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Polyvinyl Chloride

What is your little brother (or sister) have in his/her mouth right now ? What makes your car smell nice ? What plastic is my ipod made of ? WHAT GAVE ME CANCER ?.... READ THIS

Topic by littlechef37    |  last reply


ferric chloride?

What is the best ferric chloride constration?

Question by abofar    |  last reply


Calcium Chloride Corrosive Effects

I know that calcium chloride can corrode metal, but does it require direct contact or can it generate fumes that could corrode?   Here's the issue:  I have a wood stove and I place a container of Damp Rid inside over the summer to absorb moisture.  It looks like the Damp Rid plastic container had a small crack, so moisture passed through the calcium chloride and through the container and through the back of the stove After a while I noticed a pool of water behind the stove.  I traced the problem back to the Damp Rid container, cleaned up the moisture inside and outside the stove, and replaced the Damp Rid.  At the same time I noticed areas all over the exterior of the stove where the finish was coming off, areas that were not in contact with the water.  In fact, at least one section of the stove that had direct contact shows no sign of  a problem. I'm trying to discover if the calcium chloride caused the problem, or if it's something else causing the damage.

Topic by corgaff  


how can i make calcium chloride? Answered

What do i use to make calcium chloride

Question by aehltiezb    |  last reply


Removing chlorides from a solution to leave only metallic copper?

I'm trying to deposit metallic copper into a piece of wood and i'm doing it with a solution of copper chloride (the alternative pcb etchant to the ferric stuff). I want to deposit metallic copper into the wood where it has soaked in and remove the chlorides altogether. Bearing in mind that i don't want much in the way of another solution, how could it be done? Could I drop in some lead to precipitate out the chloride ions or is there something else that would steal the chloride ions from copper that wouldn't be too hard for a hobbiest to obtain?

Question by The Ideanator    |  last reply


What can I do with Aluminium Chloride? Answered

 I recently made some Aluminium Chloride by electrolysis and evaporated the water off and powdered the crystals. I have about half a 35mm film canister full *That's a standard unit of measurement you know :-)* Just wondering what I can do with it. (Maybe try and get the Aluminium back?).

Question by DELETED_zoltzerino    |  last reply


how can remove chloride from ferric chloride?

First i dissolved iron ore with Hcl and then i filtered it and then i  titrated that filtrate  with NaoH then i got precipitated iron ore solids by filter that solution, but more than 10% chlorides are present in that solids, so can any body tell how to remove that chlorides from that solids ?

Question by suribabupandiri    |  last reply


Is Calcium Chloride safe to use on roof or gutter ice dams? Answered

In cold climes, snow buildup on roofs often leads to ice dams, usually at the gutter. When the snow melts, the dam can route water under roof shingles and cause roof damage.Is Calcium Chloride safe to use on roofs? (Sodium Chloride is not, due to it's corrosiveness.)

Question by gmoon    |  last reply


How much copper will 1lb of Ferric Chloride dissolve?

How much copper will 1lb of Anhydrous Ferric Chloride dissolve? How much water does the Ferric Chloride need to be dissolved in? Thanks

Question by arthur92710    |  last reply



how to make liquid Ferric chloride out of anhydrous ferric chloride powder?

i mean how many parts of water to how many parts of powder..? please help...! thanks.?

Question by mzee233    |  last reply


what houshold products are made of calcium chloride? Answered

I need calcium chloride for a school chemistry project and i dont know where to get it

Question by legomaster50    |  last reply


Will heating a zinc chloride solution made from reacting Zinc with HCl produce HCl fumes? Answered

I am going to make a solution of zinc chloride by mixing hydrochloric acid with an excess of zinc. In the experiment I want to do, I have to heat the zinc chloride. Will there be any HCl fumes?

Question by jarheadwithm16    |  last reply



How to forecast Sodium Chloride can dissolve in water?Why? Answered

How to forecast Sodium Chloride can dissolve in water?Why?

Question by james34602    |  last reply


Copper chloride without H2O2-adding?

Hi! I think i will see some PCB-Etchin in the future... So i will need an etchant. Aequous copper chloride was the choice i made since it is a regenerative etchant according to several sources. Now if i understood the chemistry right (Sorry... electrotechnician here), the reaction in theory only needs the oxygen from the peroxide (H2O2) and the hydrogen isnt used at all? Since i only have relatively weak peroxide, i plan on using a bubbler to introduce the oxygen to the copper-HCI-mix. This because i dont want to dilute the acid too much... Will that work? I know that if i use normal air (which has only around 20% oxygen in it) it will take some time... But would it work in the first place? I read somewhere that copper and muriatic acid dont really react in the first place... So if i also understood that right, it needs the oxygen present in the beginning to START reacting... So i think i may go with a contraption like: Plastic container with a bubbler installed (Pumps normal air) Add Muriatic acid to the container Add copper to the acid let it bubble till the copper is disolved Now i have a copper chloride-solution which i can regenerate by adding oxygen (By bubbler or H2O2)?  

Topic by Orngrimm    |  last reply


how do you make magnesium sulfate,calcium chloride, or nigari?

I want to make tofu from store bought soy milk. I need nigari. I could also use magnesium sulfate or calcium chloride. How do I make any or all of these?

Question by rookie1    |  last reply



I would like to know what would happen when you dispose used Ferric Chloride into grass? Answered

Haven't been able to find the answer to my question.

Question by diabloboy    |  last reply


are there toxic vapours produced from using ferric chloride to etch pcb boards? Answered

Are there toxic vapours produced from using ferric chloride to etch pcb boards?  I want to present this process in a classroom but there are no windows and wondered if this would be hazardous. There's also the method of mixing hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to act as an etchant. Thanks!

Question by williamhaze    |  last reply


if i electrolyse potassium chloride constantly, will i make perchlorate?

I am about to electrolyse a large amount of potassium chloride to get potassium chlorate, however i dont want to get any potassium perchlorate. what i plan on doing, is connecting a plastic tube to my chlorine generator, and then have the chlorine pass through my potassium chloride solution, which will stay at about 50-80 degrees celcius , and what i hope will happen is, as soon any potassium hydroxide is formed, it will react with the chlorine to turn into chlorite, which at that tempurature should then turn into 2 parts chloride and 1 part chlorate. so that way i eventually get a 99% yeild of potassium chlorate. that way i wont end up losing any chlorine from the solution. however, this means i will have to electrolyse the solution 3 times longer, so i want to know if this extended electrolysis will cause the formation of any potassium perchlorate

Question by oldmanbeefjerky    |  last reply


to make potassium chlorate from bleach and potassium chloride, can i use potassium sulfate as a substitute? Answered

Currently i am exploring lots of different ways to make potassium chlorate, and i would like to know, in nurdrages instructable which makes potassium chlorate from bleach and potassium chloride, would it be possible to use potassium sulfate instead, as i can easily get potassium sulfate in large amounts cheaply. the reason i am asking this is because in other sites which have otherwise proved unreliable, there have been instructions on using calcium hypochlorite and either potassium chloride, carbonate or sulfate as the donor, instead of just chloride. and so i would like to know if this method works with potassium and bleach method as done by nurdrage

Question by oldmanbeefjerky    |  last reply


Making Copper (II) Chloride From Acid and Copper

Ok, so last 4th I made fireworks for a small- and I mean small- display, and it turned out fairly well. I only had two complaints- a) It wasn't that colorful, as I was only using pine and palm charcoal for color: reddish orange.b)it wasn't electrical, and took alot of visco, as I wanted everything to go off near-instantaneously. Well, I am going to solve problem b by getting e-matches off of Skylighter, but solving a is a little harder. Then, I read that certain copper compounds could be added to create a green to green-blue color in the flame. Well, I like that idea, but I didn't know where to get the copper compounds. So I kinda left it. UNTIL TODAY!I found this page on making copper (II) chloride. Well, it seemed straightforward enough, so I was going to try it. I was only wondering about two things:a) why on the description on this page about it include hydrogen peroxide, but the page does not even mention it?b)is this safe? I guess I should be outside for the hotplate part- I can't imagine boiling/simmering HCI, inside.c) is this even possible? Does it: 1)create a form of copper that could be used with success in pyrotechnics? 2)create copper chloride at all?Any answers are appreciated. Even if they don't directly pertain to the topic, POST ANYWAY! Makes it more interesting.

Topic by John Smith    |  last reply



Error when downloading PDF of "Stop using Ferric Chloride etchant! (A better etching solution.)"

I get this error when clicking the download button on this: https://www.instructables.com/id/Stop-using-Ferric-Chloride-etchant%21--A-better-etc/ happens with  Chrome and Firefox on Windows 7 (note other downloads work fine) ---------------------------- (function(){var c=0;if("undefined"!==typeof CustomEvent&&"function"===typeof window.dispatchEvent){var a=function(a){try{if("object"===typeof a&&(a=JSON.stringify(a)),"string"===typeof a)return window.dispatchEvent(new CustomEvent("lprequeststart",{detail:{data:a,requestID:++c}})),c}catch(f){}},b=function(a){try{window.dispatchEvent(new CustomEvent("lprequestend",{detail:a}))}catch(f){}};"undefined"!==typeof XMLHttpRequest&&XMLHttpRequest.prototype;&&XMLHttpRequest.prototype.send;&&(XMLHttpRequest.prototype.send= function(c){return function(f){var d=this,e=a(f);e&&d.addEventListener;("loadend",function(){b({requestID:e,statusCode:d.status})});return c.apply(d,arguments)}}(XMLHttpRequest.prototype.send));"function"===typeof fetch&&(fetch=function(c){return function(f,d){var e=a(d),g=c.apply(this,arguments);if(e){var h=function(a){b({requestID:e,statusCode:a&&a.status;})};g.then(h)["catch"](h)}return g}}(fetch))}})(); (function(){if("undefined"!==typeof CustomEvent){var c=function(a){if(a.lpsubmit)return a;var b=function(){try{this.dispatchEvent(new CustomEvent("lpsubmit"))}catch(k){}return a.apply(this,arguments)};b.lpsubmit=!0;return b};window.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded",function(){if(document&&document.forms;&&0 AccessDenied Access Denied 07BB2BDF001C8E39 UNsh+3Qc6mUeOnVk7FiMOvXWaiu+9vpA24ZxkR6/TCCRjKqR0A9UsViskbkpNlWgADghstM9XYo=

Topic by newline    |  last reply


using calcium chloride as humidity reducer closets /laundry rooms

I bought a product called "damp rid "in a hardware store that was used for removing moisture from hamper area,laundry rooms, to prevent mildew. i realized the pelted looked familiar and it was calcium chloride. i want to make my own as i have access to a big bag of calcium chloride. it looks like there is a piece of tyvek/ or other moisture passing membrane on one side of the top upper half, the other 3 sides of the bag look like a mylar  type bag.  The seams all seam to be sealed, except the top has a piece of plastic snapped-sea;ed over it, with a couple very small holes that go into the top half of the bag. the top plastic piece  also has a hanger  loop.. when i bought it the calcium chloride was in the top hang and the bottom half was empty. There looks like a plastic seam weld separating the calcium from the bottom half, and i noticed that are a couple 1/4 inch gaps in the seam. the calcium, chloride draws the moisture out of the air and turns it into water, which falls to the bottom half of the bag.pretty cool device, and seems i t would be able to make, if i can find a source for mylar or whatever this material is. i would also have to make the seams, not sure if glue would work, maybe make a clamp like device , rather than the welds, this way i could just empty the water and replace the calcium chloride, no reason to throw it out. anyone seen these devices, i noticed they have a www with the same name, they may have pictures.  Also looking for a source for mylar and tyvek.  I am not sure if the postal envelopes would work, i would also like to scrounge a sheet of tyvek to use as a ground-cloth or emergency shelter when out on my bicycle and the t storms hit. i haven't seen it except in big rolls, i guess i should keep a lookout for construction sites trash areas.otherwise i am not sure where  i could get a 10 ft piece. i will take the bag apart later to dissect the workings and see if i can measure the thickness of the  mylar

Topic by escapefromyonkers    |  last reply


ice melt. NaCl, MgSO4, CaCl

Http://andthatsthewayitis.net/2011/05/17/salt-does-not-melt-ice/  thought about running a chainsaw to remove ice from roof gutters. rethought that. sodium chloride? corrode metal gutter and hurt plants. mag sulfate?   have it on hand, but above link indicates it wont work. would it work if baked to drive off h2o?  stuf comes hydrated. calcium chloride? directly on metal?

Topic by Toga_Dan    |  last reply


Etching a pcb with bleach?? Answered

Yes i know there has been a question about this already... but im asking it again. Can you etch a pcb with bleach? I dont really want to go out and find ferric chloride or hydrochloric (muratic) acid :) I just wanted to know if this would work.  Also pros and cons would be good too, if not possible i can find a place with the right chemicals.. :) Thanks!

Question by astroboy907    |  last reply


What is the effect of adding NaOH and Al with H2O? Is the reaction--2NaOH + 2Al + 2H2O → 3H2 + 2NaAlO2??

I belive this to be the reaction involved in using Drano and I was wondering if it would be effected by the temperature of the H2O and if the reaction would be effected by NaCl mixed in the H2O.

Question by mr marino    |  last reply


underwater sparkler

Is this real?CLICK HEREfor some reason i cant add the video if anyone wants to try, calcium chloride is basically water hardener

Topic by budsiskos    |  last reply


Dissolve Aluminum - Golden Book Chemistry

In the Golden Book of Chemistry, page 64, there're instructions for dissolving aluminum. The book states that HYDROGEN is released when aluminum strips are dissolved in hydrochloric acid and ALUMINUM CHLORIDE is formed. That's about all we get from the book concerning that particular experiment. Just wondering if this is correct, how to test it, what it should look like and what may we [the kids and myself] may do with it if it's actually aluminum chloride. It's a good book, but quite a bit of theory's lacking. Thanks all.

Topic by Sovereignty    |  last reply


Can you use nitric acid + sodium hydroxide to make sodium nitrate? Answered

I am trying to make some small rockets and I can't get or make KNO3 (It's banned and I can't find potassium chloride in any supermarkets, if you know where to find it please tell) so I have been making sodium nitrate out of ammonium nitrate and sodium hydroxide as a substitute, so in trying to make the process cheaper I have found this HN03 + NaOH = NaNO3 + H2O will this work?

Question by The MadScientist    |  last reply


Making Potassium Chlorate

Do any of you know if it is possible to convert Aluminium Potassium Sulphate and Ammonium Chloride into Potassium Chlorate? If so please could you tell me how to go about doing it.

Topic by Loosewire; SOE Operative    |  last reply


How to make soy sauce myself (with potassium chloride instead of regular salt)?

Was at the doctor's.. BP 200/130! I love to make my food with soy sauce. No more!!! Now I need to know how to brew it myself, with KCl instead of 'normal' salt. Next question: Why soy beans??? are they better? Perhaps I could use other varieties???

Question by BobS    |  last reply


What kind of Antifreeze can i pass in some Polyvinyl Chloride tubing?

I am looking at moving some Antifreeze around in some tubing. http://www.homedepot.ca/product/svge10-3-8-inches-od/925278 is the one i have. Would i be able to put something like Prestone thru it with out damaging it or causing it to leak? Also, part of the system is going to be made out of copper tubing if that can be an issue also.

Question by andreblue    |  last reply


Can regular bleach be used as an alternative for PCB etching?

I just want to know if there are any chemicals that would be easier to get a hold of than having to go out and buy the ferric chloride or other etchants.

Question by PyroMonger    |  last reply


Use a 3d printer for etching PCBs?

Here's an idea - would it be possible to use a 3D printer to lay out the etch resist on a PCB?  It would likely only need to print a single layer.  Of course you'd need to use a material that would resist the ferric chloride but could also be removed without leaving a residue. Thoughts???

Topic by jeff-o    |  last reply


Where to buy MURIATIC ACID & PEROXID in UK ??? What kind of shop ???

Hi ... where can I buy MURIATIC ACID (HCL, hydrogen chloride) and PEROXID in UK ??? What kind of shop should I go and ask for it ??? Is there an different name for the muriatic acid in UK English ??? And what about peroxid ??? In a chemist's / drug store ??? Thank you for your advice... Zholy

Question by zholy    |  last reply


whats the best chemicals coat a match with in order to get a green, purple or blue flame?

I am going to make some matches that burn different coloures to make some money at school, and my attempt to make copper carbonate by electrolosis has failed, as it turns out only copper exposed to air during electrolsis carbonated. anyway, i need to know what will make the strongest colour flame on a match stick (probably barbeque matches not normal small ones), so that it is allmost entirely either green, purple or blue. right now i have a 1kg copper rod i found on the roud which i can use to make copper chloride, as i can get that easily, but i have heard that it lets off toxic fume so i am not sure, plus i dont know if the matches will burn hot enoguh to make the copper chloride go green.

Question by oldmanbeefjerky    |  last reply


Prevent rust on a PCB? Answered

How do I prevent rust?  Or should I just not worry about the rust?  I am using single sided board etched with ferric chloride, if that matters. Also I need the copper to conduct "on the top", like if I put a multimeter on a trace it would still conduct.  So I can't use something like a clear coat spray paint. AI

Question by JaredsProjects    |  last reply


Why is my sodium chlorate glowing? Answered

I was making some sodium chlorate using https://www.instructables.com/id/EGXGY5PF23Z375E/, but instead of using some 9v, i put a bridge rectifier on to my AC power (i live in south Africa so 240v) and the I put what i hope was DC into the salt water, which began to glow and made a noise. Why was it glowing and is there any danger to let it run for 2 hours?

Question by BOOM5601    |  last reply


What technique would be recommended for cutting through thin gauges of sheet brass and copper (Preferably cheap)?

I am currently trying to find a solution to a year and a half long problem I've been working at, and was hoping the community could help me out.  I ma trying to create miniature armatures that will always have the right proportions by etching the 'skeleton' out of thin brass (I believe it's somewhere around .02 inches thick).  I've tried toner transfer and ferric chloride etching, but I am not getting steady results with the toner transfer.  Since this isn't a circuit board, are there any other techniques I can use to cut through the metal quickly?  If it's something along the lines of a CnC machine, as long as I can make it to cut down on the costs, I'm open to the idea.  Just to give you an idea of what I'm trying now, at the moment I'm making stencils that I will spray acrylic or spray paint through onto the metal to allow for the same design every time.  Acrylic and spray paint are also resistant to ferric chloride. Thanks

Question by ajpaulette    |  last reply


Sodium Chlorate production other ways?

Sodium chlorate production without the need of keeping the solution at around 50-70°C from  the electrical power used for electrolysis?  sodium chlorate production besides having to heat from amperage the sodium chloride solution and electrolysis then would a catalysis to help with oxygenating the solution like instead of water use 3% hydrogen peroxide or manganese dioxide or ever ammonium nitrate and yield sodium chlorate using electralysis with out needing to keep the solution at 50-70°C? 

Question by symboom    |  last reply


Has anyone made bamboo wind turbine blades?

I started a set of simple bamboo wind turbine blades today. I'm using instructions for PVC pipe blades. This involves slicing up a plastic pipe (vinyl chloride is carcinogenic) but large bamboo is similar to a pipe and I've got some so why not try this natural material. If you have done this before, please share some insight :) To my knowledge nobody else has posted about this and all I've found online about bamboo blades is from large scale commercial turbines.

Question by snotty    |  last reply


Electroplating chemical mishap

I figured it would be cool to quickly electroplate some stuff. Since I was lazy, I only used what I had on hand [block of zinc, vinegar, muriatic (hydrochloric) acid)]. The zinc ingot was taking too long to dissolve in the vinegar, so I added about 30 mL of hydrochloric acid. A couple hours later, I was electroplating fine. After two weeks of normal zinc chloride electroplating, the acid suddenly took on a nasty dull brown/yellow amber shade and a ton of white bubbles formed around the zinc (still in the acid). Can anyone tell me what happened?

Question by Brekenridge    |  last reply


Remove scratches in desk? Answered

A few years ago I got my first x-acto knife. Of course, me being 12 years old I started cutting without thinking of consequences. Now My desk is all scratched up... There are also some Ferric chloride stains on the desk and I may have spilled some superglue on it, too. My desk is made of wood and has a shiny white layer over it, picture's down there Now here is my question: Is it possible to remove the scratches? By painting it or putting a layer of x over it? If not, how can I get the scratches to be less noticable? And how do I remove superglue and Fe(III)Cl stains?

Question by dunnos    |  last reply


Is it possible to etch PCB's with HCL? Answered

I bought one of ladyada's USBtinyisp avr programmers a few days ago, its working great! i program alot in visual basic but i never tried anything quite like the C similar programming of the avr chips. because of that i reprogram my chip ALOT, so i decided to make a target board. i already have the "blank" board and a UV lamp to prepare it. i have sodium hydroxide to develop it. all i need is something to etch off the copper. so i was wondering: can i etch off the copper with 32% hydrochloric acid/muratic acid/HCL?

Question by solidacid    |  last reply


My Hydrochloric acid and Hydrogen peroxide etchant goes red without any copper in it. How come?

I recently tried making acid cupric chloride etchant; however, my batch always goes a darkish red colour as soon as i mix the two together even when i haven't added any copper. I've been using 3% hydrogen peroxide from a pharmacist and 30% HCl From Bunnings. All the stuff was fresh and in dark plastic bottles. The container i put it into is plastic. It still etches but it's nearly impossible to see if the copper is etched away without pulling it out. Can anyone tell me what's in the mixture that's making it red and how i can correct it. Thanks

Question by Lost in Translation    |  last reply


i want to extract the tin from some tinned copper wire. how do i go about doing this?

hello, i would like to know, what the best way would be to separate tin from tinned copper wire. i recently attempted to build a MOT welder and now am left with quite alot of wire, and i require the tin for tin oxide. im wondering, what would i need to do, after i dissolve all the wire in hydrochloric acid, to extract the tin? its my understanding that tin and copper chlorides decompose easily into their oxides, and i only need somewhat pure tin,  as the electrode connector for my MMO titanium mesh (the part which will stick out of the cell which i will connect the cables to), and i only need roughly 70-80% pure tin metal, which i will reduce using my furnace and some pure carbon, in order to get a metal. or would it be ok for me to just melt the metals as is and let them separate in the crucible, and have all the fiberglass and resin just burn off? otherwise, would heating their chlorides (i require a soluble form to filter away resin and fiberglass), yeild tin oxide and not copper oxide, or would weaker acids like carbonic acid be able to dissolve the tin? sorry for all the questions but i really need some tin and i dont wanna blow this one shot i got here! i already have a theory on how this will all work, i just require a second (somewhat) proffesional) opinion. also i am already taking full precautions to ensure i dont get chlorine poisoning, so dont bother with the warnings. thanks.

Question by oldmanbeefjerky    |  last reply


Sourcing solvents in michigan

Ok, so I'm having some trouble finding solvents in quantities of under 5 gallons (5 is too much, and  for this project 1 gallon is too) that arent acetone, MEK, or xylene (home depot and lowes carry those). Specifically I need Perchloroethylene because thats the solvent that E6000 glue is made with and is the glue I want to thin out. The datasheet indicates that  1,1,1-Trichloroethane, Cyclohexane, Methylene chloride, Chlorothane NU, Chevron solvent 1100, gasoline, Propyl acetate, or Toluene will also dissolve it, but I'd really like to stick with its manufactured solvent.  I presume it would have some sort of pricey hazmat shipping charges or the necessity of some sort of licence and I would rather pick it up, so where (or who) can I order some from in the Detroit area?

Question by The Ideanator    |  last reply