BEC and Semi Conductors

Hey everyone, I don't know if this is right, but today I came to the conclusion that everything in the universe is a conductor or a semi conductor. Is this right? I was thinking if you were to turn something into BEC (Bose-Einstein condensate), (which I know is at the moment impossible), the electrons/current should be able to move through the substance without any resistance. With this being said, couldn't any thing and everything become a perfect conductor if reaching absolute zero is possible? This is just a thought, but I am very interested to find out for a science class I'm taking.                                                                             Thanks for your time KayakKid.

Topic by Kayak Kid 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


ørst electrical conductor? Answered

Ørst electrical conductor can anyone tell me what this is. Google no help. The phrase comes from a patent application: https://www.google.com/patents/WO2010123903A1?cl=en

Question by rickharris 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


a thermal conductor that does not conduct electricity? Answered

I am looking to heat water to a boil in a pipe, using nichrome wire. the nichrome wire will be wrapped around the pipe. my problem is i don't want to short circuit the nichrome wire, so i need to insulate it, but i need it to still transfer as much heat as possible to the pipe.   any suggestion would be great, including other ways to, using electricity, bring water to a boil within a pipe. *UPDATE: does anyone know of an affordable insulating paint or coating?                     i found some (called Glyptal) but it cost $50, which is too much for me                    rust-oleum is an enamel paint. will it insulate?

Question by jg156 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago



How can I make glass electrically conductor? Answered

I would like to build a cell of graezel but I need a support electrically conductor and transparent that can resists at 400 C° Can anyone help me? Thank you Alessio

Question by alessiof76 10 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Can we use a Laser as a wireless conductor of electricity?

Wireless energy transfer question. Please note: I added a 2nd question here ( the emphasis now is if Microwaves can transmit energy as a 2nd option to replace copper cables in energy distribution):https://www.instructables.com/answers/Can-you-use-microwave-transmitters-and-recievers-t/

Question by mikedu 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Iphone headphones with flat cable, how it look inside, the conductor? Answered

This is the headphone photo. https://www.dropbox.com/s/00ngmfqpq37shc5/Photo%2027-12-13%2015%2039%2001.jpg . I want to cut the cable to make them shorter. How it looks the conductor , because i dont want to start cut them before i know everything about them. I dont want to destroy them !!

Question by danyelo 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


can a security tag ? be placed inside a mobile phone as the conductor for a mobile phone induction charger i trying to make it

Can a security tag ?  wired and connected to the battery be placed inside a mobile,and then place it  the phone on the conductor for a mobile phone induction charger i trying to make it

Topic by dmoloch 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Can someone help me build this LC resonant circuit? and explain it to me Answered

"An LCR circuit 1 is comprised of a capacitor 3, inductor 5, transformer T primary winding 9 and resistance 11 connected in series. It is assumed that the electrical conductors connecting the various circuit elements and forming the inductor 5 and primary winding 9 are perfect conductors; i.e., no DC resistance. Resistor 11 is a lump resistance equivalent to the total DC resistance of the actual circuit components and conductors. The inductor 5 is wound on a core 7"

Question by Intercom D 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


Can you use microwave transmitters and recievers to wirelessly transfer energy? Can it replace copper cables.

2nd wireless energy transfer question.Please note: The 1st question which contains more background opens up the topic of using lasers as conductors of electricity, found herehttps://www.instructables.com/answers/Can-we-use-a-Laser-as-a-wireless-conductor-of-ele/

Question by mikedu 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


What's the pinout pattern for the Giro Tuneups cable on the 4 conductor 2.5mm phone side?

It's apparently different than the pattern for my Droid 2 Global so I need to know so I can wire up an adaptor from the 2.5mm Tuneups male to the Droid's 3.5mm female so the whole phone and iPod function will work inside my ski helmet.

Question by christden 7 years ago


Some strange wires

Hello everyone I have a problem and I am looking for some solution. I was doing some repairing today found my old headphones with microphone that lost contact on small circuit board that use for on/of mic and reducing volume of headphones. So I decided to cut that circuit out and just solder 2 ends together but that I fond out that there is some strange wire  coming out. After I remove isolation there is some colored wires made out of some strange material. It is not conductor (I tried to attached but nothing happened and checked if it is conductor- not). So I ask you do you know how to solder 2 ends (and I cannot make mistake because all wires that need to be soldered are same color) if there is no conductor :O ??? (well maybe there is but I cannot find it ) If you know please help. Thanks!

Topic by lodcoek 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


What is the best method to determine the minimum surface area to conduct electricity through a metal conductor?

I have a piece of steel that I am looking to have ~12VDC applied to it.  My goal is to have the voltage driven power supply, send ~12VDC and 2W of power to the piece of steel through a point-contact system (the piece of steel touching the power supply terminal). My question is, what is the best way to determine the minimum surface area of the piece of steel at the point of contact?

Question by ThompsonGenie 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


can someone please help me draw a complete circuit diagram of a residue current device (rcd)?

A Residual-Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB) is an electrical wiring device that disconnects a circuit whenever it detects that the electric current is not balanced between the energized conductor and the return neutral conductor. Such an imbalance may indicate current leakage through the body of a person who is grounded and accidentally touching the energized part of the circuit. A lethal shock can result from these conditions. RCCBs are designed to disconnect quickly enough to prevent injury caused by such shocks. They are not intended to provide protection against overcurrent (overload) or short-circuit conditions.

Question by lynks21 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


how do i separate, recycle, the silver from copper tinned wire and is it cost effective - chemical or smelting ?

I have 25,000 feet of military spec marine grade 26 awg high strand count 3 conductor helix braided shielded in plastic sheathing. I have no idea how many ounces of silver are involved but can guess at the copper, which is worth much more un-tinned and brite. some have suggested crushing it to remove the plastic as the 3 conductors are also sheathed in plastic but there may be enough of this for me to tool up to do it all chemically or burning it using the right filtration?? thanks,

Question by Steward in Good Fealty 6 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


I need help with the 'Neon' lamp wiring

I love the 'Neon' lamp, but need help to wire it with a 3 conductor cable. Can someone do a diagram for a novice, or refer me to written instructions that will show me how? Thanks! grannygoodknit

Question by grannygoodknit 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


Altoids Tin 1/8" Stereo Mixer using a 3.5mm 4 pole conductor (mic + audio)?

Hey have been thinking on how to modify https://www.instructables.com/id/Altoids-Tin-18-Stereo-Mixer/ to accept a 3.5mm 4 pole conductor as the output while splitting the mic to the inputs. This is going to be something like the Iphone ear buds with built in mic. I just got a pair of amplified 4 pole headphones with mic that I want to use for everything.  Here is my wish list:   3 - 4 pole Audio in (iphone, macbook, ...) 1 - 3 pole Audio in from computer 1 - Mic in from computer 1 - RJ10 (so I can use my headset with my cisco phone) The audio mixing is basically the same as Rich's write up. But im not sure if I can just split the mic to everything. If I am sacrificing mic volume by splitting to every input I could limit it to the CPU mic and the RJ10.. the ones i really want. Please let me know any ideas or advice you have. Here is my purposed schematic:

Question by V4zra 6 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


What are the specs for 'standard' 3.5mm mono pluged infrared (IR) emitters?

An example of what I'm talking about can be found on Amazon.  I am looking for which conductor is anode and which cathode as well as the forward voltage and current requirements.  My inability to see IR is really hurting my normal LED testing techniques.

Question by EmperorMing 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Difference between star and delta?

Hi readers, I know something about star delta oil immersed motor starters working and construction but my doubt is how it ll make a difference in motors working in star and delta positions? because both star and delta positions in the starters using same type of conductors that is fixed and moving contacts and blades so how it making difference?

Question by albiemorkal 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Please help with my HHO generator?

I just made mine by aluminum (because I don't have any stainless steel). Then I realize I can't choose a conductor (normally, they used NaOH or KOH but I can't, because they react with aluminum). And when I use salt, a thick gooey grey layer appear. What I should use or how can I prevent this layer forming?

Question by Shizen 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


Earth Ground?

           Well, it seems about time to add to my list of electrical theory questions with answers far too broad for one question, so:                          I understand that the Earth can act as a giant capacitor, conductor, etc.  What I don't understand is why.  For instance, why would ac power from the hot wire dissipate into the ground?  (and, for that matter, will power from the neutral wire not do so?  If so, why?)   

Question by mad magoo 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


What is a transistor? Answered

Hey guys, I am having problems understanding what is a transistor. When I do a search it shows me that its made of semi-conductor material and stuff, I don't want to know that. I want to know what is does as in a battery supplies power, resistor limits current etc. I would really like it if someone could give me a basic explanation of what is a transistor. Thanks in advance :). -Prickly Potato

Question by The Prickly Potato 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


cheap aluminium for cooling transistors and such? Answered

I just saw an aluminium stair (costing bout €30~€40) and wondered why i couldnt cut it up, and use it to create a heatsink for transistors and stuff like that. would this make any difference with comercial heatsinks? only in terms of heat-conduction i know shape is a factor, but i'd like not to get into that, i could bend the cut-up stair or something

Question by godofal 9 years ago  |  last reply 9 years ago


How to make a Harry Potter lighting scar? Answered

A grandson will go as Harry Potter. I would like to make a scar to spirit gum to his forehead. As a kicker I plan to put an smd LED under the appliance. Powered by a flat cell in the hair and fine magnet wire for conductors. So far I was planing to use a glue gun to form the scar on a tin can for simulated forehead curved shape.. Any suggestions on a better material or kit will be greatly appreciated !

Question by iceng 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


RF antenna wiring (Possible error)?

For our truck scale, we have small remotes to automatically record the weights. The remotes just do not have the range that they should be getting (Sometimes we have to actually touch the antennas with the remotes). Before I ask my questions, let me explain how they are wired up. There are 16 remotes going to 16 channels in the controller box, The first set of 8 are on one receiver/antenna and the second set is just a copy of the first set. The antennas are just a small whip type antenna connected to the center conductor of the coax, there are then 4 more of those wires pointing down, these ones are connected to the shielding on the coax. There is a 75ft RG6 coax cable running to each of those antennas, This cable runs into the scale shack and connects to the f-type jacks on the controller box. Inside the box, there is a short piece of shielded wire going from the coax jack into the rf receiver. Here is where it gets weird, The center conductor AND the shield both are attached to a single screw terminal on the rf receiver. If my thinking is correct then this basically turning the coax cable itself into the antenna, Am I correct? Why would it be installed like this, Was it a bad installer? How should this be done for optimum performance? Thanks, Kade

Question by FarmerKJS 3 years ago  |  last reply 3 years ago


Ok, well i wanna make some kind of simple EMP gun. Is that possible?

I saw some other forums that talked about it, and i would just want some that could disrupt something at close range, or something like that. I have heard of using a firecracker... but i don't think that i want to do that in public... xD maybe a disposable camera and some wire?? I have some enamel-covered solid-conductor copper wire, 30 gauge....

Question by charchar97 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


What are internal switches? Answered

I've been searching out parts on digikey, and noticed that a lot of the power/audio jacks had an "internal switch", with three conductors and four contacts.  I've never heard of these before, and none of the datasheets were helpful, nor ten minutes of googling, in educating me.  So what are these mysterious internal switches?  I presume they somehow switch between two states depending on if there's a plug in the jack.  But why is this helpful or necessary?  And more importantly, how does this affect how to wire the jack?

Question by Skidion 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Effects of Inductors Coupling?

This is a follow up post from this thread >> https://www.instructables.com/community/Guitar-Wah-Wah-Pedal-Help/ (It was about how to fix my Wah-Wah guitar pedal, it turns out the Inductor was not working, so I replaced it) I replaced a broken 500mh INDUCTOR in my guitar pedal with a new one. It works now. However, I am planning on keeping the broken inductor in my wah wah pedal (because it yielded a cool volume pedal sound). I want to rig up the circuit so that I can switch from from the GOOD conductor to the BAD conductor. My questions are: Will there be any major effects from having two inductors coupling? Should I be wary of the 'winding' of the coils? If so, what should I do in order to be consistent with the winding? And out of curiosity, how could I rig this up?  Here is the schematic >> http://www.voxamps.com/downloads/circuits/wahwah93.jpg 500mh Inductor = L1 I have 3 terminal DPST switch. This is how I imagine rigging it up: I'm thinking of having wires from the inductor terminals on the PCB wired to a terminal on the SWITCH, then to the INDUCTOR, and then back to the PCB. The same follows for the other (bad) inductor. If this is not clear, please let me know, or feel free to post a better way to rig this up. In summary for this last question How could I rig this circuit to switch between two inductors? Thanks.

Topic by Grizzly_Bear 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


Why to use RF directional couplers in some measurements and control processes ?

I am an electronic engineer in the field of RF directional couplers, but I am puzzled about this question, why to use RF directional couplers in some measurements and control processes ? Today I come to this forum to turn to you to discuss my understandings are appropriate. Here are my personal understandings: RF radio frequency is referred to as RF current, it is a high frequency AC change electromagnetic wave short. Less than 1000 times per second changes in alternating current called low frequency current, more than 10000 times called high frequency current, and radio frequency is such a high frequency current. RF technology in the field of wireless communications with a wide range of irreplaceable role. In the electronics theory, the current flows through the conductor, the conductor will form a magnetic field around; alternating current through the conductor, the conductor will form an alternating electromagnetic field, known as electromagnetic waves. When the electromagnetic wave frequency is lower than 100khz, the electromagnetic wave will be absorbed by the surface, can not form an effective transmission, but the electromagnetic wave frequency is higher than 100khz, the electromagnetic wave can be spread in the air, and the outer edge of the ionospheric reflection, the formation of long-distance transmission capacity (Analog or digital) with high-frequency current modulation (amplitude modulation or FM), the formation of radio frequency signals, through the antenna to launch into the air, the radio frequency of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.  Long-range radio frequency signal received after the anti-modulation, reduced to the electrical information source, this process is called wireless transmission. Wireless transmission developed for nearly two hundred years, forming a large number of users and product groups, but because of climate change and the impact of surface obstacles, can not transmit the perfect information. Modern human invention of the cheap high-frequency transmission cable (radio frequency line), in order to pursue the perfect quality of information transmission, taking into account the original wireless devices, wireless cable transmission began to pop. Resulting in the concept of radio frequency transmission. If your information source through the secondary modulation, with the cable to the opposite end, the opposite side with anti-modulation of the information source after the re-application, no matter how low frequency, but also radio frequency transmission, if there is no modulation anti-modulation process, The information source is transmitted directly to the opposite end of the cable, no matter how high the frequency, are the general cable transmission. SI --- Signal Integrity Signal Integrity PI --- Power Integrity Power Integrity emc --- electromagnetic compatibility Electromagnetic Compatibility rf - radio frequency RF emc = emi + ems EMI = Conduction + Radiation Emission SI: The Fourier transform shows that the higher the signal rises, the higher the amplitude of the higher harmonics. The MAXWELL equations see that these alternating harmonics produce alternating current at the adjacent line. And even through the space parasitic capacitance directly to another conductor, so these high harmonics is caused by radiation interference (emission) of the main factors; (that the simple point is that the signal rise faster, the more complete the signal, the better the signal quality, But for emi bad) . PI: PCB exists on the number \ \ analog area, high frequency \ 'low frequency region and other different areas and planes, if the partition is not easy to interfere with each other, that is, conduction conduction (conduction). Ps: Excuse me if I was wrong in words or expressions as I am a green hand in the field of RF directional couplers. I need continual learnings. What is your idea ? Do you agree with my ideas ? Any of your ideas would be highly appreciated. May someone would like to help ? thanks in advance.

Topic by maryzhu 2 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


How does radio really work?

             I'm studying to take the exam for a technician class ham radio license, and have been reading up for it.  However, the book just gives practice, not theory.  For example, it says that radio energy is carried down a coaxial, window, etc. cable between the two conductors, but it doesn't say how this actually happens or works.  I know what radio does, but I'm a little lost when it comes to theory regarding its transmission, being carried in cables, filtering, SWR, etc.  Answers are appreciated.  Thanks!

Question by mad magoo 9 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


WANTED: 3mm flexible plastic fiberoptic filament

Dear friends: I am looking for 3mm flexible transparent fiberoptic filament. I recently got one of those 'LED shoelace' kits off eBay and I have use for the fiberoptic filament itself, not the LEDs and driver circuits. The filament is very flexible, somewhat rubbery in texture. I believe it's polyester or silicone. It's not a wonderful light conductor but it will work for my purposes. I have attached an image. The filament is the exact diameter of a T1 LED. Any help in finding this stuff would be most appreciated. Thanks!

Topic by loopy-garou 7 years ago


Etching PCB boards

I know that copper is a better conductor than tin or aluminum. But one of my friends a few days ago told me that instead of etching his layout on copper, he used the bottom of an altoids tin. he said all he did was sand the bottom until there was no paint of the altoids can and then he etched his layout. (Chemical bath, toner, etc.) So my question is, Does anyone know how to etch custom layouts (toner layouts) on tin or aluminum? **I figure this could save people some money and time on some projects. :)

Topic by batboy61490 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Elementeo Chemistry Card Game

14-year-old Anshul Samar has created his own science-based fantasy card combat game Elementeo. Check out the interview with him below.Elementeo is a strategic battle game where you use your elements across the battlefield in reducing opponent's electrons to zero. You do that by harnessing the strength and moving properties of the elements and compounds, and by using their reactionary powers. For example, Oxygen can rust any neighboring metal or Copper Conductor can shock any metals and send them back to the deck. via Wired's Geekdad

Topic by ewilhelm 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


Circuit for multiple LEDs

Hello to all, I'm attempting to use a new nano-technological material (which is conductive) as both a resistor and as a conductor in an LED circuit (it works well as both). At the moment I have a parallel circuit with a 9v battery source and about 10-15 white LEDs..problem is only the first 3 are lighting up (at least with a decent amount of light). Do I simply need to change the circuit to a series or is there something else I can do to get an even (and bright) distribution of power through about 10-15 LEDs?? I would also rather only use a 9volt battery if I can help it. Thanks for any advice :) ~Kate

Topic by kemi 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


DIY Sound Bites (hasbro)

I used to have this product made by hasbro called Sound Bites. It was essentially a musical product that transmitted sound through lollipops. Evidently the jawbone is an amazing conductor of sound. I was wondering if anyone could think up a way to make something similar with a 1/4" jack. I think the potential for high fidelity sound is great. In addition its also similar to the bone conductive headphones that many people are using for underwater music listening.The product looks like thishttp://a2.vox.com/6a00d09e7bc293be2b00e398a4ae720002-200piHere is an article on Sound Bites.http://old.thing.net/wwwboard1/messages/683.htmlIf anyone has any ideas, I'm quite mechanically and electrically educated and would be very interested in putting something together.

Topic by sharpiemarker 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


a wireless outlet hub for for lights and have it run off batteries?

Http://www.walmart.com/ip/Woods-32555-Woods-Outdoor-Weatherproof-Wireless-Remote-Control-with-3-Conductor-Outlet-Black-32555/21682994?action=product_interest&action;_type=title&placement;_id=irs-106-t1&strategy;=PWVAV&visitor;_id=ETcpHj7RBmUN1JcQ0DTkPY&category;=&client;_guid=b409cb7b-6b6a-4e2b-8cce-a1e8ab4022be&customer;_id_enc=&config;_id=106&parent;_item_id=29417733&parent;_anchor_item_id=29417733&guid;=222c485c-8ebd-460e-ba0b-ceadaea20a75&bucket;_id=irsbucketdefault&beacon;_version=1.0.1&findingMethod;=p13n I want to mod this or buy something similar. IN the end its going to run a small micro motor which uses very little power. Ideally it would run of DC just batteries and would have a plug for a positive and negative wire while remaining wireless. Can this be done or is there a ready made solution? 

Question by scottzkee 4 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


Need fine soldering help

I need help soldering some fine three conductor (two plus shield) to a batch of ten very tiny Knowles SiSonic MEMS microphones: http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/SPV0840LR5H-B/423-1214-1-ND/4376286 2.75mm L x 1.85mm W x 1.00mm H I have some yards of the coax on a spool that a tech friend gave me long ago and have no idea where I could get more.  It is flattened and is narrower and thinner than the MEMS.  Picture included of cable, MEMS and a sewing pin for reference. My 70 year old hands are just not still enough any more for the task (if they ever were) and I'm willing to pay to get it done.  Getting the coax end splayed for the photo seriously taxed my ability.  :-)

Topic by dgateley 5 years ago  |  last reply 5 years ago


tech noob question on stereo jack

Can I have a silly technical question for which I would have known the answer if I only paid more attention at school? how is possible that stereo headphones, ie 2 speaker circuits use only 3 cables? I understand the "ground" is the one that both speakers,ie left and right have in common but how come it doesnt bother the signals which go to the speakers? doesnt the left signal get mixed up with the right signal? and why is it called "ground" when it's not actually connected to the ground, like for example lightning conductor is? I've read through the wikipedia article about TRS several times but still can't understand it. thanks for answer, I promis I won't forget it this time :)

Topic by tap 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


How to display dvd player chapter and timestamp info in two separate locations and not on the projection screen?

This is for a highschool orchestra to rehearse and perform during a silent film presentation. The person projecting the movie needs to monitor the chapter and timestamp and so does the conductor of the orchestra some distance away and preferably with a larger counter display (like this one). I've looked into extracting a timestamp signal from any player outputs but this seems to be absent except maybe in the audio output. Also, if there were a way to hack into a OS X dvd player to output the control information (specifically the timestamp) we could use a macbook too. Only thought I had was to get two identical players and take the LED display panel out of the second and somehow wire up to the first. Thanks for any thoughts you can share!

Question by megazoic 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


How do you determine the length of an antenna and the size of a fractal antenna? Answered

In an instructable, the formula for calculating antenna length was given as "length in meters =300 / frequency in MHz".  The example given was for a Bluetooth antenna with a frequency of 2450MHz.  The antenna length was calculated as 300/2450 = 0.1225m = 12cm.  The author then divided it by 4 to make a "quarter wave" antenna length of 30mm.  Why divide it by 4 and what is the benefit of a "quarter wave" antenna.  What is the effect of the conductor leading to the antenna?  If the 30mm antenna is soldered to a 4mm lead, does that result in a 34mm antenna?  For a fractal antenna, should the 30mm length of wire be folded into a fractal shape or should the total fractal antenna be 30mm in width?  I have read somewhere that one of the benefits of a fractal antenna is that they are able to receive signals of different wave lengths.

Question by fcampbell 9 years ago  |  last reply 2 years ago


Magnets, Magnetism, Field lines ???? An expert is needed for green wind power.

This is best placed in the green group as it is for the production of green electricity, but I think that it would not be out of place in the science section also. I have an idea, quite probably not an original one but an idea all the same. It came about as we go camping as a family and have been off the grid a few times. Basically we have had no way of charging our electronic devices for longish periods. Solar power I hear you cry, well that is all well and good if you live in a country that has good sunlight, but here in the UK it can be unpredictable and not produce enough charge to power modern devices. I am mucking about with dynamo’s on the bikes (pedal ones) and wind up devices. Something I am looking into is things like wind power or improved dynamo power. The basic principal behind all of these forms of power production is that of passing a conductor through a magnetic field to produce a potential difference on that conductor. Simples (reference to meerkat advert http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NBu0OtC6m9g). It has been a very long time since I have done anything like this (way back in school all those years ago) so please stick with me on this one. If I remember right the principal theory is that 1. The higher number of conductors (or loops in the coil) that passes through the field lines causes the voltage to be higher. 2. The stronger the magnetic flux the higher the current production within the conductors. This is a bit basic to some of you I am sure but I still need to get it out to confirm my thoughts. If this is wrong please correct me, as the title says, an expert is needed lol The bar magnet field lines project from the N end and loop back to the S end in this fashion Image 1 Putting two bar magnets together with N and S facing gives a field pattern like this Image 2 Now this is where I need the most help with. Toroidal magnets produce a different field pattern, and as far as I can make out from the internet it looks like this Image 3 & 4 What I want to know is what happens when you put two toroidal magnets on top of each other, what happens to the field lines then. I have thought that there are a few possibilities on this, the first is that the circular lines will extend to encompass both magnets creating like an hour glass formation in the cross section. The second is that field lines will combine/intermingle between the magnets and create a figure 8 pattern. In either of the two possibilities the field strength will be increased to what could be considered a focal point between the two magnets. So with the technical thoughts out of the way and progressing on the assumption that I am correct so far my thought of a high powered dynamo is this. A central shaft that is spun by wind or other means, attached to this shaft are disks like platters on a hard drive, attached to those platters are the toroidal magnets. The magnets are aligned and spaced to give maximum condensing of the field lines between the upper and lower platter. In the centre of the two (or more) platters is a fixed platter, not attached to the shaft and is stationary. On this stationary platter are the coils, fixed into position. Image 5 The coils are shaped and could be something like the voice coils out of a hard drive, which would be good as they would determine the size of the platters, being key stone shaped they will fit together to make a ring of coils. Image 6 The whole idea is based upon the maximising and focusing of the field lines from the magnets to a point producing the maximum amount of energy as the coils pass through the lines. I also think that due to the shaft being turned having little resistance or weight that even small amounts of wind energy would be able to turn it to produce the desired outcome. Now this is where I ask you all to comment and take my thoughts to bits where I have assumed things that are wrong. I have no problems being told where I am wrong as long as it is not in a nasty way. Cheers all

Topic by Batdragon 6 years ago


How to identify a metal ?

Hi ! Into a terrain near a very old volcano and a river, my brother found fragments of obsidian of various sizes and colors. Some of them are "glued" to metallic stones, and some others contain marbles of metals ... He also found a heavy metallic rocks (encrusted with obsidian) who reacts with magnet, and an other light one (without obsidian) who does not react with magnet. Do you know a mean to identify those metals ? (I Googled but found nothing very useful so far) Or do you have a clue of what it could be ? #1 is a metallic rock encrusted with obsidian. It must be iron because it's heavy, the rust is red, and it reacts to magnet. #2 and #3 is obsidian with marble of metal who reacts to magnet. #4 is an unknown (metallic ?) rock. It is light (150 grams for 200 cm3 - 0.33 pounds for 12 cubic inches), of the color of silicon (or the graphite of paper pen !), does not react to magnet but is (electric) conductor with resistance near 0 ohm.

Topic by chooseausername 11 years ago  |  last reply 11 years ago


usb enclosure hack

Current inventory: 2 Seagate ST340015A IDE hds (40 gb each) 1 Rosewill External usb 2 ide enclosure (pl2506 controller chipset) 1 40 conductor ide cable (mobo-slave-master) soldering iron/solder way, wayyy to much free time. OK, given the above items, is it possible to run both drives at the same time from the one enclosure? Fitting inside the enclosure is not an issue. So far, I have removed the original ide cable the came with the enclosure controller. And, installed my own ide cable. The only drive that is detected is the one jumpered as master, at either location on the cable(master vs slave). No matter what the other drive is jumpered as(slave, cable select), it is not detected. I tried setting both as master and neither are recognized. I have run out of ideas... suggestions would be great. And please dont suggest getting another enclosure. IM CHEAP!

Topic by danman1453 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


Wiring a 2 way radio headset to also record audio?

I am a hang glider pilot and like to take videos during flights. I would like to add narration and the back and forth communication with my chase driver as part of that. I have a headset in my helmet that is wired to a ham radio for that communication. The jack to the helmet is a three conductor, 1/8" jack that goes to the earphones, microphone and a common ground. There is a push to talk switch that trips the radio to transmit which is between the helmet and the radio. What I would like to be able to do is put a jack/splitter inline with the existing jack to then go into the mic jack on a voice recorder to get three things; Radio audio (receive), Radio audio (transmit) and me just talking into the headset mic - Narration.Not sure how well I am explaining this and I could just experiment, but I am thinking it's not as simple as just wiring stuff together. I'm good with a soldering iron, but no EE by a long stretch. Any thoughts? Thanks

Question by hang4 7 years ago  |  last reply 4 years ago


questions for rail gun?

I have a few questions about a rail gun project i'm working on... 1.) Where are some good places that i can buy parts for a decent railgun (i already know of some places like home depot (for the rails and casing) and radio shack (for some of the minor components)? 2.) Is there a better material (cost and in efficiency) than copper for the rail? (i heard aluminum is good, and i also heard silver is good but silver is expensive) 3.) what are good power supplies (something fairly mobile would do nicely, and i am not asking for specific requirements i am asking what other people have used as power supplies) if you commented on my last question, don't on this one please, i got your opinion. I would like an answer that is to the point please and not something that has to do with whether or not i should build a rail gun (i have gotten answers like that before which bugs me when i ask a question).

Question by Tobor 2.0 6 years ago  |  last reply 6 years ago


People and Compact HIgh votlage capacitors

This is just a little anouncement. To all you people making coilguns and micro tesla coils and other highvoltage devices that require a rather large capacitor (and this goes to all circuits) and who try to save space to make a smaller, sleeker design (no one wants a bulky coilgun). 1) DO NOT put capacitors in series, just buy a capacitor on ebay that can withstand the voltage. about 90% of the time (I have only found one occurence where I got a smaller package for putting capacitors in series) you are wasting about half (or even more) of the volume. When you put capacitors in series, effectively you are just doubling the dielect width, and just wasting a lot of the conductor room (inside the cap, forgot the name) because it's not being used!!!! 2) Put Capacitors in parallel. Most of the time 10x 1kv, 1uF caps in parallel (1kv, 10uF) will take up much less room than 5x 200 volt 5uF capacitors in series. 3) I'm not sure if you can understand #1, if so, my bad. Basically you waste somewhere between 20 and 80% of the space, depending on how many caps in series you have. Just felt like throwing this out there because I see so many inefficient designs...

Topic by guyfrom7up 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


How would you make a direct link from a phone to an iPod through the TRS jacks to record ringtones? Answered

Hello! This is my first post on this site so I hope it will be a good one! I have both a Samsung Messager and an iPod Touch 4th Gen (I'm not too sure if versions matter in this or not). The phone has a 3.5 mm TRS headphone jack with both three and four conductor capabilities and my iPod has the same. Now, this is the conundrum I am in: My phone has the capabilities to record sound one of two ways, through the built in mic or through the headset (which also has a mic). However, when I do the recording sounds garbled, static-like, and all around horrible. Would there be a way to make a direct link from my iPod to my phone through the TRS jacks? I was thinking that if I did this then the digital sound quality would be much better. Then I could play my iPod, turn on the recording feature on my phone, and easily record the songs as they play. Then I could use those recordings as ringtones. If at all possible I would not like to take apart my phone or iPod but I don't care about the headsets, I have plenty. I have experience in soldering and a bit in cicuitry. Thanks in advance!

Question by ben_xman 7 years ago  |  last reply 7 years ago


3.5mm TRS/mini-stereo microphone jack from a PC headset into a 2.5mm reducer into an Xbox controller?

I would like to use a Turtle Beach HPA2 headset for my Xbox 360 for true 5.1 sound.  However, it is configured for PC usage and needs some extra stuff to work with a console.  I have everything sourced except for a way to hook up the microphone.  You can purchase a SteelCity Xbox Headset Connector but that seems like a waste of money if a cheap adapter will do.  It seems like you can use the existing HPA2 microphone cord with 3.5mm TRS/mini-stereo jack (I'm assuming it's mono, but it could be stereo), attach it to a 2.5mm reducer, and then plug it into the Xbox controller.  The existing Microsoft headset has a stereo jack, but that's because it has headphones as well and needs a separate channel for that.  I'm not sure how the two (mono) or three (stereo) conductors are situated on both the Xbox socket and the HPA2 plug.  I would assume the HPA2 microphone plug would be standard, but I'm thinking that the Xbox headset is unusual/proprietary as both the sound output and sound input are transmitted through one cord/plug as opposed to two for most PC headsets. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRS_connector https://www.instructables.com/id/Use-your-awesome-PC-Gaming-Headset-with-an-X-Box/

Question by SpiralArchitekt 8 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago


Making a large electric motor from scratch

I searched the archived threads and found quite a bit alreadydiscussed here about making very simple and small electric motors fromscratch. What I want to do is to make a fairly large and powerful one(say, somewhere around the size of a coffee can). This is for asculpture project, and the motor will be driving a kinetic mechanism.I'm pretty handy, have a extensive range of tools and am comfortableworking with high voltage. What I am not, however, is knowledgeableabout designing or making electric motors; hence my questions.I understand that I'll need to wind armatures and so forth, but Idon't know what the advantages/disadvantages would be of making a DCversus an AC motor (either power could be supplied), nor do I reallyunderstand the differences between the various types of those two. Themotor needs to be able to start by itself under load (as opposed tosome homemade electric motors that seem to need a nudge to get going).Simplicity, low maintenance and ease of construction would be a plus.I had thought of making a homopolar motor such as they have at theExploratorium (http://www.exploratorium.edu/cmp/exnet/exhibits/group5/daisy/index.html) but it seems that homopolar motors like this cause considerable wearto the part that acts as a brush, which will work against my goal oflow maintenance. Unless...perhaps I could use a rolling conductor (like a precision bearing) as a brush? Does that make any sense?Thanks for any advice!

Topic by Bricology 10 years ago  |  last reply 10 years ago


X10 security camera help--need ideas

A while back we got a few boxes of assorted electronics parts after my neighbor's son, an electrical engineer, died. I got two or three digital power supplies, a few oscilloscopes, a bunch of 72-volt electric car parts for the Ford Th!nk (which he helped design), a nice powered breadboard, etc. I already pulled out one nice color security camera that operates off 5V and has a composite/RCA output.I also found a more camera looking camera, a part of an X10 home security system. The camera has a built-in microphone and operates on 12VDC, but all three operate off a single, 6-conductor CAT-3 cable (15ft long). It comes with an adapter that I don't have, with a CAT-3 jack on one end, and a wire that separates into a 12V jack, an audio RCA plug, and a video RCA plug. I found the pinout online (attached), and I could wire it up to RCA plugs and a 12V power jack, but only if I could separate the lines. My question(s) are: 1)Where can I find CAT-3 plugs, 2)any suggestions regarding wiring, and 3)should I just cut off the end and attach plugs directly to it?Update: I discovered that CAT-3 fits into both CAT-1 and CAT-5 plugs. Now, if I could find a CAT-5 plug it would be easy, but I can only find a bunch of CAT-3 plugs missing the outside contacts, thereby making them CAT-1. I'm going to try to make my own contacts.

Topic by CameronSS 11 years ago  |  last reply 8 years ago