temps throughout that the tower is filled with ethanol vapour only.And since it is constantly re-boiled and runs back down and up all that comes out is already at quite high concentrations.With a good setup as high as 95% vol.It also means that you can have a great level of control about what exactly ends in your ethanol.Depending on how high the outlet is located a different amount of things that can either bond with ethanol or have a similar boiling temperature will be collected.Sole reason why most simple pot stills are designed to work with sugar and clean water only...When working with fruits as a base you often want quite a lot of the flavours and tastes preserved.Only experience and trying will get you tot he sweet spot where the alcohol content is just right and all wanted flavours are included.Go too high with your quality and the alcohol is too pure, go too low and the taste is bad...Which of course brings us back to why you should take your time before the cooking starts!I know far too many people who have no patience when it comes to the end of fermantation.Some yeast might be still active, far too much sugar left over in the mesh or just not enough care in general...You want most if not all of the sugar gone and used.What is not dead in terms of yeast needs to be dormant due to the alcohol concentration.And that can be the tricky part already!You see, once yeast dies off quickly due to the alcohol only the strong survive.In some cases, especially if you re-use your leftovers often, these few can still be active at over 20% of alcohol volume in the mix.The best option is to have a spare fridge and to put the entire container or drum in there.Let it sit cold for a few days, the yeast goes dormant, all sediments settly down to the bottom as no CO2 is produced anymore.Once all is really nice and clear use a hose or similar to remove the clear content only!Be careful here and once the levels are low use a seperate container to drain off!Take out what you can and if in doubt let what you take settle again for a day or two.Doing this time consuming step will make sure you only boil up what brings you the good stuff.On the other hand, when using potatoes, fruits or such you might have to press the liquid out and and add that to what you drained off already.I prefer to do this first and just put it back into the big drum again to let it all settle together.Ok, you only use sugar anyway but what comes out just does not taste or smell right...Would also mean you only use a basic still...As mentioned before the heads are what contains all the nasties.There are ways to actually measure if there is methanol present but for what we do now this is not so important.When the dripping start use shot glasses or such to catch it.Preferably while watching it ;)Smell what it is the glass when you put the next one under.The first glass should smell quite bad anyways.Quickly the smell in the glasses will change to something more "pure" and alcohol like - now start collecting for use.With a simple but good controlled still you will see the flow increases and levels out at some point.When the volume starts to go down your tails start.It is good practise to now use a seperate collecting vessel for the rest until what comes to fully discard.At some point you will notice the difference between just enough and really good temperature control.In a really good system the flow will go down to a slow drip or even stop.While in a dirt simple one the flow will just slow down for a while and then suddenly start running again.This running happens when the remainig water starts boiling...Keep smelling what comes out and once the taste or smell changes noticably again use a different container to collet what comes out. - This is you first tail collection.What comes out until the smell and taste go bad is your second tail collection - now you can turn your still off for a while.Let all what you collected cool down to room temperature is not already.Check what you collected from the heads, helps to have small jars for this ;)From start to last the smell should get better.If the last two or three collections smeel somehow interesting then add them to your main collection.Smell the first tail collection again - it should not be that bad anymore, especially if you let it cool down slightly open.Especially when working with fruits you might to add quite a bit of this to your main collection.If only sugar was used just move on to the last tail collection.In case you still don't like the smell mix the tail collection together and keep in a seperate and sealed vessel.Those tail collections can then later be used to destill them again (with more tails from other runs) to get a decent cleaning alcohol or something that might still be worth adding in small amounts for a better overall taste.However for sugar only mixes it can be considered to be for cleaning purposes only.What you have now is little waste and a lot of almost good alcohol.It still contains more or less amounts of unwanted things that mainly come from the yeast and their by-products.To "clean" you alcohol the best option is to destill it again - it will also increase the concentration quite a bit.Best option here is to use properly filtered and prefeably demineralised water to get back to a full fill of the still.If your still is quite small and what you collected would make for one or two full fills then go for it.Be warned though that you should not fill it up to the full mark, a bit under is better as the mix now will boil far quicker and more violent.Personally I prefer to have the alcohol conectration in the still at around 205% only.As we already discarded the worst of the worst in the heads during our first run only a tiny amount, like half a shot glass should be too bad in terms of taste and smell.Whatever comes after shall be fine.Again, once the tails start try to be carefull and if you can slow things down a notch.You will see a quite destinct reduction in the flow rate once the tails start - use a new container right away.The alcohol concentration should now drop quickly too as another indicator.If you want just pure tasting alcohol add what you comes out from this point to your tails container for later use as you don't want to drink it.Again, for fruits and potatoes you might want to keep the first bit of the collected tails.You alcohol concentration should now be already over 75% even if a basic still was used.The overall volume you collected will be lower accordingly of course - so don't be too disappointed by the liters you got from the second run.In a perfect world you now would use some nice barrel and let your creation age...But since we do moonshine...There is a chance that even after two runs you still taste and smell things you don't want or like.So if in doubt do it all again and get to 90 or more percent...Either way the final stuff should be now either watered down (filtered and clean of course) to the desired level.How to further improve on the outcome....There are little helpers along the way to get far bette results than without using them.If you check ready to go kits then they often contain specialised yest strains, a carbon mix and some "clearing aids".The yeast part is obvious, although I do prefer life prt wine yeast anyway.Carbon or activated charcoal is used to bind some of the bad odors and tastes the yeast produces.Keep in mind they are designed to work together, unlike using proper wine making cultures.Using power yeasts without carbon always results in a low quality.The clearing aids actually change the acidity levels and cause some things to mineralise or otherwise change so they settle to the ground.But they mainly make sure the yeast is dead.If you only use sugar then these kits are your easiest option and just follow their instructions.For fruits or anything else however you might want to try the slow route and use actual wine making yeasts for a change ;)And of course here we do not use carbon at all as we actually want to keep the taste of waht we use.We already had the proper way of getting the mesh to settle down, so that bit is clear.For sugar only you can now try to run your creation through activated charcaol or just add it and mix it.Let it sit and mix again for a few days.You do not need to filter the black stuff out, just drain it carefully and run the last bit through a coffee filter.Nothing will end in your destilled product.Inside the still you can use ceramic bioling thingies of all sorts.They provide a surface for water or mix to boil on instead of just the bottom.If you can't them for a good price then just use the stuff for aquarium filters ;)As said earlier too, copper is good but most modern stills are made from steel.If you can't find any copper wool pot cleaners you can cut some plumbing pipe into small sections.Inside the boiling vessel they will quickly turn brownish black while collecting bad things.Cleaning is easy with some cirtic acid/delimer/coffee machine cleaner...For a tower or reflux still it really helps to have these copper pads or wool inside for a far greater surface area to aid condensation and slow down the run off.I know how hard it is to get the stuff these days so if no other option use stainless steel ones and only loose the benefit of more cleaning through chemical reactions.Tools that come in handy....Monitoring the sugar and alcohol level to know when the mesh is right is quite obvious.What might not be is that you can correct bad level towards the end of fermentation.Yeast already dying slowly but far too much sugar left? Just add luke warm water to lover the alcohol conectration...Yeast going dormant with low alcohol levels? The sugar might be out so chack and if in doubt add some more.A good stir will help the remaining yeast to get more active in a day or two.So these little glass measuring tools should be put to good use from the start.During the destillation a purpose made overflow pipe to hold your alcohol tester is extremly helpful!The destilled liquid goes in through a pipe or hose at the bottom of the pipe.The bottom is closed, the top open to allow to drop the alcohol tester inside.Overflow or outlet should be just under the rim.During your run you can now see directly how the alcohol content changes.It will stabilse once the heads are finnished and get a slight rise just before it drops during the tails section.Improving basic desing of a basic still...Once you are done with a dead simple pot still and buy a reflux or tower model you might wonder why you did not build one yourself.What looked good on the pics and in the shop turns out to be still a bit away from perfect.The outlet might not have any flow control or is located to low/high.The vital overpressure protection might be missing and the thing sometimes runs out like a garden hose...For the later you can slavage some old pressure cooker and use the weight with the screw in counterpart in the lid ;)A simple hole in the top with flat weight on it works too, I used an old rubber plug from my bathtub one (could not find the purpose made one in time).For the outlet you can cheat a bit ;)Wrapping the tower with some insulating material improves on the heat loss - this helps if the still struggles to heat enough to provide a proper flow rate.Cooling the tower with wet towels, running water or similar well help on hot days or if the outlet is located reall high with little chance to provide decent condensation in the lower parts.How to cheat with the barrel....No matter if you just run with sugar or if you prefern corn, wheat, fruits....For some spirits good taste means good age.And well, good age for commercial spirits usually happens by resting in wooden drums.Oak, white oak, red gum and several other types of wood are used.Some small destilleries even use only locally available wood and won't even tell you which tree it was...Means we have a few chocices if we don't want to stick to the well known classics.But how do we make a barrel ?A good one is not just made from any old wood - the wood needs to be of the right age and moisture.To keep it simple just treat it like your firewood and let it rest for the same time.A good barrel is often "charred" - burnt with a flame or by rolling it with burning charcoal inside.This does two imortant things:1: It provides charcoal to bind remaining bad stuff.2: It releases some sugars from the wood plus resins and othe stuff.Both are an essential part of the final product and aging process!Now it becomes clear why a good sprit cost more than vodka...Using a neutral vessel like glass to age your spirit is one thing, preparing the wood the right way another...You see, size matters here in several ways.Big chunks provide a decent surface are without causing too much debris.The also provide more tannins for the color and more resins and sugar.Smaller chunks provide more charcaol for a higher level or binding impurities.But both will soak up far more alcohol than the correspong barrel size would!Obviously, if you are on a small scale on only got about 5 liters of alcohol to deal with loosing much is bad.The best way to char the wood IMHO is inside a clsed can or steel box.Just a small vent hole and a lot of turning with the right eye for when the wood is charred enough to be black and sealed.Opinions vary here but I use about a cup full of wood per 5 liters of alcohol at around 93% vol.Some goes for the storage, apart from dark some can't really agree here.Tossing and turning is as much prefered as undisturbed resting - take your own pick.The thig I do differently after the filtering off is to re-use the wood that is soaked.It goes into a freezer bag until the next run of the still and then the frozen wood is just added to the second still run to get back the alcohol in it, plus some nice taste and smell :)

Topic by Downunder35m 


Ceiling fan generator mod to the max

I stubled upon several mods to convert a standard ceiling fan into a more or less usefull generator.So if you are looking to go this route then I might have some nice improvements that can be implemented.People like these mods for some weird reason, despite the fact that it requires quite a bit of extra work to make them weather proof.However, when it comes to the fundamentals then to me it looks like some folks out there are missing out.On the available power that is...Always the first step for a mod like this is to replace the induction ring with a lot of magnets.Second step usually is to remove a lot of the coils, especially the inner ring.Now, these two stator designs are common for fans with two speeds.Those with three or even reverse might have a different configuration!Lets start on the magnet part:The recommended way of placing the magnets is by creating an air gap as small as possible - makes sense.But then it is always the same amount of magnets as there is coils - and the spacing is also the same as for the coils.In the general generaotr design world this configuration is prefered as it allows for the best performance.If you dare to go a bit further and cosider how the magnets react to the stator configuration then you might want to consider a different option.You see, these two sets of coils for two different speeds mean just one thing:A different amount of poles is created, with the outer ring having more poles than the inner ring of coils.The core is split around the coils, not just to allow the windings to be made but also to provide independent paths for the magnetic field - resulting in the two pole configurations.Amounts differ by diameter, power level, manufacturer and so on.What is always the same is that the inner ring has less coils and that the outer segments of the poles created have even spacings.In the normal mods you see posted these gaps in the core for the outer ring are closed by inserting lamitaed pieces from some old transformer.And you end up with ONE usable coil configuration and ONE power output.The slightly advanced mod uses the inner coil to add some load depending on the speed to prevent spinning out of control in high winds.If you try a normal DC motor with permanent magnets than you will notice the strong binding forces, it is like the rotor sticks in certain places.The better ones use and uneven configuration to reduce this binding effect ;)In my mod the magnets are selected in size to almost be the same length as two stator poles next to each other.This allows for the best induction while still allowing "to experiment".Bringing the magnets and the coils into play...As said an exact match of the number of magnets to either coil ring is not ideal.The prefered option is to go somewhere in between.For example:Outer ring has 18 coils then the inner ring will have 9 coils - exactly half.360° divided by 15 make a nice 24 degress per magnet.But with 12 magnets you get an even 30°, which is far easier to deal with.16 magnets at 22.5° is another option.So, what does that exactly do for us?The bad thing is we get slightly less performance if you only see the standard mod with one coil ring.The good thing we get far lower binding forces and through that the thing will even spin in very light winds.Adding both coil rings with a suitable rectifier however results in a pulsing output of two sine waves.With just the rectifier we get a ripple that is easier to deal with through a capacitor.The extra power available is in the range of about 40% and make more than up for the "reduced" amount of magnets.Going the extra mile once more ;)Having created a much fancier ceiling fan mod now you might wonder if there is not a way to get even more out of it.And there is.For example by utilising a gear system or belt to get a far higher rotational speed on the generator than what the blades would provide, prefably then with quite big blades too and an automatic break for high wind conditions.With the reduced binding forces the generator will be happy to spin at quite high speeds in low winds.Downside is that you will need to build a far more sturdy bearing housing.In return though you get more stability and durability.You can do the math yourself based on the number of poles per ring and magnets to get the output frequency based on the RPM's.Perfect would now be to use a switch mode power supply configuration to directly transform the provided output into a stable DC per ring.And yes, it is possible to use mechanical systems to provide a fixed output speed from the blades to the generator - but way to complex and lossy!Lets do some lame math with no regards to realities:If the original fan would spin at 100 RPM at full speed than we could say our generator should provide the mains voltage at about 100 RPM.Keep in mind we utilise both coil rings and not just the high speed one!Geared and with the blades spinning at 100 RPM we might get as much as 1000V from this little generator....And even with the lower amount of magnets we migh see frequencies above the 500Hz range.The good thing now is that normal iron core transformers can still operate at these frequencies.A bit lossy in the upper range but acceptable for the purpose.Put simple: A 10 or 20:1 transformer per coil ring would provide us with a far more suitable output voltage and much higher amps.If you made it to here than you certainly wonder about other magnet configurations.Checking the stator configuration you will by now realise why I selected the magnet lenght accordingly.The magnets "activate" one coil after the other.The spacing between them means there is always some overlap where the magnets only cover one half of the stator for a coil.This is ok because we don't really have to worry about the resulting messy output.Ideally though you would want to have a magnet activate both coils, the inner and the outer at the same time.What we did though was to make sure that at no time more than ONE magnet fully covers more than ONE coil!It is the best option to cover both coil sets while minimising binding effects and increasing the avialable output.To go the last step you would need to invest a lot of time re-winding all coils :(You don't want to do this unless you have the means and no friends and family that might miss you for a few days....I found a far simpler way to change the coil configuration, although it is not as good a re-winding.So let's go full scale shall we?Ceiling fan reconfiguration!If you take the usual 18 to 9 configuration than one thing jumps to mind reight away: 3-phase power!Cutting the wire that goes from coil to coil might not always be possible and if it is then you need to know how to handle it.Magnet wire can be hard to solder.Burning the coating off results in corroded copper that is even harder to solder.If you are lucky though than a reall hot soldering irong will be able to melt the coating.The flux from the solder will start to cover the wire from the cut and the solder will follow.If not then using some fine sandpaper and time is the other option to remove the coating...Ok, you seperated all coil and have two wire ends per coil?I hope you did not cut off the ones going out to the actual connections to the outside world ;)Properly solder each wire end and take your time to check it is really proper and not just a few spots.Mark or number the coils on the rings!For the inner ring we have 9 but need only 3, so we start at one connection to the outside world and check if this connection is on the outside or inside of the coil.For this example I assume you picked the one that goes to the outside of the coil.Connect the inside wire to the outside wire of coil number 3, assuming we start with 1 here ;)From the inside wire of 3 you go to outside of 6 and the inside is you first new output connection.Do the same with the remaining 6 coils and where needed add the required output wire.It really helps to have wires with three different colors here, one color per new coil set.Note which color corresponds to to the three coils used!!!The outer ring with 18 coils is sightly different here.You see, we want a "flowing" magnetic field that makes best use of the new coil configuration!We can not simply bridge them in any way we feel like without considering how this might affect the electrical side of things.As we now take the approach of a three phase system it makes sense to use a more suitable magnet configuration as well.So before go to the outer ring of coils lets have a look of the best option for the magnets first:The stator packs are evenly spaced in our example and will alow us to use 18 magnets.This provides the best performance with the downside of a higher binding effect, but we need this configuration to get the best possible output.As said at the start I selected magnets that are just shy of being the same length as the corresponding stator segments.In a "free" setup these magnets would now be quite hard to place in a makeshift ring.Even harder in the original casing.A 3D printer certainly helps but some common sense too ;)Wood is easy to work with and if you select the right stuff than making a suitable ring to hold your magnets and attach to the drive system metal parts is not too hard.Bar or brick type magnets can be quite easy be utilised on a wood setup :)The key is that you add Flux Capacitors - sorry couldn't help the reference to Marty....What I mean is to add some magnetic material between the north pole of one magnet and the south pole of the other.Lets say your magnets are 15mm long and have a spacing of 5mm.Then a little plate of 12mm would be next to perfect.This plate needs to connect the magnets on the backside, the side facing away from the coils.Use a dremel tool or what you have to first create slots for the metal strips or bars, then the same for the magnets.Glue in the metal first and once set add the magnet, making sure the always go north to south with their alignment.Ok, and what does this do for us?I hope you are not one of these persons who starts building while reading...What we created now is a shortcut for the magnetic forces.The field between the magnets is severly compromised in terms of being usable for the coils.We do get a much soother run though...I only did that to have some fun and check if you paid attention - sorry :(What we really want is an effect similar to what you see on a loadspeaker magnet that is still in its metal shielding.A ring magnet with one pole on the inside and one on the outside is used here.The shielding provides a path for the magnetic field that is not going through the speaker coil - hence the little air gap for the coil.If we do the same then our efficiency will be going up quite a bit.Take two identical steel parts, like some butter knifes, and prefarbly a force gauge.If you try to pull your magnet at a 90° angle from the blade you will get a certain reading for the required force to lift it off.Most people now think that this would be the max a magnet can hold.So take the other knife and place the magnet between them.If you pull the knife off with the gauge now the reading will be higher than what you get from just the magnet ;)Taking that to our model and keeping the field lines in mind we now know that we could even use slightly longer plates if our magnets happen to be a bit short :)Just place them right behind each magnet !Back to the outer ring of coils....With 18 magnets we get an even system for both coil rings.However we want to make sure that our output waves are syncronised and not at random order.We need to combine two coils to be back on a 9 coil configuration as on the inner ring.The other option is to provide two sets of outputs for outer ring, resulting in 3 3-phase outputs.Both have their pros and cons....But if you check the 18 magnet configuration ina ction over the coils it becomes clear that combining two coils the usual way is possible but also that our inner ring does not get a proper north south action from the magnets!Only the outer coil ring works properly!For the inner ring we never get only a north south combo, instead a lot of mixes.Did I mention to read first? ;)Of course we can only use 9 magnets in our configuration, but at least I did not traick you on their size....You see, we need to account for the fact that the coils are not just evenly spaced but also that all configurations in terms of coils to stator pack are doubles or halfs.Makes a lot more sense if you know how these asyncronous motors work :)With 9 magnets we actually get both inner and outer ring coils activated properly.Plus we now have the benefit that there are always twoouter coils in sync with each other.Means apart from the same way you wired the inner ring you make this addition to the outer ring:"One" outer coil is created by going from one coilinner connection to the outer connection of the second after this, skipping one coil.The resulting output is again just 3 phases but with double the output voltage.The key is to again take notes of how you connect and wire the coils - and the colors used for the output wires!Let me give you an example for the correct order:I we take the number 1 coil on the inner ring then coils number 1 and 18 would be next to it on the outer ring.You want to combine 1 and 3, 2 and 4, 5 and 7,....And you want the resulting three coil packs and wires colores to correspond to the inner coils in the same order!That is true for the always same way of combining coils from the inner to outer connection - or the other way around but never mixed!Ok, we have done the magnets and the coil configuration now properly, no jokes this time!With two simple 3-phase rectifiers we get two DC outputs that can be combined or used seperately.As we end up with roughly double the output voltage on one output but all coils are the same it makes sense to treat them independly.For those who wonder why:If you add a load than one coil system would take a higher loading of it.Meaning while one coil set is stll fine the other will already start to overheat - if the load is too great.So we use two rectifiers with some filtering.In the basic form just a really big electrolytic capacitor of suitable voltage or a full LC filer system with multiple stages.Either way we can now utilise some better DC-DC converters to get going.Considering the equal max watss the coil rings can handle it make sense to include some current limiting.A good converter will provide this option.Both converters can now set to the desiered output or with some added protection diodes and adjusted properly to the same voltage combined for just one DC output.Compared to the standard mod of removing coils and bridgning stator packs the resulting output power in overall Watt will now be about 40-60% higher - depending on the model and quality of parts.Special words of wisdom:Consider the orignal max speed of the fan when used as intendet - see this as a theoretical max output that equals your mains voltage.Just ignore losses and such things - better to be safe than sorry.It becomes clear that it quite possible that your output will be far higher than mains voltage and that you need use transformers for the two 3-phase systems so you can use standard DC-DC converters, which have a max input voltage of around 50V only.This means your converter must be able to handle the higher amps!The fan might have only used 100W or less than 500mA but at high speeds and a ratios of lets say 10 to 1 for the gearing high wind speeds might get it up to over 5 amps on the transformer outputs.Please do the math first for your gear system in relation to the max wind speeds you want to use with your blades!If in doubt use a converter that has some reserves to offer, especially if you aim to charge batteries as quickly as possible.The most vital part however is to ensure that all previously cut wires are isulated properly!!!Magnet wire of the standard kind is good for about 1000V max, so don't drive it higher!Heat shrink with a hot glue liner is prefered but hard to apply in these thight spaces.Since nothing moves consider using long enough wires for your connections so you have enough space to solder without affecting the heat shrink tubes.Liquid insulation or rubber is the last option and should only be used to finalside the heat shrink security measures.Best option once all is confirmed to be working fine would be to make a custom mold and to fully enclose the staotr pack and wires with casting resin or an insulating casting mix.Make sure to keep the output wirese free at the their ends ;)What if I don't want to build a complicated three phase rectifier and just use a single phase system as it was?Firstly chances are your coils are already connected in a three phase configuration, just all in series.But working out a suitable magnet configuration to suit this is much harder if you want to use both sets of coils.In a series configuration like the original you also have to accept the losses from these connected coils.The higher the overall resistance the lower the possible output ;)Main problem however is to get the magnet working properly.The standard 9 or here even 18 magnet configurations still works, especially with the added shielding from behind.But the coils also produce a magnetic field, which grows with the load.Means that an top of all you also have the coils working against the magnets and create even higher losses.Explains why the simple folks prefer not use the inner coil set if they go with a single phase system.So either accept the losses and just use the outer coils or do it fully and get far mor output.And by the way: a 3-phase rectifier modlue is only a few cents more than a standard bridge rectifier ;)Ok, and why do I bother to write all this?People like to tinker but most don't really invent.Following some simple instructions is easy, trying to work it yourself much harder.The reward however is that you actually start to know what you are doing :)And what works for a ceiling fan can be used for these ring style washing machine motors too ;)Anyways...We need to get back our roots.Start thinking for ourself again, work things out instead of just looking them up.If people would be aware that a simple ceiling fan could provide about 3 times the output power of its rated installation value instead of only just about half......Super strong magnets allow real output even without re.winding all coils.And what works here works for other things too.We only learned to use magnets in a striaght way because we can not bend them.But we can bed the magnetic field lines to our advantage!The simple shielding used in this mod is nothing more than a shortcut to enhance the field strenght where it is is needed.By a simple coil modification we basically bet two electrical generators for the price and size of one.Apart from stating how easy it would be to place multiple stators and magnet rings into one generator the magnets itself also allow for even more output.If you ever played with hook magnets or speaker magnets then you know how much stronger they are compared to just the magnet once they seperate after hours of fun for you.Imagine you would replace the single bar magnet with two block magnets that are joined by a magnetic shunt like out simple shielding before.If the magnet blocks now would have a slightly smaller footprint than your individual poles:Imagine you create a hlaf ring shaped magnetic connection between the two blocks that also goes aruond the outer perimeter up to the outside of the magnets surface?I mean the surface facing the stator poles?Damn your imagination is good, yout it right away!Of course we would then have a magnet that allpies its full strength focussed onto each pole of a coil!And of course the resulting field would be far stronger than just using the magnet blocks itself and still significantly higher than just adding a shielding or connection between them.The affect of the next coil coming is also drastically reduced, which in return also increases the efficiency.In terms of numbers:If a fixed neodymium magnet would provide us 100$ field strength as the base point with no shielding (just the magnet blocks alone);A fully shielded and connected system, like in a hook magnet combined with a U-style magnet, would reach above 400% here.....Adding witchcraft to the mix ;)Although I know better I just assume some of you have now a working double-three-phase-ceiling-fan-generator.And that would mean you also have some fans to spare from your long experiments.Modern ignition coils seem to have nothing in common with our ceiling fan or resulting generator.So why do I try to use them anyway?For the ignition only one polarity is prefered so the spark works and travels as intendet.Means the "wasted" energy from the othe half of the pulse seems to be lost.The electronics do a lot here but magnets too ;)The core of the coil has magents at either end, turning it into one long magnet that still has the right properties to act as high voltage transformer system with the coils.The coil appear to be pre-loaded and with the ignition pulse it has to overcome the magnetic field pre-set by the magnets.And when the electrical impulse is off the same magnets also accelerated and increase the resulting fall back impulse - which provides the spark.Unless you have a suitable laser cutter or simlar cutting tech available somehow it will be hard to modify the metal plates of the stator.But if you could...Imagine you could add magnet inside the plates that are inside a coil.The same pre-loading would happen.Does not really help in terms of adding outpur as our rectifier would suffer badly here.It does give ideas though...Shielding works fine for the magnets, same for field shaping.Electromagnets use the same techniques...So why not use some leftlever transformer cores to add more "shortcuts" for the coils?Strips of transformer core sheets added either side of the coils increase their field strenght and result in better output!Three packs either side of the stator pack are usually no problem.Now take your leftovers and do a standard mod.Compare the max output on the same windmill with what you get from my mod(s).The only real magic I used here is that I actually bothered to combine multiple and already used methods to drastically increase the available output of an otherwise utterly useless generator mod ;)Warnings:If you take the above mods serious and to the their extreme than it is imperative to make sure you have safety measures in place!Assume the lowest rating for the magnet wire and if in doubt stick with a max output voltage of 800V.These mods are potentially lethal if you don't follow what is common sense to everyone dealing with high voltages for a living!Most people will start without any gearing or belts and use the wind directly.Even here it is easy to get far higher RPM than what the thing ever did under your ceiling.Without some fixes you will need transformers to reduce the output voltage accordingly.Only other option is to limit the max speed to what your DC-DC converter can handle.Making mistakes with mangets can cost you a lot of time and work, make sure to mark their poles somehow to prevent putting them in wrong.If in doubt then double check!Always keep in mind what the magnet wires and your connections can handle!You don't want any arcs or overheating.Some added electronics to monitor wind speed, rpm's, load and temperature of the coils can turn out vital once you upscale.Before letting your new generator do its thing make sure you tested all to the max!Use a drill or so to speed it up and check the limit regulation for the converters.Measure the actual volts and amps going through your coil sets at assumed max speed and max load.Monitor the coil temp while doing so to ensure nothing is out of limit!You are kidding me here right?A scrap ceiling fan shall provide more output as a wind generator than what was used to spin it as a fan?And of course I need not one but two 3-phse transformers...Pretty clear it is all a fake because nobody could replicate any of it unless limited to what the converters can handle...Didn't I say to think outside normal restraints already?A single phase transformer uses two coils in the most basic configuration.For example one side for 240V and te other for 12V.But some of them are more efficient than other ;)A 3-phase transformer uses 6 coils, two for each phase.And there are plenty of standrad transformer cores out there that would allow us to use this configuration.The worst being the MOT, or microwave oven transformer.Very lossy for a reason but good as an example as these have three core stems ;)Now that you see that you will that a lot more transformers actually allow you to replace the two coils with 6 ;)Ok, but why not use a rectifier first and not use a transformer or two at all?The resulting output voltage will without a gear REDUCTION be much higher than what a cheap DC-DC converter can handle.And at such speeds the effiency would be very bad too.You would need huge capacitors of good quality to deal with the now more impulse like output.And considering the primary side of the transformer does not require anything thicker than the wire on the coils of the fan...Not hard at all to find some suitable tansformers to salvage - or to use some nice ring transformers ;)No kidding around, just facts and possible options you might want to explore.Does that now mean I get free energy?Sure, if you mean you get the free nergy from the energy of the wind at no cost.No if you think a ceiling fan could ever power your house.Internal resistance, size and wire/connection properties set our limits.Not to mention that they are designed to be dirt cheap.If you are in a windy region and assume a realistic 300W minimum output from a 100W fan then adding more stage multiplies this.These fancy upright windmills are not just powerful but also would allow to use one modded fan either end.If big enough and with enough wind force throughout the year you could just add a second or third stage to ech end.With 3 on both ends the resulting output would then be suddenly 1.8kW per windmill....And all from scrap parts with only the costs for the magnets...No wind? Then use water....None of it? Get some greyhounds and build a big hamster wheel :)You get the general idea I hope...

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


The Rock 1000

Well the biggest rock countdown finished on friday the countdown takes 100 hours over 10 days see if you can find your favourite songs sorry Dj rock only so you wont find your songs here# Artist Song 1 Metallica One 2 AC/DC Thunderstruck 3 Led Zeppelin Stairway to Heaven 4 Metallica Enter Sandman 5 AC/DC Back 'n Black 6 Foo Fighters Everlong 7 Nirvana Smells Like Teen Spirit 8 Metallica Nothing Else Matters 9 Guns 'N' Roses November Rain 10 Rage Against The Machine Killing In The Name 11 Guns 'N' Roses Sweet Child 'O Mine 12 Foo Fighters All My Life 13 Shihad Home Again 14 Motorhead Ace Of Spades 15 Pearl Jam Betterman 16 Guns 'N' Roses Paradise City 17 Pearl Jam Alive 18 Pink Floyd Comfortably Numb 19 Pearl Jam Black 20 Tool Sober 21 Metallica Fade to Black 22 Queen Bohemian Rhapsody 23 Kings of Leon Sex on Fire 24 Metallica The Unforgiven 25 Green Day 21 Guns 26 Pink Floyd Another Brick In The Wall 27 Blindspott Nil By Mouth 28 Pearl Jam Daughter 29 Tool Stinkfist 30 Pink Floyd Wish You Were Here 31 Metallica Master of Puppets 32 Shihad Pacifier 33 AC/DC Highway To Hell 34 Metallica Whiskey In The Jar 35 Bon Jovi Living on A Prayer 36 System of a Down Chop Suey 37 Eagles, The Hotel California 38 Live Lightning Crashes 39 Black Sabbath War Pigs 40 Smashing Pumpkins 1979 41 AC/DC Hells Bells 42 Foo Fighters Best of You 43 Jimi Hendrix All Along The Watchtower 44 Guns 'N' Roses Welcome to the Jungle 45 AC/DC You Shook Me All Night Long 46 System of a Down Aerials 47 Metallica The Unforgiven II 48 Foo Fighters Monkey Wrench 49 Foo Fighters My Hero 50 Meatloaf Bat Outta Hell 51 Rage Against The Machine Bomb Track 52 AC/DC T.N.T 53 Pearl Jam The Fixer 54 Iron Maiden Number of the Beast 55 Red Hot Chili Peppers Under The Bridge 56 Black Sabbath Paranoid 57 Green Day American Idiot 58 Guns 'N' Roses Civil War 59 Rage Against The Machine Know Your Enemy 60 Ozzy Osbourne Mama I'm Coming Home 61 Blindspott Phlex 62 Nirvana Lithium 63 Audioslave Like A Stone 64 Pink Floyd Shine On You Crazy Diamond 65 Sublime Santeria 66 Led Zeppelin Kashmir 67 Bush Glycerine 68 Metallica Sad But True 69 Rolling Stones Paint It Black 70 Soundgarden Blackhole Sun 71 Audioslave Cochise 72 Beatles, The Come Together 73 Smashing Pumpkins Bullet With Butterfly Wings 74 Radiohead Creep 75 Led Zeppelin Black Dog 76 Nirvana Come As You Are 77 Alice Cooper Poison 78 Red Hot Chili Peppers Californication 79 Pearl Jam Jeremy 80 Foo Fighters Learn To Fly 81 Dire Straits Money For Nothing 82 Metallica Sanitarium 83 Rise Against Hero Of War 84 Pearl Jam Black 85 Foo Fighters Let It Die 86 Iron Maiden Run To The Hills 87 Alice In Chains Would? 88 Guns 'N' Roses Patience 89 Linkin Park New Divide 90 AC/DC Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap 91 Shihad Run 92 Lynard Skynard Free Bird 93 System of a Down B.Y.O.B 94 Skid Row 18 and Life 95 AC/DC Rock n Roll Train 96 Def Leppard Pour Some Sugar on Me 97 Shihad My Minds Sedate 98 Who, The Baba O' Reily 99 Faith No More Epic 100 John Lennon Imagine 101 Sublime What I've Got 102 Led Zeppelin Whole Lotta Love 103 Guns 'N' Roses Don't Cry 104 Linkin Park One Step Closer 105 Ozzy Osbourne No More Tears 106 Niravana About a Girl 107 Queen We Will Rock You 108 Poison Every Rose Has It's Thorn 109 Split Enz I Got You 110 Pearl Jam Elderley Woman Behind a Counter in a Samll Town 111 Aerosmith Walk This Way 112 Live I Alone 113 Who, The Won't Get Fooled Again 114 Green Day Good Riddance (Time of Your Life) 115 Th' Dudes Bliss 116 Disturbed Down With The Sickness 117 Cranberries, The Zombie 118 Iron Maiden The Trooper 119 Cult, The Fire Woman 120 Pearl Jam Release Me 121 Pink Floyd Young Lust 122 Guns 'N' Roses You Could Be Mine 123 Violent Femmes Blister In The Sun 124 Pearl Jam Even Flow 125 Def Leppard Armageddon It 126 Spiderbait Black Betty 127 Aerosmith Love in An Elevator 128 Offspring, The Self Esteem 129 Silverchair Tomorrow 130 Supergroove Sitting Inside My Head 131 Linkin Park Crawling 132 U2 With Or Without You 133 Foo Fighters The Pretender 134 Deep Purple Smoke on the Water 135 Linkin Park In The End 136 Aerosmith Dream On 137 Audioslave Original Fire 138 Bon Jovi Wanted Dead Or Alive 139 Kings Of Leon Use Somebody 140 Pink Floyd Run Like Hell 141 Queens of the Stone Age No one Knows 142 Fleetwood Mac Go Your Own Way 143 Opshop Maybe 144 Split Enz I See Red 145 Green Day When I Come Around 146 Metallica Hero of the Day 147 Offspring, The Come Out and Play 148 Rolling Stones Start Me Up 149 Verve, The Bittersweet Symphony 150 Iron Maiden Can I Play With Madness 151 Bob Dylan Hurricane 152 Rammstein Du Hast 153 Ben Harper Ground On Down 154 Shihad The General Electric 155 Nirvana Lake of Fire 156 Filter Hey Man Nice Shot 157 Red Hot Chili Peppers Scar Tissue 158 Eric Clapton I Shot The Sheirff 159 Feelers, The Venus 160 Queen We Are The Champions 161 Collective Soul Shine 162 Disturbed Inside the Fire 163 Bush Comedown 164 Jimi Hendrix Voodoo Chile 165 POD Alive 166 Steppenwolf Born To Be Wild 167 Marcy Playground Sex and Candy 168 Thin Lizzy The Boys Are Back In Town 169 U2 One Tree Hill 170 Stone Temple Pilots Plush 171 Jimi Hendrix Hey Joe 172 Stone Temple Pilots Interstate Love Song 173 Motley Crue Dr. Feelgood 174 Pearl Jam Yellow Ledbetter 175 Mick Jagger Hard Woman 176 Staind Outside 177 Talking Heads Psycho Killer 178 Shihad Everything 179 Midnight Oil Beds Are Burning 180 Red Hot Chili Peppers By The Way 181 Rolling Stones Sympathy for the Devil 182 Linkin Park What I've Done 183 U2 I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For 184 Shihad Comfort Me 185 Everlast/Sanata Put Your Lights On 186 Live Selling The Drama 187 Led Zeppelin Ramble On 188 Radiohead Karma Police 189 Nickelback How You Remind Me 190 Pink Floyd Learning to Fly 191 Elemeno P Verona 192 Cult, The Sweet Soul Sister 193 Metallica Until It Sleeps 194 White Stripes Seven Nation Army 195 Ozzy Osbourne Close My Eyes Forever 196 Drowning Pool Bodies 197 Dave Dobbyn Whaling 198 7 Mary 3 Cumbersome 199 Dragon April Sun In Cuba 200 Disturbed Land Of Confusion 201 Aerosmith Janies Got A Gun 202 Blur Song 2 203 Bruce Springsteen Born In The USA 204 Red Hot Chili Peppers My Friends 205 Rage Against The Machine Bulls on Parade 206 Eric Clapton Cocaine 207 Guns 'N' Roses Mr Brownstone 208 Feelers, The Pressure Man 209 Pink Floyd Hey You 210 Creed My Own Prison 211 Chris Cornell Bill Jean 212 AC/DC Are You Ready 213 Marilyn Manson The Beautiful People 214 Steve Earle Copperhead Road 215 Billy Talent Rusted From The Rain 216 Bon Jovi You Give Love A Bad Name 217 Foo Fighters Times Like These 218 Faith No More From Out Of Nowhere 219 Hello Sailor Gutter Black 220 Green Day Basket Case 221 Def Leppard Animal 222 Pearl Jam Last Kiss 223 Korn Freak On A Leash 224 Billy Idol Rebel Yell 225 Metallica The Memory Remains 226 Doors, The Riders on the Storm 227 Red Hot Chili Peppers Give It Away 228 Beatles, The Get Back 229 Red Hot Chili Peppers Higher Ground 230 George Thorogood One Bourbon, One Scotch, One Beer 231 Faith No More Evidence 232 Iron Maiden Wasted Years 233 Oasis Wonderwall 234 Clash, The London Calling 235 Smashing Pumpkins Today 236 Led Zeppelin Rock n Roll 237 System of a Down Lonely day 238 Living End White Noise 239 Jimi Hendrix Purple Haze 240 Incubus Megalomaniac 241 Collective Soul December 242 Blink 182 All The Small Things 243 Beatles Revolution 244 Airbourne Diamond in the Rough 245 Green Day Jesus of Suburbia 246 Tool Forty Six and Two 247 Jimmy Barnes Working Class Man 248 Puddle of Mudd Blurry 249 Men At Work Down Under 250 Foo Fighters End Over End 251 INXS What You Need 252 Live Lakinis Juice 253 Living Colour Cult of Personality 254 Lynard Skynard Sweet Home Alabama 255 Green Day Welcome To Paradise 256 Ozzy Osbourne Crazy Train 257 Matchbox 20 3am 258 Megadeth Symphony of Destruction 259 Nirvana In Bloom 260 Elemeno P Fast Times In Tahoe 261 Metallica No Leaf Clover 262 Mutton Birds Dominion Road 263 Muse Plug In Baby 264 Motley Crue Girls Girls Girls 265 Live The Dolphins Cry 266 Pink Floyd Time 267 Pearl Jam Worldwide Suicide 268 Ozzy Osbourne Bark At The Moon 269 Doors, The The End 270 POD Boom 271 U2 Elevation 272 Rolling Stones Satisfaction 273 Pearl Jam Animal 274 Everclear Santa Monica 275 Dave Dobbyn Slice of Heaven 276 AC/DC For Those About To Rock 277 Audioslave I Am The Highway 278 Bush Everything Zen 279 Skid Row I Remember You 280 Red Hot Chili Peppers Dani California 281 Faith No More Last Cup of Sorrow 282 Aerosmith Sweet Emotion 283 Kings of Leon Fans 284 U2 Where The Streets Have No Name 285 Eskimo Joe Black Fingernails, Red Wine 286 Exponents Why Does Love Do This To Me 287 Incubus Nice To Know You 288 Guns 'N' Roses Estranged 289 Police Roxanne 290 Feelers, The Larger Than Life 291 Supergroove Can't Get Enough 292 Foo Fighters Long Road To Ruin 293 Led Zeppelin Over the Hills and Far Away 294 Marilyn Manson I Don't Like The Drugs 295 Nirvana The Man Who Sold The World 296 Pink Floyd On The Turning Away 297 Pearl Jam I Got ID 298 Papa Roach Last Resort 299 Led Zeppelin Dazed and Confused 300 Grinspoon Lost Control 301 Cold Chisel Cheap Wine 302 Feelers, The The Fear 303 Pearl Jam Not For You 304 Pink Floyd Money 305 Shihad Bulletproof 306 U2 Pride 307 Guns 'N' Roses Knocking on Heavens Door 308 Puddle of Mudd She Hates Me 309 Soundgarden Blow Up The Outside World 310 Deep Purple Black Knight 311 Alice In Chains Man In The Box 312 David Bowie Space Oddity 313 Killers, The Somebody Told Me 314 Queen Another One Bites The Dust 315 Eve 6 Inside Out 316 Guns 'N' Roses Live and Let Die 317 Nickelback Something In Your Mouth 318 AC/DC It's A Long Way To The Top 319 Kings of Leon On Call 320 Lou Reed Walk on the wild side 321 Nirvana Heart Shaped Box 322 Foo Fighters Big Me 323 Icehouse Great Southern Land 324 Cult, The Edie 325 Stonesour Through Glass 326 Ozzy Osbourne I Just Want You 327 Opshop No Ordinary Thing 328 Don Henley The Boys of Summer 329 Nickelback Figured You Out 330 Jimi Hendrix Foxy Lady 331 Pearl Jam State of Love and Trust 332 Verve, The The Drugs Don't Work 333 Swingers, The Counting The Beat 334 Kid Rock Bawitaba 335 Whitesnake Here I Go Again 336 Soundgarden Fell On Black Days 337 Smashing Pumpkins Disarm 338 Aerosmith What It Takes 339 U2 Angel of Harlem 340 Motley Crue Smokin In The Boys Room 341 Velvet Revolver Fall To Pieces 342 Bob Dylan Jokerman 343 Blindspott Yours Truly 344 Alice Cooper Only Woman Bleed 345 Metallica Fuel 346 Bryan Adams Summer of 69 347 Incubus Are You In 348 Cult, The Wild Flower 349 Supergroove You Gotta Know 350 Linkin Park From the inside 351 Exponents Erotic 352 AC/DC Who Made Who 353 Mutton Birds Anchor Me 354 Green Day Hitchin A Ride 355 Headless Chickens George 356 U2 All I Want Is You 357 Soundgarden Spoonman 358 Twisted Sister We're Not Gonna Take It 359 Rolling Stones Wild Horses 360 Weezer Say It Ain't So 361 Bruce Springsteen The River 362 Candlebox Far Behind 363 Dave Dobbyn Loyal 364 Green Day Know Your Enemy 365 U2 One 366 U2 Desire 367 Pluto Dance Stamina 368 Metallica The Day That Never Comes 369 George Thorogood Bad To The Bone 370 Kid Rock All Summer Long 371 Neil Young My My Hey hey 372 Nickelback Photograph 373 U2 Sunday Bloody Sunday 374 Powderfinger My Happiness 375 Supergroove Scorpio Girls 376 Collective Soul The World I Know 377 Breaking Benjamin Diary of Jane 378 AC/DC Rock n Roll Ain't Noise Pollution 379 Blink 182 Dammit 380 Led Zeppelin All Of My Love 381 Foo Fighters D.O.A. 382 Hello Sailor Blue Lady 383 Faith No More Easy 384 Meatloaf Paradise By The Dash…. 385 Linkin Park Breaking the habit 386 Def Leppard Lets Get Rocked 387 Disturbed Prayer 388 Phil Collins In The Air Tonight 389 Staind It's Been A While 390 Van Halen You Really Got Me 391 Metallica Turn The Page 392 Rolling Stones Angie 393 Soundgarden Burden in My Hand 394 Shihad Wait and See 395 Who, The Who Are You 396 Red Hot Chili Peppers Otherside 397 Doors, The Roadhouse Blues 398 U2 Who's Gonna Ride Your Wild Horses 399 Faith No More Ashes To Ashes 400 3 Doors Down Kryptonite 401 Alice In Chains Rooster 402 Cold Chisel Bow River 403 Grinspoon Chemical Heart 404 Janes Addiction Been Caught Stealing 405 Nickelback Never Again 406 Clash, The Should I Stay 407 Feelers, The Anniversary 408 Zodiac Mindwarp Prime Mover 409 Led Zeppelin Houses of The Holy 410 Powderfinger On My Mind 411 U2 Even Better Than The Real Thing 412 Pearl Jam In Hiding 413 Bon Jovi Bad Medicine 414 Buckcherry Lit Up 415 Red Hot Chili Peppers Soul To Squeeze 416 Midnight Oil Power and The Passion 417 Scars On Broadway They Say 418 U2 Mysterious Ways 419 Foo Fighters Breakout 420 Gary Moore/Phil Lynott Out in the fields 421 Nirvana All Apologies 422 Sublime Wrong Way 423 Split Enz History Never Repeats 424 Shihad Alive 425 Doors, The LA Woman 426 Metallica King Nothing 427 Led Zeppelin The Song Remains The Same 428 Fuel Haemmorhage 429 Jeff Healy Band While My Guitar Gently Weaps 430 Kooks, The Niave 431 Cult, The Wild Hearted Son 432 Rolling Stones You Can't Always get What you want 433 Red Hot Chili Peppers Aeroplane 434 Van Halen Jump 435 Smashing Pumpkins Tonight Tonight 436 Evanescence Bring Me To Life 437 Dragon Rain 438 Breaking Benjamin So Cold 439 Hunters and Collectors Holy Grail 440 Pearl Jam Corduroy 441 Poison Something To Believe In 442 Tom Petty Learning To Fly 443 Velvert Revolver The Last Fight 444 Kenny Wayne Sheppard Blue on Black 445 Iggy Pop Lust For Life 446 Audioslave Show Me How To Live 447 Oasis Champagne Supernova 448 Soundgarden Rusty Cage 449 Clash, The I Fought The Law 450 Shihad You Again 451 Stone Sour Bother 452 Twisted Sister I Wanna Rock 453 Days of the New Touch Peel and Stand 454 Led Zeppelin Dy'er Mak'er 455 Ozzy Ozbourne See You On The Other Side 456 Pearl Jam Nothingman 457 Who, The My Generation 458 Verve, The Lucky Man 459 Rolling Stones It's Only Rock n Roll 460 U2 The Sweetest Thing 461 Black Crowes Hard to Handle 462 Feelers, The Supersystem 463 Urge Overkill Sister Havana 464 Red Hot Chili Peppers Suck My Kiss 465 John Mellencamp Jack and Dianne 466 Sixx AM Life is Beautiful 467 Dire Straits Brothers in Arms 468 Jet She's A Genius 469 Filter Take A Picture 470 Cars, The Just What I Needed 471 Counting Crowes Round Here 472 My Chemical Romance Welcome to the black parade 473 Tom Petty Free Falling 474 Stone Temple Pilots Big Empty 475 Shihad La La Land 476 Ben Harper Please Bleed 477 AC/DC Let There Be Rock 478 Beck Loser 479 Queen Fat Bottomed Girls 480 Smashing Pumpkins Zero 481 Doors, The Light My Fire 482 Radiohead High and Dry 483 Metallica Mama Said 484 Lenny Kravitz Are You Gonna Go My Way 485 Stone Temple Pilots Vasoline 486 U2 Vertigo 487 Incubus Drive 488 Talking Heads Road To Nowhere 489 Angels, The No Secrets 490 Goo Goo Dolls Iris 491 HLAH Hootenanny 492 Pink Floyd Mother 493 Offspring, The Why Don't You Get A Job 494 Doors, The Break On Through 495 Living End Raise The Alarm 496 David Bowie Cat People (Putting Out The Fire) 497 Metallica For Whom The Bell Tolls 498 Cold Chisel Khe Sanh 499 U2 Beautiful Day 500 Dandy Warhols Bohemian Like You 501 Blind Melon No Rain 502 Black Sabbath NIB 503 Black Crows She Talks To Angels 504 A Perfect Circle Judith 505 Def Leppard Love Bites 506 Elemeno P Nirvana 507 Queen Headlong 508 Rob Thomas/Santana Smooth 509 Red Hot Chili Peppers Around the World 510 Split Enz Shark Attack 511 Soundgarden The Day I Tried To Live 512 Quiet Riot Come on Feel The Noise 513 T Rex Get It On 514 Radiohead Fake Plastic Trees 515 Puddle Of Mudd Psycho 516 Van Halen Running With The Devil 517 Offspring, The Pretty Fly 518 INXS Original Sin 519 Marilyn Manson The Dope Show 520 Skid Row Youth gone wild 521 Queen / Bowie Under Pressure 522 Datsuns, The Harmonic Generator 523 Robert Plant Heaven Knows 524 Foo Fighters Stacked Actors 525 AC/DC Ride On 526 Blink 182 What's My Age Again 527 Blue Oyster Cult Don't Fear the Reaper 528 Butthole Surfers Pepper 529 Green Day Wake Me Up When September Ends 530 Eagles Life in the Fast Lane 531 Incubus I Wish You Were Here 532 Cold Chisel Flame Trees 533 Airbourne What's Eatin' You? 534 Goodshirt Sophie 535 Rolling Stones Brown Sugar 536 Green Day Boulevard of Broken Dreams 537 Tom Petty American Girl 538 Soundgarden My Wave 539 Santana Black Magic Woman 540 Silverchair Anthem For The Year 2000 541 R.E.M It's the End of the World As We Know It 542 Pearl Jam I Am Mine 543 Radiohead Just 544 Presidents of the USA Lump 545 Rob Zombie Living dead Girl 546 Simple Minds Waterfront 547 Creed With Arms Wide Open 548 Aerosmith Crazy 549 Collective Soul Where The River Flows 550 Gary Moore Still Got The Blues for you 551 Shihad Rule The World 552 R.E.M Losing My Religion 553 Push Push Trippin' 554 Snow Patrol Chasing Cars 555 Soundgarden Outshined 556 Foo Fighters Baker Street 557 Billy Idol Eyes Without A Face 558 Live All Over You 559 Shihad Debs Night Out 560 Sex Pistols Anarchy In The UK 561 Red Hot Chili Peppers Desecration Smile 562 Iron Maiden The Evil that Men Do 563 INXS Kick 564 Hoobastank The Reason 565 Rage Against The Machine Renegades of Funk 566 Smashing Pumpkins Cherub Rock 567 Linkin Park Shadow of the Day 568 Queensryche Silent Lucidity 569 Elemeno-P 11'57 570 Midnight Oil Forgotten Years 571 Papa Roach Forever 572 Oasis What's The Story Morning Glory 573 Casanovas California 574 Crash Test Dummies Mmm Mmm Mmm 575 Feelers, The Beautiful Feeling 576 Mutton Birds Nature 577 Nirvana Rape Me 578 Our Lady Peace Superman's Dead 579 Tom Petty Refugee 580 Stokes, The Last Nite 581 Jimmy Eat World The Middle 582 Police Message In A Bottle 583 Tonic If You Could Only See 584 T Rex 20th Century Boy 585 Offspring, The Original Prankster 586 Van Halen Hot For Teacher 587 Feelers, The Stand Up 588 Jet Are You Gonna Be My Girl 589 Led Zeppelin Nobody's Fault But Mine 590 Marilyn Manson Personal Jesus 591 Th' Dudes Be Mine Tonight 592 Powderfinger My Kinda Scene 593 Tom Petty Mary Janes Last Dance 594 Fuel Bad Day 595 Dragon Are You Old Enough 596 Franz Ferdinand Take Me Out 597 Europe The Final Countdown 598 Offspring, The Gotta Get Away 599 ZZ Top Legs 600 Nirvana Where Did You Sleep Last Night 601 INXS I Need You Tonight 602 U2/Green Day The Saints Are Coming 603 Talking Heads And She Was 604 Seether Fine Again 605 Pearl Jam Brother 606 Black Sabbath Black Sabbath 607 Arctic Monkeys I Bet that You'd Look Good on the Dancefloor 608 A Perfect Circle 3 Libra's 609 Aerosmith Livin On The Edge 610 Coldplay Yellow 611 Finger Eleven Paralyzer 612 Genesis Home By The Sea 613 Good Charlotte Motavation Proclamation 614 Men at Work Be Good Johnny 615 Ugly Kid Joe Everything About You 616 Killers, The When You Were Young 617 White Stripes Icky Thump 618 Golden Earing Radar Love 619 Evanescence Going Under 620 Talking Heads Burning Down The House 621 Silverchair Pure Massacre 622 Split Enz Six Months In A Leaky Boat 623 Shihad Beautiful Machine 624 Police Can't Stand Losing You 625 Powderfinger Sunsets 626 U2 Bullet The Blue Sky 627 Metallica Die Die Die My Darling 628 Led Zeppelin Misty Mountain Hop 629 Green Day Longview 630 Billy Idol Flesh For Fantasy 631 Candlebox Cover Me 632 U2 When Love Comes To Town 633 Evermore Running 634 Pink Floyd Great Gig In The Sky 635 White Stripes My Doorbell 636 R.E.M Drive 637 Mi-Sex Blue Day 638 Green Day Working Class Hero 639 Boston More Than A Feeling 640 Foo Fighters Generator 641 Pearl Jam Immortality 642 Who, The Pinball Wizard 643 Elemeno P Every Day's A Saturday 644 Choir Boys Run To Paradise 645 Daughtry It's Not Over 646 Exponents Who Loves Who The Most 647 Snow Patrol Take Back The City 648 Bruce Springsteen I'm on fire 649 Faith No More Stripsearch 650 R.E.M What's The Frequency Kenneth 651 Offspring, The I Choose 652 Reef Place Your Hands 653 Queen A Kind of Magic 654 3 Doors Down Loser 655 Alice Cooper No More Mr Nice Guy 656 Manic Street Preachers Your Love Alone 657 Police So Lonely 658 Incubus Dig 659 R.E.M Man On The Moon 660 Tenacious D Tribute 661 Third Eye Blind Semi Charmed Life 662 Van Halen Why Can't This Be Love 663 Fuel Sunburn 664 David Bowie Ziggy Stardust 665 Foo Fighters Resolve 666 Red Hot Chili Peppers Breaking The Girl 667 Semisonic Closing Time 668 Muse Hysteria 669 Dave Dobbyn Love You Like I Should 670 Green Day Warning 671 INXS Good Times 672 Lit My Own Worst Enemy 673 Robert Plant 29 Palms 674 Offspring, The Gone Away 675 New Order Blue Monday 676 AC/DC Money Made 677 Matchbox 20 How Far We've Come 678 R.E.M Pop Song 89 679 Shihad Leo Song 680 Split Enz Dirty Creature 681 Hoobastank Disappear 682 Kiss God Gave Rock n Roll To You 683 Linkin Park Numb 684 Van Halen Panama 685 HLAH Cornbag 686 Bon Jovi Blaze of Glory 687 Black Sabbath Iron man 688 Ben Harper Excuse Me Mr 689 3 Doors Down When I'm Gone 690 AC/DC Heatseeker 691 Linkin Park Bleed it Out 692 4 Non Blondes What's Up 693 Chad Kroeger Hero 694 DD Smash The Outlook For Thursday 695 Luger Boa On My Mind 696 Exponents Victoria 697 Creed What's This Life For 698 Good Charlotte Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous 699 Def Leppard Rockit 700 Incubus Anna Molly 701 Led Zeppelin Good Times Bad Times 702 Living End Wake Up 703 Peter Gabriel Sledgehammer 704 Oasis Don't Look Back in Anger 705 Rolling Stones Love is strong 706 Foo Fighters The One 707 Crowded House Something So Strong 708 Placebo For What It's Worth 709 Billy Idol Sweet Sixteen 710 Audioslave Doesn't Remind Me 711 Motley Crue Home Sweet Home 712 Finger Eleven Falling On 713 Hoodoo Gurus Whats My Scene 714 Dishwalla Counting Blue Cars 715 Kings Of Leon Notion 716 Jimmy Barnes Lay Down Your Guns 717 D4 Sake Bomb 718 Dave Dobbyn Welcome Home 719 Muse Starlight 720 Bleeders She Screamed She Loved Me 721 Crowded House Better Be Home Soon 722 Disturbed Shout 723 Gary Moore Walking By Myself 724 Grinspoon No Reason 725 R.E.M Stand 726 Poison Your Mama Don't Dance 727 Seether Fake It 728 Australian Crawl The Boys Light Up 729 Midnight Youth All On Our Own 730 Icehouse We Can Get Together 731 Matchbox 20 Push 732 Motley Crue Saints Of Los Angeles 733 Kiss Crazy Crazy Nights 734 Living End Roll On 735 Neil Young Like A Hurricane 736 Foo Fighters This is a Call 737 Pearl Jam Rearviewmirror 738 Soul Asylum Misery 739 Saving Abel Addicted 740 Live Freaks 741 INXS Never Tear Us Apart 742 Linkin Park Somewhere I Belong 743 Noiseworks No Lies 744 Pluto Long White Cross 745 Default Wasting My Time 746 Deep Purple Hush 747 Creed Higher 748 Bruce Springsteen Dancing in the dark 749 Athlete Wires 750 AC/DC Whole Lotta Rosie 751 3 Doors Down Here Without You 752 Hunters and Collectors Throw Your Arms Around Me 753 Korn Word Up 754 Pink Floyd Lost for Words 755 Puddle of Mudd Control 756 Primal Scream Rocks 757 Shihad One Will Hear 758 Red Hot Chili Peppers Behind The Sun 759 Powderfinger Lost and Running 760 Church, The Under The Milky Way 761 Oasis Live Forever 762 Guns 'N' Roses Nighttrain 763 Pantera Cemetery Gates 764 Audioslave Be Yourself 765 Deep Purple My Woman From Tokyo 766 Midnight Youth The Letter 767 Monster Magnet Space Lord 768 AC/DC High Voltage 769 Fur Patrol Lydia 770 Jimmy Barnes Sweat it Out 771 Matchbox 20 Disease 772 Fratellies, The Flathead 773 R.E.M Everybody Hurts 774 Everlast Black Jesus 775 Cake The Distance 776 Counting Crowes Rain King 777 Checks, The You And Me 778 David Bowie Changes 779 Guns 'N' Roses Chinese Democracy 780 Exponents I'll Say Goodbye 781 Hole Celebrity Skin 782 Lenny Kravitz American Woman 783 Live Shittown 784 Goo Goo Dolls Name 785 HLAH Comfortably Shagged 786 Spin Doctors Two Princes 787 Muse Knights of Cydonia 788 Billy Idol Cradle of Love 789 Daughtry What I Want 790 INXS Devil Inside 791 Motley Crue Same ol' Situation 792 Nickelback Rockstar 793 Silverchair Greatest View 794 Melissa Etheridge Bring Me Some Water 795 Tool Schism 796 John Mellencamp Paper and Fire 797 Incubus Warning 798 Lenny Kravitz Fly Away 799 Janes Addiction Mountain Song 800 Everclear Heartspark Dollarsign 801 Billy Idol White Wedding 802 Buckcherry Too Drunk 803 Creed My Sacrifice 804 Deep Purple Highway Star 805 Oasis Cigarettes and Alcohol 806 Pink Floyd Have A Cigar 807 Metallica I Disappear 808 Goo Goo Dolls Here Is Gone 809 Led Zeppelin Immigrant Song 810 Opshop Secrets 811 Black Crowes Remedy 812 Iron Maiden Hallowed Be Thy Name 813 Ben Harper Steal My Kisses 814 Cold Chisel You Got Nothing I Want 815 Marilyn Manson Sweet Dreams 816 Midnight Oil King of The Mountain 817 Alice In Chains Heaven Beside You 818 Jimmy Barnes Driving Wheels 819 Rise Against Re-Educate 820 Crowded House Don't Dream It's Over 821 Bloodhound Gang Fire Water Burn 822 Airbourne Running Wild 823 Aerosmith I Don't Want To Miss A Thing 824 Tool The Pot 825 3 Doors Down Behind those Eyes 826 AC/DC The Jack 827 Blue October Hate me 828 Bon Jovi Keep The Faith 829 Live Rattlesnake 830 Eagle Eye Cherry Save tonight 831 Collective Soul Smashing Young Man 832 Aerosmith Dude Looks Like A Lady 833 Foo Fighters Low 834 AC/DC Moneytalks 835 Def Leppard Hysteria 836 Candlebox 10,000 Horses 837 Alice Cooper Schools Out 838 Blacktide Shockwave 839 Bush The Chemicals Between Us 840 David Bowie China Girl 841 Kings of Leon Crawl 842 Pink Floyd Keep Talking 843 Silverchair Ana's Song (Open Fire) 844 Pearl Jam Nothing As It Seems 845 R.E.M The One I Love 846 Raconteurs Steady As She Goes 847 Red Hot Chili Peppers Tell Me Baby 848 Harvey Danger Flagpole Sitta 849 INXS New Sensation 850 Nickelback Too Bad 851 Cure, The Friday I'm in love 852 Velvet Revolver Get Out The Door 853 Ben Harper Diamonds On The Inside 854 Rob Zombie Dragula 855 Semisonic Singing To Me In My Sleep 856 Tadpole Blind 857 Red Hot Chili Peppers Knock Me Down 858 Silverchair Straight Lines 859 Queen Tie Your Mother Down 860 OK Go Here it Goes Again 861 Soul Asylum Runaway Train 862 Th' Dudes Walking In Light 863 Seether/ Amy Lee Broken 864 Whitesnake In the Still Of The Night 865 Grinspoon Better Off Alone 866 Dire Straits Sultans of Swing 867 Jet Cold Hard Bitch 868 Feelers, The One World 869 System of a Down Spiders 870 Simple Minds Sanctify Yourself 871 Soundgarden Pretty Noose 872 Nickelback Saving Me 873 R.E.M Orange Crush 874 Snow Patrol Run 875 Poison Nothing But A Good Time 876 Kaiser Chiefs Ruby 877 Guns 'N' Roses Rocket Queen 878 Shinedown Second Chance 879 Billy Idol Shock To The System 880 Johnny Cash Hurt 881 Atlas Crawl 882 Australian Crawl Downheatred 883 Blindspott Room To Breathe 884 Bon Jovi It's My Life 885 Hinder Lips of an angel 886 Tom Petty Into the Great Wide Open 887 Oasis Roll with it 888 Counting Crows Mr Jones 889 AC/DC Sink The Pink 890 Coldplay Clocks 891 Split Enz My Mistake 892 Steriogram White Trash 893 Green Day Holiday 894 Bruce Springsteen Radio Nowhere 895 Cage The Elephant Ain't No Rest For The Wicked 896 Extreme More Than Words 897 Seether Remedy 898 Simple Minds Promised You A Miracle 899 Feelers, The Astronaut 900 Mutton Birds Giant Friend 901 Living End Second Solution 902 Lenny Kravitz Believe 903 Hunters and Collectors Do You See What I See 904 Motley Crue Kickstart My Heart 905 Live Heaven 906 Icehouse I Can't Help Myself 907 Nirvana You Know You're Right 908 Spacehog In The Meantime 909 Seether Driven Under 910 Robbie robertson Somewhere Down the Crazy River 911 AC/DC Anything Goes 912 J Geils Centrefold 913 Stellar All It Takes 914 Angles, The We Gotta Get Out Of This Place 915 Killers, The Read My Mind 916 U2 New Years Day 917 Supergrass Sun Hits The Sky 918 Ozzy Osbourne Perry Mason 919 Goo Goo Dolls Slide 920 Guns 'N' Roses Yesterdays 921 Opshop One Day 922 Cult, The She Sells Sanctuary 923 Seether The Gift 924 Clash, The Rock The Casbah 925 Feelers, The Communicate 926 Cult, The Love Removal Machine 927 Killers, The Mr Brightside 928 Poison Unskinny Bop 929 Muse Uprising 930 Australian Crawl Reckless 931 Alien Ant Farm Glow 932 Danzig Mother 933 3 Doors Down It's not My Time 934 Bloodhound Gang The Badtouch 935 Matchbox 20 Long Day 936 Mockers, The Forever Tuesday Morning 937 POD Youth of Nation 938 INXS Mystify 939 Nickelback Some Day 940 ZZ Top Gimme All Your Lovin 941 Lifehouse Hanging By A Moment 942 Aerosmith The Otherside 943 Kings Of Leon Revelry 944 Tom Petty Running Down A Dream 945 Datsuns, The Stuck Here For Days 946 Tom Cochrane Life Is A Highway 947 Steriophonics Dakota 948 Angles, The The Dogs Are Talking 949 Keane Somewhere Only We Know 950 Stellar Violent 951 Bon Jovi Have A Nice Day 952 Lost Prophets Rooftops 953 Men at Work Overkill 954 Red Hot Chili Peppers Love Rollercoaster 955 Darkness, The I Believe In A Thing Called Love 956 Barenaked Ladies One Week 957 Mile High Now 958 Airbourne Too Much, Too Young, Too Fast 959 Crowded House Locked Out 960 Dandy Warhols We Used To Be Friends 961 Tom Petty Don't Come Around Here No More 962 Feelers, The Fishing For Lisa 963 Feelers, The As Good As It Gets 964 David Bowie Lets Dance 965 Exies, The Ugly 966 Garbage Only Happy When It Rains 967 Chills, The I Love My Leather Jacket 968 Train Drops of Jupiter 969 Pearl Jam Dissident 970 Steriogram Walkie Talkie Man 971 Verve, The Sonnet 972 Phantom, Rocker and Slick Men Without Shame 973 Weezer Buddy Holly 974 Cars, The Drive 975 Weta Calling On 976 Led Zeppelin Heartbreaker 977 Thirsty Merc In The Summertime 978 Peter Frampton Do You Feel Like We Do 979 Calling, The Wherever You Will Go 980 Talking Heads Once in a Lifetime 981 Weezer Hash Pipe 982 Doors, The Touch Me 983 Killers, The Bones 984 Refreshments, The Banditos 985 Panic Channel, The Teahouse of the Spirits 986 Guns 'N' Roses Better 987 Red Hot Chili Peppers Can't Stop 988 Zed Renegade Fighter 989 Live Turn My Head 990 Wallflowers One Headlight 991 Offspring, The Hammerhead 992 Weta Let It Go 993 U2 Sometimes You Can't Make it on Your Own 994 White Stripes Blue Orchid 995 Travis Why Does It Always Rain On Me 996 Velvet Revolver Slither 997 Hootie and the Blow Fish Let Her Cry 998 Phantom Planet California 999 Pearl Jam Given To Fly 1000 Joan Jett I Love Rock n Roll

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