Energy return on investment for various different energy sources

We're used to thinking about the cost per unit of energy (e.g. $/gallon of gasoline) with the implicit assumption that cost is a rough indicator of what is required to obtain that energy. The Oil Drum has a nice piece on Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and the implications of using low EROI energy sources. To dive right in, it's instructive to think about the EROI of domestic oil production as a function of time:100:1 in 193030:1 in 197011-18:1 in 2000EROI on the Web part 2 of 5, (Provisional Results Summary, Imported Oil, Natural Gas)Energy return on investment, sometimes called EROI and sometimes called EROEI, is thought by many, including myself, to be a critical issue for determining the past, present and future status of human society. It is usually considered in terms of energy return on energy investment, but it can also be considered in terms of energy return on monetary investment. While much of human progress has been attributed, rightfully, to technology, much of that technology has been a means of using more energy for human ends. This is true for fire, knife blades and spear points (energy concentrating devices), the development of agriculture and the increase in its productivity and, essentially all aspects of the industrial revolution.EROI is simply the energy delivered by an energy-obtaining activity compared to the energy required to get it. If the numerator and denominator are expressed in the same units (barrels per barrel, MegaJoules per MegaJoule) the result is a dimensionless ratio, i.e. 100:1 or 10:1). Obviously a higher ratio implies a more desirable fuel than a lower one, other things being equal (which is rarely the case). The concept is extremely simple in theory but often very difficult in execution, mostly because society generally maintains its records in monetary rather than energy terms. Another problem is that the U.S. Government has not supported such studies in a consistent fashion and it is my perception that the quality of some energy records as are kept by e.g. the U.S. Departments of Energy and of Commerce appear to be deteriorating in recent years. Thus deriving the energy cost of getting energy (or most other things) is generally somewhat, and oftentimes exceedingly, difficult. A second problem is that the usual measure of the quantity of a fuel, its heat value, often does not give a full assessment of that fuel's ability to do economic or other work. Most simply electricity and thermal heat from e.g. coal or oil have a great difference in their ability to do work, such as we are willing to trade three or four heat units of coal or oil in a thermal plant for one thermal unit of higher quality electricity. Thus if the input and output fuels are of different quality then it is often thought desirable to weight in some way the inputs and the outputs. A third problem is that it is important to consider boundaries: how large should we draw the boundaries of the energy analysis for the inputs? We will consider these issues in far more detail in later publications but there are many reasons why it is important to make summaries of EROI available at this time even though many uncertainties exist in the numbers that we present here, and indeed with any numbers that might be possible to generate.via jforbess

Topic by ewilhelm 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Is anyone familiar with tems as a scientific term or abbreviation?

It was used in a comment to me to indicate some kind of activation energy of crystallization or some such. You can see the comment at https://www.instructables.com/community/DIY-Solar-Cells-through-screen-printing/?comments=all#C5CQFV4FRBPYYW8.

Question by bowakowa 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Compact Active Body Cooling System

So I'm going to be making a full-body space armour type costume (Samus from Metroid Prime) eventually and I want to try to design an active cooling system that isn't too heavy, can be concealed within the costume, doesn't require too much replacing of coolant , and doesn't use obscene amounts of energy. I know the way it's done in commercial active cooling vests is that they run ice water through plastic tubes in a vest. The problem with this is that there is a big, huge tank of water with a big pump that the vest is tethered to and it needs to be plugged into an outlet. The way I'm thinking of doing it is by putting a network of copper wires in the garment I'll be wearing under the armour that lead to a cooling system in the back of the suit that, right now, I'm thinking will involve ice packs and/or a fan array. I feel like it might not work, so the alternative is to design a custom water or liquid cooling system. I'm planning on using lithium ion batteries for the cooling system and lights if I can. Any ideas or suggestions?

Topic by Icetigris 11 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


new energy source idea for slingshot mechs

I was considering the idea of using bracelets looped together as a higher power energy source in one of the stronger knex slingshots, please give me your input on this idea, and tell me if it is worth trying.

Topic by Knex_Gun_Builder 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


How to make a key beeper that can be activated by a cell phone?

Is there a device that that can be somehow activated by 'some' signal produces by today's cell phones (bluetooth, wifi, infra...) and then make a beep sound? Preferably it should be small, light, cheap, with low consumption of energy. It should work as a beeper to find a thing that it is attached to more quickly.  Any ideas?

Question by xsustek 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Solar Maple Syrup?

Making maple syrup is a great activity for those of us lucky enough in the north, but it's also very energy intensive.  A wood fire is not the worst of the energy choices to reduce the sap, but there must be someone out there with the creativity to come up with a DYI solar evaporator. any  ideas?

Topic by alanrb 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


How to make real ARC REACTOR of Ironman's Suite?

What is the material required for Arc Reactor.How to give  energy/power to Arc Reactor to activate?

Question by Fauji Rathore 6 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


does this work out?

Production of light with low energy  for this take a long tube with both ends open.Now place a one way mirror in such a way that light passes from outside to inside and the other end with a colored glass except red [primary colors].before this just fill it with active medium or the elements used in laser[make sure that this medium emits any color other than red on exited] Then send red laser light into the tube for few seconds if my guess is right the tube will give a colored light outside Now let me explain it when the red laser light first enters the tube it makes the active medium in it excite and release a colored light along with the red light this passes all through the tube and at the end the colored glass [the same color which the medium emits on exciting] will send the emited light through it and reflects the red colored light back and the process keeps on going as the first one way mirror even reflects the red light back. I have a picture of laser active medium and one way mirrors.           So,energy is consumed only for the first production of light for minute.

Question by lohithg 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Solar power comment analysis requested, very interesting.

I recently received a comment from a very new member on a very old forum post. It is in relation to the old post here. Big claims, but I've never heard of a tems though it seems he is referencing it as an activation energy of crystallization or some such. Any takers?https://www.instructables.com/community/DIY-Solar-Cells-through-screen-printing/?comments=all#C5CQFV4FRBPYYW8

Topic by bowakowa 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Integrating Highschool Sciences

Irene Duke, Kate Hoff, Lyndsay Carlisle and myself are participating in the MIT course 11.124, _Introduction to Teaching and Learning Science and Mathematics_. We have a variety of teaching interests: Irene hopes to teach chemistry, Kate to teach Physics, myself Physics or Mathematics and Lyndsay hopes to teach social justice / political history. Provided Make magazines as inspiration, we were tasked to design a joint activity, merging four high school classes of these topics for a period of weeks or months. We developed the ideas described in this first entry over the course of a class period. Hopefully, we'll take the time to expand each step into an instructable, possibly including trials by fire teaching 8th-11th graders. The material is structured by conservation of energy and resources, inspired by the articles of Tim Andersen. The final demonstration we envision motivates the particular material we wanted from each field. A bicycle wheel is drives an alternator transforming mechanical energy into electrical. The electrical energy is used to run a electrolysis process, rendering separate measurable quantities of Hydrogen and Oxygen. The Hydrogen and Oxygen are then combusted for the students. The amount of mechanical energy can be measured, as can the electrical. The binding energy of H_2O can be used to determine the chemical potential energy rendered. Finally, the combustion both demonstrates the energy's new form, and the difficulties in storing energy. The difference between power and energy underlies all of these experiments. Conservation of linear momentumn should be a familiar topic with the students. Conservation of angular momentumn can easily be introduced at this point, demonstrated with the bicycle and a fly wheel. Chaning the orientation of the wheel can be exteremely difficult. For the chemical portion of the experiment, stoicheometry should be familiar to establish the link between the amount of gas generated and the energy invested. The most appropriate mathemetical tools are statistical. Sampling, linear regression and averaging would prove useful throughout the experiments. Global economic relationships leading up from the colonial period would perhaps be the most applicable topic form history or the social sciences. Though not a technical detail, an important aspect of executing such an idea involves the actual deployment of resources. Students could, for example be broken up by their topic of interest, whether it be the physical, chemical or social aspects of the project. Next, new groups would be formed with one or two members from each subject area. These groups could then attempt to execute the design from the first slide, or one which is similar. Throughout, the students will present their thoughts or understanding to the teacher. This design project should perhaps be phrased as simply turning mechanical energy into hydrogen. Students with social scientific background might be responsible for estimating the costs of the implementation in different settings, and that would be used to drive a larger scale version. So, before getting started on building and documenting this project, do people have suggestions? What worked to combine the physical sciences for you? What might have worked?

Topic by mmt 12 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Make supercapacitors from graphite in a DVD burner

The outline is that you can deposit graphite oxide (a cheap bulk material) onto a film of PET (the plastic used in Coke bottles), hit it with a commodity infra-red laser (such as the one in a $30 LightScribe DVD burner) and end up with a form of activated carbon material that can be used as the electrode in an electrolytic capacitor.  Add some aluminium foil, separator membrane and electrolyte and you've got cheap, robust energy storage.  The headline numbers are a few hundred milliFarads per cubic centimetre at a few volts, which works out to 1.36kWh per cubic metre of stacked capacitors.  It's still about 50 times less energy per volume than lead acid batteries, but you could store as much energy as your house will need overnight in the size of a garden shed or a set of bunk beds.  They charge/discharge in seconds and retain >95% capacity at 10,000 cycles so seem suitable for storage to even out intermittent energy generation from, for example, solar or wind power. I'm really thinking about cost here- unless I'm missing something fundamental it doesn't seem like producing these on a high volume roll-to-roll process would be excessively difficult, and the cycle life means the replacement time would be many years even in heavy usage.  Could you get sufficient kWh per dollar to make these a viable storage mechanism for home-scale renewables? There's a more informative article here.

Topic by PKM 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Cell phone radiation boosts brain cell activity in brand new study

Brain cells are impacted by cell phone radiation in accordance with a recent study. The study detected an increase in the metabolism of brain cells. Brain cells were affected in the part of the brain near the antenna of the mobile phone. Brain cells are definitely impacted by cell phone use, according to the research, however further research is needed to discover out if that's a bad thing. Source of article - Cell phone radiation increases brain cell activity in new study by MoneyBlogNewz. Cellular phone brain cell research first done The first research undertaken to examining how electromagnetic radiation from cell phones impacts brain cells was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association on Tues. The research focused on how cellular phone use affects normal brain cell function, known as glucose metabolism. The rate of glucose metabolism in brain cells was increased more than researchers were hoping with cell phone exposure. When it comes to brain activity, the way it's done is with cells creating energy. This is done with glucose. The way brain cells work is that it is produced as necessary. The glucose is produce whenever it is needed by the brain. It's unknown if it's bad or not, however it was found in the study that glucose metabolism amounts are increased artificially with a mobile phone. Further research needs to be done though. How mobile phones affect the brain With all the phone calls going on, cell phone radiation has concerned medical experts. They have worried about what it's doing. The outcomes of previous tests have been inconclusive. A connection with brain cancer was found in famous cellular phone radiation studies. The proof that brain cancer was actually brought on by mobile phones in cell phone users was not there though. There are other things scientists have tried to ling cell phone radiation to. Such things as cancer or dementia due to brain cell mutation are examples. The effect of cell phones on children's brains has been a particular concern because children have thinner skulls, the radiation penetrates deeper and their brain cells metabolize glucose faster. Try to choose speakerphone In a statement responding to the cellular phone brain cell research, the Wireless Association said scientific evidence proves that cell phones, used within limits established by the Federal Communications Commission, don't pose a public health risk. The way cellular phone radiation affects the brain is nevertheless unknown really. Until more research is done, experts suggest Bluetooth earpieces and speakerphone should be used as often as possible. Information from CNN cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/02/22/cell.phone.brain.activity/ Web MD webmd.com/brain/news/20110222/cell-phones-affect-brain-but-does-it-matter?page=2 Wall Street Journal online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704071304576160652541652440.html

Topic by InigmaN 8 years ago


British Columbia introduces carbon tax

VICTORIA -- Driving and other fuel-dependent activities are about to get more expensive as British Columbia becomes the first jurisdiction in North America to introduce a consumer-based carbon tax.The carbon tax will apply to virtually all fossil fuels, including gasoline, diesel, natural gas, coal, propane, and home heating fuel. B.C.'s carbon tax, the provincial government claims, will be the most comprehensive in the world.full article

Topic by ewilhelm 11 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


No, that doesnt look right... Potentiometer Expert Needed!

Hi All! My brother and I are building an e-bike and we THINK we know how to attach a throttle, but it might blow up the battery... if worse comes to worse then we have a toggle button we can install but it's not really ideal. I've attached a circuit diagram below of how everything goes together, but this is my thinking; With nobody touching the throttle, in my circuit, wont i have a current flowing from the battery anode via the potentiometer straight back into the battery cathode? This results in a huge waste of energy doesnt it? And the battery would drain even when the bike is stored in a hallway overnight.  So, does anybody know if this circuit will work? i need it to take energy from the battery ONLY when active.

Topic by Tsimbilakis 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


what wattage of laser necessary to kill mosquitoes (immediately)?

To craft a gadget that shoots mosquitoes with laser, there is the need to know the enemy's vulnerability. The most needed is the mosquito vulnerability to laser shooting. What wattage of laser is sufficient? The configuration I think is, attracting mosquitoes with some infrared light (or, multivibrator), then shooting with laser. I might shoot with a continuous laser (after infrared path is broken, surely), but zip-zip-zip sort of (threshold activated shooting) is sensible, too.I stated this previously @ yahoo answers, but no (serious) answer wa there.See the question there, http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090505022002AAnd31eFor a full, energy-harvesting mosquito-shooting gadget, a previous question might be related, too. That next question is about the malaria map (for energy harvesting, where necessary). http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090405004614AAsBwtL

Question by ferzenr 10 years ago  |  last reply 7 months ago


Biodiesel

It's crazy that there isn't a "How to make Biodiesel" Instructable on the site, yet. I just created this group, but I'm inviting people to share info and links, here.Luckily, there are plenty resources online on how to brew your own biodiesel. The stub for the Make article on the subject doesn't include the full text, but it does include a number of great links:The Energy Self-Sufficiency Newsletter - This article is partly based on a series of articles by Maria "Mark" Alovert that first appeared here.Gly-Tek - To test for the presence of glycerin, you can use the Gly-Teck test kit, which detects leaked anti-freeze in motor oil. Recycling Sciences - High-volume operations can buy a $31,000 glycerin-purification distiller here, which will convert dirty biodiesel glycerin into nice, clear, commercially valuable glycerin. Mark Alovert's siteveggieavenger.com - Homebrewing forum.biodiesel.infopop.cc - Another homebrewing forum.biodieselnow.com - Biodiesel policy and activism forum.journeytoforever.org - Biodiesel processor designs and other info.nbb.org - Biodiesel stations and industry info.tdiclub.com - VW diesel forum.propelfuels.com - Setting up a commercial biodiesel pump in your town.Alternative Energy Videos - Videos about alternative energy, including biodiesel, available for rent from technicalvideorental.com

Topic by nagutron 12 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Solar Power Towers Efficiently Using Brayton Cycle

I want to point out a solar to electric generation concept that has yet to be seen anywhere, even though it originated back during the Carter Administration's ERDA programs of the late 70's. I’m talking about solar power towers that convert solar energy into electricity at the hundreds of mega-watt level. While power towers do exist today, and the world currently does have a handful of them as shown in Fig-1, none use the Brayton Cycle nor can they boast an energy conversion efficiency at the mid to upper thirty percent level.  A group of engineers got together at a think tank organization called Sanders Associates in Nashua, N.H., several decades ago, and designed a unique Brayton Cycle, 100 MW solar Power Tower concept for generating electricity. This was accomplished under ERDA (Energy Research Development Administration) who gave us a phase-2 follow-up contract that took our phase-1 design and built a working scale model at the 10 KW level. This model was tested at the Georgia Tech Solar Research Facility and "registered" ~37% electric solar conversion efficiency. The system used ambient air as its working fluid, and was to be located in open-spaced desert regions. Phase-2 was lost to competition using a closed-loop liquid sodium system that boiled water into superheated steam at 900F to run a turbine that generated ~21% overall electric conversion efficiency.  Apparently, at that time ERDA would rather haul water out to the desert than use ambient air to generate electricity? The politics of their decision is beyond reason and clashes with improving the world’s development of green technology energy.  ERDA shut out our better technological performer and safely locked it away for another day! ERDA's official reason for turning us down: "this technology uses excessively high temperatures (2500F versus 900F) that are dangerous to workman maintaining the equipment". But that was back in the 70’s, maybe we’ve learned to deal with high-temp heat by now?   Solar Energy Concept Using Low Pressure Storage Our solar power tower would collect the sun’s energy by locating its ceramic heat exchanger on top of a tall tower as shown in Fig-1. The tower was located in the center of a field of active sun-searching mirrors (heliostats, Figure-2). These mirrors reflected sunlight onto our ceramic honeycomb heat exchanger, producing a concentrated flux intensity level that heated it to around 2500F. At the same time, low pressure fans generating only a few psi pressure would suck the ambient air through the honeycomb, heating it to just under the 2500F and then passing it through energy storage silos which stored the heat down to ~150F. We purposely designed the energy storage charging phase of our hot air system to work at only a few psi above ambient as a safety feature. The sun effectively acts as the combustor of our jet engine or Brayton cycle engine. Once the sun heats the air, it passes through heat exchangers consisting of a labyrinth of underground silos that are temperature segregated. These silos receive our 2300F airflow and cool it down to about 150F, transferring this heat into solid salt containers which turn to liquid once they have absorbed sufficient heat. Figure-3 is a schematic of this underground energy storage facility and shows the airflow being heated by a fully charged set of silos containing liquid salt-bricks. This airflow direction is reversed when we charge the silo’s salt-bricks. The bricks are kept in specially insulated, high pressure silos (located underground for added insulation) that store the heat energy at one atmosphere for later use. These underground silos act as our energy storage batteries, and when needed would discharge their heat energy accordingly into the moving airflow. This energy storage concept permitted the generation of electricity at night and during overcast days. Two sets of storage systems are required for continuous operation. One would be charging at low pressure while the other is discharging at high pressure through the Brayton engine to generate electricity.   Electric Energy Generation at High Pressure Electricity would be created by turning an electric generator at high speed. The generator was turned by running a jet engine connected to it.  The engine’s combustor for heating the air is effectively the sun, hence the name Brayton cycle for generating our solar electricity (Figure-4). The heat from the molten salt containers would increase the energy of the high pressure air coming from the compressor, and would then force it through a typical turbine that turns this energy into high rotational speed to run the generator and make electricity. Our solar jet engine sucks in ambient air using its compressor, as all jet engines do, and blows it through a series of silos at high pressure whose stacked bricks are held at different temperature levels. We start our airflow through a silo held as low as 150F and work our way up to ~2300F as we pass through our last, hottest silo which acts to complete the effective solar combustion process. This air preheating technique dramatically improves our energy turnover capability and allowed us to convert solar energy into electricity at near 37% efficiency. During our electric energy generation phase, the silos of our Brayton system requires operating at many atmospheres of pressure just as in any jet engine combustor using petroleum-based JP-fuel.      

Topic by RT-101 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Light-activated lamp, cries out "Me too!" when other lights are turned on

Disclaimer: I have little-to-no electrical experience, but want to use this rather involved project as a starting point to hone my abilities and technical know-how. Any non-basic terms I use are based purely on assumed naming schemes. I only have fuzzy notions of what things like photovoltaic cells or flux capacitors are, but I'll write as if I know them perfectly, just in case I'm actually using the terms properly. If this post starts a thread that can answer all aspects of how to get this done, I'll update it as an instructable for others to learn.IntroI'm looking for some guidance. I have a plan to modify one of my lamps to brighten and dim based on the amount of light hitting it: Essentially, if I turn on a larger light, this lamp will turn on as well. As this is still simply an idea in my head, though, I plan to make it rather complicated and feature-rich.FeaturesTwo main settings for the light: Absolute and Relative. When in Absolute mode, the lamp will turn on and off based whether or not the amount of light hitting its photosensor surpasses the necessary threshold energy level (TEL). The TEL will be adjustable by the use of a small dial, so that as the TEL approaches 0, the lamp turns on regardless of any additional light, and as the TEL approaches Infinity (or, at least, the maximum amount of light the photosensor can detect), the lamp turns off. Of course, I'd plan on primarily keeping the TEL at the level at which the lamp only turns on when I've turned on another light in the room, but there are times when I'd want the lamp to be independent of other lighting.When in Relative mode, the light would brighten and dim based on the relative amount of light hitting its photosensor, so that the more lights I have on around it, the brighter it gets. I'd like to be able to use the same dial from Absolute mode to calibrate the relative brightness of the lamp, but that may be overly complicated for the amount of benefit it provides. Additionally, it would be interesting to invert this relationship, so that as less light hits the photosensor, the brighter the lamp gets. A next step could be to layer the exterior of the lamp with solar cells so that it can not only activate based on its environment, but actually power itself (at least partially) based on its environment. This is not as important as any other features.IssuesI plan on developing this post with a diagramed model of how this would work, but first I'd like to iron out a few issues:-How does a photosensor detecting light export information? -Assuming the photosensor exports electricity, what does the sensor need to be hooked up to in order to become meaningful? -How would I set TELs, and how could I set TELs with a controllable dial?-How would I swap between Relative and Absolute modes? How could I add a switch in to do this easily?-How would the lamp's own light effect the photosensor if the photosensor was positioned on an opaque lampshade?-Has anyone else done this, or something similar, so that I could look to those projects as a model?-What else do I need to know?I'm not specifically asking for someone to answer every question for me, but I would greatly appreciate it if I could be pointed in the right direction towards resources that would help me figure out the technical aspects of this project. With the small amount of experience I have, I'd expect to have to do a lot of reading.Thanks for any responses!

Topic by nckswt 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Ionizing vs. non-ionizing radiation, units, and safety (updated)

Note: This was originally intended as a reply in the Americium-241 Science forum topicWhen people talk about "radiation," they are referring to many different things, and are probably thinking of some things that don't even apply. "Radiation," the invisible energy given off by radioactive materials, can be either "subatomic" particles or electromagnetic. The most common particles emitted are "beta rays," high-energy electrons, and "alpha particles," helium nuclei. Some sources can emit neutrons, protons, or "positive beta rays" (anti-electrons, or positrons), but those are much less common.The units we use to measure radioactivity are becquerels (Bq, decays per second) or curies (Ci, 3.7 x 1010 decays per second). Since the effects of radiation depend on their energy, another unit of interest is absorbed dose, the energy deposited per unit mass of target, measured in grays (Gy).Safety experts classify radiation into "ionizing," meaning there is enough energy to knock electrons out of atoms or molecules, and "non-ionizing." Infrared and ultraviolet light are non-ionizing, as are neutrons. Alpha particles (helium nuclei), beta particles (electrons) and gammas (as well as lower energy X-rays) are all ionizing radiation. The three have substantially different effects on biological systems, even at the same absorbed dose. Consequently, for radiation safety purposes, scaling factors are applied to produce numerical measures (sieverts, Sv) of "effective" or "equivalent" dose, that can be compared across different kinds of sources.Here's a small table with information for some commonly encountered sources. Isotope Source Activity Dose rate Am-241 smoke detector 35 kBq (1 µCi) 11 µSv/yr @ 1m Te-99m MRI contrast 740 MBq (20 mCi) 1.6 Sv/hr @ 1cm C-14 atmosphere, body 0.23 Bq 10 µSv/yr K-40 bananas, body 4.4 kBq 200 µSv/yrWhat you should see clearly from this is that the natural radioactivity in your body is comparable or larger than that in a common smoke detector. At SLAC, the limit for exposure to sources at the lab by most staff (including me) is 20 µSv/yr (5 mrem).As I noted above, neutrons are sometimes lumped in with ionizing radiation in non-technical "radiation safety" classes (we call them "the photon is your friend" training :-). That is not really accurate -- neutrons don't interact with electrons(*), and so cannot ionize directly. They can interact with hydrogen nuclei (protons), knocking them out of complex organic molecules, and leave behind ionized fragments and free radicals. The can also be absorbed by otherwise stable nuclei, making them radioactive; those new nuclei may in turn give off ionizing radiation.Neutrons lose energy much more slowly in passing through material, and so can penetrate much farther than ionizing particles or gammas. The nuclear interaction [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross_section_(physics) cross-section] is much more important here than dE/dx (ionization) energy loss. Materials rich in carbon and hydrogen (for example, paraffin) are far more effective at neutron shielding than dense metals like lead.(* for the expert readers) Yes, there is n-e scattering through W and Z exchange, but the cross-section and energy scales are completely irrelevant to this discussion.

Topic by kelseymh 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Capacitor as power supply circuit?

I have seen those heavily discounted maxwell ultracapacitors on electronic goldmine lately, and with the holidays around the corner I plan on having my hands on one soon. The two possibilities i might get are 1 3000F 2.7V capacitor, or 2 2600F 2.5V capacitors which can make 5200F 2.5V or 1300F 5V. (A side question: capacitors cannot really be chained in a long series like resistors can without running into problems, right? Isn't there a problem with the energy not being distributed evenly?) My main question is what circuit or ic I can use to turn this large capacitance into a useful power supply. Because of its discharge curve, If I wanted to run something that needed 2 volts, it would stop running although there is still plenty of energy. The other issue is the inherent low voltage of ultracapacitors in general. I hear this is because the activated carbon used to achieve such high capacitance has a low breakdown voltage and there isn't much they can do about it. If I wanted to create a power supply that delivered a constant 5 volts from a capactior with lower voltage, how would I go about doing this?Thanks!

Question by seanroberts 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Math help needed for converting volts/watts in solar

Here's what I know: Watts (P) = Amps (I) x Volts (E). What I don't know is if I have a solar panel that is rated at 12v, 0.125 mW I can do the above equation to get that my amps are 0.01. Does that sound right? My real Q, is what is the best power battery to store this energy? Should I only use 8 "D" cells? Could I use a 12 v motorcycle battery? If I use Ni-Cd batteries, is the fact that the batteries are rated at 2500 ma make any difference? Is there a website where I can get a good feel for what batteries are good for what type of activity, solar cells, etc? thanx, sam

Topic by wanzie 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


how to use solenoid with Capacitor Discharge Technology?

Hello guys, i am on a project for a pcp air gun, i want to replace the hammer that open the air valve with electronic trigger, a solenoid to strike the valve open, the travel of the valve is maximum 3mm, a weight will be added to the solenoid to help with kinetic energy. the idea is to use capacitor discharge to activate the solenoid for a fraction of a second (to fire a burst of air propelling the pellet out of barrel) i have seen some electronic triggers using 67v 2200uf capacitor, just to give you an idea. now i want to control the solenoid force and duration. can i do that with arduino? sure i need an external circuit to power the solenoid, maybe like the disposal camera flash?? Please advise. thank you

Question by gerarddag 4 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


How to limit A/C current draw from gird and draw power from secondary grid tied solar inverter ?

Micro grid tie inverters are an excellent power source and can be linked together to generate energy, however they do not function when grid is down, this is for the safety of line workers. In a real world scenario I want to ensure that all power is drawn from the energy produced by the micro solar inverters as the primary source while it can produce power and not from the grid which will act as a secondary power source, this will require some sort of current limiting solution from the grid without reducing the voltage to keep the inverter working.   For the safety of line workers I would like to have an automatic transfer switch which will have both the primary power source from grid and a tertiary inverter backed battery backup so that when the grid is off, the power is drawn from the Inverter and there is no power fed back into the line keeping lineworkers safe and since pure sine wave produced by the inverter can activate the grid-tie inverters and it should theoretically increase the VA of the UPS to the size of the installed Grid-tie micro inverter capacity, the automatic transfer switch should take care of switching between grid when power is on and to the backup inverter when power is off.  TIA for any advice in this regard !

Topic by Ruben GeradM 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Gravity Lamp, the LED lamp powered by gravity

A Virginia Tech student designed an LED lamp that is powered by gravity. It is called the Gravia, and it took second place at the Greener Gadgets competition in NYC. Gravity as a renewable energy source? Amazing!From http://pesn.com/2008/02/19/9500471_Gravity_Lamp/Concept illustrations of Gravia depict an acrylic column a little over four feet high. The entire column glows when activated. The electricity is generated by the slow fall of a mass that spins a rotor. The resulting energy powers 10 high-output LEDs that fire into the acrylic lens, creating a diffuse light. The operation is silent and the housing is elegant and cord free – completely independent of electrical infrastructure.The light output will be 600-800 lumens – roughly equal to a 40 watt incandescent bulb. Each drop of the gravity mechanism runs the light over a period of four hours.To "turn on" the lamp, the user moves weights from the bottom to the top of the lamp. An hour-glass like mechanism is turned over and the weights are placed in the mass sled near the top of the lamp. The sled begins its gently glide back down and, within a few seconds, the LEDs come on and light the lamp, Moulton said. “It’s more complicated than flipping a switch but can be an acceptable, even enjoyable routine, like winding a beautiful clock or making good coffee,” he said.Moulton estimates that Gravia’s mechanisms will last more than 200 years, if used eight hours a day, 365 days a year.The winner of the Greener Gadgets competition was the Enerjar.

Topic by Brennn10 11 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Awesome Things to do in Halo

Hi there, fellow halunatics. In this forum, you can post awesome things that you have done/seen done in any of the Halo games. Other games are not welcome. Anyway, here I'm going to list some things that are just downright awesome to do. Keep in mind that over the course of time I will continue to add to this forum. - Facial grenades. When you go up to an enemy and stick a plasma grenade on their face. This practice is funniest with a Grunt as the victim. - Headshots. Especially badmirable when they're moving and/or you hit your foe in the face, as this is just awesome, and it usually makes flop around in a comical manner. - Keeping the energy sword after you run out of charge so that you can punch people. Hilarious with Grunts, as their faces are just at the right level for your fist to pound on them. What a happy coincidence >:D - Bullfighting/toying with Hunters. Safest in Halo 1;  Hunters can't swing behind them. - Playing on Legendary without dying a lot. If you can do this, then congratulations, you are good at Halo. - Killing a Grunt/Elite just as he's about to throw a grenade so that it lands next to him and blows up his friends. A real Master Chief moment. - Not dying. Life is regarded by most people as a healthy practice.  - Ninja Mode. Sneaking around an area (possibly with the help of active camouflage), killing your foes without firing a single shot. Extremely awesome if an entire area can be successfully cleared in this manner. - Energy sword/gravity hammer kills. 'Cause they're just awesome. - Splatter kills. Shows that a) you know how to handle a vehicle well, and b) you are confident enough to get that close to your enemy to kill them instead of shooting them from a distance. - Boarding. Can't do it in Halo 1, but its still awesome.

Topic by Plo Koon 5 years ago


Two "hot topics" from particle physics -- read the actual papers!

I've noticed that two recent particle physics "discoveries" (what I'd call analysis results) are beginning to get some media coverage, at least in the science press. Below, I provide links to the actual papers (the preprints in arXiv), and a bit of my own opinion. I encourage the curious to read, or at least skim, the papers --- there will probably be a lot you don't understand (these are technical research papers, after all!), so don't hesitate to ask questions.Dark matter "observation" by PAMELA satellite -- excess of high energy positrons in cosmic rayshttp://arxiv.org/abs/0810.4995The PAMELA data are high-statistics, and they've done an excellent job with their systematics anddetector calibration. Their low energy data are entirely consistent with previous results, which makes the excess and plateau seen above 10 GeV rather compelling. I don't think we know enough about conventional astrophysical sources of positrons to have any confidence ascribing this result to "new physics.""Ghost particles" in Fermilab p-antip collisions -- excess of high impact parameters muonshttp://arxiv.org/abs/0810.5357Charged particles (like muons) are identified in big detectors such as CDF (and BaBar) by picking up signals from their occasional interactions with low density material, and fitting a trajectory in space to those "hits." You can't put active detector material all the way down to where the beams collide, so an extrapolation from the detector region to the "interaction point" is required. There can be many complicated and non-obvious systematic uncertainties affecting those fits. The fact that only about 1/3 of CDF was willing to sign this paper suggests to me that the systematics in this analysis are not really under control yet, and any interpretation of the result should be taken with a grain of salt.

Topic by kelseymh 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Tell me more about nuclear power as source of electricity.

Hi !Fishes can't see the water they are in ! That's why I need your personal and external opinions and view.The first source of electricity in my country (France) is nuclear.In a previous forum, I've noticed that a lot of Citizen of USA consider Nuclear energy is too much polluting and too much expensive (democrats candidates for US election reject the idea of more nuclear plants), and that it's not seen as a serious solution to reduce pollution and CO2 emission, etc ... In few words : you seems to dislike it. So, I would like to know why exactly, and that you tell me more about what you think about it.Here it's quite different. Nuclear energy is seen as a mean to be energetically independent. It's a mean to pollute less. And it's almost a local speciality, like are crepes, baguettes and croissants.The main producer is EDF (which stands for Electricite De France (electricity of France)). Until 1999, EDF had the monopoly (and that was better and safer IMHO). Since then, because of EU regulation, we've been forced to open the market ...Here are some data :EDF is one of the world's largest producers of electricity. In 2003, it produced 22% of the European Union's electricity, primarily from nuclear power:nuclear: 74.5%hydro-electric: 16.2%thermal: 9.2%wind power and other renewable sources: 0.1%Its 58 active nuclear reactors (in 2004) are spread out over 20 sites (nuclear power plants). They comprise 34 reactors of 900MW, 20 reactors of 1300 MW, and 4 reactors of 1450MW, all PWRs.---In 2006 :- nuclear : 85.7%- hydro-electric : 5.0%- thermal : 8.1% ( coal : 3.3%, gas : 3.2%, petrol : 1.6% )- others renewable : 0.9% (wind, sun and co)- others : 0.3%---

Topic by chooseausername 11 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Throwies reimagined - Really I did tried :) :| :/

Seeing other forms of making interactive throwies, eg using microchips impresses me.However i think it is important that we try parts of the B.E.A.M philosophyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BEAM_roboticsNamely keeping things simple, and avoiding the use of microprocessor.The component of a interactive throwie is that it has1. Power storage2. Trigger3. Circuit4. LED5. (optional) Power collection of radiant energy.I like to see more suggestion on ways we can address each issues.But to kick start the issue, can you see if my idea is feasible.essentially for my prototype not-yet throwie, I used a circuit from http://unconventional-airsoft.com/2003/11/16/momentary-fan-switch/#more-21to create a throwie that on sensing motion, doesn't flicker but turns on for a while.By ensuring that i use few and simple componants, i hope to keep cost per throwing down.Unfortunately my problem is that using a resistor to keep the capacitor from draining too fast from the base, actually decreases the voltage drop to an unacceptable level at the led.On my end it is unsolvable for the moment. Maybe you can work out how to make a cheap throwie, that can still do these functions or more.Any ideas how to solve this?Other Ideas for throwies1.Open and attach a switch to a barometer, to have a air presser passive trigger.2. A leave shaped pad with two conductors that do not touch, to act as rain sensors. (Resistance increase when leaf dries)3. Is sensitive to infrared radiation from side, so that the throwie is trigger-able by other activated throwies. (As well infrared devices)4. Has a short loop of coil to recharged capacitors, by outside induction.5. If activated rarely, uses a tiny single solar cell to charge capacitor.6. Has a hook to be easily collected for recycling. (Using a simple loop of wire on a pole [Like a dog catcher pole] )7. A single thermistors in series with led.8. A tricolour LED, and a Two light resistor. One LDR acts to sense if it is day an night, if night a low power light is activated. Only when an object strays near, and reflect light into another LDR, does the throwie get triggered at all.9. A throwie triggered by vibration.10. A throwie that responds to radio waves.

Topic by akimbo m 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Kala Summer Youth Art Program 2015

Hone your child's creative energy at Camp Kala this summer! K-12 artists engage in hands-on art activities while working in a professional studio environment. Days include a mix of studio time and outdoor exploration. Class sizes are small so everyone receives individual attention from Kala's fabulous teaching artists and assistants. This summer we offer a number of vibrant classes, from science-themed mixed-media to mold-making sculpture exploration for youngsters, as well as drawing and printmaking studios for high schoolers. Each week concludes with a celebration and gallery exhibition of artwork made throughout the week. Discover new creativity this summer at Camp Kala! Visit our website, kala.org/campkala, to explore class descriptions and find the week that's right for your child! Location: 2990 San Pablo Ave Berkeley, CA 94702 Phone: 510-841-7000 ext 203 Email: jamila@kala.org Website: kala.org/campkala Dates: June 15 - July 31 Cost: Varies Hours: 9am-3pm Financial Aid: Available Ages: 6-9, 7-11, 9-12, 12-17 Early Enrollment Discount ends March 1st! Enroll now to save up to $50/week!

Topic by eauger 4 years ago


Swap Search Engine - Save Rainforest's

Http://ecosia.org/ This website is a search engine just like Google or Bing, However this website saves the planet Search engines like Google place relevant ads alongside the search results, when you click these links the company earns money. To power these searches the company must have massive servers which consume vast amounts of energy and produce a lot of CO2. Now, When you search using Ecosia you can save 2m2 of rainforest per search, this is because Ecosia donates 80% of their profits to the WWF. The WWF work in places like south america protecting rainforests and their inhabitants. Also Ecosia's servers run on 100% green energy, this means they don't release any CO2 and help to reduce climate change. "Ecosia is an independent, non-profit website. At least 80% of our search income goes to a rainforest protection program run by WWF, which uses this money for the sustainable protection of rainforests." I admit it, when I first saw this I thought "nice idea, the search will be rubbish though" BUT i spent about 15 minutes comparing search results with google and bing, trying to find news articles or products and I found that the search engine is actually really good, it sometimes had even better results. You dont have to go to the website every time you want to search, you can install the search box in you browser, it's not a stupid toolbar, it just goes where your google box is now. Here are some stats Total Rainforest Saved rainforest area that has so far been saved by your searches 6,208,793 yd² Total Incoming Searches number of searches so far conducted with ecosia 2,629,518 Saved Rainforest Per Search the average rainforest area saved by one search 2.36 yd² Active Ecosia Users people who have accessed ecosia within the last 24h 27,256 WATCH THIS VIDEO, it explains everything in more detail and has more stats.  :) Frequently Asked Questions; http://ecosia.org/faq.php Search; http://ecosia.org/ Install search-box; http://ecosia.org/install.php So, if you can, switch to Ecosia, Its just as good searching and they are supporting a fantastic cause /eco-warrior

Topic by =SMART= 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Starting a Class in Building Electric Cars

Hi Everyone! I've been very involved the last several years in DIY Clean Transportation at the ground level. I've built my own electric car, my own electric motorcycle, hybridized the car, and give talks at energy fairs, sustainability fairs, and post hundreds (literally, hundreds) of videos to YouTube teaching about these projects. I've also put lots of work into postings on Instructables teaching about these projects, and the audience here has been GREAT! I've also been donating my INSTRUCTIONAL DVDs to high schools, tech schools, and colleges for any teacher that will help start a class or extra-curricular at their educational institution. While I've got lots of requests from schools for the videos (and I'm going broke donating them!) I haven't heard back much on actual classes getting started. I think the reason why is that teachers don't have any SUPPORT MATERIALS. They need a curriculum, course outline, and workbooks to go with the video, so that any shop or science teacher has a ready-to-go "Class in a Box". I'm thinking about writing a workbook companion to go with my BUILD YOUR OWN ELECTRIC CAR instructional DVD which can be used by students as a text for a class. It would feature lessons, activities, and quizzes that would go along with the video. A teacher's curriculum would go with this as well. This might be a good thing to fund through Kickstarter or something similar. A small amount of money raised would go far in developing a workbook, and any money raised OVER that could be used to print workbooks and get "Class in a Box" donated to High Schools and Colleges. What are your thoughts? Do you like this idea? Is this the best way to get the most information out to the next generation of auto-builders and DIYer's? All input welcome! For more on this, see my blog. 

Topic by bennelson 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


High efficiency coilgun design

Hello there I need some (a lot of) help with my project. I've started to design a high efficiency multistage coilgun. The main feature of the design is using the self-inductance formed in coils that were shut down for accelerating the following coils. To perform this, we can divide each coil into 3 segments (lets call them subcoils), connected with a wire and power all them 3 with a single capacitor. At first, the current from the capacitor is flowing through all 3 segments and a projectile is being pushed through the first segment. Than the first sensor is being activated with the projectile and it switches the power flow to only second and third subcolis As the current in the first subcoil is changed, the self-inductance directed in the opposite direction is appearing. In theory, we can use this power to increase the current in the following segments. The same thing is happening between second and third segments. And I want to place 3 of this stages (9 subcoils in total) I will use 8mm caliber projectiles, 40mm or 50mm length. I chose 5200mkF 450V or 6800mkF 400V capacitors, 2 of them in parallel for every stage (6 capacitors in total) Yes, I know it sounds way too powerful, but that's my actual goal. It's not my own idea. I have learned it from here http://gauss2k.narod.ru/adf/gs3seg.htm (русские вперёд). So, some problems had appeared. I can't figure out how to properly calculate the required inductance of the coils. In the source it is said that the inductance of the first subcoil should be equal to two of the second and the third subcoils (L1=2*L2=2*L3) to achieve the best performance. Also, my rough estimates show that peak current through the coil will be about 1,5-2,0kA for 3,0-4,5ms. This is quite a lot! I'll have to manage this energy and choose the power switches rightly. To sum up, I will be glad to hear your opinions about this idea. It's kind of controversial, but I hope it's not a certain failure.

Topic by CosmoKnight 13 days ago  |  last reply 11 days ago


Very old shielding materials and techniques for permanent magnets and resulting possibilities

Forromagnetic meterials are not just called that for no reason.It comes from ferrous - iron.Iron has the highest permeability at normal temperatures.That means a magnet is attracted to it very strongly.We utilise this for transformer cores, the stuff inside a relay and the moving latch of the relay itself.Like current from an electrical system magnetic fields like to take the easiest route possible.Air is a very bad medium, so any iron close by will be prefered even if it is at a slight distance.You can check with a magnet, a steel bar and some iron shavings - please cover the are with plate first ;)Slightly less known is the option to also guide and extend the magnetic field this way.If you check how far the magnetic field of a magnet reaches and note that distance,then you can add some steel bars or rods at the poles - the field will extend through the metal.The most powerful example of this are the shielded magnets used for hooks or speakers.Except for a tiny area the entire magnetic flux goes through the metal.So in this lefover area the magnetic flux density will my many times greater than what the magnet alone would be able to.What most people don't know is that magnets also interact with other magnets in terms of their fields changing and distorting.The Halbach Array is a good example of this.Seen as a single magnet the array would have one weak and one strong side instead of even strenght for both.Wherever magnetic fields change a conductor can produce electricity or current.This in return causes an electromagnetic field that opposes the one from the magnets.Just drop a magnet through a copper or aluminium pipe ;)Since these distortions are widely unknow to the hobby tinkerer mistakes can happen ;)In the early days of exploring science some people already knew about shielding.And they also knew that certain metals have certain properties.Where it is quite hard to create a good coil from steel wire, copper works fine as it is not magnetic.What would then a copper shielding do?If you have two moving magnets with only a tiny gap then the resulting field distortions are quite huge.A copper shield around the magnet like a pipe would then react to these changes and also create a megnetic field that works in relation to the enclosed magnet.In simple terms it means the shield would let the magnet appear weaker or stronger depending on the field change.A quite old document I found gave some hints on how people thought in different directions back then.It was in regards to the design of a magnet motor by the way.Here various magnets were shielded in tube made of a copper-bismuth-alumium alloy.These tubes were then electrically connected so it created a single loop conductor.The claim was that the resulting electromagnetic field of this ring would drive the fields of the enclosed magnets sideways out of alignment.Like bending straight pastic tubes sideways.This "pulsating" would always happen when the magnetic binding forces reach max and so basically drastically weaken this binding effect.Another document talks about a "magnetised brass rod".A holes of the rod diameter is drilled through a block magnet.Not from north to south but through the middle where the flux is greatest.The claim here was that if that rod rotates fast enough a very low voltage with a very high current will be generated.Sounds easy and interesting enough that I might have to test one myself one day.The best one however is what I consider a hoax or being as good as Starlite.Someone back in 1908 claimed to have created a material the reflects magnetic fields.In lame man's terms it would be like an insulator around some electrical wire.The claim and some pics showed it, was that no magnetic field can pass the material.Or to be correct only a tiny fraction of what would be possible through air.A small magnet inside a longer tube of this material would create almost the same attraction to steel at the tubes ends as on the magnet itself.Measurements showed the field strength would be almost equal to a long mangnet of the same field strength.Imagine guiding the field of a big and powerful magnet through a tube around some corners or other magnets and then end in just a tiny hole for the entire flux...Too bad he never shared his secret formula to anyone knows to mankind.Isolation...Imagine you have an array of changing magnetic fields and quite strong magnets.Then you might face the problem that your focus on the "working" end neglected the other end of the magnet (stack).Providing some iron core material will keep thes field lines contained and away from interfering with your setup ;)But it also allows to use te otherwise unused end of your magnets more directly.For example by guiding to another magnet to affect its field strenght ;)Placing a sheet or steel between two magnets in a setup provides a "shared pole" so to say.If you have a north and south pole on a rotor at a distance of 5mm then a sheet of steel between will drastically weaken the strenght and reach of this combined field.It is like pulling the arch between the magnets down to make it more flat.And at and an angle the resulting field will also be slightly angled ;)Capping...When I first encounter this many years ago I couldn't really make sense of it.Quite complex..If you check the magnetic field lines with iron filings or similar then you notice how they go in a rounded manner from pole to pole.This is because the single field lines are of equal polarity and will dirve apart like opposing magnets.By capping the ends of a magnet you provide a short.Instead of diverting out like mad they will follow the cap and create very intersting magnetic field in return.If both poles are capped it is like pressing the magnet flat but without having a field on top of the oles - only aorund the center part.For this the thickness much must match what is required for the flux density.As a rule of thumb: if the end is still very magnetic then it is not enough material tickness ;)Interacting fields in a tube...This one is quite old too and seemed to have found no usable inventions apart from simple magnetic spring replacement systems.But it gave me some clues about Tesla "earthquake machine" ;)If you place a magnet in a tube and at it's ends magnets with opposing fields to the one inside then you can fix this magnet in place.Push one magnet deeper and the distance from the inner magnet to the other end will shrink the same amount.In this old paper two coils were around the pipe with the inner magnet between them.In this gap and at about the same width as the magnets length another coil was placed.Violent shaking would then create electrical energy at much higher level then modern shaker torches.In return an AC current on the outer coils would cause the inner magnet to move back and forth to create electricity in the center coil.According to the paper possible uses include: core less transformer, measuring minute changes in AC voltages, providing free power from a running motor...The last one had me stumbled for a very long time.Until I considered a different configuration.The whole thing is basically a linear DC motor - with correct timing of course.And in some motors we use permanent magnets.I am starting to wonder what would happen if we would design a rotor magnet like this?The running motor would be subject to constant field changes that affect the rotor.And a normal motor is always "even".By using four magnets instead of one we can push the field really flat.This means the area where the coil would operate (about 1/5 of the magnets area) will have a much stronger field.The resulting torque should be higher by about 25% !!Even a simple two coil model setup should show a significant increase in performance here.Timing is critical here but I tried some calculations based on 8 poles and the required "on times" for the coils.In a standard motor configuration with a single rotor magnet the coil is active for about 12° of the rotation.With a 4 magnet configuration this "on time" can be reduced to under 8° of the rotation to get the same amount of torque.An energy reduction of about 4% if you neglect losses and only think in time.If you think in terms like impulse energy then we are talking of about 15% !Shorter on time but still much higher flux density overall than for the long standard timings.Going the long run now:If you check how most DC motors work then you realise soon that for most one rule seems to followed.Only use one coild pair at a time.This is quite contradictive if you consider the geometry and options.A dual commutator would allow to use a second coil pair with a field OPPOSING the magnets instead of being attracted to it.After all: on you bike you pedal with both legs and not just one...And if you do it professionally then yu do the same as I suggested for the motor - you use the up pull of your legs as well.Doing it brushless only requires amodified h-bridge desing to drive the second coil pair at the right timing.Some will now say that it requires twice the energy, I say that for the same motor size your get twice the torque!Just imagine what that means in possible weight reduction for a motor - or its size to deliver the same torque at the same power levels when a normal motor is used ;)The more poles the more complicate the precise timing but no big deal really with modern electronics.Can it be improved even further?I though long and hard about that one until I considered EMF.A DC motor produces a lot of it when the elecromagnetic field collapses in the the coils.We do not utilise this energy...There is a tiny delay until the released energy levels are at max.My theory is that it should be possible to divert this energy into another coil set.If that coil is not the next active but still within a strong enough field area then the EMF would actually add to the drive of the motor.Only downside is that according to my calculations at least 16 poles would be required to get an optimum result.Way above of what I can create in my little garage :(In theory it should then be possible to reach about 98% efficiency for the motor....

Topic by Downunder35m 2 months ago  |  last reply 7 weeks ago


For Instructables, 2009 is a Green Year

Part of Instructables' mission is to inspire our community to create and share great projects. We do this though contests, theme months, and challenges that are seasonally appropriate, part of a bigger cultural trend, or simply areas where we want to see more great Instructables. This year we've decided that our overarching theme will be "Green."Our Green category focuses on the environment, reuse and recycling, and saving energy or making it in new ways. However, there's more to it. Green projects cut across all of our categories, and DIY is deeply and inherently green. When you make something yourself you often save materials, time, or money, while simultaneously generating less waste and creating a relationship with your project. Because of that relationship, you are more likely to cherish the final product, upgrade it, repair it, or even pass it along to someone else who will also cherish it. All of these actions involve making more with less, and that is fundamentally green. From my perspective as a life-long DIYer, I feel that it's time our culture took an active interest in all things green. I want to make sure the things we do are meaningful. We may have passed peak oil, but we can all work to ensure we pass "peak waste." So, to help inspire you, we'll be running a number of Instructables project contests all with a green theme. Some will be large, and some will be small -- we've even arranged sponsorship to give away Voltaic solar laptop bags and an Epilog laser cutter! To help you plan and get your projects started early and finished on time, we'll be publishing the timing of several of the contests scheduled during the first half of the year. Obviously, I think the best time to do a project is when you're most passionate about it, but I recognize everyone can benefit from a little extra motivation. Things are, of course, subject to change, but if you have even the slightest inkling of a green project, start now; especially since the real prize will be inspiring everyone that sees your work make their own lives a little bit greener.

Topic by ewilhelm 10 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


advice on making a rail/coil gun also known as a electromagnetic accelerator for someone who understands basic electrics

Im looking for advice on how to make a "rail/coil gun", i understand the principals behind it and the componets needed but id like to know what is the most efficent and powerfull componets. have in mind im looking at making the gun completly portable but a stationary charging for the battery would be prefered id like to keep the device 12v dc if possible using a battery to charge up capacitors, a switching device which allows the capacitors to charge and switch of the battery input automatically to prevent the electricity draining back into the battery. also another switch which discharges the capacitors into the coils but is switched manually(trigger), multistaged coils hopefully around 16 if possible( the way i see it lots of power running into lots of coils means the projectile traveling faster and further) ive also been told that once the coils have been charged they'll need to be discharged within micro seconds and theres a certain componet which allows that im not sure exactly what that is?. Having many coils means ill need a timing mechanism to activate the coil when the projectile is within the magnetic field, ive done a bit of research on that and come up with a microswitch between every coil or infared diode and a photosensitive diode(not sure exactly the name of the second one). 1. how many rows of coils would i need for each coil, what gauge wire would best suit my needs, what grade of wire, a way to prevent the magnetic field affecting the coils next to it, to optimize the energy in the capacitors should i start with a larger gauge wire at the first coil and slowly decrease it per coil, 2. what size capacitors would best suit my needs also bieng small in size, also would it be better have 1 or 2 capacitors per coil 3. what sort of switching device would be best for charging the capacitors and isolating the battery when there charged 4. is there another switching device for turning on each coil seperatly when the projectile is in range of the coils magnetic field to optimize the use of the magnetic field 5. more info on when the coil needs to discharge would also be great any ideas or inputs would be greatly appreciated no matter how big or small or if only concerns a certain aspect, cheers, chris cross australia

Question by crossy 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


SOLAR POWERED IP CAMERA RUN ON 3G MODEM

Hi everyone, im a new member and have a task at hand which is a puzzle to me but would probably be a breeze for u tech savvy bunch :-) Ok heres my dilemma: I have a remote location where i want to setup an IP Camera run on Solar Power. I have purchased a wireless 802.11 ip camera with pan and tilt capabilities as well as an audio in (internal mic) and an audio out (1 x audio line out interface) along with 4 alarm in and out male ports. Heres what i want to be able to do: 1. View the cam remotely via PC/Mobile Phone. 2. Utilise the Pan and Tilt capabilities 3. Have a text message/email sent to me everytime the alarm is activated/motion is detected 4. Be able to have audio in and out 5. Have the camera on standby until motion is detected 6. Have the solar power as the only source of energy for the camera and the camera to be able to run 24hrs a day (standby and in use) 7. Was also wanting the solar power to charge batteries so at night time the cam would still work or if its a cloudy day etc etc Now im thinking that i would need a modem with a sim card in it to work the internet side of things. But how would i go about getting the audio and alarm functions working? I can plug an ethernet cable into a modem and put a sim card into a modem and connect the cam and modem up to a solar power source, but where the heck do i plug the audio and alarm cables into??? In the below link theres specs on the cam as well as pics of the types of connections available on the cam. I wouldnt have a clue about Volts and Watts and amps etc so am stuck at just buying the cam which is here: http://www.aliexpress.com/fm-store/107302/211328538-491571938/Promotion-free-shipping-cctv-wirless-ip-camera-wifi-802-11-b-g-9-language-m-jpeg.html Please help ladies and gents it would be kindly appreciated. Thanking you in advance for your words of wisdom.  p.s. i have scoured the forums and google for this type of setup and have got close but need something custom for my situation and my low level of knowledge in these areas.    

Topic by dom791114 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Repulsine - the great mystery...

Even before the repulsine saw some attention during WW2 there were sightings of what we know call the classic UFO shape.Be it in Austria, Poland or other places in Europe, people reported weird disk like thing with a dome flying around.What leaked in images and documents after the war shoed that the repulsine looked basically identical to what people saw as a UFO in the sky over big parts of Europe.Then again, the repulsine appearently never made it a usable stage, same for most jet fighters at the time and still they flew around...If we now just take it for granted that actual test flights really happened back then you might wonder why we did not see any after the war anymore.For most critics it is a simple sign of facts and "confirms" that the replusine might have been a nice idea but never anything that really left the ground.As said, I often like to dig deeper and in this case the digging took far more years than what I planned on.I can not provide any solid proof for the following but I am sure even a sceptic will come to similar conclusions after reading it.Try to find some "eye witness" reports from people who saw the so called "Roswell UFO".Yes the one that made Area51 so secret and famous...Reports can be boiled down to some essential features of the hull, for those who saw it proof that it is alien.Three distinct round shpes on the underside, like you add the bottom of an egg to a round disk.Said disc of the bottom was also shaped like a wing, or the flying disk toys our kids like to play with.On the other side the shape grew up like a half shphere with an added cone or round top on it.On these area they claimed to have see engine outlets or similar and appearently the top cone was spinning in another direction than the rest of the UFO.Now I am no expert for Roswell but if I leave area and time out then I could have been fooled to think these people discribed exactly the same thing people saw a few year eariel flying over Europe.The Roswell UFO was not from another world, just stolen from the looser of a really bad war.What was seen was a working Repulsine, be it an original or something the US created from the 5 prototypes that disappeared after the war.Ha, ha, good one, then why don't we saw them flying after this anymore?Well, for starters it was a testflight gone wrong.Presumable it was planned to be limited to Area51 but the pilot lost control.Considering the Nazies appearently did their best to kill everyone involved in the project before the aliies arrived it is no big surprise.What that test flight would have shown is the impossible manouvers people already witnessed over Europe.90° or more turns at full speed instead of making a turn like a plane, sudden changes in alitude as well as accelleration on a level that makes even modern rockets blush.And if it really was the first bigger testflight they did it explains the big secrecy about the Roswell incident and what followed and created Area51 as we knew it.A "weapon" capable of these things would mean total dominance and options to impove planes and more.So why did they not even do that - or did they?The repulsine was created based on what we call today fringe- or pseudo- sience.If there is only one peroson, or a few that can even understand the claimed working principles that it can't be science as we know it.So, lets take a look what things were already heavily used in the repulsine that "we" claim to have developed or discovered decades later.Coanda effect.When air travels over a surface then it will follow the surface.You can try this with paper strips and blowing on them as well as a stream of water and some shaped objects.Long known but never found any real use until the military picked it up.For example air inlets were then developed to utilise the coanda effect.Remember how a lot of them these days look like a ducted fan housing?The round and slightly conical shape of the inlet will actually act like an airfoil and provide lift - of pulls forward in the direction of the air flow direction of the engine.I supercars we use it to create more downforce and better aerodynamics.Venturi effect.Again a very old one but funny enough also a major factor to make a jet engine work.Tesla turbine.In the Repulsine the rotating copper disks acted like a huge Tesla turbine by using a similar effect.The space between the disks got smaller and smaller towards the outer perimiter.Due to the fast rotation the molecules were accelerated and this created a partial vacuum.We use these principles today for specail vacuum pumps but also in military applications.Harmonics.Without harmonics and resonance the Repulsine would have been impossible.And at a first glance it seems we never made any use from that bit of the machine.Then why do we design exhaust systems in such a way than already the extractors ensure a pump like action and controlled backflow?The sound a good exhaust makes is also based on using the harmonics created by the explosions in the cylinders and expanding gasses.We learned that it is far more efficient to use harmonics and resonance in an exhaust system from somehwere ;)Plasma.The repulsine was said to have emitted a bright glow during certain movements or speeds.To create plasma we need a lot of energy, not so much however if the plasma is a by-product anyways.We learned that a high enough voltage differencial in a vacuum can create a nice plasma arc.From there things like analog TV monitors were created.But we never made anything that creates plasma for any use in an atmosphere.Well, unless you start to check supersonic rocket engines and other things.The working principle is very, very close here in some applications like the ramjet.Vortex energy.Today we see all vortex energy stuff as a free energy scam or at best a waste of time.But from the inlet to the outlet the entire Repulsine utilised what we now know as vortex energy, vortex math and so on.The air is twisted and spun around so many times that it is hard to keep track - but it always happened in a harmonic and resonant fashion.In some way this is implepemented in very expensive cars to keep the ventilation system almost silent even at full power.If you ever take an expensive car apart you might wonder why the air system is not as smooth and straight as you would have expected to get this silence ;)There is more but the list would become too long ;)So, if the repulsine was really that great then why was it taken apart to only utilise fractions of it in other things?If you have something really great that combines a lot of things then no one would suspect if you "developed or discovered" some of it in other projects.And to give you a very bad comparison for the other way around:If you know how to combine a petrol engine with some long blades then you could fly!I know, we did that already but you get the point.I can give you a motor and blades but that would not mean you could build a plane or even helicopter!At that time and still today something like a Repulsine would upset the "balance of power".If claims are correct then the engines of the repulsine were only required to provide the enrgy for directional changes or speed but it flew on "free energy" as the main engine system.In lame words like a jumbo jet that only needs a small engine for the hydraulics and electricity...Another big problem is the replication even if you would have a complete and working model to disect.You see most parts were brazed or welded as screw or rivets would have been problematic in certain areas.Other parts like the Kudo horn like intake systems would even today pose a challenge if you want to replicate them 100% correct.And if your understanding of science and physics greatly differs from those who originally created the thing...If your understanding tells you a dice has 6 sides (we all know that) but in my understanding it would have 16 then you would never understand how my dice rolls ;)Bringing true free energy of any form into this world is only allowed if someone can still make good money from it.Just check solar cells and wind generators - we all can have them but our providers make sure they have enough of them as well ;)Will we ever see a fully working Repulsine again?Of course !Some people like old cars, some collect old planes or old machines and tools.A great project for people in the right trades is always to build thier own little steam engine.So to say as a reminder of how it all started.Same will happen with the Repulsine as the first really utilised free energy machine the world had.The war and killings were not what really scared the world.This happened and will happen over and over again to various extends.Really scary was once certain people realised what might happen if over there the war would end with a victory and people would have time to develop for peaceful things instead.Without the war or this idiot Hitler a peaceful war would have taken over the world by storm.Those making sure we know nothing else but paying for our fuel and energy would have lost their monoply.Times change though...We destroyed our world with our needs for fossil fuels and electricity.What is left we destroy by chopping it down, digging it out or just by building new estates on prime farm land.People are now more desperate then ever to find ways to reduce their energy bills or enviromental impact.Otherwise Google wouldn't make billions on all the fake free energy videos out there.But what would it take to recreate the Repulsine?The person able to come up with the understanding of at least attempting to build one again would need to have certain qualifications and titles.He or she would hold a Nodel price for completing some of our known laws of physics or for finding some of the still missing ones.It would be a quite hard to understand and like person too, maybe even highly autistic.The person would also have an addiction like need to complete things, add the missing bits.And of course a totallydifferent understanding on how nature and the universe work.David T. from England is such a person, or at least the closest mankind can offer so far.He can see math in his head as shapes and images.Complex math problems appear to him like developing landscapes in high detail.He even learned to speak icelandic fluently within 7 days!!Imagine such a person would develop an interest in the old pioneers like Schuberger, Newman, Tesla and so on?Where we normal people fail to see any relevance or connection a guy like David would be able to literally see how all these inventions and ideas connect.He would be able to SEE the math behind it!Knowing how something was supposed to work and combining what is known through patents, drawing, videos or reports would enable such a person to make conclusions.For example where we might just see a nice pattern when we throw a stone into an undsturbed lake such a person would also already know and see the corresponding math the created the waves and why they were created exactly like this.Assuming David has no real interest in such things, then is it possible others already try?Sadly yes and even worse they do it with kids.Learning methods that are different can bring great results.For example while we use a calculator for big numbers some kids attend really strict and performance based classes to do this with an ancient abacus!After years of hard and often painful training they are able to it with a small abacus that only has a single row of discs.Shortly after they graduate to a virtual abacus - they only twitch their fingers in the same motions they would use on the real thing, but the disks and rods are all just visualised in their heads.That however is all meant as an improvement and the kids do it because they want to and not because they are forced to.Like learning to be a chess champion before even being old enough to work...In china however we have a very selective education program.Kids are not just trained slightly different to our kids but also closely monitored on their progress.As soon as one stands out for some skill it is subject to examination.Being well above average here means it is an opportunity for the kid and the parents - on paper at least.We in the western world would see it as a viscious circle though.Over the years china developed not only a better understanding of how these special kids brains actuall do their things but also how to create tests for this purpose.What looks like impossible or nonsense to most kids will trigger a scecific response and understand in those that are special.We would create something that allows parents to know early on where the kid has really good skills and what activities should be promoted.In china though the parents receive a nicer flat or some additional income while kids are send to a far away school.Again we would refer to such a school more as a boot camp.Discipline is at least on military levels, same is the punishment system.In most cases families are not reunited for many years, phone or even video calls only happen in the rare times when western TV crews are allowed a sneak peak.I just say: If a kid would see the parents often enough then it would not only know what to talk about but also be happy to talk to them - this however you won't see.It is like they talk to some distant uncle or such.What is really scary though is how these kids are trained to see their purpose and how important it is to be the best in what they do.Imagine you lost your kid at an early age and the only thing you got over the year was letters from the government saying how well it is doing and that you can be proud of it.Then it graduates and you are not even allowed to be there on that day...After that the kid is gone for good, you get a new flat and your proud kid supports you with some nice extra income.You don't get to know where it is working, what it is doing or if it might just be attending some university.By any standards these graduated kids can be seen as a great number of genius young people.Math, music, languages, science, you name it and they will have the experts aged below 20 for it.But what do they do once school is finnished and life starts?So far no reporter or family was able to figure it out.Means they don't appear in some high profile company, they don't start a successful business or teach at any public or private school.I leave it up to your imagination where thausands of kids find secret employment once they graduated....If, at least in theory we could be able to understand all these old technologies then why don't we at least try?Everyone has a goal, some desire a happy family and nice house, other need fame or just money to be happy.With that comes greed.You might have a really nice car but that does not mean you would give to some neighbour for a trip.Even if it just a nice rose garden, you might not want to share the views with anyone.This is true on all levels and we created a term for it "Need to know basis".If you just operate a press in a factory then you don't need to know when or what the next job is that comes for your press.You will know when it arrives and can check the documents attached.You don't need to know that your council is expanding and it is only seen as a courtesy to let you know on some notice board or in the local newspaper.And even our government does the same.What we do from the first days of our new baby we do on all other levels in the same way.What the baby does not need to know we won't tell or show.But we provide all the littly anklebiter needs to develop and be happy.Changing nappies, feeding, proving comfort when sick or having a nightmare.Later we teach language and other skills like walking.It goes on as you know...Humanity as a whole is like a little kid as well.If we would know all the little, dirty secrets then we would riot and go mad.Things that are of no concern are nothing we need to worry about, so we don't get to know them either.Knowing how build the latest fighter jets is seen as a thing that would give a possible enemy an advantage.Makes a lot of sense to everyone as these things might have to protect us one day.The questions that remain are:If humainty is a child, then how old are we now or when do we graduate?If there is a collection of secret and old knowledge then who owns and controls it?What would it take to force the release of all the things people actually created for a better world and not to be locked away?As funny as it might sound but one answer to all these questions would be to do nice orund trip in your Repulsine.Fly over ever single country in this world.Let their guided missle and what not chase you and once enough show then how quickly you can make a 180° turn to get behind them.So called unimportant countries might ignore you and the people only enjoy a nice show.Those powerful enough will fear you and think it was "the other side" showing their superiority.Once done with your round they all will have to realise there is a new power that is at the helm now: Knowledge and understanding.No more secrets, a repulsine for everyone who wants the plans to build one.A new world would start.Ever thought about that when wondering why all these "Aliens" we see in their ships in our skies never land to say hello ? ;)Even if they would be Aliens and not just some human pilot in some experimental craft:Shouldn't this demonstration of absolute power and control without any violence tell us something?The Repulsine need to come back to life to end all this UFO nonsense and Alien theories out there.You hear the sounds, see the ligh show and impossible abilities.And suddenly most if not all UFO sightings would have a common factor again.Just because the Repulsine is claimed to be lost and that it never actually worked despite film evidence showing the opposite does not mean there is no one using the technology.A working Repulsine available to everyone would also kill the doubt on so many other old inventors and "fringe" scientists.Science and physics would need to be redifined as would be able to find a lot of missing links.I know there is not only a lot of people out there trying to get what they can about the Repulsine but also that there are others who try to prevent this.You have a really easy time getting permission examine some old and histrically important artefact from a museum than getting just a hands on approch for what remains of the Repulsine in various places.Not even decent 3D scans will be allowed.Anything like just getting a tiny pipe cam inside is rejected with the excuse it could cause damage.If the thing is a hoax and never worked then why would it be so important to never touch or move it? ;)I recently got word that two of the remaining Repulsine "artefacts" were examined by the same group of "scientists".This happened in the late 80's and said scientists were claimed to have had acces to a collection of spare parts for the original Repulsine that was lost after the war.A private collector was also mentioned who denied all access but what he had in a secure storage facility appearently disappeared shortly after his refusal.Putting all the dots and hints together it would mean that someone in the late 80's was able to get literally everything that is left of the project in his hands.Those who claimed to have seen these scientists working on the Repulsine leftovers claim they used top notch technology to do so, including 3D scanners - and those were basically imossible to get back then for any uni out there...The laptops used were said to use touchscreens and were connected to all sorts of equippment.And they did it in almost total silence, like a group who studied a performance many times and knew exactly what do when and where without the need of many words.Professional in examining something unknown all all possible levels.I was unable to get any information on these scientist or who they worked for.But if you are one of them and readin this then I would love to hear from you!

Topic by Downunder35m 2 months ago  |  last reply 8 weeks ago


Technology Makes Cheap Drinking Water from Air

INTRODUCTION:   How can we best apply basic technology to help the underprivileged and/or disaster-hit countries like Haiti? Daily hygiene and nourishment are among the top needs for disaster ridden regions!  Simply put, no water means no hygiene. The Romans understood that over two millennia ago and created their complexly beautiful aqueduct networks for handling both fresh and wastewater! Other ingenious water systems like “air wells” have been found in the city of Theodosia (cf: discovered in 1900 by Zibold, see Zibold’s Collectors/Dehumidifiers) dating back to Greco-Roman times during the Byzantine Empire. These were strictly passive systems that naturally dehumidified air, collecting its potable water in underground basins. All air, even in relatively dry desert regions, will precipitate or release its natural water content (initially in the form of vapor) through condensation when it hits its dew-point temperature and below. That means you “chill” it to an appropriate level that is anywhere from 5F to 50F below its current air temperature, depending upon how much water content (relative humidity) it has locally absorbed. The condensation of the water vapor releases its internal latent heat (reheating the cooled air) which must be constantly dissipated (absorbed by something) in order for water formation to steadily continue. So how do we dissipate this resultant vapor-heat and chill our air without any infrastructure or electricity, in an underprivileged or disaster-ridden region? We simply bury a long cast-iron or any metallic drain-pipe sufficiently underground where the temperature of the earth is naturally held to a constant at around 45F to 55F. That’s our “free” chiller gift from nature. One end of the pipe, Figure-1,  sticks out of the ground to suck-in local outside hot air, and the other end dumps cooled dry air and water into an underground cistern where it gets collected and is piped to the surface to both exhaust the cooled dry air and connect to a water pump. We need a hand operated water pump to lift up the water above ground, and we need an electric fan to constantly pump air through the ground-chilled piping system. We can even force the cooled piped air to exhaust into a tent-like structure where it provides air conditioning as an added bonus, but this adds the penalty of both power and the increased fan size necessary to drive our required airflow further into an enclosure! While this concept is not “passive” (requiring electricity to work) like those clever Byzantine air-wells, it will produce much more potable water and within a smaller volume than those elegantly passive historic devices. The electricity for our fan power requirements can be produced by any one of four ways using either “active” or “passive” techniques: 1) An active playground or bike-pedaling-person or oxen-driven mechanism-generator, 2) A passive windmill generator, 3) A passive solar energy collection system that directly generates electricity, or 4) A passive thermo-electric system that directly generates electricity using the Peltier effect, operating solely on temperature differences between the cell’s top and bottom surface (we jury-rig the cool pipe and hot ambient air to contact separate sides of the cell). Depending upon how much water is needed, the required air volume plus pipe length and diameter, together with the fan will be sized accordingly. We can also configure groups of parallel fan-driven air pipes that are radially fed into the cistern. The sizing of this underground network depends upon the ambient air’s local average temperature and relative humidity (how much water gets absorbed into the air) plus buried pipe depth and effective underground temperatures achieved. The basic concept is one where we “wring” water from air at some given humidity content. The higher its relative humidity the more water is recovered from the air. The air-wringing process simply chills the air as it scrubs along the cooled internal pipe surface until it starts to rain inside the pipe from condensation onto its surface. The condensation is like the dew that forms on car windows, grass or any cooled surface in the early morning, before the sun comes out and evaporates the dew back into the heating air. A further bonus is that our dew-formed water is naturally distilled and very clean. It is potable water ready to drink without the need for additional sterilizing agents. Of course, we must make sure that the interior piping and cistern network is biologically cleansed before burying it underground. The hand pump with its 10 to 15 foot extended piping to reach the underground cistern must also be cleansed. The beauty of this constantly replenishable water supply is its convenient underground installation anywhere! After the in-ground installation, we have a virtual, partially passive, no moving parts, non-breakdown system containing above ground total access to all moving parts that could breakdown, namely the water pump and electric fan. Also, it is easily maintained, with few moving parts (water hand-pump and electric fan) and basically lacking any technical complexity which makes it ideal for technologically backward regions. The example below uses a relatively small industrial fan moving air at 1500 CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) with a DC motor rated at 1kW. This fan together with our underground piping system will conservatively generate 12 GPH (Gallons Per Hour) of potable drinking water without need for any purification chemistry. Based on an average electrical cost of 14-cents per kWh (kilo-Watt hour), the typical commercial distillation of one gallon of drinking water costs roughly 35-cents as compared to our cost of only 1.2-cents. Furthermore, if we decide to go green and use solar energy for generating our water, it would effectively cost us nothing beyond the initial installation! USING A PSYCHROMETRIC CHART TO SIZE OUR WATER SUPPLY: The following gets a little technical and is only provided for those die-hards who are truly interested in how the science works. Those non-technically schooled may skip this part and not miss the basic concept. Figure-2 shows a Psychrometric Chart for air. This chart summarizes some of the basic thermodynamic properties of air throughout its typical range of operating temperature. The chart uses six basic air properties that defines the physical chemistry of water evaporation into air:  (1) the enthalpy or total energy contained within a unit of air which is a combination of its internal and external energy, expressed as the amount of BTU-energy per unit mass of reference dry-air, (2) the specific volume or the ratio of a unit volume of local air to its mass of reference dry-air, (3) the humidity ratio or the amount (mass) of moisture in a local unit of air divided by its reference mass of dry-air, (4) the percent relative humidity per unit of local air, or the mass ratio (expressed in percentage form) of the partial pressure of water vapor in the air-water mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at those conditions (the relative humidity depends not only on air temperature but also on the pressure of the system of interest),  (5) the dry-bulb temperature or the locally measured air temperature, and (6) the wet-bulb temperature or saturation temperature which is the local air temperature experienced during constant water evaporation (a wet-bulb thermometer is typically used:   a thermometer that measures resultant temperature while wrapped in a water wet-gauze and spun to generate local air movement and max-evaporation)  1.0   The Process and A Sample Calculation Our Psychrometric Chart uses six thermodynamic properties that help to determine the amount of water available for extraction from the local ambient air as a function of its temperature, pressure and relative humidity.  Let’s assume the following local ambient conditions for the region we plan to construct our water system at:  (1) Typical daily air temperature Td = 106F and one atmosphere pressure assumed at sea-level, (2) Relative Humidity, RH = 55%, and (3) Typical underground temperature down at six feet is measured at Tu=55F (at 12ft. it drops to ~45F). This yields the following calculated results for obtaining a steady-state supply (changes at night) of water to fill the cistern:      1)      In our example, the “local” air (dry-bulb) temperature is Td=106F, at a relative humidity of RH= 55%.  Fig-2 indicates that the resultant Humidity Ratio is HR= 0.0253 Lbs-water/Lb-Dry-Air (intersection of Td=106F line and RH=55% line, then horizontal to HR value).  We then determine the “gulp” of air volume containing the HR Lbs-water which corresponds to the point of intersection of Td and RH. Interpolating on specific volume “mv” yields mv=14.7 ft3/Lb-Dry-Air (this value sets the optimum unit airflow for our given ambient conditions, and creates a ballpark pipe length to diameter ratio needed later). It represents the basic unit of air volume that will enter our underground pipe per given time, and ultimately defines the size of our fan and piping network. For increased water creation, multiples of this unit volume will scale up the additional amounts of water that can be collected. 2)      As the inlet air cools down to a temperature of Tu=55F, from contact with the relatively cold underground pipe, we follow the constant enthalpy line (red upward left-diagonal) from the intersection of Td and RH to its saturated air temperature condition of Ts= ~88F, which is its dew-point temperature where the corresponding local RH=100%.  At this temperature or under, the air precipitates and releases its moisture content, resulting in water condensation onto the pipe walls.  Since our air will chill to a final pipe temperature of Tu=~55F, we follow the RH=100% saturated curve (green) down to yield an HR=~0.009 Lbs-water/Lb-Dry-Air. This is how much water is left in the air when it gets to 55F.  Therefore for every pound of local outside air that enters the pipe, mw=0.0253 – 0.009 = 0.0163 pounds of absolute pure, distilled potable water precipitates onto the inside pipe wall (per pound of dry air that is cooled and dehydrated) to gravity-flow out the pipe exit and into the cistern. 3)      We now convert pounds of air per unit time into a unitized volumetric airflow that yields gallons of hygienically pure potable water production per unit time. For every Va=100 ft3 of local volumetric air movement per minute (CFM) through the pipe, which translates into ma=Va/mv= 100/14.7 = 6.8 lbs. of dry air per minute or 6.8 * 60 = 408 lbs. per hour (PPH), to yield a water-flow of mwf=ma * mw = 408 * 0.0163 = 6.65 PPH or 6.65/8.345 = 0.8 GPH of water.  An industrial fan rated at 1kW DC will typically move 1500 CFM at a pressure of 8-iwc, to continuously produce 15 * 0.8 = 12 GPH of pristine potable water. 4)      Not shown here are the design details of sizing our pipe, fan and solar collection system for electric power requirements using heat transfer principles coupled with a thermodynamic heat balance, and aerodynamic fan performance assessment. These details help to size the electric power generation requirements plus margin used to properly size a solar collector containing further margins for overcast days. The engineering involved here is straight forward but beyond the scope of the current project.

Topic by RT-101 7 years ago  |  last reply 1 year ago


Record Solar Powered Flight

UK-built solar-powered plane has set an unofficial world endurance record for a flight by an unmanned aircraft.The Zephyr-6, as it is known, stayed aloft for more than three days, running through the night on batteries it had recharged in sunlight.The flight was a demonstration for the US military, which is looking for new types of technology to support its troops on the ground.Craft like Zephyr might make ideal platforms for reconnaissance.They could also be used to relay battlefield communications.Chris Kelleher, from UK defence and research firm QinetiQ, said Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer advantages over traditional aircraft and even satellites."The principal advantage is persistence - that you would be there all the time," he told BBC News. "A satellite goes over the same part of the Earth twice a day - and one of those is at night - so it's only really getting a snapshot of activity. Zephyr would be watching all day." The latest flight was conducted at the US Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona.The Zephyr flew non-stop for 82 hours, 37 minutes.That time beats the current official world record for unmanned flight set by the US robot plane Global Hawk - of 30 hours, 24 minutes - and even Zephyr's own previous best of 54 hours achieved last year.However, the Yuma mark remains "unofficial" because QinetiQ did not involve the FAI (Federation Aeronautique Internationale), the world air sports federation, which sanctions all record attempts.The US Department of Defense funded the demonstration flight under its Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) programme. The 30kg Zephyr was guided by remote control to an operating altitude in excess of 18km (60,000ft), and then flown on autopilot and via satellite communication.It tested a communications payload weighing approximately 2kg.At first sight, the propeller-driven Zephyr looks to be just another model aircraft, and it is even launched by hand. But this "pilotless" vehicle with its 18-metre wingspan incorporates world-leading technologies.Its structure uses ultra-lightweight carbon-fibre material; and the plane flies on solar power generated by amorphous silicon solar arrays no thicker than sheets of paper. These are glued over the aircraft's wings.To get through the night, the propellers are powered from lithium-sulphur batteries which are topped up during the day."A lot of effort has gone into power storage and light-weighting the systems," explained Mr Kelleher. "Lithium sulphur is more than double the energy density of the best alternative technology which is lithium polymer batteries. The engineers from the Farnborough-based company are now collaborating with the American aerospace giant Boeing on a defence project codenamed Vulture.This would see the biggest plane in history take to the sky, powered by the sun and capable of carrying a 450-kilo (1,000lb) payload.US commanders say the design must be able to maintain its position over a particular spot on the Earth's surface uninterrupted for five years. QinetiQ is the public company that used to be the British Government's military research department, before they privatised it.BBC articleQinetiQ's page on Zephyr

Topic by Kiteman 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


open arts and design sailing school : in progress ...

Here is a dream ... i had a few week ago :My dream just looked so real !!!! :- I want to create stuff- i want to travel- i want to share (teach, learn)- I want to be free, share this dream- I want to make something usefull for myself and others... I'm dreaming ...I want to be inspired from what i prefer from the different places I have seen as a student and teacher :institute without boundaries = The concept of the open arts and design sailing school, should be to solve global and local problem creatively. The institute without boundaries is a graduate school (all students are self-responsible and motivated) with the boat we can go where the design/ art solution is needed and exchange it with goods, money / services to survive promoting global well-being. At the moment they have decided to focus all the students attention in soving one problem : housing in develloping countries, now the energy of everyone is this direction, the school is based in Toronto, but the students travel the world study and find clever-cheap solutions adapted to different places.ensci = the 24h//365days open school you can weld or hammer at anytime of the day and night, all the facilities are all accessible, the students are responsible.wikiveristy : the on-line community everyone can join.boat building school : the maker knowledge of ancientsgispy school = compact school solution in a truckmake zine = publicating, is very important, and it should be done daily, simple rawnavy boat = woaaah this boat is so amazing !!! Imagine sucha big ship, we can have everything in, metal wood plastic glass fibers music painting textile chemistry workshop !!!!Open course ware = Super high quality training FOR FREE !!! School should be preparing for professional life, so teachers and students should undertake together briefs from the outside to make money for financing the boat and learn.open source softwares = the open school should use 'only' open source software and promotes its usage and be independent.cousteau = scientific and politicaly engaged ship missionrainbow warrior = promoting ecological ideology and freedom and respect of diversity.Royal College of Arts = aplace where students from different areas of study exchange and collaborate on diverse projects : if you join the project you come to learn and maybe you can teach something as well ! v2 lab = to be a place for people to pursue long term researches and experimental projects.squid lab = instructables is run by a company, Squid Lab. Not like a charity they can also undertake projects to make money to run other activities such as instructables website and feed a community of enthousiasts users.UDK Berlin wiki system = i was mucky enough to pop-in the UDK " Experimental Media Design " class, i asked if i can sit and listen, ans what I saw amazed me : the students were doing a vast presentation on the subject "network", each group of student would focus on a particular angle of the subject, everyone collecting informations and uploading it on the class wiki (on-line collaborative website), making a huge and relevant knowledge base for the next step : creating artefacts !!! AMAZING people ! Students and teachers were equal, just collecting infos, the teachers was just here to order the datas and rovide support of experience when needed.The boat itself should be made ecologicaly and collectively.I'm sure funding can be found from goverments, private funders, environemental organisations, scientific missions, foundations, cities, councils, and the money made by the members of the projects while travelling, providing solutions.So that's pretty much it, from what i know, but if you know any particulairity you think exellent, it has to be included in this project.Isn't this exciting !!!!????I have seen immense boats abandonned in Greece waiting to be repaired and re-used !!!!Now, it's time to build the idea and see who's interested.So many things must be done :- defining what needs to be on-board, the functions ...- how many users ...- materials, place to build, legal, money ...- the entire prject actually ... heheheh !! ...

Topic by cesar harada 12 years ago  |  last reply 12 years ago


Eric Wilhelm wins TR35 Innovation Award

Sharing your projects and ideas on Instructables is now officially a Big Idea. Eric just won the TR35 award for top innovators under 35 from MIT's Technology Review magazine for his work with Instructables; check out the press release below, and read about the other winners.I'm pretty psyched to be part of this site, as we're clearly doing something exciting and important -- it's especially neat to be an early adopter with the power to change the way society works.-- ChristyProject-Sharing Website Creator Named Top Young InnovatorSan Francisco, CA - August 19, 2008 -- Eric Wilhelm has been recognized by Technology Review magazine as one of the world's top innovators under the age of 35 for creating Instructables.com, the Internet's #1 project-sharing website.Instructables.com began as a way for Eric to document his engineering work and grad-school kitesurfing projects, and has evolved into a world-wide hub for documenting and sharing creative projects. The site's simple, elegant step-by-step format provides an intuitive platform that allows anyone to publish their project, complete with pictures, text, and embedded video.In a world of mass-produced culture, hand-making and personalizing is experiencing a resurgence, and people everywhere are reviving classic skills and technologies. Instructables is the hub of this movement, providing a social and interactive environment to demonstrate amazing projects and ideas. The site dramatically lowers the barrier to sharing projects, enabling crafters, modders, engineers, artists, cooks, bicyclists, and techies to gather and share their work freely, and where cross-pollination is actively encouraged."Everyone wants to be a creator, not just a consumer," Eric explains. "We bring passionate people together to learn from each other. Instructables makes it cool to be smart." Instructables is also a valuable educational resource. Parents and teachers rely on Instructables as a source of project ideas, and students maintain their personal portfolios at the site. By coupling old-fashioned tinkering with thoughtful discussion and long-distance collaboration, Instructables has begun to revolutionize learning and innovation.Eric Wilhelm and the other TR35 winners for 2008 will be featured in the September issue of Technology Review magazine and honored at the EmTech08 Conference. "The TR35 honors young innovators for accomplishments that are poised to have a dramatic impact on the world as we know it," said Jason Pontin, editor in chief and publisher of Technology Review magazine, "We celebrate their success and look forward to their continued advancement of technology in their respective fields."About Eric Wilhelm:Eric earned his SB, SM, and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from MIT, where he developed methods to print electronics and micro-electromechanical systems using nanoparticles. He co-founded Squid Labs, an innovation and design partnership, and a number of Squid Labs spin-off companies including Potenco, producing a human-powered generator for cell phones and laptops; Makani, an energy company seeking to harness high-altitude wind; OptiOpia, developing low-cost portable vision-testing and lens-fabricating devices; and Instructables, a collaborative how-to site that helps people document and share a process or skill. See Eric's How To Start A Business Instructable for the more detailed story.About Instructables.com:Instructables is the most popular Do It Yourself community on the Internet. Started in August 2005, Instructables provides accessible tools and publishing instructions to enable passionate, creative people to share their most innovative projects, recipes, ideas, and hacks. The site is currently home to over 14,000 projects covering such diverse areas as crafts, art, kids, electronics, pets, bikes, cars, robotics, green projects, and cooking.About Technology Review, Inc.:Technology Review, Inc., an independent media company owned by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the authority on the future of technology, identifying emerging technologies and analyzing their impact for leaders. Technology Review's media properties include Technology Review magazine, the oldest technology magazine in the world (founded in 1899); the daily news website TechnologyReview.com; and events such as the annual EmTech Conference at MIT. ContactsFor Instructables:Christy Canida, 510-931-5622press (at) instructables (dot) comFor Technology Review:Sarah Mees, 978-208-1499press (at) technologyreview (dot) com More news and press about Instructables here.

Topic by canida 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Options to improve cooling and reduce consumption for portable coolers

I recently had to start learning how to service airconditioners on the fast and that learning got me thinking about my portable coolers.... Some of us like to go camping or on longer fishing trips, so there might be one of those 3-way fridges in use or a better cmpressor model. The one thing they all have in common is that they can only cool down to a difference in ambient temperatures. No matter which way we turn it the cooling produces heat and that needs to get away somehow. The other big thing is the cooling cycling - or the lack of it on a warm day. After some reading and thinking I came up with some ideas that might be applicable to your existing cooler if you are willing to mess around a bit. Let's start with the produced heat, shall we? Down here in Australia most people either have the fridge in their4WD or camper. In a car or small camper trailer there is often the problem of airflow, so the cooler might be doing overtime for no other reason than a lack of airflow. If you check online sites like Amozon and Ebay you quickly find fan systems meant to be installed inside the cooler to get lower temperatures and a quicker cooling of fresh goods. The thing is that the box is quite well insulated and the benefit of the airflow goes only as far as it can reach. And even if the box is quite empty and you would have a benefit of the cold air moving around it won't change the fact that "improved" cooling always comes with more heat in this case. But if we use one of these fan systems to actually improve the airflow on the hot side we not only get better cooling but also a reduce power consumption - something worth considering if you have no backup power generator.... This of course brings us to placement. As I have done the mistake myself you might be tempted to put a 3way cooler onto your seat. Opening it with the back free means the lid always gets stuck on the seat, do it the other way around and you block the airflow. If you do put it on the seat then make sure two things match: 1. The thing is secured properly. 2. The airflow from your aircon is able to reach the hot side of the cooler. Even permanent installations in a camper benefit from a good airflow. Often the fridge or freezer is built into some sort of bench and the airflow behind might be very limited. A simple solution here is to add a vent on top of the bench to allow the hot air to escape. A better one is to use a fan that is powered together with the heating element or compressor and drives the hot air to the outside. How to improve the cold side of the box or fridge? Well, to be honest there is not much that can be done unless you are prepared for some serious work. Depending on compartment size, contents and how full it is a little fan can help to keep the temperatures even but it won't help to get it cooler or reduce the cycling periods for the cooling. The only really working way that I found is to use a "battery" for the storage of the cold. The cooling works by checking the inside temp of the box and if above the set temp the cooling won't stop. This is all well and good while we have a constant supply of power but once we are on batteries it would be great to keep the active time to a minimum. A working solution is to build a container that fits around the cooling element. Smaller types often use an aluminium heatsink, bigger types might come with a compressor and an evaporator. In either case proper sealing is important! Most good models are fully waterproof, meaning even if you would fill them with water they would not leak in other areas than the door. But double check and if in doubt use a bit of silicone to make sure. Ok, but how do we "store" the cold coming from the device? Cold packs ;) These things contain a ready to use mix that holds cold temperatures quite well. Another really good alternative is alcohol or radiator coolant, although the last has limited capabilites in terms of holding capaity for the cold as it is desinged to exchange heat fast rather than to keep it. With a suitable sized and sealed box around the active cooling element we will need longer to actually see any cooling happen (with a warm "battery") but that can be compensated for by good planning or a frozen water bottle. If the cooling element is covered with a box of cooling gel then it has to cool this first before anything happens inside the box. But once it does the pack is already far below the normal temp it would have during normal operation. Remember the inside of the cold pack cools down first before the outside will get cold ;) So once the set temperature is reached the device will shut off. But since the cold pack is far below the set temp it will continue to cool our box until the core is warmer than the set temp. Quick thinkers will now say the benefit is lost as the time required to cool the "battery" down again is much longer than the normal cycle time - and they would be correct. But as we get much colder temps inside the gel box the overall running will still be less compared to normal operation. And since from the second cycle on the gel is only warming up to operating temp of the box it will be much faster than with a warm box. Another benefit might be the ease of cleaning and ice removal. Some peltier driven coolers have big cooling fins or a quite bad design for the heatsink allowing mould to grow where you can't remove it easy. If the box is made from stainless steel and flush with the back wall of the box we won't have that problem anymore. Ok, but how much is good or too much for the size and gel content? You got me there as it is bit tricky. You don't want to loose much usable space for starters and you don't want to wait hours for the gel to cool down if the box was not used. IMHO the size should fit the cooling element with about 20% to spare all around. If stainless steel is not an option than aluminium is the next best choice. Thin sheets can either be be cold formed with a hammer or "brazed" with a good torch and the right rods. Ok, before that route is there anything I should consider or do first? Depends ;) 3-way systems usually use a flame or heating elements to heat an ammoia solution. After years of neglect corrosion can form and reduce the amount of heat transfered into the system and reducing the efficiency this way. It might help to take the heating elements out once a year or so to clean them and the contact areas from any corrosion or dirt build up. With a fixed shedule for this you won't have the problem of never noticing a badly corroded heating element either - and this is the main failure on these systems.... Modifying your camper or making a few mods to your 4WD drawer system is not for the faint of heart and should be done with consideration. The last thing you want to do is rush things to find out it was not necessary. Before cutting holes check if you can't find the room for the fan in a different spot and use ducts to control the airflow - sometimes it is easier to blow air in than to get air out ;) When it comes to creating vents or connections for air to the outside always make sure it is waterproof and insect safe! If you can let the outlet go downwards so water won't run in, for 4WD trailers consider a flap to prevent water from going during a river crossing. Flyscreens will not only prevent insects from coming in but on the inside also prevent dust to go eerywhere - allow to the removal and cleaning! The salts used in these cold packs can be corrosive, so you have to make sure there are no leaks and that there is no steel to come into contact with gel - this includes screw ends hidden in through-holes. If in doubt use a coat of paint but keep it as thin as possible. Even on peltier systems it might be impossible to remove the heatsink without massive surgery on the internals. So before you take it all apart to gain access check if it is far easier to seal around the box opening and possible screw connections using silicone. The cooling battery can be screwed on and sealed with silicone as well as an easy escape route. Although for this to work you need to check if the material of the box allows for a proper bond with the silicone! Some materials just won't allow anything to stick at all, even after sanding them. So do a test first in an area where you would be able to cut the silicone away without causing damage. If you can rip or peel it off the surface you should not try to use a cooling battery screwed to the wall, only use a box that is fully sealed with the cooling element and has a seperate back - one complete unit around the cooling element. I have a 3-way system with a freezer compartment that does the cooling for the fridge too - what can I do? These units either provide good freezing with the fridge temps too low or good fridge cooling with no freezing capabilites - depending on the thermostat used. Our problem is that is next to impossible to add a cooling battery of the normal kind to these systems. The L-shaped freezer box can really only be added with a L-shaped cooling battery from underneath. Only if you don't need any freezing at all you could add a cooling battery to fit into the freezer box shape. In either case the benefit is somehow limited by the way the thermostat is used. If there is no temp control for freezing it should be fine. Warnings... Only peltier driven coolers are free from refrigerants. Every 3-way or compressor system uses refrigerant as evident by more or less piping and heating elements. Never attempt to screw anything into a cooling element containing refrigerant! Even if you think between the channels all will be fine it won't be! The material is just pressed to form the channels and any damage caould mean refrigerant leaking out! Use silicone instead and make sure all surfaces are properly cleaned before applying it, also wait until the silicone is really fully cured before putting any stress on it. As said, these cooling gels can be corrosive, especially if DC voltage is involved. Make sure that everything that is not aluminum or plastic is properly sealed before allowing ongoing contact with cooling gels. Do not attempt any of this if you have to ask yourself what tools you might need or how make a suitable container for the gel. If in doubt check Google on how to work with aluminium or stainless steel if there are not enough Instructables for it. The gel will expand a little bit if it freezes, this no problem in a metal container if you allow for a bit of flex or on the side added strength  - whatever suits you better. Another option is to get a few different cold packs (by the active ingredient) and to do a check in a little container. Freeze it and note whe level cold and warm. Little to no difference means nothing to worry in terms of expansion during freezing.

Topic by Downunder35m 2 years ago


Fighting with Nylon ;)

As some might know I still use an old Gen1 Prusa but love the challenge of basically getting everything done with that oldie. One of my latest challenges of "always" printing on a cold bed includes Nylon. If you ever had troubles because you ABS or PLA filament got too moist you will already know what happens to your print... Nylon is even worse when it comes to moisture as you can't see or really feel it. I was thinking of making a complete Nylon guide as an Instructable but think I will start here to kick off some discussion first. So, we know the Nylon must be really dry for a god print as otherwise we get bubbles, bad adhesion and of course a foamy looking print. Well, not really... Let me explain: A perfectly smooth and shiny finnish is not always required, and with the right settings Nylon still forms strong bonds even with a foamy look. However, the dimensions of parts are affected as well - outside dimensions go bigger and hole diameters smaller. If that is no issue for your print then there is no real need to perfectly dry your filament ;) Speaking of drying: People use all sorts of methods to dry their filament, not just Nylon. One of the most common and most expensive seems to be the use of your oven for several hours to dry it. Another way involves food dyhydrators, bit less on the energy bill but still... Then we have the smart guys using the sun and silaca gel for the drying - good and great but so useless in cold and wet climates... My advise here: Take your time! I mean, sure you want to print right after the filament arrived in your letter box but a bit of preperation will save you filament and frustration. Usually filament comes in a sealed bag with a pack of silica gel and it should be dry and ready to use. But Nylon can become too moist within the time it takes to finnish a long print if you are in a wet climate. This means you start printing and all is good but the next day your new print looks ugly as for no real reason. Make use of these sealed storage containers. Put the filament in there with a good amount of indicating silica gel and only have a hole to feed the filament through - if in doubt use a bowden fitting and a short lenght of teflon tube to prevent friction. A piece of sticky tape over the hole when you don't use the filament and the filament is always ready to use. Reminds me to make an Ible for a suitable storage solution with spool holder... Anyway... When it finally comes to print Nylon you should know cardboard works best as a bed as Nylon sticks really well to it. I glue mine onto a layer of masking tape, this way it won't lift from the bed and I can still replace it very easy. But the most common mistake with Nylon is to print it too fast. The stuff really expands and shrinks a lot from filament to print and high speeds only too often cause the layers to seperate later on. Some people compensate with higher temperatures but I don't like the idea of fitting a filter system with activated carbon filters... Also keep in mind the intense shrinkage when setting the extrusion multiplier! If your ABS prints fine with 0.85 you can expect that the same sized Nylon prints fine somewhere in the range of 55-60! Now you also know why printing with thick layers is not such a great idea if you require all dimensions to fit. Although only outside accuracy can be done by cheating in the settings, getting outside, inside and extrusion widths settings accurate is almost rocket sience ;) Nylon is expensive or not available here in the diameter I require.... I had the same trouble and reverted to trimmer line and a modified, dedicated hotend instead. Why dedicated you wonder? Nylon can be real pain to clean as nothing dissolves and if you heat the parts hot enough to melt it you can not work easy with them. Having a decicated hotend means you won't run into the problem of burnt ABS or PLA clogging the nozzle ;) It also means you can match the hotend to the trimmer line you choice (more on that in a minute). For example, in some areas trimmer line of 2mm or 3.3mm diameter is the most popular and cheapest. Just drill out the hotend to cater for the new diameter, which I did after noticing the filament got stuck in the neck of the cold end ;) Trimmer line - does it matter which one? It does these days! Avoid everything that is not round or labeled with terms like "duracore", "dual core", "multi layer"  -basically all that indicates it is not just a single, solid stand of Nylon. Long lasting, special core line is great for your lawn trimmer but really bad for your hotend! PET, High temp nylon or even fibre re-inforced cores are in use, so in the best case you mix the nylon with overheating PET, in the worst you block your nozzle permanently. If it looks like it has a core or some sort of "mantle" around it, it means not usable.

Topic by Downunder35m 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


Ceiling fan generator mod to the max

I stubled upon several mods to convert a standard ceiling fan into a more or less usefull generator.So if you are looking to go this route then I might have some nice improvements that can be implemented.People like these mods for some weird reason, despite the fact that it requires quite a bit of extra work to make them weather proof.However, when it comes to the fundamentals then to me it looks like some folks out there are missing out.On the available power that is...Always the first step for a mod like this is to replace the induction ring with a lot of magnets.Second step usually is to remove a lot of the coils, especially the inner ring.Now, these two stator designs are common for fans with two speeds.Those with three or even reverse might have a different configuration!Lets start on the magnet part:The recommended way of placing the magnets is by creating an air gap as small as possible - makes sense.But then it is always the same amount of magnets as there is coils - and the spacing is also the same as for the coils.In the general generaotr design world this configuration is prefered as it allows for the best performance.If you dare to go a bit further and cosider how the magnets react to the stator configuration then you might want to consider a different option.You see, these two sets of coils for two different speeds mean just one thing:A different amount of poles is created, with the outer ring having more poles than the inner ring of coils.The core is split around the coils, not just to allow the windings to be made but also to provide independent paths for the magnetic field - resulting in the two pole configurations.Amounts differ by diameter, power level, manufacturer and so on.What is always the same is that the inner ring has less coils and that the outer segments of the poles created have even spacings.In the normal mods you see posted these gaps in the core for the outer ring are closed by inserting lamitaed pieces from some old transformer.And you end up with ONE usable coil configuration and ONE power output.The slightly advanced mod uses the inner coil to add some load depending on the speed to prevent spinning out of control in high winds.If you try a normal DC motor with permanent magnets than you will notice the strong binding forces, it is like the rotor sticks in certain places.The better ones use and uneven configuration to reduce this binding effect ;)In my mod the magnets are selected in size to almost be the same length as two stator poles next to each other.This allows for the best induction while still allowing "to experiment".Bringing the magnets and the coils into play...As said an exact match of the number of magnets to either coil ring is not ideal.The prefered option is to go somewhere in between.For example:Outer ring has 18 coils then the inner ring will have 9 coils - exactly half.360° divided by 15 make a nice 24 degress per magnet.But with 12 magnets you get an even 30°, which is far easier to deal with.16 magnets at 22.5° is another option.So, what does that exactly do for us?The bad thing is we get slightly less performance if you only see the standard mod with one coil ring.The good thing we get far lower binding forces and through that the thing will even spin in very light winds.Adding both coil rings with a suitable rectifier however results in a pulsing output of two sine waves.With just the rectifier we get a ripple that is easier to deal with through a capacitor.The extra power available is in the range of about 40% and make more than up for the "reduced" amount of magnets.Going the extra mile once more ;)Having created a much fancier ceiling fan mod now you might wonder if there is not a way to get even more out of it.And there is.For example by utilising a gear system or belt to get a far higher rotational speed on the generator than what the blades would provide, prefably then with quite big blades too and an automatic break for high wind conditions.With the reduced binding forces the generator will be happy to spin at quite high speeds in low winds.Downside is that you will need to build a far more sturdy bearing housing.In return though you get more stability and durability.You can do the math yourself based on the number of poles per ring and magnets to get the output frequency based on the RPM's.Perfect would now be to use a switch mode power supply configuration to directly transform the provided output into a stable DC per ring.And yes, it is possible to use mechanical systems to provide a fixed output speed from the blades to the generator - but way to complex and lossy!Lets do some lame math with no regards to realities:If the original fan would spin at 100 RPM at full speed than we could say our generator should provide the mains voltage at about 100 RPM.Keep in mind we utilise both coil rings and not just the high speed one!Geared and with the blades spinning at 100 RPM we might get as much as 1000V from this little generator....And even with the lower amount of magnets we migh see frequencies above the 500Hz range.The good thing now is that normal iron core transformers can still operate at these frequencies.A bit lossy in the upper range but acceptable for the purpose.Put simple: A 10 or 20:1 transformer per coil ring would provide us with a far more suitable output voltage and much higher amps.If you made it to here than you certainly wonder about other magnet configurations.Checking the stator configuration you will by now realise why I selected the magnet lenght accordingly.The magnets "activate" one coil after the other.The spacing between them means there is always some overlap where the magnets only cover one half of the stator for a coil.This is ok because we don't really have to worry about the resulting messy output.Ideally though you would want to have a magnet activate both coils, the inner and the outer at the same time.What we did though was to make sure that at no time more than ONE magnet fully covers more than ONE coil!It is the best option to cover both coil sets while minimising binding effects and increasing the avialable output.To go the last step you would need to invest a lot of time re-winding all coils :(You don't want to do this unless you have the means and no friends and family that might miss you for a few days....I found a far simpler way to change the coil configuration, although it is not as good a re-winding.So let's go full scale shall we?Ceiling fan reconfiguration!If you take the usual 18 to 9 configuration than one thing jumps to mind reight away: 3-phase power!Cutting the wire that goes from coil to coil might not always be possible and if it is then you need to know how to handle it.Magnet wire can be hard to solder.Burning the coating off results in corroded copper that is even harder to solder.If you are lucky though than a reall hot soldering irong will be able to melt the coating.The flux from the solder will start to cover the wire from the cut and the solder will follow.If not then using some fine sandpaper and time is the other option to remove the coating...Ok, you seperated all coil and have two wire ends per coil?I hope you did not cut off the ones going out to the actual connections to the outside world ;)Properly solder each wire end and take your time to check it is really proper and not just a few spots.Mark or number the coils on the rings!For the inner ring we have 9 but need only 3, so we start at one connection to the outside world and check if this connection is on the outside or inside of the coil.For this example I assume you picked the one that goes to the outside of the coil.Connect the inside wire to the outside wire of coil number 3, assuming we start with 1 here ;)From the inside wire of 3 you go to outside of 6 and the inside is you first new output connection.Do the same with the remaining 6 coils and where needed add the required output wire.It really helps to have wires with three different colors here, one color per new coil set.Note which color corresponds to to the three coils used!!!The outer ring with 18 coils is sightly different here.You see, we want a "flowing" magnetic field that makes best use of the new coil configuration!We can not simply bridge them in any way we feel like without considering how this might affect the electrical side of things.As we now take the approach of a three phase system it makes sense to use a more suitable magnet configuration as well.So before go to the outer ring of coils lets have a look of the best option for the magnets first:The stator packs are evenly spaced in our example and will alow us to use 18 magnets.This provides the best performance with the downside of a higher binding effect, but we need this configuration to get the best possible output.As said at the start I selected magnets that are just shy of being the same length as the corresponding stator segments.In a "free" setup these magnets would now be quite hard to place in a makeshift ring.Even harder in the original casing.A 3D printer certainly helps but some common sense too ;)Wood is easy to work with and if you select the right stuff than making a suitable ring to hold your magnets and attach to the drive system metal parts is not too hard.Bar or brick type magnets can be quite easy be utilised on a wood setup :)The key is that you add Flux Capacitors - sorry couldn't help the reference to Marty....What I mean is to add some magnetic material between the north pole of one magnet and the south pole of the other.Lets say your magnets are 15mm long and have a spacing of 5mm.Then a little plate of 12mm would be next to perfect.This plate needs to connect the magnets on the backside, the side facing away from the coils.Use a dremel tool or what you have to first create slots for the metal strips or bars, then the same for the magnets.Glue in the metal first and once set add the magnet, making sure the always go north to south with their alignment.Ok, and what does this do for us?I hope you are not one of these persons who starts building while reading...What we created now is a shortcut for the magnetic forces.The field between the magnets is severly compromised in terms of being usable for the coils.We do get a much soother run though...I only did that to have some fun and check if you paid attention - sorry :(What we really want is an effect similar to what you see on a loadspeaker magnet that is still in its metal shielding.A ring magnet with one pole on the inside and one on the outside is used here.The shielding provides a path for the magnetic field that is not going through the speaker coil - hence the little air gap for the coil.If we do the same then our efficiency will be going up quite a bit.Take two identical steel parts, like some butter knifes, and prefarbly a force gauge.If you try to pull your magnet at a 90° angle from the blade you will get a certain reading for the required force to lift it off.Most people now think that this would be the max a magnet can hold.So take the other knife and place the magnet between them.If you pull the knife off with the gauge now the reading will be higher than what you get from just the magnet ;)Taking that to our model and keeping the field lines in mind we now know that we could even use slightly longer plates if our magnets happen to be a bit short :)Just place them right behind each magnet !Back to the outer ring of coils....With 18 magnets we get an even system for both coil rings.However we want to make sure that our output waves are syncronised and not at random order.We need to combine two coils to be back on a 9 coil configuration as on the inner ring.The other option is to provide two sets of outputs for outer ring, resulting in 3 3-phase outputs.Both have their pros and cons....But if you check the 18 magnet configuration ina ction over the coils it becomes clear that combining two coils the usual way is possible but also that our inner ring does not get a proper north south action from the magnets!Only the outer coil ring works properly!For the inner ring we never get only a north south combo, instead a lot of mixes.Did I mention to read first? ;)Of course we can only use 9 magnets in our configuration, but at least I did not traick you on their size....You see, we need to account for the fact that the coils are not just evenly spaced but also that all configurations in terms of coils to stator pack are doubles or halfs.Makes a lot more sense if you know how these asyncronous motors work :)With 9 magnets we actually get both inner and outer ring coils activated properly.Plus we now have the benefit that there are always twoouter coils in sync with each other.Means apart from the same way you wired the inner ring you make this addition to the outer ring:"One" outer coil is created by going from one coilinner connection to the outer connection of the second after this, skipping one coil.The resulting output is again just 3 phases but with double the output voltage.The key is to again take notes of how you connect and wire the coils - and the colors used for the output wires!Let me give you an example for the correct order:I we take the number 1 coil on the inner ring then coils number 1 and 18 would be next to it on the outer ring.You want to combine 1 and 3, 2 and 4, 5 and 7,....And you want the resulting three coil packs and wires colores to correspond to the inner coils in the same order!That is true for the always same way of combining coils from the inner to outer connection - or the other way around but never mixed!Ok, we have done the magnets and the coil configuration now properly, no jokes this time!With two simple 3-phase rectifiers we get two DC outputs that can be combined or used seperately.As we end up with roughly double the output voltage on one output but all coils are the same it makes sense to treat them independly.For those who wonder why:If you add a load than one coil system would take a higher loading of it.Meaning while one coil set is stll fine the other will already start to overheat - if the load is too great.So we use two rectifiers with some filtering.In the basic form just a really big electrolytic capacitor of suitable voltage or a full LC filer system with multiple stages.Either way we can now utilise some better DC-DC converters to get going.Considering the equal max watss the coil rings can handle it make sense to include some current limiting.A good converter will provide this option.Both converters can now set to the desiered output or with some added protection diodes and adjusted properly to the same voltage combined for just one DC output.Compared to the standard mod of removing coils and bridgning stator packs the resulting output power in overall Watt will now be about 40-60% higher - depending on the model and quality of parts.Special words of wisdom:Consider the orignal max speed of the fan when used as intendet - see this as a theoretical max output that equals your mains voltage.Just ignore losses and such things - better to be safe than sorry.It becomes clear that it quite possible that your output will be far higher than mains voltage and that you need use transformers for the two 3-phase systems so you can use standard DC-DC converters, which have a max input voltage of around 50V only.This means your converter must be able to handle the higher amps!The fan might have only used 100W or less than 500mA but at high speeds and a ratios of lets say 10 to 1 for the gearing high wind speeds might get it up to over 5 amps on the transformer outputs.Please do the math first for your gear system in relation to the max wind speeds you want to use with your blades!If in doubt use a converter that has some reserves to offer, especially if you aim to charge batteries as quickly as possible.The most vital part however is to ensure that all previously cut wires are isulated properly!!!Magnet wire of the standard kind is good for about 1000V max, so don't drive it higher!Heat shrink with a hot glue liner is prefered but hard to apply in these thight spaces.Since nothing moves consider using long enough wires for your connections so you have enough space to solder without affecting the heat shrink tubes.Liquid insulation or rubber is the last option and should only be used to finalside the heat shrink security measures.Best option once all is confirmed to be working fine would be to make a custom mold and to fully enclose the staotr pack and wires with casting resin or an insulating casting mix.Make sure to keep the output wirese free at the their ends ;)What if I don't want to build a complicated three phase rectifier and just use a single phase system as it was?Firstly chances are your coils are already connected in a three phase configuration, just all in series.But working out a suitable magnet configuration to suit this is much harder if you want to use both sets of coils.In a series configuration like the original you also have to accept the losses from these connected coils.The higher the overall resistance the lower the possible output ;)Main problem however is to get the magnet working properly.The standard 9 or here even 18 magnet configurations still works, especially with the added shielding from behind.But the coils also produce a magnetic field, which grows with the load.Means that an top of all you also have the coils working against the magnets and create even higher losses.Explains why the simple folks prefer not use the inner coil set if they go with a single phase system.So either accept the losses and just use the outer coils or do it fully and get far mor output.And by the way: a 3-phase rectifier modlue is only a few cents more than a standard bridge rectifier ;)Ok, and why do I bother to write all this?People like to tinker but most don't really invent.Following some simple instructions is easy, trying to work it yourself much harder.The reward however is that you actually start to know what you are doing :)And what works for a ceiling fan can be used for these ring style washing machine motors too ;)Anyways...We need to get back our roots.Start thinking for ourself again, work things out instead of just looking them up.If people would be aware that a simple ceiling fan could provide about 3 times the output power of its rated installation value instead of only just about half......Super strong magnets allow real output even without re.winding all coils.And what works here works for other things too.We only learned to use magnets in a striaght way because we can not bend them.But we can bed the magnetic field lines to our advantage!The simple shielding used in this mod is nothing more than a shortcut to enhance the field strenght where it is is needed.By a simple coil modification we basically bet two electrical generators for the price and size of one.Apart from stating how easy it would be to place multiple stators and magnet rings into one generator the magnets itself also allow for even more output.If you ever played with hook magnets or speaker magnets then you know how much stronger they are compared to just the magnet once they seperate after hours of fun for you.Imagine you would replace the single bar magnet with two block magnets that are joined by a magnetic shunt like out simple shielding before.If the magnet blocks now would have a slightly smaller footprint than your individual poles:Imagine you create a hlaf ring shaped magnetic connection between the two blocks that also goes aruond the outer perimeter up to the outside of the magnets surface?I mean the surface facing the stator poles?Damn your imagination is good, yout it right away!Of course we would then have a magnet that allpies its full strength focussed onto each pole of a coil!And of course the resulting field would be far stronger than just using the magnet blocks itself and still significantly higher than just adding a shielding or connection between them.The affect of the next coil coming is also drastically reduced, which in return also increases the efficiency.In terms of numbers:If a fixed neodymium magnet would provide us 100$ field strength as the base point with no shielding (just the magnet blocks alone);A fully shielded and connected system, like in a hook magnet combined with a U-style magnet, would reach above 400% here.....Adding witchcraft to the mix ;)Although I know better I just assume some of you have now a working double-three-phase-ceiling-fan-generator.And that would mean you also have some fans to spare from your long experiments.Modern ignition coils seem to have nothing in common with our ceiling fan or resulting generator.So why do I try to use them anyway?For the ignition only one polarity is prefered so the spark works and travels as intendet.Means the "wasted" energy from the othe half of the pulse seems to be lost.The electronics do a lot here but magnets too ;)The core of the coil has magents at either end, turning it into one long magnet that still has the right properties to act as high voltage transformer system with the coils.The coil appear to be pre-loaded and with the ignition pulse it has to overcome the magnetic field pre-set by the magnets.And when the electrical impulse is off the same magnets also accelerated and increase the resulting fall back impulse - which provides the spark.Unless you have a suitable laser cutter or simlar cutting tech available somehow it will be hard to modify the metal plates of the stator.But if you could...Imagine you could add magnet inside the plates that are inside a coil.The same pre-loading would happen.Does not really help in terms of adding outpur as our rectifier would suffer badly here.It does give ideas though...Shielding works fine for the magnets, same for field shaping.Electromagnets use the same techniques...So why not use some leftlever transformer cores to add more "shortcuts" for the coils?Strips of transformer core sheets added either side of the coils increase their field strenght and result in better output!Three packs either side of the stator pack are usually no problem.Now take your leftovers and do a standard mod.Compare the max output on the same windmill with what you get from my mod(s).The only real magic I used here is that I actually bothered to combine multiple and already used methods to drastically increase the available output of an otherwise utterly useless generator mod ;)Warnings:If you take the above mods serious and to the their extreme than it is imperative to make sure you have safety measures in place!Assume the lowest rating for the magnet wire and if in doubt stick with a max output voltage of 800V.These mods are potentially lethal if you don't follow what is common sense to everyone dealing with high voltages for a living!Most people will start without any gearing or belts and use the wind directly.Even here it is easy to get far higher RPM than what the thing ever did under your ceiling.Without some fixes you will need transformers to reduce the output voltage accordingly.Only other option is to limit the max speed to what your DC-DC converter can handle.Making mistakes with mangets can cost you a lot of time and work, make sure to mark their poles somehow to prevent putting them in wrong.If in doubt then double check!Always keep in mind what the magnet wires and your connections can handle!You don't want any arcs or overheating.Some added electronics to monitor wind speed, rpm's, load and temperature of the coils can turn out vital once you upscale.Before letting your new generator do its thing make sure you tested all to the max!Use a drill or so to speed it up and check the limit regulation for the converters.Measure the actual volts and amps going through your coil sets at assumed max speed and max load.Monitor the coil temp while doing so to ensure nothing is out of limit!You are kidding me here right?A scrap ceiling fan shall provide more output as a wind generator than what was used to spin it as a fan?And of course I need not one but two 3-phse transformers...Pretty clear it is all a fake because nobody could replicate any of it unless limited to what the converters can handle...Didn't I say to think outside normal restraints already?A single phase transformer uses two coils in the most basic configuration.For example one side for 240V and te other for 12V.But some of them are more efficient than other ;)A 3-phase transformer uses 6 coils, two for each phase.And there are plenty of standrad transformer cores out there that would allow us to use this configuration.The worst being the MOT, or microwave oven transformer.Very lossy for a reason but good as an example as these have three core stems ;)Now that you see that you will that a lot more transformers actually allow you to replace the two coils with 6 ;)Ok, but why not use a rectifier first and not use a transformer or two at all?The resulting output voltage will without a gear REDUCTION be much higher than what a cheap DC-DC converter can handle.And at such speeds the effiency would be very bad too.You would need huge capacitors of good quality to deal with the now more impulse like output.And considering the primary side of the transformer does not require anything thicker than the wire on the coils of the fan...Not hard at all to find some suitable tansformers to salvage - or to use some nice ring transformers ;)No kidding around, just facts and possible options you might want to explore.Does that now mean I get free energy?Sure, if you mean you get the free nergy from the energy of the wind at no cost.No if you think a ceiling fan could ever power your house.Internal resistance, size and wire/connection properties set our limits.Not to mention that they are designed to be dirt cheap.If you are in a windy region and assume a realistic 300W minimum output from a 100W fan then adding more stage multiplies this.These fancy upright windmills are not just powerful but also would allow to use one modded fan either end.If big enough and with enough wind force throughout the year you could just add a second or third stage to ech end.With 3 on both ends the resulting output would then be suddenly 1.8kW per windmill....And all from scrap parts with only the costs for the magnets...No wind? Then use water....None of it? Get some greyhounds and build a big hamster wheel :)You get the general idea I hope...

Topic by Downunder35m 3 months ago  |  last reply 3 months ago


The low-down: Where have I been?

It may be a bit narcissistic for me to think anyone missed me or even noticed I was gone, but for those of you that did notice heres the low-down.Without a doubt, the time I spent working at Instructables last summer was the most fun I have ever had in my life. It was the perfect combination of working among smart creative individuals ( Eric, Christy, Tim, Paul, and Noah), having such an open ended job where I was actually paid to do what I love, and being in bright sunny free thinking northern California. The cherry on top of this summer of awesomeness was going to Burning Man (see pic below). It was something I had wanted to do ever since I had read about it online many years ago, and, as fate would have it, I ended up going the first year I was actually old enough to.I don't think I am ever going to forget driving Tim's manual truck (I don't know how to drive stick) on a deserted road in Nevada, at 3:30 am Sunday morning, the energy drinks wearing off and Tim sleeping peacefully in the passenger seat, while it rained intermittently, with only a vague idea where I was going, and doing this all with just a NY state learners permit. Nor will I forget getting my first sight of the playa, just as the sun was coming up, with all the massive metallic sculptures glistening on the horizion. The week that followed was just pure surreal amazingness. Anything I wrote about my first Burning Man experience wouldn't give it justice, but Tim describes it nicely in his Burning Man instructable.The most surprising thing about the summer though, was that by the end of it I actually looked forward to going back to school. I wanted to learn circuit building and other cool electrical engineering skills that I could incorporate into my future Instructables projects. I wanted to be able to post impressive electronic projects, instead of just minor circuit hacks like the tazer glove and capacitor charger. I wanted to master the movement of the electron.One plane trip from SFO to JFK later, I'm back home. The contrast between Frisco and NY was staggering. If there was one word to describe how NY looked to me at that time it would be "gray". The experience was like watching the Wizard of Oz in reverse, going from the bright, colorful, surreal land of Oz back to black and white Kansas. Don't get me wrong, I love my hometown. I am of the opinion that NYC is the single greatest city in the world (California wins as a state, but in terms of a single city nothing can compare to NY). If you don't agree with me, stand in the center of the Brooklyn Bridge and turn around to get a full 360 degree perspective. Your opinion will be swayed if not changed. Still, September 07 was a very gray month for me. It took me a few weeks to wade through the bureaucratic bullshit of Brooklyn Poly and finally get registered for classes. The classes I did get registered for were all prerequisites and nowhere near my area of interest. I know I am going to have to suck it up and complete them eventually (especially now that my school has merged with NYU, so I get to graduate with a much more impressive degree then the school I was originally accepted into), but at the time I was just too miserable and distracted to pay attention in class. It was even hard for me to respond to e-mails from summertime coworkers because hearing about the activities at the tower brought back memories of a happier time. I was in a state of near-complete mental shutdown, my creativity was shot, and I was depressed. I decided that I needed to take a break from school, so I took a leave of absence for the Spring semester. That leave of absence bought me a time period of 8 months to do whatever I wanted. I figure why not live out my weaboo fantasy, and travel to Japan. I can not say exactly when my obsession with Japanese culture began. Maybe it was subconsciously planted in my brain with the cherry tree in front of my childhood home, cultivated with anime, and brought to fruition when I actually started reading about their history and culture. Whatever the reason, it has been something I've always wanted to do, and what better time to "find myself" then while on a break from college (Its stereotypical-tastic!). There was only one obstacle standing between me and the romantic imagery I had of bathing in hot-springs and meditating in front of Shinto shrines ... money, at least a few thousand dollars of it. Japan aint cheap, and even if I was going to get a job to support me while I was there, I would still need a butt-load of money for the initial travel and living investment. (On that note if any of you Instructablites knows someone in Japan who you could get me in touch with regarding job opportunities or living quarters, or has some advice for living cheaply while there, I'm all ears) I spent most of January half-assedly looking for a job. I did not devote my whole ass to the task because, no matter how much I wanted to go to Japan, I wasn't too excited about the prospect of getting a minimum wage job which utilized none of my skills (I have very unique skills, so finding a job that used them would be next to impossible). It was looking as though my next few months would be filled with minimum wage menial labor. That is until I thought of throwing myself on the mercy of Eric and Christy, and asking for my old job back. I lacked the testicular fortitude to ask them directly, and so reverting to grade school mentality (the one that figures rejection will hurt less through proxy), I asked Tim to test the waters and see if my old job was still available (grade school version: Psst Tim, I've got a crush on Eric & Christy ::school girl giggles:: can you ask if they like me). Tim was kind enough to oblige. A few e-mails later I found out I could come back as long as I promised to return to school in September. (This was no problem because I had already made the same promise to my parents, and myself because I didn't want to loose my 20k a year scholarship).One plane trip at the end of February from JFK to OAK later, I'm back in California. My longterm goal for the next few months is to live as cheaply as possible, learn Japanese, and try to acquire some work that I can do while in Japan. Living cheaply has been easier then expected. I quit smoking (something I thought would be much harder then it was, but after two months of lukewarm-turkey I was able to eliminate my nicotine cravings entirely). I am able to feed myself almost entirely off the excess of others, with the occasional purchased produce being the exception. I bike for transportation (that same yellow road bike in the picture below). I'd say that overall, it took more effort to stop being a consumer-whore then it did to quit smoking, but it feels equally good to be free of both of those bad habits. Well thats my story. I should probably get back to work.New instructables coming soon ...

Topic by Tetranitrate 11 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Top 50 2008: Instructables

Yesterday we looked at the Top 50 commenters for 2008 and today we'll be looking at the numbers for the top 50 Instructables of 2008. Since there's no one way of declaring a list of Instructables, we created three top 50 lists. These cover Instructables in order of rating, pageviews, and comments. Instructables on these lists were all published in 2008.Let's go to the graphs and charts!Top 50 Instructables: Pageviews   Instructable Views 1   Body-Mod: Elf Ears 347738 2   Use your laptop as an Xbox/Xbox 360 "Wireless Adapter" on Windows XP/Vista, and Mac OSX 220780 3   Fix the Red Ring of Death! (without towels!) 177285 4   Laser cutter, start slicing stuff for under 50 dollars 159647 5   Run Backups on any Wii Without a Modchip 159408 6   How to build a 72Volt electric motorcycle 159261 7   How to make out 145713 8   Inverted Bookshelf 137198 9   Munny Speakers 124736 10   Awesome led cube 118293 11   Firefox Pranks! 117449 12   How to make an Iron Man Arc Reactor 116481 13   How to French Kiss 115958 14   How To: Make Bath Bombs 108287 15   Gift Ideas 107914 16   DIY USB "Hard Drive" 96588 17   Safely Shaving Your Pubic Hair 96144 18   WinXP Overhaul Guide: How to make it look like Vista, run like lightning, and stay productive, fast & smooth 94980 19   Laser Tattoo 94705 20   DIY Vinyl Wall Art 92752 21   How to refill a "disposable" Brita brand water pitcher filter with activated carbon. 89724 22   Make your own Roll-Up Keyboard 89558 23   Hidden USB Storage 86430 24   how to add EL wire to a coat or other garment 84340 25   Build a 60 Watt Solar Panel 82286 26   Grow a square watermelon 82275 27   LeGummies brick shaped gummy candies 81368 28   USB 80875 29   How to remove most of the seeds when cutting up a watermelon 80822 30   How to Make a TRON Style Lamp: The MADYLIGHT 80281 31   LED Cube 4x4x4 78936 32   Covert Spy Sunglasses 78633 33   Build a water mortar 77090 34   Super Nightvision Headset Hack! 76634 35   A better laptop stand for bed 76101 36   Amazing plasma globe tricks that you never knew before!!! 74842 37   How to get a Free Itunes Account (No Credit Card Needed) 74490 38   Make an iPod Video Projector 74026 39   Homemade Gifts 73478 40   Lasers 73242 41   Remote shutter trigger for Digital Cameras 72911 42   Ergonomic Laptop Stand Made From a Coat Hanger 72321 43   MAKE A HIGH VOLTAGE SUPPLY IN 5 MINUTES 71744 44   Protect Your Home with Laserbeams! 71387 45   Iron Man Helmet 71358 46   Get Big Money for Dead Batteries 70261 47   How to Put on a Condom 69805 48   How to make an Iron Man Mask 69617 49   How to build a 96-Volt Electric Motorcycle 68924 50   Nintendo Lunchbox 68164 Top 50 Instructables: Ratings   Instructable Rating 1   Build A Plasma Speaker 4.64 2   Build A Net Gun 4.62 3   Wall-E Robot 4.60 4   Sew your own Instructables Robot Plushie! 4.60 5   How to Make a Portable Game System 4.54 6   Build Your Own Butler Robot!!! - Tutorial,Photos, and Video 4.54 7   Electromagnetic Floater 4.52 8   LED Cube 4x4x4 4.50 9   LeGummies brick shaped gummy candies 4.49 10   DIY Vinyl Wall Art 4.49 11   5-minute Chocolate Cake 4.48 12   When a Phillips is not a Phillips! 4.48 13   Airgun with eXplosive air-Release Valve 4.47 14   How to Build a Robot - The BeetleBot v2 ( Revisited ) 4.45 15   How to Start a Business 4.45 16   Gandhi: 17' Tall Cardboard Avatar 4.44 17   turn signal biking jacket 4.44 18   Hidden USB Storage 4.44 19   Cyber/Steampunk Futuresque Sci-Fi Hand Gun 4.43 20   LED Chess Set 4.41 21   Build your own Electric Car! 4.41 22   LCS-1M - A Full-Featured, Low-Cost Hobby Oscilloscope 4.40 23   Build a World's Smallest Electronic Shocker! 4.39 24   Lego USB Stick 4.38 25   MAKE A PILLAR WITH A DECORATIVE CAPITOL AND BASE 4.38 26   EGG FLOWER VASE 4.38 27   Aliens Powerloader Halloween Costume 4.38 28   Munny Speakers 4.37 29   Giant 100mm LED 4.37 30   Coilgun Handgun 4.37 31   How to Thank Instructables 4.36 32   Guitar Tube Amp 4.36 33   How to get a Tshirt for GoodHart 4.34 34   Creepy Cobweb Shooter! 4.34 35   Grow Your Own Bioluminescent Algae 4.32 36   How to make a Portal Gun 4.31 37   how to add EL wire to a coat or other garment 4.30 38   Duct Tape Messenger Bag + Hardware 4.30 39   Firearm Safety: The "do's" and "don'ts" of enjoying guns safely. 4.29 40   The Stirling Engine, absorb energy from candles, coffee, and more! 4.29 41   Recycle Old Light Bulb 4.28 42   USB Batman Spotlight 4.28 43   Coffee table upgrade! 4.27 44   Steampunk Dystopian Sniper Rifle (Mercury Bow) 4.27 45   Building Small Robots: Making One Cubic Inch Micro-Sumo Robots and Smaller 4.27 46   How to grow flowers on a military base in Iraq 4.26 47   How to make your own LED lightbulbs 4.26 48   Iron Man Helmet 4.25 49   Cardboard/Fiberglass Halo 3 inspired Master Chief Costume 4.25 50   Build Halo Armor 4.25 Top 50 Instructables: Comments   Instructable Comments 1   Build a World's Smallest Electronic Shocker! 812 2   Knex Heavy Cannon 645 3   Awesome led cube 637 4   Simple Xbox 360 Rapid Fire Mod 591 5   Build A Plasma Speaker 494 6   DD-27 V2.75 compact AST rifle 454 7   WinXP Overhaul Guide: How to make it look like Vista, run like lightning, and stay productive, fast & smooth 453 8   The accidental pocket jet engine... 427 9   Scavenge free electronics, food, and help the environment 400 10   How to make your PSP "Better" or how to have more fun on a Sony PSP 379 11   Laser Tattoo 376 12   Amazing plasma globe tricks that you never knew before!!! 376 13   DSman195276's sidearm --updated-- v1.5 is here! 371 14   MAKE A HIGH VOLTAGE SUPPLY IN 5 MINUTES 363 15   Wall-E Robot 352 16   Knex Heavy Cannon v5 - Handheld 342 17   Fix the Red Ring of Death! (without towels!) 341 18   How to Build a Time Machine (Vortex Distortion Space and Time Dilating Device) 340 19   Knex Heavy Cannon v2 - Mini 339 20   How to get a Tshirt for GoodHart 338 21   Run Backups on any Wii Without a Modchip 336 22   Make A Water Leyden Jar 331 23   Park 52 knex sniper 327 24   Build a simple Marx Generator 323 25   Knex Guinea Pig Trap 318 26   TRUELY semi-auto knex gun 315 27   L96 308 28   How to Build a Knife 307 29   Pineapplebob's Sniper Rifle 306 30   True Trigger, 10 Round, Auto-Loading, Knex Concept Rifle 299 31   Fire Shaving 290 32   DJ Radio's knex SPEC-9 sniper rifle 285 33   How to UPGRADE from Vista to Windows XP on an Acer laptop 283 34   How to dodge a draft 279 35   Protect Your Home with Laserbeams! 279 36   Hidden USB Storage 277 37   Knex Compact AST Pistol 276 38   Cyber/Steampunk Futuresque Sci-Fi Hand Gun 276 39   Steampunk Dystopian Sniper Rifle (Mercury Bow) 275 40   Pocket sized survival kit 274 41   Knex Pistol "TDS" With Simple Slide Action *Updated as of 8/26/08* 271 42   Use your laptop as an Xbox/Xbox 360 "Wireless Adapter" on Windows XP/Vista, and Mac OSX 269 43   Body-Mod: Elf Ears 266 44   Knex M4 Carbine (True Trigger) 257 45   How to make a Portal Gun 255 46   DSman195276's sniper rifle 254 47   Reaper Crossbow 254 48   fully automatic knex gun (UPDATED) 252 49   Build your own computer 252 50   LeGummies brick shaped gummy candies 252

Topic by fungus amungus 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


The Middle East and the Global Hackerspace Movement

Please follow me and imagine this. You're in a city and are taking a rattling train somewhere to the edge of town. The buildings get shorter as they get wider. You are entering the industrial area where the jobs dried up long ago. Where there are more broken windows than whole ones in each building. You pass the streets your parents warned you about and a street covered in "DO NOT CROSS" tape. Two stops later you get off at the stop your friends told you about questioning your sanity and wondering why your friends brought you out there. The graffiti is beautiful though, and somewhere in the distance you can hear the thump of heavy bass. The address your friend gave you can't be right, you look up and see a massive complex thankfully this one seemed to have more of it's windows intact. You push the rusting door noticing the rough texture and surprising heft. You walk in and see a roughly refinished hallway. The drywall isn't yet painted but it appears that this massive factory has been transformed on the inside. You pass a few drywalled off artists studios on the first floor and they smile at you with plaster in their hair. It smells like lavender and you notice you just passed an artist making candles. The "hackerspace" your friend told you about is on the second floor. So you walk to the cargo elevator and push the call button. It makes a horrifying rattling sound as it descends to meet you, instead of a door it has a grate. You take it up and as it slowly moves you can see concrete, then wood and suddenly the thumping bass get's louder - Hello Skrillex. It's too much to take in at first, you only notice the chaos. There are tools everywhere and in every state of operation. A wall of computer monitors lines the back wall. There's someone binding books in the corner, and what appears to be a viking with knitting needles sitting in what appears to be a lounge, he looks up and smiles at you and says "welcome to Scrumspace*!" you've arrived at your first hackerspace. Notice an open basket of dollar bills and place a 2 dollar donation in the basket near the fridge and grab yourself a drink from the fridge in the kitchen. You walk into a common area painted like a scene from Super Mario with what appear to be server racks painted as the tubes. Finally you see your friend. He walks in with a scorched shirt and you see his eyes twinkling through the welding goggles. "Told you this place is awesome!" he says. Hackerspace Values and Culture Hackerspaces like this exist almost all over the world. These places collect (and perhaps helps inspire) people who are passionate initiators. Walking into one you might find someone who wants to share a new iPad application which monitors the GPS on the weather balloon they've released -"It's over //CHINA// right now!!". People in hackerspaces are happy to share, it's a part of the culture! Interacting with them is often uplifting and inspiring. They are building and creating things they think is amazing. They may be playing with technology or science or art without concern for the categories. The only apparent question they ask themselves is how AWESOME is this!? It's a contagious atmosphere of capability where people learn from each other constantly. They can't help it! People are so passionate about what they are doing, they inadvertently teach. The other feature of a hackerspace which is more important is that they give people a venue. It's an open space that is owned by the members. Need a place to host a workshop on hat felting, it's yours! Need a place to build the first prototype of your product? Just make sure you pack it in the lockers when you're done working on it! The atmosphere is fundamentally collaborative. It can't be anything except participatory because of the way the spaces are most often organized and run. There is no single owner. Everyone pays for a portion of the rent, and more importantly everyone brings something new to the table. They might bring with them a new tool, their coffee machine, a desire to set up a program to run a STEM program for children. The spaces become a snapshot the local community of amazing people and their projects. Many of these people started developing their projects during their final years in university. But their is a gap between a school project and feeling capable to take it and turn it into something yourself. I'd love to start here. With these fresh graduates. These young people who (perhaps not coincidentally) are also the driving force behind the revolutions of the middle east. This is a great place to start. These are the young people changing their countries today. They feel empowered to change long standing traditions and the culture of oppression in their governments. Perhaps it's also time to give them the tools to do the same for their local communities. Where they have the ability to have a more direct impact. Who the heck cares about the government if you are free to repave your roads, create alternative energy from solar power, clean your own water and start your own online webstore distributing products that are rapidly prototyped and drop shipped to other places around the world. Sure you might call this line of reasoning anarchistic. But when the systems around you are falling apart, banding together to pick up the pieces is the admirable thing to do. Social entrepreneurship in the states often focuses on countries outside the states. They basically act as for profit NGOs. Non profit organizations as they operate in America don't exist in the middle east. Thus I'm beginning to think that the concept of social entrepreneurship might just be a great way forward for these countries. Doing well by doing good! This concept is a development hack, and one that could possibly have it's roots in the Hackerspace scene. There are features of hackerspaces that I see can give rise to more DIY social entrepreneurship in the middle east. They are: 1) The culture of good. Make something wonderful. Share it with others online and off. Be inspired and inspiring. 2) The availability of tools along with the docracy culture. If you want to see it, do it. 3) A supportive global and local community which has within it stories of other successes to emulate. Where does this culture come from? It appears to be derived from the open source movement. Open source technology is often spearheaded by a few individuals but is maintained, built and supported by a global community of makers who want the tech for themselves as well. Do you want to see that feature? Write it? But don't edit the program and keep it to yourself! Share! That's a doocracy combined with the culture of sharing that the internet helps so much to support. All of this seems to be directed by the common value for people of all ideologies. The golden rule. Do for others as you wish to have done for yourself. Do you want free tools. Freedom. Access to clean water? A cheap space to build projects? Free vector drawing software? Be a doer. Be a part of the change. And then share with others. Your vision is what makes the future. These are some of the amazing features of these spaces. This is why I am in love with hackerspaces, open source technology and makers of all types. They are beautiful people who come from all types of backgrounds who get together to create a culture of sharing and collaboration that enhances their local communities and connects them globally. If you have not visited your local hackerspace yet, visit it. If you live in a place without a space, put your name up on hackerspaces.org, I'm sure you will find like minded people who crave this type of community. Hackerspaces in the Middle East Now that we have described hacker culture and hackerspaces can a space like this become a the hub and home of amazing people in the Middle East? Does the west have a monopoly on awesome. Absolutely not. Are middle easterners creative Heck yes! Are they inspired to work collaboratively? Heck yes! Are they educated? Heck yes! Do they want to fix the problems they see around them? Heck YES! Are they powerful? Heck YES! Again and again I've seen example after example of the young people in the middle east (yes, those that are 30% unemployed) showcasing example after example of incredible projects. And talking to them a message I hear over and over is that they want to show the world that in Beirut, Baghdad, or Cairo things other than violence is created. They want to create positive news that goes out to the world. They want to reach out to the world and participate in sharing! Here's a short list of incredible people I've met personally in my two short trips to the middle east: Bassam Jalgha Tarek Ahmed Ahmed Tohamy Salma Adel Rami Ali's Smart Breadboard Marc Farra Maya Kreidieh Cairo Hackerspace Book Scanner Project An awesome home automation system in Baghdad Iraq Mustafa Elnagar Furkan Alp Pehlivan Hind Hobeika's Butterfleye Project Jad Berro's Tank Robot Mounir Zoorob Octocopter! Here's a video of Munir's octocopter: Beirut is beautiful:   One incredible graduation project by Cairo Hackerspace organizer Salma Adel is one that focuses on the very heart of the maker movement and looks at the artisan as the creator of value. How do you take new design, match it with old technology and create amazing new products. I'm proud to know she's an active memeber at Cairo Hackerspace:  I hope I have shown you that there are already "hackers", makers and entrepreneurs there in the middle east. People with the open source attitude Arabs with the culture of sharing and collaboration. There are many here that work with the Google Technology User Groups or other open source initiatives. Linux user groups. Tons of coworking spaces. And some incredible incubators and entrepreneurship cultural development projects. Android phones are more popular in Egypt than the iPhone from my own small survey. It might have initially started as a cost issue has turned into a passion with Ubuntu, firefox, Android and other open source technologies really taking off. A few things were missing though. If you read hacker news you will begin to think that anyone with a desire to make foursquare mashups is an entrepreneur. In the middle east we have incredibly skilled people languishing after college while their counter parts in the west are out attempting to recreate Facebook. Why?! I think it has to do with the lack of proper story telling about entrepreneurship in the Middle East. Wamda seems to be helping greatly in that regard, but we need more publications talking about this issue! This also comes in concert with an inability to find cofounders. Why? A lack of collaboration? Why? A lack of self initiated projects? Solution? Do stuff. Just do it. Where? Here. At your local hackerspace. Do you have an interesting idea you want to try? A drone to take ariel pictures of the pyramids? Or a service like Utlub which delivers soap to bathers who are wet and realize they ran out of soap. Well in a space like a hackerspace you can do it! The tools are there. But more importantly you will find collaborators! People who are willing to jump on board to help!al Patterns of Propagation The Arab world is not just ready for Hacker culture, hacker culture is already there. My work with GEMSI is simply to connect the right people together and showcase the awesome possibilities hackerspace afford their communities and attempt to create the right environment to allow these amazing people to take their own future into their hands like they already are, but to do it not only politically, but financially, and with direct community education and organizing. Before I went to the middle east I was privileged to participate in the rise of the hackerspace movement in the United States. In 2007 there were very few (if any self identified) hackerspaces in the United States. That same year Mitch Altman, Bre Pettis, and Nick Farr went on a trip to Germany visiting the hackerspaces that were there. Being filled with inspiration and the realization that these spaces were created by PEOPLE who wanted to set them up. They came back to the states and started Noisebridge, NYCResistor and HacDC respectively. Due to the culture of sharing, they started putting up projects online. They shared the process of creating these spaces. And slowly at first people started noticing that they too could start their own local community spaces for creation and we started seeing them grow rapidly. The mathematical name of the function that describes this type of growth is exponential. The more spaces that existed that have this culture of sharing the more people heard about them and wanted them in their own cities. Then something wonderful happened. The economy collapsed in 2008 which had two very positive effects on the development of hackerspaces:  People were freed from their jobs  Space was becoming cheap as tons of manufacturing facilities were abandoned. Check out this chart which shows the rapid growth of hackerspaces and the acceleration around 2008/9. Hacker culture is an attitude that anything can be done by any resource available. MacGyver will make you a mouse trap from your sunglasses and your underpants. A hacker would use it to make a one way privacy screen for your cellphone. But how do you transmit a culture? This is why a space is so important. Having a place where people can sit with others and recognize the possibilities. To see the value in the stuff they know, to share it with others and to build together. The first few hackerspaces that are being set up in the middle east have the same property of viral transmission as we saw in America. Istanbul Hackerspace and Base Istanbul are both hackerspaces in Turkey. Istanbul Hackerspace being in the European part and Base Istanbul in asian section. As widely spread apart as they are, they both have something in common. Both founders had visited a hackerspace, one in Japan and the other in Germany before coming home and deciding they wanted to start one there. It's kind of incredible to see the same pattern repeat in the middle east. This appears to be a universal need, the need for community, creativity and having a open space to build your future. The pattern has been proven in Egypt as well. Alexandria's hackerspace initiative was galvanized after a delegation of students visited  Cairo Hackerspace two hours to the south. It's exciting to see the very same forces at work that took the hackerspaces from being a concept barely known to having a large impact on the American Entrepreneurial and cultural landscape in five short years years at work in Egypt. Cairo Hackerspace currently is without their space but is actively seeking a new one and it's one of my current goals to help in any way I can. Let's conclude with the list of hackerspaces just starting up in Egypt and Beirut. This is just the start. Keep an eye on these guys and know that there will be many many more to come: Egypt: Cairo Hackerspace El Minya Hackerspace Alexandria Hackerspace Mansoura Hackerspace Egypt Fablab (Same idea ;) Lebanon: Beirut Hackerspace (link coming soon) If you'd like to talk more about the global development of hackerspaces. Let's continue talking online at GEMSI's facbebook group. *Scrumspace does not exist as a hackerspace. If you like the name take it!

Topic by lamedust 7 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


The worst time of my life

If three years ago somebody had told me that I would be at Maker Faire, using my cyborg arms, watching Arc Attack playing the “Doctor Who” theme, and meeting Adam Savage from “Mythbusters”, I would have said that person is crazy or is mocking me. But I was there. With Instructables. It was awesome when Adam Savage, in the middle of his conference, yelled to me “Hey man! Nice borg!!”. “OH MY GOD!” I thought, “ADAM SAVAGE FROM THE MYTHBUSTERS TOLD ME I MADE A NICE BORG!!” But, beyond Adam Savage, the giant robots, the fire and electricity shows, the beautiful steampunk women, the good energy, the delicious food and the pictures with Daleks; the most beautiful, shocking, awesome and magical moment of the Maker Faire 2013 was when I had just arrived at the Autodesk booth. I saw the giant map of DIYers from around the world, and I realized my picture and profile were representing Colombia and I was one of the three leading makers of South America. I was paralyzed remembering all this journey, from being a complete loser without a future to that point in time and space when I felt absolutely happy, calm, and at peace with myself. It was worth it to keep fighting, just for that sublime moment. I felt like a Rock Star. Not because I was, but because Instructables and Autodesk made me feel like one. ……………………………………… When people ask me “Why do you love Instructables?” my answers are always the same: because the site is awesome, has amazing projects and great contests with cool prizes; because Instructables is the only one who has supported my DIY activities, especially in my country (Colombia) where science and technology aren’t priorities, and so on. But I never gave the complete answer. And now, after these fantastic five months as Artist in Residence, I want to tell the truth: I love Instructables because they were with me in the worst time of my life. ……………………………………… In 2009, I lost my job as Security Analyst in an important Colombian company. I thought I could subsist thanks to my junk projects and creating my own business, but almost nobody was interested on buying recycled crafts (besides, I wasn’t as good then as I am today.) And the only interested people wanted my works for free. It was not enough for a living, so after a few months I started looking for a job. Due to its economic situation, Colombia has high rates of unemployment and it’s very hard to find a job, and there’s no government subsidy for unemployed workers (sorry Colombia! One day, I will talk about all your beautiful and fantastic things, because you have a lot. But not today). Besides, when you are a former military officer the only civilian jobs you can apply for are in security because nobody thinks you can be creative; and if you are, nobody takes you seriously. Every two weeks I had an interview. Every interview ended with just another “we will call you.” It’s time to confess something to the world: at the same time, I was diagnosed with mild Borderline Personality Disorder and depression. It’s not something that “SHAZAM! You are nuts!”. No. I knew from years ago there was something wrong about me, but just in that moment I found out what I have. Just in case you ask: no, this condition doesn’t make me a bad employee, and I’m very competent in my work. No, I’m not some kind of evil psycho. Just a little bit creepy sometimes, but I always try my best to be a good person. And no, I’m not trying to look like a “dark and bizarre, Tim Burton style” character just because I want to look interesting. It may work for an artist or a teenager, but not for somebody trying to get a job in the security business or a stable relationship. I didn’t have any health insurance; I didn’t have money for any treatment and, in case I could afford it, there is a social stigma about persons with some kind of mental disorder, and no company would be interested in hiring a security manager with that kind of problem. So, I had to keep it to myself. I didn’t even tell it to my family. And my girlfriend broke up with me. So, my life was “complete.” I was without a job, love and almost without my sanity. Almost all of my “friends” were gone. I was drowning in debts. I didn’t have money even for basic things. I had to return to my mother’s house. I lost every goal, every dream, and every hope. The situation was so desperate that I seriously thought about giving up. But only two things stopped me from doing that. One was Carolina, the only friend I had in that moment. The other thing was Instructables. ……………………………………… I found the site several months after because I was looking for simple robots ideas. Then, I saw Instructables has contests, and I entered my first project (the “SPD Exoskeleton”) for the 2009 Halloween Contest. A lot of people made awesome comments about my project, and I received my first prize: the “Photojojo!” book and a Robot T-Shirt. “What? I just post pictures of my project on an internet site and they give me free stuff? Interesting!” Then, I made another project, the “Valentine’s RoboGrinch”. I was a finalist in the 2010 Valentine’s Day Contest. People around the world commented about my ideas, and my projects started to become popular being featured in other sites and blogs around the planet. When I got the First Prize on the Dead Computer Contest, I gave to my mother the netbook I won. It was the only present I could afford to give her in a long time. In my darkest moments, when I thought about giving up, I remembered I had some project on Instructables I didn’t finish or publish, and then I keep fighting just one or two days more, because I didn’t want to leave it uncompleted. When I finished it, I endured one week more, just for knowing if it was successful in a contest. Sometimes I won. Sometimes I lost. When I could get some money, I used it for buying tools or materials for the projects, instead of food or paying debts. Because I started to think that every project, every idea I was making, every instructable I was writing, was my little legacy to humanity. Probably one day I will die, but at least in some part of the Internet, it would be a proof that I made something good, something that could be appreciated by anybody, and my life was not in vain. And I started to win more contests. It felt good, because I thought “I’m a loser, but this loser is kicking butts!” With so many fantastic authors, the competition got tougher, so I had to improve my skills (and my English. Instructables was the only opportunity I had to improve and practice this language.) I became very good at making stuff with plastic trash and limited resources! Besides, without knowing anything about me and my personal situation, even without being on the same country, the Instructables staff and community were (and are) very special and kind with me. They always made me feel respected and loved. Instructables was the only escape I had from my reality. This site has thousands of users and still they had the time to talk to me, to care for me, to make me feel like part of a bunch of friends! They were the only people that didn’t see me or treat me like a loser or somebody who needed to be pitied. They were the only ones that made me feel I wasn’t completely alone on this planet. All of this situation lasted one year and two months. Instructables kept me fighting almost all of that time. ……………………………………… Finally, in September of 2010, I got a job. It wasn’t the best (honestly, it was horrible!), but at least I was working. Four months later, I got a better job as security manager of a business center, enough to start paying debts. On October 2010, I went to the Colombian equivalent of Comic-Con, using the Cyborg suit I built for the Instructables’ Dead Computer Contest. Thanks to this, a beautiful woman found me out of the crowd, because she loves robots. She became my biggest fan and we shared a big love. I never thought I could find a love like that. She was the girlfriend I got thanks to Instructables! She was the inspiration of my “Cyborg Heart in a Can”. And I gave it to her. And then Instructables interviewed me as Featured Author. I would be the first Colombian to be a Featured Author! That was awesome! In total, I have won twelve Instructables contests and two challenges. Thanks to Instructables, people of all the world know about my cyborgs and my Roboplanters. (The funny thing is I’m still feeling like the black sheep of the family!) ……………………………………… It was 2012. After one and a half year of relationship, my girlfriend and I broke up, for good (our respective problems were stronger than our love.) Besides, I was stuck at work and I couldn’t study something art or robotics related because the restrictive schedule of my job. So, the depression was returning… I was lying on the couch watching “Doctor Who” when a phrase get stuck in my mind: “All of time and space. Everywhere and anywhere. Every star that ever was. Where do you want to start?” And then I realized that nothing was tying me to Colombia and I could apply to the Instructables Artist in Residence Program. I wanted to know, at least for a few months, how it was to be in the most awesome company in this world. So I quit my job, I sold most of my belongings, I packed my Dremel, my trench coat and my sonic screwdriver, I said goodbye to my family and I traveled to San Francisco on February 27th of 2013. I didn’t come for the “American Dream”. I came for the “Instructables Dream”! ……………………………………… What can I say? How can I describe the most fantastic experience of my life, using just a few words? How can I summarize five months of happiness, learnings, DIY and good energy, when every day was an amazing adventure? I felt, after 35 years of life, I finally arrived in the place I belong. I met the faces behind the site I love and admire. You know who they are (sorry for breaking the magic but, please! Update the Instructables Team page! A lot of awesome people are not there!) I’m trying to not mention specific persons, because I shared awesome experiences with each one of you. Every one of you taught me something, every one of you made me feel appreciated, every one of you does a fantastic job keeping this site working. And I want nobody feels excluded of this post (Sherry always fights for sending out prizes on time, silently. Why nobody says “Thanks Sherry?”) Because Instructables is more than servers and computers and projects and internet. Instructables is the people. From the beginning, Instructables and the Autodesk Consumer Group made me feel like one of the team, like part of something bigger than myself. The Pizza Thursdays, the Marvelous Mondays, the Build Days, the Design Nights, became magical events for me. But it wasn’t only Instructables and Autodesk. This beautiful city of San Francisco taught me real lessons about tolerance, respect and being yourself. It doesn’t matter if you are radically different to the other people. Just be a nice person, do your job and respect the others, and everyone will respect you. I had never touched a CAD software, because I didn’t see any possible use for it in my life. And I thought it was something so complicated that only engineers and designers could use that kind of program. But then I went from 0 to 123D Design! I learned the basics in just two days and I fell in love with this awesome program, and it’s free! (But, seriously guys, try to fix that problem with the crashes. Everyone in the lab knew that when I screamed, it was because the program had a crash and I hadn’t saved the progress). And later, I learned how to use a 3D printer, a machine beyond my wildest dreams! I remember the infinite sadness the first time I went to the amazing Pier 9 (new installations of Instructables and the Autodesk Consumer Group) and thought I could never try that fantastic technology; and the happiness when Noah told me I could stay two months more! You have all the best freaking hi-tech tools in this freaking world, and you don’t need to be a NASA scientist or a millionaire to use them! This place is waiting for people of all the world, to come with their ideas! (It doesn’t matter how crazy they are). 3D printers, laser cutters, a water jet, a bunch of expensive machines I still don’t know the names of, an awesome test kitchen, metal and wood shops, even a sewing area! And all available for the DIY community! But, more than being on Pier 9 because the fantastic machines, I loved to stay here because Instructables.  My life has good things and bad things, successes and failures. But being part of Instructables and sharing moments with all of you has been the most memorable experience of my whole existence! ……………………………………… I want to say something to my dear friends of Instructables and Autodesk: if one day, for some inexplicable reason, you feel like your work is meaningless, you don’t like it’s Monday or simply you forgot what this is all about, just remember something: you will never know exactly how many lives Instructables has touched: how many persons found their true calling thanks to the projects, and how many persons found a hobby that makes their life happier. How many couples fell in love thanks to the delicious recipes and romantic crafts, and how many parents shared precious moments with their sons building something. But now you will always know, at least, Instructables and Autodesk saved one life. My life! ……………………………………… I wish to finish my post with some “Doctor Who” quote. I love “Doctor Who”, because is all about being awesome and optimistic and keep smiling even in the worst situations or despite you are feeling absolutely sad and alone. And the series has a lot of badass and beautiful quotes! But now, when I have to start packing my bags, when I have to return to my hometown where I have to pretend I’m a “normal” person and try to get a “normal” job again, when I have to say goodbye to my coworkers (that are at the same time most of the only real friends I have had in my life), and to the greatest organization I have had the honor of being part (where for first time in life I felt truly appreciated, respected and loved, and happy because it was Monday and I could go to work in a company that is making of this world a better place); there’s one, and only one phrase that I got stuck on my head; the last words of David Tennant as the Tenth Doctor when, standing alone after saying goodbye to his loved ones (and to the most awesome time of his life), his final moment comes: “I don’t want to go.” Mario Caicedo Langer Former Artist in Residence. Instructables

Topic by M.C. Langer 5 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Linear magnetmotor - the basics for a beginner

Designing what is said to be impossible can be tricky, so I will try to give you some tips to reach your goal a bit quicker.A lot of people these days try to start with a wheel.Makes sense in one way as the final goal obviously is something that would rotate.However, considering angles in a rotating system is far easier with a usable baseline!We developed the liear motor well after any rotating electric motor.But only because someone already invented it for us.Making it flat was then more or less about finding a need for it first, like the modern highspeed trains on a maglev principle.If you want to make something move then it makes no big difference if you do it in flat or round.Flat however leaves you more options and much easier adjustments.And you will need a lot of the later...IMHO the best size and option for linear is the N0 model railway system.Tracks are only 3CM wide and second hand carriages to salvage the wheels is cheap.Either way, how would you start?We have multiple choices, like single row of magnets or double, maybe even tripple.Same for the actual magnet orientation.Flat, angled, attracting or repulsing...They all work if you understand how they actually work.Not the principle, the magnets ;)You see, a magnet always has two poles and without trickery both poles will be of even strenght, size, angle to each other and so on.Playing on a small and flat track with little resistance allows to use tiny magnets, like 5mm disc ones.If you follow the common concept of two magnet rows either side at a slight angle then you are half way there.People spent a lot of time trying not only to let the cart being attracted by the first magnets but also to let them pass out at the other end.In case you wonder why:Being able to be "sucked" in means you will have some force pulling on your cart from the next stage.Being able to fully pass through and preferably gain speed, means the cart would go from one set of magnets to the next - motion is accomplished.Let me give you my personal favourites for 5mm disc magnets:1. The rows are at an angle of 4-5° like a slim V-shape.2. Same as above by with the orientation changed by 90°The first basically means you have the magnets facing up while in the second you would have them mounted vertically.Both have good and bad sides and I think it is easiest to start with the first option.Here you would have a row of magnets at a slight angle either side of the track.Lets say it is all pointing away from you, then the north row would be left, south row on the right of the track.If you start narrow or wide depends if you want attraction or repulsion forces to work with.Again, it makes no big difference really, just a different way of operation, most seem to prefer repulsion though thinking the forces are greater - this is not true though ;)A very often copied way of mounting the working magnet (s) on the cart is by placing a magnet with south facing down on the left and one with north facing down on the right of the cart.Here you have the big problem of manipulating fields.The forces are quite strong and it seems the obvious choice but should be left for the advanced classes.Let me try to explain:No matter the site of your work magnet it has a very narrow acting field.Means you have a lot of attraction forces going only downwards and not providing any energy to move your system ;)If you orientate a magnet (stack) so north faces to the right and south to the left on either side of the cart you have more options.If the stack or single magnet has the correct length to match the angle of the magnet rows then a funny thing happens.Assume the outer most magnet is at about the same distance from center as the first magnet in the row.Means the inner most and opposing one is further away and the attraction forces gain the upper hand.While moving along though it moves away from the magnet row and whie still gaining force the last magnet in the row stops the cart dead center.This is the common scenario you see on the web when people try and fail.Now if you change the length of your working magnet and position in relation to the magnets in the row you can use the changes to your advantage.You can add slim disc magnets either side of your stack and observe the change in behaviour and where the cart starts to be repelled or gets stuck.In a bad case it starts fast but then stops with a big wobble back and forth.The perfect balance and size means the cart is attracted once it comes close to the magnet rows.There should only be a tiny sopt of very little repulsion right before the cart takes off.Like a hair trigger on a good gun if you know what I mean.It should then see some accelleration till about magnet 5-7 in a row of 14.From there it should level out and roll trough and keep rolling.I assume your first attempts now get you to the point where you cart start really nice, slows down a bit and seems just to miss a tiny extra push to make it out.It it shoots to the last magnet in the rows and then settles back to one or two before the end you are close!We have now two basic ways of manipulating the magnetic fields in our favour, or to "cheat" phsyics.Closing the gap.You will have realised by now that you need at least two stages for your system to be tested properly.Preferably 3 to get a 120° angle in a rotary conversion, but 5 would make sure there is hickups.This also means distance is now something to play with.Remember the pull before get at the same level with the first magnet in the rows?This is the first force we utilise by bringing the second stage at a distance CLOSE to take over the pull.Close because we don't want it to pull the cart out just like that.It would create a big "bump" and in a rotary system massive and unwanted vibrations.Instead we weaken the last magnet in either row.We still want to keep its pull but not so much the holding force that makes our cart go stuck here.Placing a magnet orientated in the same direction as your rows at the end of the row will change how and where the field of the last magnet in the row goes ;)Just to be precise: If the magnet in the row is north up and south down then the added magnet should have the poles 90° to that and in the same direction as the row.Depending how high, how close and with wich pole you place it the fields will change.You want to lower the locking force by at least 50% here - that will be suffient to overcome the holding force and gives the next stage a good chance to take over.It can also help to provide a sacrificial pole below the last magnet in the row.Again if north would be facing up then the lower magnet would also face north up but with a small distance to the upper manget.Ok, what happens here exactly?If I would want to be precise here you would need to read an awful lot, so make it simple...The lower magnet provides a way for the upper magnets south pole to get somewhere else instead of back to its original north pole.It also means there is another north pole "pushing" the north of the upper magnet more flat at the bottom half.This weakens the field strenght.Distance is key.The added magnet at the end does a similar thing.It provides attraction or repulsion forces that affect the field shape of the last magnet in the row.Imagine you have north facing towards the last magnet:You would push the last bit of the field up while also providing a very sharp end instead of a big round shape.The south pole of the last magnet also gets attracted by this added magnet, even more with one magnet below it.With those two added magnets you should be able to fully overcome the binding effect stopping your cart.It won't start and keep going when you let go of it half way down the track though, you need to start with the first magnet or give it a push to overcome the first binding effect.After that momentum takes over.If it really is that simple then where are all the successful videos about it?They are out there, you just need to look quite long for them.Most people still literally think only linear.A magnet has north and south and we can't change it - but we can...With field manipulations as above and shielding we get so much more than what physics currently dictates.Keep in mind that adding shielding under your rows of magnets will also affect how all works together ;)Some people forget this when using ferromagnetic things way too close to their testing area.Distance is also vital to keep in mind when experimenting.The closer two magnets are greater their forces to each other.You can utilise this for example by lowering magnets that seem to be far too strong in your configuration and cause a binding effect ;)And as said, shielding is nice thing for triack too - imagine what would happen with sielding on the sides of your magnet rows... ;)Make a negative into a positive!Extremly strong binding forces at a certain point in your track design can mean you might be able to utilise it instead of trying to waste it.Added magnets can divert the field to quite some extend.Shielding however can also direct them somewhere else - like in the core of a transformer where it all goes in a great circle.Even strips of shielding connecting magnets from one row to the one on the other side of the track can be utilised.Like that you turn two small magnets into one long one with twisted poles at the end.Provides more field strenght too and makes it good for areas with little to no attracting force to the cart.Then there is bigger design...Some people add a center magnet.With one on the cart and one in the center of the track you can create a cancellation field.The rows bind while the center magnet wants to push.If place where there is still enough forward momentum or even acceleration but close enough to the binding magnets it is possible to greatly lower the binding effect.But keep in mind you need to consider the added repulsion or compensated the field so it is most active towards the moving direction and less strong to where the cart is coming from.Advanced manipulations.You can machine magnets, sandpaper, file, grinder, CNC....Imagine you cut a square dice magnet from one corner to the other.Depending on how you have the field orientation you can end up several variations.But if north faced up in your dice then it will still face up in the cut pieces!Cut a pyramid and you end with a big flat south pole and a pointy north pole - and with extreme field strenth in this pointy bit.Similar story with half moon shapes.Imagine you machine a flat block magnet so you have a half moon with its pointy bits facing down and big round bit up.If north was up in the block and you shape the moon correctly then you end with two strong south pole points and a north pole that is strongest right between those points.Why is this so interesting you might wonder?Imagine you already know a magnets pole does not care if gos back to its own opposite or that of a different magnet.Then you also know you can machine and shape magnets to your will.Now imagine that for a change:Precisely machined pyramids that have the top chopped off.All tops in this example facing being the north poles and big bottom south.If you then machine a precise iron core block you make a nice cube.With magnets we need really good glue and a good press to make it happen.But if the center core is of proper size then we end with a block magnet that has a south pole on all sides.Of course to be 100% perfect we would need a zero tolerance gap but good glue and high forces can come quite close.Works as a sphere too but would even have clue where to start to machine the magnets LOL

Topic by Downunder35m 2 months ago


The Moon - What do we really know and what is possible?

If we look up then seeing the moon is the most normal thing to us there is in the sky.But did you ever wonder how it actually got there? ;)Theories are out there by the lot, including those from real scientists.One of the most common is that it all started by catching the thing and that all was perfect at the time.Over time the orbit then stabilized.Other theories include that formed when our planet formed..What they all lack is what is common and true for all other moond out there: These rotate.According to science an object the size of our moon would need to rotate to maintain a stable orbit.No one told this to our moon, so it just stays in a stable orbit anyway.The only other accepted theory, that funny enough never mentioned OUR moon, is that the center of mass must be facing the orbiting planet.Now theories can run and wild if you let schientifically people loose on a subject.Official NASA data obtained by monitoring equippment on the moon supports the theory of the center of gravity.You see, sesmometers recorded "moon quakes" but also the impact of burnt rocket stages - the later were dropped on purpose.At first everyone agreed the equippment must be faulty but going through it again and again confirmed all works fine.So what got them so exited that was never officially made public?You see, every thing with suffient mass will create a sesmic shock on impact.On earth we can located the source of an earthquake or even explosion quite accurately.Same happened on the moon only with one difference to earth.Every impact caused a ringing effect.Like a bell, the soundwaves and shockwaves traveled through the moon for very long times.An early explanation was that the moon is made from really hard rock or that it might even have a metal core.This was rendered useless once the actual mass was calculated and it turned out the moon would rip us apart while spinning around us.The term "hollow moon" was born.Another interesting thing happens when you try to track down what equippment was left on the moon during which specific mission.Everything up there must have been installed at some stage.For some things though it seems there is no record when or where exactly something was left up there.Then there is the thing with the interviews...If you check the fuzz about the first moon landing then back then you couldn't help yourself but got exited as well.None of the three astronauts however appeared to be at least a little bit exited about going where no man has gone before.Somehow like visiting Iceland for the first time only to realise someone was there before you already.But it was the moon, not some easy to reach island...And while up there we did not see any exitement either, like fully staged and planned ahead.Like a not so 100% school rehersal.Claims that it was a fake and actually filmed in some studio have been verified to be false - they really were up there.After they came back two went silent and refused any interviews about the moon.All three though never spoke about anything we did not see on "live TV"...All the missing segments, the drop outs, the silence during communications...The money...Apart from the Pentagon making a disappearing act of 6Billion US, the already planned and staged moon missions were cancelled with no valid reason at all.One mission already ready to go to the launch pad, crew fully trained and briefed.Two more ready for final assembly.Official reason back then was "We have been there, it is time to explore new things."Almost the same statement was made by Obama a few weeks after he claimed "We will go up there again!".If you take away the costs for the abandoned missions then the money blown up to the moon has a huge difference to what can be tracked back.The lost sum equals out to about 8 more moon missions plus tons of state of the art equippment (back at the time it was state of the art).If you add what the Pentagon lost we are close to 15 more missions.The now...A few years back a lot of previously declared top secret documents have been released to the public.What was a good idea however turned out to be a bit too much.Quite a few documents were included that provide missing links to "incidents, missions, money spent"...Within these piles were documents indicating that space missions of the same extend as the much later moon missions were made.Same rockets, similar crafts, same requirements for water, food and oxygen, some though with just payloads of oxygen and water.Mind you though the documents speak from proposed options and not planned missions.And none of them had any exploration within it, just deliveries if you don't mind the comparison.Those documents about the ringing of the moon and how this would impact on the things we assumed to know about the moon were in there as well.What is really interesting though is what came back from the moon.None of it actually indicate that there is suffient ressources up there to justify mining.Funny enough exactly is planned on a military style.Seems fair enough considering the military can provide the best people for such a hard job.Some normal miner might have no problems getting under ground every day but knowing he is on the moon and might never make it back is another.With all the probing done that we know of you would assume the planned mining operations would be in an area rich in minerals, metals or at least something to generate fuel or oxygen.But no, it is planned to happen "on the dark side" and in an area that appearently was never explored in other ways then taking a few blurry pics while flying around the moon.However, both Russia and China claim to have been very close to this area long before details about the mining became public.And that brings us back to the past and what astromauts stated or to be precise refused to confirm or deny.In some videos we can see movements in the background.In several adio stream we hear the comments to what happens in the videos.If there is light moving around then it does not matter that is blue.You just wonder what it is and where it might have come from.Imagine the surprise if then in other videos you hear things like that the lights are back or that steam comes out of the moon like a gysir.There were official explanations for the first sightings made by the normal people when watching those videos on the NASA websites.Soon after the videos disappeared from the servers.Copies were made by the curious and quite a few videos were identified later to have contained "sightings" as well.Some even show what appears to flying machines with great manouverbilities.And if you take the high point of the happenings then it is also the same time when it was decided that we actually have no real interest in the moon.Astromauts later denied to have ever made any comments like that they are being followed or "escorted" by another craft.And the same Astromauts many years later still refuse to deny or confirm that what we could see and hear during their mission videos actually happened.Don't get me wrong but if the deny it then it just means we all saw some refections or such things.If the confirm it then we know something was out there with them.Doing neither usually means what we saw is ture enough to deny any knowledge about more details.Why then the sudden interest?Trump wants to get up there, military mining, private companies not to forget China.If there is nothing at all up there then why would they all spent money that could provide a much better living for those with low incomes?Even if it would be just for new schools and hospitals the money would be better spent if we trust the official claims about what is up there.The not so official claims....We already know NASA does not want to come with an official explanation why the moon sounds and reacts as if it would be hollow.Same for any video, audio or picture evidence indication there is sturctures on the moon or activities.Here is some of things that other people of great knowledge and with nice degrees under the belt say could, might or even is true about the moon.1. We have no evidence that the moon was always there, only what we have in record throughout history.Some claim the moon would be an artificially created structure.Indications of techonlogically highly advanced civilisations before us are there.And mining out a tiny planet and placing it in earths orbit is not far fetched if you consider higher technology levels than what we currently (officially) have.2. The satellite claim.Like the Death Star our moon could be an artifical satellite placed there for a purpose.What speaks for that theory is the impact craters on the moon.If it was never spinning or better rotating around all axis then a lot them would have been impossible.A crater always shows to some extend the direction of the impact.And on the moon they all apear to be direct and straight hits only.And even at some proper angle that against physics did not create a corresponding crater: Our plant would have been in the way.Officially it is claimed though that there would not be much of a directional crater because of the missing atmosphere and all debris settling evenly.Debris however does not explain the deformation from an impact at an angle.The satellite claim would also explain the missing depth in the craters.By the size of the bigger ones the crater should be much deeper and as said show some direction.If however the rocky surface landed there over time or is just the remaining natural hull then the craters could no go deeper.No advanced civilisation would design a stationary satellite that get a hole as soon as some big space rock hits it...3. Undocumented missions.If claims are true then we have been up there a lot more times than what our history lessons tell us.Tiny probes to analyse things, send data and so on are a thing not the the USA did.If you explain the reason for collecting seismic data by wanting to document an impact of an astroid then it is a joke.Sure it would be possible but what could we learn from the data?Nothing unless you consider that in some unoffial missions drilling was attempted on the moon.Sample collection to evaluate what is in the ground of use for future missions.Some documents now claim that all these attempts ended prematurely.Drills failed or broke, drill heads failed to go deeper and upon inspection were totally worn out.And all seemed to have happend at around the same depth.Although there is no atmosphere on the moon - if you stand on it you would be able to feel vibrations of the surface.Something astronauts would have felt during the drilling.And you can feel the difference between a vibration ending by stoping the drill and one that keeps going for a long time after...The dark side is visible in quite a few school books.Looks like the front with the brightness corrected just with different craters.Ever bothered to scan these pictures in and use some software to find matches to craters on the front of the moon ? ;)Anyways, those images show us the moon as near perfect sphere.What they don't show is how the images were actually made.They certainly did not use massive search lights from orbit to provide light for cameras.Means other sources were used, like IR, Radar, Microwaves and so on.Like we found the ruins of old civilisations by using satellites that can "see" through the forest and soil.And with that it would certainly be impossible to create such a nice and detailed image like we get from the front side.If some is edited, then why not all of it...And if all those missions we don't really know about also landed on the dark side it would explain a lot of things.All sightings seem to have disappeared to the dark side.And all leaked informations about previous missions before our first landing idicate the interest in the dark side was actually huge.They all ended though with one mission report claiming to have spotted lights on the dark side.Moving and stationary and when trying to get a better look by adjusting the orbit for the next round those lights were all gone.But audio recording indicate that from that moment on the astronauts were no longer alone and followed until turning back to earth.Several attempts seem to have been made to land near sightings on the dark side.Those where the astronauts returned home the never were the same again.Documents claim long treatment in mental facilites or suicide.The official missions appearntly started with the backstory of exploring.Some now claim it was attempt for a peaceful presence that still was not tolerated.4. Stories from involved companies.Even if NASA builds a craft themself they still need the corresponding supplies.And for a lot of things they are made outside by independent companies and contractors.Trying to track down early space mission again seems to confirm all claims about previous missions.The amount of materials provided would otherwise mean NASA actually crashed the majority of things right after take off without anyone noticing.5. Launches...So far all claims about previous moon missions or just secret ones were denied.I call this "plausible deniability".In all statements it is refered to the official launch sites.Things like being in public view and so on.What is not that commonly known is that there were a lot of capable launch sites available.After all big rockets have been tested in secrecy since we had the first.The claimed landing of the chinese started a big conundrum.At first the US claimed it never happened because there was no rocket that went up.Images prived by the chinese however clearly indicated the opposite.Not much later it was noticed that a few launches might have been misinterpreted as missle tests....What does that really mean?Quite simple: The surveillance is not perfect if the other side insists that it happened.The plausible deniablity is gone.If the US was "forced" to confrim they actually noticed the launches then it also means the chinese claims about the US doing the same could be true as well.And wasn't it a very important thing during the cold war to know when, where and why the other side launched anything?The silent agreement not to go up there again was broken many times...And although most if not all of these mission ended in orbit only it makes you wonder.What would be big deal even if all claims and conspiracies would be true?A hollow moon would defy what we know about how the universe works.With that it would also contradict some of solid laws of physics.So we need(ed) proof.Assuming we had that for a long time already then it leaves the big question of why it is hollow.Natural or artificial.Nothing natural would make sense so we investigate further.And if people still claim that they can use their little equippment to every now and then hear transmissions from the moon...Sure some things up there transmit data all the time but they do so on common frequencies and not in a range that is and never was used for long distance communications.The interest in the mon came back with our modern technology.We have watches with more computer power than what was used for the old moon missions.Materials and manufacturing methods that provide much safe crafts and space suits with a fraction of the weight of old designs.And we have new means of taking more or less limited energy up with us...We are prepared so to say.No matter what really is up there, no matter if it natural or artificial, just the fact that the moon is hollow changes our views on a lot of things....What do you think would be the best explanation for the data showing the moon rings like a bell?

Topic by Downunder35m 8 weeks ago  |  last reply 26 days ago