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Bismuth suppliers.

I need Bismuth metal to make my own Bismuth Crystals. I cannot locate it at all in Australia Ive looked at the obvious such as metal suppliers etc. even non-lead shot and fishing sinkers but can't find it. I realise that I can buy it online but it is a fairly heavy metal and with the added cost of mailing  to Melbourne Australia makes it very expensive. As I'm going to melt it do you know of any other tools or items made of Bismuth that I could use? Any words of wisdom would help. Thanks in anticipation..

Topic by craftyv    |  last reply

Messing with bismuth. Can it be done easily? Answered

Is there any inexpensive (eg. <$100 US) way to make complex shapes with bismuth? I'm hoping something along the lines electroplating will work. I'm kind of hoping for input from Lemonie

Question by The Ideanator    |  last reply

How practical is using bismuth for stovetop heat transfer? Answered

A stove that heats pots by induction is a nice idea, but it is still not common and will not work with all pots.Suppose, instead, the pot and resistive heating element were placed in a well that was filled with bismuth or another metal that has a low melting point. How would the efficiency of this compare to a pan sitting on an induction cooker, gas stove, or ordinary resistive heating element? What would be some important practical considerations, if this were implemented?

Question by NobodyInParticular    |  last reply

Magnetic Levetation? A Magnet Levitating between two Bismuth plates?

I am trying to make a magnet levitate between two bismuth plates that i made (picture 3,4,5 and 6). As you can see they are round discs about 7mm (millimeters) thick and 110 mm or 11cm (centimeters) in diameter. I bought two magnets; -the one I am trying to make levitate is 30mm (millimeters) in diameter, 10mm thick, and 22kg (kilograms) strong... -the other that is on top, the one that is pulling the magnet up is 30mm in diameter, 15mm thick and 23kg strong I put my two plates of bismuth so that there is about 25mm of space between them... Than I put in the 30mm x 10mm magnet that I want to levitate inside. The other magnet is located above the setup. I very slowly, ever so carefully start to lower the magnet. The magnet between the two bismuth plates starts to shake and at one point hits the top bismuth plate. I can't make it to levitate, either it is on the bottom plate or on the top. I tried to make the space between two bismuth plates smaller and larger, to lower the magnet by a very small didn't help... PROBLEM: I can't make it levitate, either it is on the bottom bismuth plate or on the top... WHY IS THIS? HOW CAN I FIX IT AND MAKE IT LEVITATE? Thank you for your help! -Stanislav A.K.A. Comodore

Question by comodore    |  last reply

Can i use Copper Oxide to make a Home Made Peltier?

Here's the site .  i thought that i can use Copper(I) Oxide to make a Peltier Module. Peltiers are made up of semiconductor materials like bismuth telluride. 

Question by bhipolito1    |  last reply

Chemicals people would want to make?

Basically I want to know what lab chemicals you want to make, if you know how to make any useful chemicals. please post, I am not responsible for and injury's, fatality's, or "bad things" of any sort that come from this thread, all things posted here are to assumed for informational purposes only.

Topic by    |  last reply

(newsletter) Algae Bioreactor, Water Bottle Raft, Video Glasses...

Feb 5, 2009 Sign-up for this newsletter: function openSubscribePopUp(src){ var emailValidate = /\w{1,}[@][\w\-]{1,}([.]([\w\-]{1,})){1,3}$/ if(emailValidate.test(src.value) == false){ alert("Please enter correct email"); return; }"/newsletter/newslettersignup?email=" + src.value,"newslettersignup1","status=yes,scrollbars=yes,resizable=yes,width=420,height=250"); } Welcome back! Making something sweet for your honey? Enter it in Valentine's Day: Sweet Treats Contest and win some fabulous gourmet chocolate-covered cocoa beans from Cocoa Puro, or a date with our own noahw!It's cold up here in the northern areas and we want to see your great ways to fight the chill in the Stay Warm Contest. Win a brand new sleeping bag!The Tap'dNY Keep the Bottle Contest has closed for entries and now it's time to vote! Head on over to the contest page and help choose who wins a Voltaic solar-powered backpack! Algae Bioreactor from Water Bottles by mfischer Magnetic Induction Bike Lights by nagutron Glasses Mounted Video Display by XenonJohn Build a Dome out of Paper (and Steel and Cement) by sklarm Win a date or gourmet chocolate covered cocoa beans! The Perfect Valentine's Gift! Fun with Bismuth by rachel Plastic Soda Bottle Prosthesis by CIRnetwork Nail-less, glue-less, almost screw-less bed by Tazo Five-cent Tilt Sensor by ix Make a Wall from Plastic Bottles by yotnomuk Gas Bottle Wood Burner by btop Build a Raft out of Water Bottles by Weissensteinburg Make Your Own Hotwire Cutter! by Creativeman Closes for entries this Sunday! Vote for your favorites! Friendly Folding Keychain by reconscious Remove Broken Light Bulbs with a Bottle by prabbit22m Solar Necklace T-Shirt by Plusea Extreme Surface Mount Soldering by doctek Now go make something awesome, and I'll see you next week! - Eric Sign-up for this newsletter: function openSubscribePopUp(src){ var emailValidate = /\w{1,}[@][\w\-]{1,}([.]([\w\-]{1,})){1,3}$/ if(emailValidate.test(src.value) == false){ alert("Please enter correct email"); return; }"/newsletter/newslettersignup?email=" + src.value,"newslettersignup2","status=yes,scrollbars=yes,resizable=yes,width=420,height=250"); }

Topic by fungus amungus  

Magnetic actuators - anyone here ever made one?

Magnetostrictive alloys like Galfenol are not only quite cheap but also quite possible to produce and machine at home. As it seems that right now I can't finnish anything without being stopped by something else that got my attention I am a bit stuch on all ends now LOL Anyway, I still have a few kg of rare elements like Gallium, Bismuth, Antimony and such that I misused for my testing of home made ferrites. So apart from making some fancy metals that melt at very low temperatures I thought a much better test usage would be to make something that for once has some real world use :) If you look up some of the research papers for Galfenol use or magnetostrictive materials in general you soon learn two things: a) You need a degree or have studied something related to fully understand the technical stuff behind it. b) Finding something that would give you enough info to make something that works as planned is next to impossible. I don't mind wasting some time on melting steel, machining some samples and do some testing but of course this takes a lot of time... So I was wondering if anyone here already experimented with magnetostrictive materials and their possible uses? Apart from micro actuators for minature things I don't have I was thinking of generator use. A lot of things produce wanted and unwanted vibrations, magnetostrictive alloys are capable of transforming them into electrical energy by simply using a coil around the material. For example the recoil of your favourite hunting rifle could in theory charge your dot sight or laser sight/flashlight. Or the otherwise useless vibrations of big machines or rock tumblers can be turned into something to charge your phone. Not to mention impact sensors or flat surface loudspeakers....

Topic by Downunder35m  

Solar - PV versus Solar Oven with Peltier

I was browsing the site as I am often wont to do, and spent quite some time revisiting old 'ibles covering various solar projects, almost all of which are heat related. I understand from general consensus that PV (photo voltaic) solar systems are very inefficient and one of the worst ways to harvest solar energy (when considering the cost of construction and the energy transfer capacity, etc.) Almost everyone who knows what they are doing suggest that the best (and easiest) way to harvest solar energy is to collect the heat - be it to heat air or water, cook food, or other such purposes.Now, I have recently been fascinated by a discovery relatively new to me, peltier units. These devices, for those who don't know, can work in one of three ways. They can harvest and/or produce either heat, cold, or electricity.Basically, if an electric current is run through a unit, it produces heat on one side and an equal amount of 'cold' on the other. Yes I know you can't produce cold - but for the layman, that is what we call it.Or, if one side is heated while the other side is cooled, the unit produces an amount of electricity from the difference in temperatures. One example I have seen and plan to make use of is in vehicles - if you place one or more of these on your exhaust manifold, or any other location where the engine produces waste heat, and airflow can reach it to cool the other side, you generate electricity from the waste heat energy that would otherwise just be . . . well, wasted.But it occurred to me today, if you had a unit attached in the middle of a solar collector, focusing sunlight on one side of the peltier unit, and isolate the other side of the unit in some cooling medium (perhaps even just air with a heat sink of some sort - more likely a cooling liquid though), how effective would this be at harvesting solar energy (heat) into electricity?Actually, I have been using the more common name of peltier, but I believe that for this application a seebeck unit (which is nearly the same, but different) would be required. As I understand it, Peltier units are used more as coolers and are almost always constructed with Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) and used around room temperature and below; while Seebeck units are good for power generators are often constructed of PbTe or, SiGe as well as Bi2Te3 and are used at much higher temperatures.From :The effect is that a voltage, the thermoelectric EMF, is created in the presence of a temperature difference between two different metals or semiconductors. This causes a continuous current to flow in the conductors if they form a complete loop. The voltage created is of the order of several microvolts per degree difference.((more info can be found at the referenced wiki page on formulae etc.))Just curious on if this would ever be a decent way to harvest solar energy into electricity. I have also thought up using a thermal siphon solar heating system in which the liquid flows past one or more water wheels which power a small (and obviously slow) generator - but at that point I believe it would be so inefficient and limited in use as to just have absolutely no practical application. The peltier unit (used as a seebeck unit) would probably do better, but I am not certain, which is why I post the question.

Topic by karossii    |  last reply

Ultrasonic cavitation as way to create impossible alloys?

I played around with ultrasonics now for a while and noticed that when it comes to certain things then logic seems no longer to apply.In the normal household you might find some ultrasonic cleaner and that's about it.A few people might have some distance measuring device or sensor array somewhere.As far as the normal human is concerned that is more than enough ;)Playing with certain metals like Bismuth or Gallium is not only but also a nice way to create nice alloys that you can play with even more.Take a portable and simple hydrogen supply as an example.Just make an alloy with lots of aluminium and a small amount of gallium.Cut it into strips, blocks or grind into a powder if you dare.Either way you just add water in a sealed container and get lots of pure hydrogen.The waste product is aluminium oxide, which has additional uses.The gallium itself is not affected by the reaction and can be reused many times.However, with some metals things are just different.As you might know it is hard to impossible to create certain alloys and other wouldn't make any sense.For example an alloy made from Calcium and iron...One of the big problems with alloys is that you need to have both metals in a molten form, then mix them properly and hope it turns out as planned.And well, if the metals in question just on't want to combine we cheat by using slats as a flux for example or by blowing hydrogen through the molten mix to act as a sacrificial binder until the metal cools down.Through ultrasonic cavitation we can not only clean surface, the same effect also destroys cells as the power from the implosion and the intense heat is more than what a cell can handle.There are even tests now to determine how safe and effective it would be to sterilise hospital equippment.A few seconds in an ultrasonic bath would safe the hours in the autoclave...On an industrial scale ultrasonic vibrations are used to weld plastic parts - like the head and tail lights on modern cars or just sealed plastic housings of any kind.With all this in mind my experiments with ultrasonic soldering made me wonder...Science papers state that that for example ceramics are not actually soldered.Appearently it is again hydrogen bonds provided by the ceramic or trapped air inside that provide the means to stick permantly.There is also an effect based on the implosion of the cavitation bubble.Here the solder literally is shot at well aboce ultrsonic speeds onto the surface of the ceramic.Together with the vacuum effect the solder is then pushed into the tiniest of cracks and cavities.Surface tension and other effects finally prevent the solder from just flowing off like it would do if we use just heat.What it means is that there is no real soldering at all happening.In reality it is like millions of big hydraulic presses would push the molten metal onto the surface.Going back to the fun of Gallium with Aluminium....Aluminium does not really go to well with steel.And gallium does not that good with steel either.Melting an Aluminium-gallium alloy is quite simple.With an excess of Gallium in the mix it should be possible to add fine steel powder (steel, not iron!).Of course it would neither mix well nor really melt at these low temperatures.With ultrasoic cavitation however we could force the stuff to not only mix but also create the same effect as used by ultrasonic soldering.The additional metals and minerals in a steel alloy should hopefully prevent any unwanted reactions in the final step...If the steel powder is ine enough then the assimilation of the steel into the aluminium-gallium mix would result in the breakdown of the steel.Once cooled and hard again the big question what would happen if we let water attack it?In theory all aluminium would react to form aluminium oxide and aluminium hydroxide.The gallium again would not be affected and as it is also bound to the steel should form a nice gallium-steel alloy.But what hapens to the voids where the aluminium was???The alloy would either be only affected on the surface or through cavitation and time all aluminium would be transformed.In the best scenario we would get a steel-gallium sponge where the voids are filled with alumium oxide.Forging such a mix could result in a ceramic steel..... !?? ;)Imagine a safe...There is always forceful ways to get in.Like drilling or using a big angle grinder.The pro might use a magnesium torch rod though....The common approach to improve penetration resistance is by filling a space between the outside and inside walls of a safe.Whatever you can imagine that is nightmare for your tools can be used, like thick glass plates, hardened steel bits, carbide studs, concrete with glass fibres....But even diamond tipped tools would already struggle if the steel itself would contain high amounts of a hard ceramic like aluminium oxide.The remaining gallium would also cause very high friction and through this heat - which these tools really can't stand unless you can provide water cooling as well.With the right balance of aluminium and gallium most of the original properties the steel had can be preserved.Just and idea though....

Topic by Downunder35m  

Very old shielding materials and techniques for permanent magnets and resulting possibilities

Forromagnetic meterials are not just called that for no reason.It comes from ferrous - iron.Iron has the highest permeability at normal temperatures.That means a magnet is attracted to it very strongly.We utilise this for transformer cores, the stuff inside a relay and the moving latch of the relay itself.Like current from an electrical system magnetic fields like to take the easiest route possible.Air is a very bad medium, so any iron close by will be prefered even if it is at a slight distance.You can check with a magnet, a steel bar and some iron shavings - please cover the are with plate first ;)Slightly less known is the option to also guide and extend the magnetic field this way.If you check how far the magnetic field of a magnet reaches and note that distance,then you can add some steel bars or rods at the poles - the field will extend through the metal.The most powerful example of this are the shielded magnets used for hooks or speakers.Except for a tiny area the entire magnetic flux goes through the metal.So in this lefover area the magnetic flux density will my many times greater than what the magnet alone would be able to.What most people don't know is that magnets also interact with other magnets in terms of their fields changing and distorting.The Halbach Array is a good example of this.Seen as a single magnet the array would have one weak and one strong side instead of even strenght for both.Wherever magnetic fields change a conductor can produce electricity or current.This in return causes an electromagnetic field that opposes the one from the magnets.Just drop a magnet through a copper or aluminium pipe ;)Since these distortions are widely unknow to the hobby tinkerer mistakes can happen ;)In the early days of exploring science some people already knew about shielding.And they also knew that certain metals have certain properties.Where it is quite hard to create a good coil from steel wire, copper works fine as it is not magnetic.What would then a copper shielding do?If you have two moving magnets with only a tiny gap then the resulting field distortions are quite huge.A copper shield around the magnet like a pipe would then react to these changes and also create a megnetic field that works in relation to the enclosed magnet.In simple terms it means the shield would let the magnet appear weaker or stronger depending on the field change.A quite old document I found gave some hints on how people thought in different directions back then.It was in regards to the design of a magnet motor by the way.Here various magnets were shielded in tube made of a copper-bismuth-alumium alloy.These tubes were then electrically connected so it created a single loop conductor.The claim was that the resulting electromagnetic field of this ring would drive the fields of the enclosed magnets sideways out of alignment.Like bending straight pastic tubes sideways.This "pulsating" would always happen when the magnetic binding forces reach max and so basically drastically weaken this binding effect.Another document talks about a "magnetised brass rod".A holes of the rod diameter is drilled through a block magnet.Not from north to south but through the middle where the flux is greatest.The claim here was that if that rod rotates fast enough a very low voltage with a very high current will be generated.Sounds easy and interesting enough that I might have to test one myself one day.The best one however is what I consider a hoax or being as good as Starlite.Someone back in 1908 claimed to have created a material the reflects magnetic fields.In lame man's terms it would be like an insulator around some electrical wire.The claim and some pics showed it, was that no magnetic field can pass the material.Or to be correct only a tiny fraction of what would be possible through air.A small magnet inside a longer tube of this material would create almost the same attraction to steel at the tubes ends as on the magnet itself.Measurements showed the field strength would be almost equal to a long mangnet of the same field strength.Imagine guiding the field of a big and powerful magnet through a tube around some corners or other magnets and then end in just a tiny hole for the entire flux...Too bad he never shared his secret formula to anyone knows to mankind.Isolation...Imagine you have an array of changing magnetic fields and quite strong magnets.Then you might face the problem that your focus on the "working" end neglected the other end of the magnet (stack).Providing some iron core material will keep thes field lines contained and away from interfering with your setup ;)But it also allows to use te otherwise unused end of your magnets more directly.For example by guiding to another magnet to affect its field strenght ;)Placing a sheet or steel between two magnets in a setup provides a "shared pole" so to say.If you have a north and south pole on a rotor at a distance of 5mm then a sheet of steel between will drastically weaken the strenght and reach of this combined field.It is like pulling the arch between the magnets down to make it more flat.And at and an angle the resulting field will also be slightly angled ;)Capping...When I first encounter this many years ago I couldn't really make sense of it.Quite complex..If you check the magnetic field lines with iron filings or similar then you notice how they go in a rounded manner from pole to pole.This is because the single field lines are of equal polarity and will dirve apart like opposing magnets.By capping the ends of a magnet you provide a short.Instead of diverting out like mad they will follow the cap and create very intersting magnetic field in return.If both poles are capped it is like pressing the magnet flat but without having a field on top of the oles - only aorund the center part.For this the thickness much must match what is required for the flux density.As a rule of thumb: if the end is still very magnetic then it is not enough material tickness ;)Interacting fields in a tube...This one is quite old too and seemed to have found no usable inventions apart from simple magnetic spring replacement systems.But it gave me some clues about Tesla "earthquake machine" ;)If you place a magnet in a tube and at it's ends magnets with opposing fields to the one inside then you can fix this magnet in place.Push one magnet deeper and the distance from the inner magnet to the other end will shrink the same amount.In this old paper two coils were around the pipe with the inner magnet between them.In this gap and at about the same width as the magnets length another coil was placed.Violent shaking would then create electrical energy at much higher level then modern shaker torches.In return an AC current on the outer coils would cause the inner magnet to move back and forth to create electricity in the center coil.According to the paper possible uses include: core less transformer, measuring minute changes in AC voltages, providing free power from a running motor...The last one had me stumbled for a very long time.Until I considered a different configuration.The whole thing is basically a linear DC motor - with correct timing of course.And in some motors we use permanent magnets.I am starting to wonder what would happen if we would design a rotor magnet like this?The running motor would be subject to constant field changes that affect the rotor.And a normal motor is always "even".By using four magnets instead of one we can push the field really flat.This means the area where the coil would operate (about 1/5 of the magnets area) will have a much stronger field.The resulting torque should be higher by about 25% !!Even a simple two coil model setup should show a significant increase in performance here.Timing is critical here but I tried some calculations based on 8 poles and the required "on times" for the coils.In a standard motor configuration with a single rotor magnet the coil is active for about 12° of the rotation.With a 4 magnet configuration this "on time" can be reduced to under 8° of the rotation to get the same amount of torque.An energy reduction of about 4% if you neglect losses and only think in time.If you think in terms like impulse energy then we are talking of about 15% !Shorter on time but still much higher flux density overall than for the long standard timings.Going the long run now:If you check how most DC motors work then you realise soon that for most one rule seems to followed.Only use one coild pair at a time.This is quite contradictive if you consider the geometry and options.A dual commutator would allow to use a second coil pair with a field OPPOSING the magnets instead of being attracted to it.After all: on you bike you pedal with both legs and not just one...And if you do it professionally then yu do the same as I suggested for the motor - you use the up pull of your legs as well.Doing it brushless only requires amodified h-bridge desing to drive the second coil pair at the right timing.Some will now say that it requires twice the energy, I say that for the same motor size your get twice the torque!Just imagine what that means in possible weight reduction for a motor - or its size to deliver the same torque at the same power levels when a normal motor is used ;)The more poles the more complicate the precise timing but no big deal really with modern electronics.Can it be improved even further?I though long and hard about that one until I considered EMF.A DC motor produces a lot of it when the elecromagnetic field collapses in the the coils.We do not utilise this energy...There is a tiny delay until the released energy levels are at max.My theory is that it should be possible to divert this energy into another coil set.If that coil is not the next active but still within a strong enough field area then the EMF would actually add to the drive of the motor.Only downside is that according to my calculations at least 16 poles would be required to get an optimum result.Way above of what I can create in my little garage :(In theory it should then be possible to reach about 98% efficiency for the motor....

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Magnetmotor - really impossible or just supressed?

When someone starts talking about a so called magnetmotor than most people judge right away.Laws of physics, perpetuum mobile is impossible, magnets are static....We all know the limitations nature puts on us... That however did not stop quite a few people since the 1950's to build working magnet motors. Or, to be precise: To make the claim, show them and then somehow disappear. A few though seem to have survived and even claim to make good business. Securely closed machine, stellite tracking and 24/7 online monitoring. Either just a bad and long running hoax or a real attempt to keep a secret secret. Even the somewhat famous Yildiz motor showed off around the world only to disappear.Some like them, some don't. Either way all this sounds like the perfect conspirary theory LOL So lets take a look on what is fake and what might be real but missing some vital clues. You can find several good Youtube channels created by people trying to build a working magnet motor. Some of them have no problems to admit failure and still keep trying and updating their projects. Did long enough and you see two outcomes. The first is giving up or "realising" that it will never work. The second often seems like a user is getting some relly good results and is really close to keep the magnetmotor running. Both disappear without and updates or traces. Now of course this is just confirmation that it will never work, but then again: What if it did already quite a few times? Even Tesla had patents for a magnetmotor and so far none of his patents were a hoax. Although none of his patents allow to actually build a working devices without some additional info and knowledge. And that is the key that I am trying to get: The lost knowledge.How can a magnetmotor never work? That one is quite simple from the start. If a linear model won't work no matter where you start then a rotary version will fail as well. And if a linear version works, it has to do so far at least 5 segments and with preferably increasing or at least constant speed. Having said that and assuming you know a little bit about magnetism: Ever wondered about shapes of magnets?? The common types are block, round like a bar and those disk like ones, some even with holes. A less well known version is the ring magnet. You can look them up as well as their corresponding magnetic field geometry - or what is assumed to be the right geometry. To give you a clue: All those floating spinning toys use a ring magnet in the base and onother one in the spinner. In the center is a dead zone for the magnetic field that is far lower than further out on the ring. And the strnger outer fields also reach further - giving the entire spinner a bowl like area to float on, the spinning just stabilises it like a gyroscope. A similar flat disk magnet wouldn't have this indentation in the field but rather a dome like sphere. The ring just kicks a dint into this sphere if you don't mind the simpification. Similar changes in the field structure happen when you combine two or more magnets. One example we all know is stacking identical smaller magnets. And often we are suprised how much stronger two thin disk magnets are compared to a single. Distance however sets a certain limit. And take those hook magnets... Just a small ring magnet in a metal pot with core. Remove the magnet and just by itself it is far weaker. Why? Quite simple.... The same way a transformer core directs the magnetic flow, the metal part of the hook magnet provides a shortcut for the magnetic field - and in return all is much stronger ;) Now you have some more clues, but still there are tons of options for failure... The most common is the sticking effect. No matter how well you planned and designed in most cases you linear or rotary prototype will stall sooner or later. Even if started manually at high speeds some seem to run very long but once they slow down and stop it is obvious they always stop where the magnetic field won't allow the binding effect to be overcome.Wouldn't dare to say that I have a working magnetmotor, but I might have some clues you want to try if you decide to give it a try yourself. So how COULD a magnetmotor actually work? Like in the Perendiv examples all over the web, you could aloow a moving responder to the rotor. Like a piston the responder will be lifted in areas it would otherwise limit or reduce the speed of the system. Well designed only a few mm would b required but it also means wasted energy to move the responder. Then there is the nice way of modifying fields by adding magnets in different angles and polarities. Lets say towards the end of your stages on the linear model it is hard to overcome the binding effect from the end of the previous stage. The perendiv model would now somehow change the distances. But you can also add magnets to lower the binding effect ;) Like a ring or hook magnet you can shape the field and offer a stronger repulsin field or a lower binding force. Last but certainly not least is the option of adding magnetic metals like iron or somehow weirder ones like bismuth. So, do we have any examples of something very common utilising any of this? We sure do :) Take a speaker apart and you end with the cage, the membrane, the actual work coil and the magnet. We don't need anything but the magnet so take a good and very close look. What in the audio world is called a shield to prevent the magnet from messing with things close by is exactly the same as on a hook magnet ;) Only difference is the tiny gap for the coil. The magnetic field is directed into two paths, one by the metal core, the other by the inner enclosure of the magnet or the magnet itself. The coil operates in the area of maximum flux.Last hints... If you take two identical and strong magnets with north or south facing up then it is quite hard to push them very close together. But check what happens if you try the same wen both soth poles (or both north poles) are placed on a magnetic surface - if in doubt your standard fridge door. Suddenly you can move much closer together with the same amout of force (not considering the added friction!). And similar story for opposing configurations. Where in free air or on a table the magnets would just jump together, on a metal plated you can move them much, much closer before this happens. Copper pipe and magnet fun :) Ideally you would have a straight copper pipe and a cylindrical magnet that has a loose fit in the pipe. Aluminium pipe work too or even a roll of aluminium foil if you have nothing else. A magnet in the pipe will travel very slow down the pipe, friction is not an issue here. So what is slowing it down? The magnet creates a field in the pipe and through that the pipe generates electicity. And funny enough this electricity creates an opposing magnetic field in the pipe - the magnet slows down. Even if you glue it onto a wooden stick it won't rush through it. Trying to push it by hand and you feel the created resistance. The faster you push, the harder it is to push! If you made it all the way down here with the reading then I have to assume you fit into one of three of my categories. a) You are a total sceptic and just read it for your amusement. If so, then please don't post a reply with usual negative feedback, instead see it as the same fun you had reading it ;) b) You are at least curious and like to play with magnets. In this case take the above as inspiration to explore more ways to have fun with your magnets! c) You are more or less frustated because you wasted a lot of time and some money to build a magnet motor that just won't work. A and B might go on and enjoy the fun, C however might want to read very attentive now ;) If you take some indicator sheet for magnetic fields, like these funny green ones, and play with moving magnets then you see a very interesting effect on the "screen". The otherwise static field lines change chape and sometimes even seem to disappear or shrink. With a small rotor assembly it almost looks like flashes when the magnets move past each other. This effect is often totally neglected and to be honest I overlooked it for a long time as well. Being able to see how the magnetic field changes gives the thing an whole new dimension so to speak. Creating a magnet with a complex shape is difficult to say the least. Only ferrite or ceramic ones can be used and you would cut of machine them according to your desired shape and with regards to the orginal center of the magnetic field. So most people revert to the classic way of shaping by adding magnets of various types, sizes and amounts. Modern neodymium magnets make this trial and error process easier as there are many sizes and strengths available. Add a detector shield of suitable size and you have hours of fun time ahead of you. But doing so in any rotary assembly is next to impossible. So what did Yildiz differently and what was missed so many times? Yildiz took it a step further and not only provided "shunts" to create very strong magnetic field from the generated electricity but also a second rotor. Since we all start small lets focus on the basics first. Remember the hook magnet and speaker or the copper pipe? Some examples for shape shifting your otherwise static magnetic fields: 1. A magnetic metal "connection" from one (low in the armature) pole to an opposing (high in the amature) pole with cause the field from the "high" pole to "bend" towards the connected magnet. 2. A magnet with an orientation of 90° to the last magnet is the sequence will severely influence the field of this last magnet! This goes for either orientations! 3. Adding a non-magnetic "shield" around a magnet, like a piece of copper pipe, will not affect the static field of the magnet. However it will severely alter the field of the enclosed magnet when another magnet passes it! It will also affect the overal field during the passing as the moving magnet will also induce a field in the copper by affecting the field of the enclosed magnet! Thickness and lenght of the shield influence the strength of these effects. 4. In a simple perendiv motor design the bar that creates the attraction for the spinning part is a magnet too. Either a long bar type or two small ones with an iron or nickel rod between them. There is no need for a piston or something that drives the bar up or out of the way ;) Just use the right magnet at the right spot on your rotor to repell the bar ;) Mount the ar with suitable springs and you suddenly can have multiple stages on your rotor instead of just the usual one! Don't forget the moving magnet on the opposing side of the segment in question though as otherwise you still will get stuck. (Hint: You can place a small but powerful magnet in the center of the opposing bar ;) Just make sure you limit the springs movement so the bar won't be pulled closer)Ok, hold on now! Does a magnet motor actually work or not? I can only give hints and say the laws of physics as we know them apply to magnetmotors the same way as everything else. Unlimeted motion without supplying energy is not possible. Limited motion with adding or using energy however is still possible and real. The same is true for being able to machine, 3D print or otherwise manufacture at very tight tolerence and accuracy levels. This includes bearings or bearing systems with very little friction losses. Just check these floting and rotating magnet toys that look like a spindle. Only a tiny needle like pin makes contact with a glass surface - next to no friction loss. A proper and supposedly working magnet motor should provide more energy than what it uses - one way or the other. No law of physics lets us get around the fact that such a motor could only keep spinning if the produced power or motion energy is at least the same as what is required to make it move. Magnets lose their strenght over time, they are like a very slowly depleting battery. So, isn't it funny that all magnet motors so far that claimed to work also had the requirement to replace the magnets once the things fails to work or start? And if you leave a very strong neodymium magnet shielded from outside fields or magnetic stuff than your grandkids will still find a quite strong magnet. Do a little performance test with your new magnets, like how much force is required is required to lift them off a steel plate. Make the same test with the magnets once you played around extensively with them in your motor. Now take a spare magnet that was never used from the orginal batch and compare both against each other ;) If the motor would not use energy then why are the magnets depleted to a certain degree, realted to runtime and usage time? Wait a minute! Does that now mean it actually works? Lets just say energy is certainly used. We only know similar effects from electromagnetic systems. But did anyone ever really check how much actual energy is in magnetic field generated by a non electric magnet? Get a good sized N52 neodymium magnet and check how much force is required to pull it off a steel surface. Now try to get the smallest sized electromagnet capable of that force and check how much energy it consumes at the level that equals the pulling force of the N52 magnet ;) Makes no sense to even try to compare these you will say now. I just say energy is energy and we were formed to only think in certain ways and don't even try silly things like this ;) To keep the fun up let us imagine we would actually have a similar energy available than what our electro magnet would require. In reality more because we wouldn't have electrical or flux related losses in the metal around the coil. Or is the imagined reality, no clue ;) If true it would mean even a motor with very bad efficiency would be able to create huge amounts of torque. Well, torque is basically acceleration. Which would mean our motor would not just be happy to spin, it would speed up until the bearing fail or the thing is ripped apart. Imagine a dental drill of that size and weight suddenly falling apart at full speed... Every example of motors claimed to be working, that are not fakes, seem to be happy no matter what the load is. It the thing turns a generator than it would have to slow down a bit with the increased load but they don't. With no limited factors otherwise this makes them a fake. Even a perfect motor would have to react to load changes.... Don't we agree that the stronger the magnetic force or field in a conductor the stronger the resulting magnetic and opposing field of the conductor? We use the difference to either drive a motor or take out electricity... But if you take the "open" shielding of a magnet in a changing field than the influence of the shield on the overall field gets stronger with stronger field changes. And properly desinged and orientated they would actually double as a natural limiter for the rotation speed. Once the electrical energy in the shield becomes too strong it will be able to cancel out the field of the enclosed magnet...If we assume a magnet motor is really possible and works with the intended output to keep it spinning or even take energy out: Then what would be possible downfalls that stop this thing happening in everyones garage? We can explore the stars but so far no one bothered to invent anything to visualise magnetic field in a 3 dimensional way other than by simulation. No realtime and true observation like this. The few working technologies that exist rely on sensors, interpretaion and filling in gaps. But imagine something like a detector shield as cloud! And then even better with selctive spacing to get a realtime view of where exactly the field lines go. All we can do is forget our teaching and try it out anyway ;) If by some mistake a magnet motor would really work right away, then chances are high the inventor would wonder why that thing takes off like mad and how to stop it. Unless well prepared it would certainly end in the destrution of the motor. But the inventor would know what to look for in the next prototype. The logical conclusion would be to the couple the energy taken to the speed while physically limittin the free load speed. The other one would be the design the electrical generator around the and within the motor. To even get close to this point you would have to spend endless days and nights working on finding a solution. The closer you get the more disappointment when the final model still fails to keep spinning for more than a few hours. Most people will then accept defeat and move on... Still not saying it actually works but if you made it to this point in time where it could be easier to move on and do other things:Ever wondered what would happen if you "shield" a magnet with a coil? Of course nothing would happen as we know. But try this in some fixed assembly that allows you move another magnet through the field of the shielded one. Perferably witha force gauge or some option to read out the energy required to move it through the various stages of the field. See what happens if you short the coil or add a resistor to it ;) Now if this coild is able to produce electricity then the more we use the more the effects on the required force would change. What do you think would happen if you combine common coil relations of electric motors to a "coil shielded" magnet motor? Right, all these coils would interact with the magnetic fields of the coils they are connected to... And through that with the overall field surrounding the enclosed magnet..... I leave up to you to imagine how these interacting coils could provide "resistance" or "acceleration"/"surplus electricity"...Like they say: You can only find out if you try ;) To keep up the positive thinking: A permanent magnet just sticks to any magnetic surface and does so with the same force. But the real energy loss in terms of getting weaker can almost be neglected. Any electromagnet capable of the same holding force woul require ongoing energy supplies to keep it up. It is using energy the same way the permanent magnet does! The difference is the permanent magnet is not seen as anything that would provide us with energy.... And if it can't provide energy other than passing through coils then why the heck does it keep sticking to the fridge year after year? It does require energy to keep this weight up doesn't it, even if you add a thin teflon disk and oil to reduce friction? ;) No magic, no "free energy" bogus, just plain physics viewed from a slightly different angle than what we learn in school ;) Have a good laugh and a good beer, then read it again and just consider some of the things here that are not mentioned in any literature about magnetism that we commonly use. Now I got you thinking, didn't I ? ;)

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