Search for cover pipes in Topics


domed screened pool cover plans using poly water pipes for support?

Installing an above ground pool, but need an inexpensive way to keep bugs and leaves out.  Also, since I am 70 also need something lightweight that I can build.   Has anyone built or have plans for a structure  using the white water pipes as rafters. 

Question by cararta    |  last reply


Need ideas how to cover pipes/drains

Dear all As you can see, this "box" broke. I am looking for new ideas please! I have something in my mind, but before I share it, let's hear what ideas people have.

Topic by avz10    |  last reply


How to seal unused drain pipe?

The short version: I have an old PVC sewer drain pipe that comes up out of a concrete slab floor.  Under the floor, the other end of the pipe connects to other drain pipes in the house, so before I cover the area with more carpeting, I'd like to seal that pipe off permanently to avoid any possible leakage in the future.  I'd like to avoid disturbing the concrete floor, if possible.  I'd like to put some kind of plug in the pipe and glue it into place with common PVC primer and cement, but I don't know if there's any kind of plug made for this purpose. Any suggestions? The details: I've taken down a non-load-bearing wall in my house.  The wall used to carry pipes for water (coming down from the second floor above), natural gas (embedded in the concrete slab floor), and sewer (also embedded in the slab).  These were all used for a poorly-positioned laundry room.  I've easily sealed the copper pipes for the water and natural gas, but I'm left wondering what to do with this two-inch sewer drain pipe. At first, I thought of covering it with a PVC cap, but to do that, I would need to chip away part of the concrete floor far enough down so the cap wouldn't be above the floor surface.  I would also need to be careful not to break the pipe as I chipped away the concrete.  If I were successful with that and then glued a cap on at the right height, then I would need to fill the space around it with a small amount of concrete.  Besides not wanting to damage the pipe, I'm sure I'd make a real mess of the carpet nearby. Then, I thought, rather than gluing a cap over the *outside* of the pipe, maybe there's some kind of cap that I can glue on the *inside* of it istead.  However, I don't know of any such pipe fitting.  It seems that all the home improvement stores around here sell fittings that go on the outside of the pipe.  So I'm looking for creative ways to plug up the end of this pipe. The other end of this pipe connects to other sewer pipes in the house that are currently in use.  I thought of possibly pouring a cement-like substance into the pipe to seal it, but I can't guarantee that it wouldn't go into the rest of the system and cause a disastrous plug for the whole thing. PS:  Excuse the orientation of the photos I've attached to this posting.  They looked fine on my phone, but when I upload them to Instructables, the site insists on rotating them. PPS: I do plan to cut the PVC pipe off even with the floor just before sealing it.  I'll use my trusty Dremel Multi-Max for that.

Topic by lsloan0000    |  last reply


PVC pipes and winding Tesla coils....

There are still people out there playing with high voltage.And one big problem when it comes to Tesla coils is winding the secondary coil.Now, I won't go into the details and options of the actual winding part, instead I would like to share some tricks that might make things easier for your project.Whether you wind fully by hand or make use of some mechanical winder, magnet wire is a very slippery thing on PVC.For that reason and some others we usually wind as tight and close as possible.Any leftover spaces that you find after the winding is finnished will severly compromise the overall tension of the wire in this region if fixed.Next problem is what many call aging.No matter how good you coat your coil with varnish or paint it will start to degrade over time.I found a simple fix for these problems :)Well, not really that simple but I am too lazy today to make a full Instructable for just an addition that everyone can make in a few minutes....Let me start with idea behind it all:I noticed that no matter how thick the pipe or wire is that there is little to no chance at all to get any of the coating material through the wire and all the way down to the PVC.One coil failed after I abused it so I did some cuts and had a close look with a magnifying glass.The coil itself was really good covered but it was like a sleeve that sits on the PVC with nothing on the underside of the wire except for a few single spots.Some people will now say to just a much thinner mix for the coating to allow the stuff to sweep through but that does not always work.One big issue I noticed is that not all paints or varnishes actually stick to PVC.Especially those non smelling eco friendly ones most places now sell.This means when the coil expands due to the vibrations and heat the wire can simply rattle off the varnish or the coating itself can crack under the stress.So I thought there must be a way to fix this right at the winding stage....PVC is a good insulator too!So why not use PVC instead of messing with other things?My first attempt here works quite well with thin wire and goes like this:Go outside with your winding rig and have a bottle of PVC primer and a little brush or sponge ready as well as some gloves.If you have use a friend, if you have none make a small rig to hold the sponge right in front of your winding area.The key is to keep the sponge wet with the primer so it will wet the pipe properly.Best is to have the speed and distance set so the surface just starts to dry off under the wire.The primer will cause the PVC to soften, so the wire slightly sinks into the surface.An automatic winding rig is best here as it allows for consistency.There is no too much or too little here is nothing drips terribly and your wire sticks without fully sinking in.Once done you can cover the winding with your prefered coating.For thicker wire, lets say 0.3mm or thicker, I now use a similar way but with more preperations:Using some very rough sandpaper on a belt or vibrating sander I create a small pile of PVC dust.If you prefer some fancy color you can use ABS plasic here too and it dissolves in a similar way.The resulting mix should be free of lumps and of even color, if in doubt use more primer.Consistency should be a bit thinner than honey, if yours is too thin you can add more ABS/PVC or let the primer evaporate off while stirring it every now and then.To get a good start I do a few turns dry first with quite a big spacing.When approaching the actual start of the winding area I use some stick tape to make the last alignment and start to apply the mix onto the first bit of the winding area.Some lint free cloth with a bit of primer is used to wipe off any excess towards the still uncovered part of the pipe.Every time the mix on the pipe dries out too fast a brush with some primer is use to wet it.Every time the excess runs out a bit more mix is applied onto the wound area.The key is to only have a small area in front of the winding covered with mix with the most is on the winding and "cleaned" off towards the empty area.This way the entire wire is covered by PVC all around.To finnish off you simply use a brush and paint the mix onto the rotating coil until you have an even finnish.What are the downsides?The primer stinks and is certainly not healthy to breathe in. So good ventilation is a must have and it works better in colder temeratures as it gives you more time.It might require some test runs with braided fishing line or similar to get a feeling for how much mix or primer you need to apply and how much max tesion you can use to preven the wire from sinking in.Any benefits?IMHO using this method makes it possible to get a proper bond between the PVC pipe and the wire.And by using PVC or ABS as the coating there is little to no change material properties.This in return gives far less chances for vibrations or wire expansions that result in failing insulations.The whole thing just is one piece of PVC with the wire embedded in it instead of having a wire on top of the PVC with some coating above. ;)Are there alternatives to the PVC primer?If Acetone is much cheaper than you can use it but the same safety measures apply and the mix might dry a bit quicker.What if I need a break or stop the winding for one reason or another?Simply wipe off all access and stop with just enough tension on the wire so you can star again with no problems.Then start by wetting and applying the mix and continue winding as before.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


How can you make your own shade cover for spectators at an event using PVC pipe?

We are having a handball tournament and behind the courts is a basketball court the only place to sit and I wanted to make a background with shade material for the spectators.

Question by misanz    |  last reply


Does anyone out there know how to construct a frame for a dog kennel cover made from pvc pipe?

Our kennels are 4 ft wide by 8 foot long. they are attached and there are 7 in a row. The kennels are chain link and there are 2 rows . 

Question by boworf    |  last reply


Which surface do I measure for pressure? Answered

So this is a fairly simple question, but here it is:  If you have a 5" pipe leading out of a pressurized chamber with a 6" inch disk covering the hole is the amount of pressure pushing the disk down that of 5" or 6".  I am pretty sure it is 5" because it has the equivalent pressure pushing the other way outside of that diameter.  Now if the 5" pipe had a bore of 5" and an outside diameter of 6" would the result be the same?

Question by jj.inc    |  last reply


What would be a good, CHEAP covering for a slightly inclined sunroom roof, so we can use it as a deck?

I have a sunroom roof with access. When we moved in, this 'deck' had steel pipe railing that caused a roof leak where it was screwed into the floor. We had to recover it with 'ice and snow' and the contractor cut the pipe off. So now we have a roof but would like to use it as a deck again. Last year we covered part of it with cheap, and loose indoor outdoor carpet and put some of our veggies in plant pots there to keep them away from deer and woodchucks. We'd like to cover it but can't afford Trex or a contractor! Any suggestions? Is there any reason we couldn't cover it with vinyl flooring? I saw a guy on HGTV use scrap lino to make 'rugs' by painting the other side. Would that work outside? Would I have to put something under it?

Question by RonBot    |  last reply


collecting sun light using a parabolic reflector and piping it into the flat....is there anyone who tried? Answered

...my idea is to collect sun light with a parabolic reflector( e.g. an old satellite dish covered with mylar http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mylar ) and piping it through optical fibers from the roof to my room. of course...there have to be a lense to concentrate the light.....anyone built stuff like this? reposts are welcome!

Question by soeren89    |  last reply


Free hot tub in Eastern Massachusetts

I have a 7 person hot tub with no pump and an undiscovered leak. Replace the pump and chase down the pipes. Repurpose the wood siding, cover or the shell. This creative community can surely find a use much better than the dump for this resource.

Topic by user866753  


al-air battery powered electric bike or scooter? Answered

  Hey, i was wondering if it would be possible to rig up an electric bike or scooter powered by an array of pvc al-air batteries. The use of al-air batteries would eliminate charging time and be much lighter than lead acid batteries.By pvc al-air batteries i mean a section of pvc pipe with a piece cut out from the side and covered in carbon paper and an aluminum electrode running through the middle.

Question by LiquidLightning    |  last reply


Water shed-I have a 30 degree driveway about 1\3 mile long.When it rains I get a torrent of water to the hiway below.

I have installed 4" cross drain pipe with stocking and ducting, but the clay slit covers the large gravel and the water goes over them. I'm considering a swale with large rocks down the water paths. any helpful suggestions of construction before i spend more money.

Question by matotunka    |  last reply


Anybody want to model "reflux" in the circulatory system? Physical model or computer pipe model!

My wife just had an amazing success when we went down to Newport Beach, California to get venoplasty to relieve many of  her symptoms following a stroke.  http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLkzXlmAwZTZfQ01RnN-8Ip5lUz0HrNWzN  We pay for national medical insurance in Canada and this treatment is not covered.  (Even though it clearly works, )   One road block is that an expert doctor here could not find any evidence of reflux in blood flow to or from the brain.  (Some MS patients have damaged valves in their neck veins).  Now, given that each heart beat raises blood pressure from 1.5 psi to 2.3  psi about once every second and that valves are actuated by the blood flowing backwards, I find the "expert doctor's" results impossible to believe.  I am not totally without knowlege in that area either because I made a low pressure airlift pump this year  that has a much higher lift submergence ratio than the normal ones.  (The airlift in a bucket one). I was told that the maximum  lift to submergence in these things was probably not much more that 10 to 1 but I managed to get over 20 to 1 lift to submergence primarly by reducing reflux.    Also, I observed that the effects of this reflux can extend conciderable distances from the "valve" itself and are different in small tubes than in big tubes.  Therefore it is possible (Likely even) that a damaged valve in a persons jugular will have its primary effect in a capallery somewhere in the brain up to a foot away from the damaged valve.  So if someone made this model, I think it is likely that they can contribute to the rapid advancement of medical science!   Brian White

Topic by gaiatechnician    |  last reply


>_< Specifications... i needz them.

So... about six months ago i moved into  new place.  it's great, but the previous tenants kinda trashed the place.  they left loads of rubbish around and were generally horrible to the house.  The previous tenants did leave a few things that are kinda nifty.  First, they left tons of PVC pipe. i have something like 20 ft of 2 inch pvc pipe, 15 ft of 3/4 inch pvc, and 10 or so feet of 1.25 inch pipe.  the second thing they left was an above ground water filter.  The owner's manual to the pump can be found here online:  http://www.pooltoysource.com/images/pdf/RVR005.pdf This got me to thinking i could setup a little hydroponic rig in my house. I have a hallway window which i'm too cheap to buy a blind for, and letting a bunch of plants cover it over appeals to me.  However, there's some problems.  The owners guide is critically lacking in any sort of technical specifications and all the info on the web just relates back to the pool pump being used as such.  Sooo... if anybody knows anything about what kind of performance can be expected out of this little dandy, let me know. 

Topic by Qcks    |  last reply


Distribution of Solar Heated Water and Any Other Heated or Cooled Water

I started this project about a week ago after seeing the Instructable – https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-build-a-strikeheliostatstrike-paraboliI made mine out of cardboard and then coated the cardboard – front and back – with fiberglass resin for stiffness. I covered the inside with tinfoil to test it out and find the focal point. It worked great with the focal point at the center of the dish even with the lip of the curve. I then removed the tinfoil and replaced the tinfoil with mirrored Plexiglas. Now it works awesome. I have a 30� parabolic mirror that can ignite wood almost instantaneously at the focal point of the light.Next I constructed the heating coil to run water through. This is made from a large 1 Kg coffee can, 16’ of ¼� copper tubing with end fittings, and the glass lid of a small sauce pan (handle removed). The outside of the coffee can is painted flat black as is the copper pipe. The copper pipe is coiled to a coil 4� in diameter and 6� in length and inserted inside the can with the ends extending from the side of the can through two drilled holes. The inside of the can is not painted, but left shiny. The glass lid is then taped over the hole with aluminum metal tape covering a minimum amount of the glass – about 1/4� around the edge.The coffee can is then suspended over the mouth of the parabolic mirror by a three point 6� chimney pipe stand-off. The can’s mouth is centered at the focal point of the mirror so all of the light being reflected by the mirror must enter the coffee can. Hoses are hooked up to the copper pipe fittings and these lines go to the feed/storage tank.The problem with the conventional set up from here is that the speed the water moves at (slow) to be heated to a great degree causes such great loses through convection, this system is not really feasible. I propose a new idea – or a new twist on an old idea.I noticed that the solar heat generating station use a black water pipe inside a glass vacuum tube to generate heat from the sun for heating water. I said to myself that this is a great idea and plan on building the next heating coil in a vacuum chamber. But, I also came up with the idea that the if the water is heated in this manner, why can’t it be transferred to the storage tank in a similar manner.If the feed lines were suspended inside a larger outer line and the outer line sealed tight and vacuumed the heat transfer due to convection would be almost nil. I estimated that with a total convective area at 100% the use of plastic stand-offs (8 @1/8� thick over 12’) the convective area would be reduced to 0.6%. Unbelievable! Even if this rose to 5% it is far beyond anything in use today by the home owner. Stretches of pipe going 100s of meters would no longer be un-heard of. You could place the dish in a close by field away from the trees and house and pump the heat back without losing it to the ground.This would also work for outdoor wood furnaces if use today. An outer pipe could be added over the existing pipe work, sealed, and vacuumed – almost all heat lose would be gone. And much larger stretches of pipe could be used here also. They would no longer need one furnace for the barn and another for the house. With this system, the pipes could even be run above ground, if desired, in some cases.This could also be used to replace insulation on cooling lines also.The key to the system is minimal contact between the inside and outside lines, and the vacuum between the two lines. Remember, there is no transfer of heat through convention within a vacuum, because there is no air for the heat to transfer through.As with all the new ideas this could get costly depending on the scale of piping you are dealing with – but the savings from reduced heat lose will far out way these cost in the near future.I may get an Instructable out for the Energy efficiency contest, but will be hard pressed.

Topic by strmrnnr    |  last reply


Plz Advise Me, it's urgent :(

Hello, there. We had to play a song or two for our school music festival. We play cover of songs(only instrumental). e.g, for My heart will go on, we play half rock and half classic. We wanna play songs in that version. Now, i've chose -21 guns, -Apologize by Timbaland, -Numb by Linkin Park, -I'm Yous by Jason Mraz Which song will be the best for us (suit with our instruments) Plz tell me if there's any matched song with our instruments?? There are 2 guitars, one pipe flute, one violin and one keyboard player. Thank U xoo xoooo Much ^^

Topic by yachiphyu    |  last reply


How can I use a 5 gallon water bottle to make a giant bird feeder?

I would like to use a 5 gallon water jug as a bird feeder. It would be mounted on a 4x4 post. There would need to be a hole in the top approx 6 inches in diamer to allow for filling it with sunflower seeds. The top would be covered to keep moister and squirrels from getting into the filler opening and top. I assume the seed would pour out of the bottom (mouth) of the jug and controlled by a feeding tray of some sort. I would want it framed for sturdiness with either wood or PVC pipe.

Question by EasySugar    |  last reply


How To Build an underground sandbag bunker complete with sewer and well and air Filtration system for under $2,000

I,m Planning On Building an underground sandbag bunker that will protect against most natural and man made disasters i would use bricks or concrete but that is to expensive and concrete bunkers are prone to leaking and molding unless you have a proper vapor barrier on all sides of the walls and foundation and the roof i am going to make my walls out of sandbags and have good strong posts every few feet or so to prevent cave ins the posts will be good strong 8 inch diameter logs also for the roof I,m going to use 8 inch diameter logs and on the roof i,m going to put 4 feet of packed dirt on it to act as a radiation shield my walls are going to be covered in plastic sheeting or polyethylene or both on the outside for a vapor barrier to prevent moisture from entering in a layer of plastic and polyethylene sheeting in going to cover the bottom of the hole then the floor frame goes on top of that and then i pack the frame with straw for insulation then another layer of plastic and polyethylene goes over that then the plywood goes on last and is screwed to the frame with woods screws i make sure the whole frame is wrapped in polyethylene sheeting and plastic sheeting then once the floor is in place i caulk where the floor and the walls meet with silicone for the roof i put vapor proof sheeting like plastic sheeting or polyethylene down first then the logs then straw for insulation then more vapor proof sheeting then dirt on top of that for the sewer i will use a pipe running from the toilet into a big pit with a lid on it and a pipe coming out of the lid with a fly screen on it for the vent pipe and of course i will reinforce the sewer pit so that it don't cave in and have a drain field and have a door for the bunker that can be locked or barred from the inside and for heat a barrel stove any ideas you may have any comments and suggestions would be greatly appreciated any problems with my plan please let me know because I,m looking for them so i can fix them in my plans

Question    |  last reply


The Memristor - they've found it!

This came out quite a few days ago, but I haven't seen it until today.HP's Henry Williams and his group have accidentally stumbled upon the fourth fundamental element in electronics - the memory resistor, or memristor. Basically, it's a resistor that changes its resistance with elapsed current flow, or total amount of charge that has passed through it, and retains its resistance even after current ceases to flow through it. From the article:"The classic analogy for a resistor is a pipe through which water (electricity) runs. The width of the pipe is analogous to the resistance of the flow of current—the narrower the pipe, the greater the resistance. Normal resistors have an unchanging pipe size. A memristor, on the other hand, changes with the amount of water that gets pushed through. If you push water through the pipe in one direction, the pipe gets larger (less resistive). If you push the water in the other direction, the pipe gets smaller (more resistive). And the memristor remembers. When the water flow is turned off, the pipe size does not change.Such a mechanism could technically be replicated using transistors and capacitors, but, Williams says, “it takes a lot of transistors and capacitors to do the job of a single memristor.”The memristor's memory has consequences: the reason computers have to be rebooted every time they are turned on is that their logic circuits are incapable of holding their bits after the power is shut off. But because a memristor can remember voltages, a memristor-driven computer would arguably never need a reboot. “You could leave all your Word files and spreadsheets open, turn off your computer, and go get a cup of coffee or go on vacation for two weeks,” says Williams. “When you come back, you turn on your computer and everything is instantly on the screen exactly the way you left it. "Apparently, evidence of memristors has been around for quite a while, but it was only until now, during the age of nano-technological exploration, that we finally have labeled the "strange voltages" we've found in experimental circuits as a result of memristor behavior. The discovery was made while doping Titanium dioxide with some dopant that the article fails to cover. Anyhow, the resistance of TiO2 changes with the amount of dopant covering it. Since the dopant does not adhere perfectly to the TiO2 substrate, the flow of charges (electrons) can move the dopant, and cause it to cover more or less of the substrate, thus changing its resistance. "Williams found an ideal memristor in titanium dioxide—the stuff of white paint and sunscreen. Like silicon, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a semiconductor, and in its pure state it is highly resistive. However, it can be doped with other elements to make it very conductive. In TiO2, the dopants don't stay stationary in a high electric field; they tend to drift in the direction of the current. Such mobility is poison to a transistor, but it turns out that's exactly what makes a memristor work. Putting a bias voltage across a thin film of TiO2 semiconductor that has dopants only on one side causes them to move into the pure TiO2 on the other side and thus lowers the resistance. Running current in the other direction will then push the dopants back into place, increasing the TiO2's resistance.HP Labs is now working out how to manufacture memristors from TiO2 and other materials and figuring out the physics behind them. They also have a circuit group working out how to integrate memristors and silicon circuits on the same chip. The HP group has a hybrid silicon CMOS memristor chip “sitting on a chip tester in our lab right now,” says Williams."I think this is pretty awesome, considering the current breakthroughs in nanotechnology and downsizing of transistors, memristors would enable a whole new field to be born, and circuit theory may have to be re-designed.Like Leon Chua said, the man who first came up with the idea of a memristor, "now all the EE textbooks need to be changed."These next few years in the field of EE should be very interesting =)Image from Spectrum Online

Topic by T3h_Muffinator    |  last reply


Schauberger Repulsine 3D files?

I am trying to design a model of Schauberger's Repulsine in Sketchup, maybe even try to print it once complete. For this project  collected all sorts of images and dcuments from the web to get at least most components covered, although it is impossible to get it all... I found the two "wave" disks on Thingiverse, which is already quite a good thing, so everything else will be scaled around these models. My problems so far: Top top cone contains a series of pipes shaped like the horn of a Kudu and on top of that following the shape of inverted egg. There are images to be found on the web but I have a hard time creating this in Sketchup. It is like two twisted spirals that are on top of each other so both ends are wide, the middle is thin. Ok, I give up, have a look instead: https://www.flickr.com/photos/esaruoho/4934537252/ If you know where to find a 3D model lke this or how to create these shapes in Skechtup please let me know.

Question by Downunder35m  


Steam generator for a home-made steam room

I love steam rooms. i want to build one out behind our house in the country in thailand. but it has to be low-tech. i'm thinking i'll make a square wall out of cinderblocks, about 4 feet high. then my shower will stick up from that .we don't have running water. we get water pumped from the well into big jars and use a bowl to splash water on ourselves to wash. but i put a submersible pump in the bottom of the jar, rigged up some PVC pipe and i have a shower of sorts. so if i build a 4 foot high square wall, with a doorway, i can pull a thick piece of foam over the top to cover the top, hang a rubber curtain across the doorway opening, and have an enclosed, outdoor room that i can steam up and sweat the gunk out, then stand up, flip off the insulating cover and shower right there. the steam room will go right behind me and the jars in the shower picture- where you can see a little bit of grass growing. but how do i make a steam generator? commercial ones cost way more dollars (baht) than i need to spend. i can use propane from a tank for fire, or wood, or charcoal. the well water is very hard water with a lot of dissolved minerals in it so my steam generator can't be something that will get clogged up with mineral deposits. anybody got any ideas? the steam generator needs to be cheap, home-build-able with local materials, and safe... don't want anything that can blowup, catch fire, or asphyxiate the users.

Topic by Thaikarl    |  last reply


Whats the best K'nex pistol replica (Ibles/KI)? Answered

What is the best knex pistol replica that shoots? It can be on ibles or KI Not LOADS of broken pieces And not ultra hard to make. Please answer!!!! Thanks MM8

Question by MegaMetal8    |  last reply


Microwave Oven Transformer Stack

This is my Microwave Oven Transformer stack. It is currently current limited using a heater. There is approximately 10 36 watt 4' fluorescent tubes in a string around my garage that I am lighting with the MOT stack .My MOT stack contains 4 Microwave Oven Transformers connected with their outputs in series and their inputs in parallel. They are mounted on plastic cutting boards. I am using threaded rod to hold the layers in place while the PVC pipe covers the threaded rod and it also supports some of the weight. The output of this is approximately 8800VAC at 350mA The Input voltage is 240VAC Thanks for looking, Please comment and remember to rate if you like it! Just say if you want any pics of a certain thing, e.g. the MOT stack arcing to wood/metal etc. (I will try to get more pics of it arcing soon but it is hard to use a camera that has like a second delay before it takes the actual pic from when you press the button, stupid camera) ********************************************************************************************************** Edit The new pictures are of an arc between two carbon electrodes. The other pictures are of 12 fluorescent tubes connected in series but arranged in parallel so you can see them all

Topic by thermoelectric    |  last reply


Looking for a cheap compressor with a high pressure rating or for airbrush use?

Today a friend of mine asked me if I know a way to reduce the noise level of his compressor in the work shed. With the current heat he prefers to work in the evening and nights, which does not make his neighbours too happy. His main use for several airbrush guns and sometimes for mormal airtools or the big spray gun for an undercoat or similar. So his main concern is oil in the airline and the actual flow rate is of second concern as he has an old 25kg propane cyclinder as an additional air tank. For relative low air volumes I would suggest an old fridge compressor. With a thicker pipe at the outlet that is filled with stainless steel wool most of the oil stays in the compressor. That is if this pipe is a) long enough b) upright c) of sufficient diameter so there is enough for the oil to avoid it being pushed up A second, standard oil seperator will be enough for the oil level required for airbrush stuff - and most other things too. If there is no pressure regulator on the airbrush system it is best to add a small air tank and shut off valve for it. In our case however a fridge compressor would be just enough to keep the bigger airbrush gun running but not to fill the tank at the same time. Not to mention the problem of fluctuating pressure levels. Since we already had a tank and pressure shut off connected to the loud compressor it was only a matter of finding something that keeps the neighbours happy. The first thing we did was to check how often the compressor comes on and how long it runs till the tank is back to pressure. With that and the stated air volume on the compressor we guesstimated that something a bit bigger than the compressor of a window airconditioner should be sufficient. The search begins.... If you don't know what to look for I give you a few hints: Older airconditioners often run on R22 or R12 - both use quite high system pressures which is a bonus, but more on that later. As a rule of thumb for these compressors you cans say: the bigger the higher the flow rate. At the local wreckers and scrap yards we found a few units but noticed the bigger ones often used three phases and not just one :( So we opted for the R22 compressor of a 4.5kW unit. Keep in mind the 4.5kW is for the entire system, so the quite massive fans can be removed from the sum. Usually the compressor alone is the 2.5 - 3kW range. Ok, we found the big thing but how does this help us? First things first ;) The oil was removed as the housing stating the original oil amount. This allowed us to use an oil rated for air use that has little to no water absorption qualities - you don't want water in your compressor. With the usual heat the water should be no problem anyway. Next was a pressure test to make sure the thing actually still works, so we added some plumping in the form of standard connectors to the inlet and outlet. We got well above 200PSI and abondoned the test at this stage as it was more than enough already. The air volume seemd to be well more than expected too so let'S move to the next stage. A fridge or aircon compressor always needs to have a certain amount of oil in it as it will otherwise seize and overheat quickly. But they are also designed so that the oil mixes with the refrigerant to cool all moving parts. So the biggest hurdle is to make sure the oil stays where it should stay and won't enter or get lost in the tank. Only real option for this to use something to catch the oil that is capable of releasing it into the compressor once it shuts off. Now there are several options for this so I start with the most basic: A "catch can" will get most of the oil, especially if filled with stainless steel wool or similar. Downside is that you have to find a way to get it back into the compressor. A step better is a thicker pipe filled with stainless steel wool to catch the oil. If placed upright and the outgoing pipe can be bend a bit upwards you have a good chance that most of the oil will sweep through the valves and get back down into the compressor housing. But only too often the cheap or even free compressor is better than expected and the oil won't get back into the housing as the vlaves are just too good. The last and IMHO best option is a pressurised return system. Most compressors for bigger aircons have a seperate filling port or sealed off piece of pipe. In this case you can do a simple check to see if they are usable for our purposes. Open the port of pipe and use a simple bike bump or similar to get some pressure in it. With a dedicated oil filling port you are best off but they are hard to find. The air you pump in should come out of the high pressure side - you might need a little pressure to overcome the valves. If you hear any bubbling in the housing (use a pipe on your ear or a sensitive microphone) it means you are going through the oil inside the compressor - perfect! You might not hear any bubbling but the port or pipe is still usable. Get ready with your fingers and start the compressor. The fill pipe should be sucking air in, same for the service port if there is one. A dedicated oil port should not suck but instead force some oil up if you cover the high pressure outlet. I assume all is good and no oil is splashing out of the open pipe or port. Add a small amount of oil with a syringe or similar into the port/pipe. If you see an oil mist coming out of the high side it is bad news. Clean outlet air is good. To get the oil back from the catch pipe or can we have to add a hose or pipe with a needle valve. It needs to be adjusted so that there is only a very little airflow (or oil mist) coming out. This regulated outlet is now being connect to the port/pipe with a bit of suction that we found earlier. Now every time the compressor runs the collected oil is forced back into the compressor :) Please double check the port/pipe used is not directly connected to the intake port! The last thing you want is a puddle of oil going into the cylinder and damaging it! They are designed to move gas but not liquid! If in doubt use a hardened sttel nail or similar to create a small puncture in the top of the compressor housing if there is nothing else to use. Check first if the material sound very thick, if so it might help to drill with a 5 or 6mm drill first - only about 1mm to make sure you won't enter the housing and conimate it with metal shavings! Once you have a small puncture hole of about 2mm in diameter get some 2 component metal repair glue mix and add a suitable connection for the collecting pipe/can. If you feel up to it you can of course use a blow torch and solder the connection on. Now we have the compressor working with a oil return system that also gives up very little to no oil at all in our system. You might now think you are good to go but you should at least add a decent and fine filter to the air inlet ;) The compressor noise of a bigger system can still be an issue if thicker pipes are used that allow the noise to travel out. Keep in mind they usually run in a fully closed system.... As we only need to match the noise level of the compressor itself a solid steel can like an old fire extinguisher in the 1kg rage is a good way out. Fill it with filter wool and a fine filter pad after adding some hose connectors either end. You can misuse the trigger nozzle and keep it to seal the top if you braze a connector on it. If the intake here is about 5 times larger than the pipe connection to the compressor itself the air flow going into the thing is low enough for a cheap paper air filter can or box if you have a quite dusty enviroment to work with. The real trick is to have a hose or pipe on the inside of the fire extinguisher connected to the compressor pipe connection. A garden hose is great here as is reduces the noise quite good and is dirt cheap. Make a lot of about 2mm sized holes in this pipe and close the other end of it off. Now the compressor will suck it through the small holes and the soft garden hose reduces the noise, the surrounding padding brings it down to basically nothing. The special case of clean air for airbrush.... If you read this for the sole purpose of airbrush use then this chapter is just for you, all other might want to skip it. The two things you don't want to enter your gun is oil or water. Both are a common thing in normal compressors due to lubrication and pressure difference resulting in condensation of the humidity in the intake air. Oil free compressors of good quality can cost quite a few bucks and often require ongoing replacement of membranes or piston seals. A refrigeration compressor with the above modifications already provides clean enough air for most airbrush users if a proper tank is used to store enough of the compressed air. So you might just want to add a basic oil filter or very fine paper filter close to the regulator. For very detailed work with very sensitive paints you might want to build a filter box containing of several layers of oil absorbent paper. This stuff is often used in the industry to clean up minor oil spills and bind oil very well. A PVC pipe (pressure rated please) with 5-8 layers of filter screens should last about a lifetime before the filters need changing if the diameter is in the 10-15cm range. That leaves us with the dreaded problem of condensation and water contamination. Depending on the type of paint and gun used a small amount of water vapour is usually no problem. Solvent based paints usally show their disliking by unwanted drops or run offs caused by water droplets. Of course you just go and buy a professional dehumidifier and accept the ongoing replacement costs for the cartridges... But if you are in a climated that has above 30% humidity for most of the year than you will have to remove the water one way or the other. A big enough storage tank for the air that is upright usually helps to release any condensated water prior to usage. But if you use a homemade tank you might want to avoid this problem completely and forget about water in the system altogehter. Silaca gel is the answer here, specifically the indicating variety that changes color once "full". A spaghetti glas or similar should be big enough unless you are in a very humid climate - is so just use multiple in a row. The air intake side for the compressor has to go through the silica gel to be effictive. This mean we need two holes in the lid. One with a pipe or hose going all the way to the botom - that is the air intake side. The other right on the lid - this is the air outlet side which continues to the compressor intake. With the color change in the silica gel we can estimate how much usage we have left until we have to heat it up to remove the water. If this color change happens quite fast from the bottom to the top, let's say within three days or less than you really need to use more jars with silica gel in a row or a longer one - like using a long and clear acrylic pipe instead. Of course you can always just cut holes and "viewing glasses" along the length to a PVC pipe.... No matter how wet your climate is you want to get at least 100 hours of compressor run time before you need to recharge the silica gel. This brings us to the recharging.... Once the color changes and you only have about one quarter left to the top you want to get the water out of the gel and re-use it. To do this you simply heat it up in your oven to around 120-150°C - the supplier should state the max temp for this. If you use a gas oven or one with limited accuracy here it is best to stay within the 120° range. You need to stir and mix the gel or use something big enough like an oven tray. But be aware that these little balls are like glass! The roll and bounce like no tomorrow! IMHO it best to use an old cooking pot that has no plastic handles for this and not to overfill it. This allows for easy mixing without making a mess that might cause a bad trpping hazard on your kitchen floor tiles! Once the gel is back to original colr it is time to let it cool of to a safe temperature and to fill it back into our canister or pipe. Tanks and shut off systems.... We have a refrigeration compressor working for us, and since it was for R22 we can use much higher pressures as a simple compressor from the hardware store. The low pressure side is used to 70PSI or around 5Bar of pressure in normal working conditions. The high side often works at pressure in the range of 200-300PSI or 14-20Bar! The tank we used is a big propane tank that was restamped at some stage in his life for the use of LPG - so it was tested to quite high pressures. The lower pressure limit is what keeps the stored gas liquid at the given temperature. For Propane at an imaginary 30°C this would around 155PSI or 10Bar. The stamped test pressure, although outdated, showed 600PSI or around 40Bar of pressure with no problems - and the thing was thick in the walls... The old shut off switch from an old air compressor was adjustable after removing the safety cap with a bit of force and the help of few cold beer. With a little tank attached we adjusted it to turn the compressor off at 250PSI or around 17Bar of pressure. If your tank is old or has no test pressure stamped on do your own test in a safe location. Make sure the area is secured so there is no chance of debris from a brusting tank can go anywhere - this includes to chain down the tank itself ;) Use the aircon compressor to fill it up to 300PSI or 20Bar of pressure - this should be tolerated with ease by any propane or LPG tank. Shut the valves and let it rest for a day or so. It is best to do this in the early morning so the heat from the day will slightly increase the pressure. At the end you still want to have a working tank and no major pressure losses. All of our mods on this tank were done without actually harming the tank. This was possible as the original valve had a release port for filling purposes - as it standard on most refillable ones. Here we removed the valve and added a pressure guage instead - better to know what is happening than to assume things. As this "port" had a seperate connection to the bottom of the brass valve we added as T-connection to allow for the connection to the compressor. Just be be really sure a thin piece of copper tubing was brazed to the exit hole of this port so all incoming air will be going down and away from the outlet connection with the big shut off valve on top - which we use to actually isolate and close the tank when not it use. Last thing required was something to connect the pressure shut off switch and regulator to. That was the only major expense on this project as we had no old BBQ hose or similar to get a suitable connector to the tank. We bought a simple adapter for the use of smaller hoses and cut the unwanted bits off we there was only the bottle conntector with the nut left. After removing the rubber ring we brazed piece of copper pipe onto it. Here we drilled holes and fitted severy connectors. First for the pressure switch, then for the connection to the pressure regulator and two standard ones with a ball valve for air hose connections. One air hose connection female, the other male so a standard compressor can be connected as well or "backfilled" for additional and mobile storage use. As we wanted to avoid any reduction in the safety and burst pressure no release valve was added at the bottom on the tank. The added silica gel filter stage was used instead so no water will get into the system to begin with. Additionally, and painfully for me and me friend, the inside of the tank was coated with a layer of acrylic paint to prevent and rust as it was free from it when we checked it at the beginning. This involved filling a suitable amount of paint into it, closing the top while keeping the thread clean and then to move the tank around to cover the inside evenly. If you do this be prepared for some weird movements with your friends LOL Once we were sure all ust be covered by paint at least three times we released the exxess paint and allowed the inside to dry with the assistance of some air forced to go in with a length of pipe. This was repeated 3 times... Then another two just for the bottom third of it where there might be some moisture after all... Now you don't want to remove the brass valve with everything connected to it just to turn the tank over to releae the collected water. Instead we made sure the added pipe on the former relese port would go all the way to the bottom of the tank. If any water collection is suspected only the connection to the compressor needs an additional valve for the disconnection so the water will be force back out here. To make this easy and fast we used standard quick connectors and a piece of flexible airhose rated to 20bar of pressure for the connection to the compressor. We checked the performance of the moisture removal and oil removal only for a few hours of running time while priming some surface for later use. The compressor oil used was very smelly to say it nice but nothing coul be smelled in the first paper filter after the pressure regulator. To check for remaining moisture levels (65% humidity in the house) we used a 10m length of clear PVC tubing going through an ice bath. After 30 minutes of moderate air release there was no condensation on the inside of the tubing visible. Of course if you only need it for air supply and don't care about a bit of moisture and oil you can keep it simple ;) Benefits of doing such a stupid thing: For starters noise and the peace of mind that you can do a lot of airbrushing until the compressor needs to kick in again. Then of course the benefit of an almost silent system compared to a standard compressor - something you can actually tolerate while doing art. But the real deal is knowing YOU did it and you did it for cheap. Warnings and some advise... I know, it should be at the very beginning but I just hope you read till the end ;) If the compressor fails from overheating you are up for a new one. This means the tan size should be within the limits of what the compressor can handle - same for what you actually use on air. You want an empty tank to be filled before the compressor feels hot to touch - quite warm is fine but if you can't leave your hand on it then it is too hot. Same story for the usage. There is no point in using a tiny 10 liter storage tank if you need that capacity every few minutes. The compressor would only have little pauses and overheat quickly. You want a good balance of usage time before the tank goes below supply pressure and running time of the compressor to get it to full pressure again. This brings us to the safety of high pressures. Where possible only copper tubing or sufficiently rate hoses should be used, the later as short as possible to avoid them acting like a whip if something goes wrong. When it comes to the safety of the tank you want to make sure to stay withing it's rated limits. All benefits of a compressor capable of producing over 500PSI otr close to 35Bar is wasted if your tank and pressure regulator can't handle it. This must not mean that you try to use a gas cylinder of unknow age and pressure rating and assume it will work! If in doubt use a lower shut off pressure and stay within the limits of normal air compressors - which is around 120PSI or 8Bar. Never, ever use a tank that is compromised by inside rust or bad corrosion on the outside! If you don't know how to braze copper tubing, pipes and connectors then check out some of the great Instructables about it! Whenever you know you won't use any compressed air for more than a few hours close all valves especially the ones going back to the compressor on the high pressure side! Some compressors really don't like a huge pressure difference constantly pushing on the reed valves. If your tank is big enough to allow for more than one hour of operation before the compressor has to top it up you might want to consider a one way valve right on the compressor outlet. This will prevent any massive pressures going onto the valves - especially helpful for modern compressors that only rely on the sealing capabilities of the clyinders or rotary system used. One thing you should always consider is a pressure relief valve rated for about 50PSI more than your tank pressure - it can be added to the pipe ;) If the shut off valve ever fails the relief valve gives you the ease of mind that it will blow before your tank does. Maintenance... If modded correctly the compressor should stay in the compressor and the compressor itself should not overheat from use. Having said that your compressor might force out a little more than your best catch system can handle. If that becomes a problem it might help to use an oil with a lower viscosity. If all fails it just means you need to top up oil once the last last paper filter is filthy or use slightly more to begin with so the intervals are longer. The silica gel, if used should be recharged before all of it is wasted - no point in adding it if you use it once full of water. If no gel is used there will be water in the storage tank. Even with the added paint and a good air filter it is possible that nasty things grow in there. Making sure the tank is emptied of any water after long uses and again before the next use is good practise. If no pressure gauge is used on the tank you must make sure the shut off valve is always working fine and within set parameters. I strongly recommend using a gauge and if not to perform a pressure check of the system every now and then to confirm all is within parameters of normal operation. A compressor constantly running means you either use far too much air or you have a leak - same story if the compressos kicks in after some of forgetting to shut it off and close the valves. If you keep the above in mind the salvaged compressor should work just fine for many years to come. Troubleshooting and alternatives.... You put everything together the right way, double checked and something is till not right? Maybe my crystal ball helps me to find something... 1. Always oil coming through the catch system. It usually means you use too much of it. A salvaged compressor, if the refrigent was removed legally from the system should still have a "correct" level of oil inside. Too much oil would mean is being pumped through the system at an excessive rate. Very thin compressor oils tend to do that in the compressor is misude like we do. Changing to standard mineral oil can help here. As a last resort you can use a pressure gauge or good judgement to allow more flow through the needle valve from the catch system back to the compressor. Too much backflow here would mean we loose system pressure to the set level of this needle valve! 2. The R22 rated compressor seems to be unable to produce enough pressure. First do a leak test using soapy water to rule out any leaks. Do a back pressure test on the ports. If you can push air through them in the reverse way with ease it means the valves are damaged making the compressor useless. You need to replace it. A regular cause with our type of usage is a constand back pressure from the storage tank to the compressor. To prevent this it might help to mount an electric solenoid between the compressor and storage tank. Such valve should be off when the pressure switch is engaged and on when the pressure switch is disengaged. This prevents the coil from overheating but requires a "normally off" type of valve. A good source at the wreckers are cars with LPG systems installed, they usually have suitable 12V valves somewhere on or near the tank and filler cap. 3. I am using several kg of silica gel but still get a lot of water in my storage tank. Going overboard in a humid climate can be a good thing here but if moisture makes it into the tank even with great amounts of silica gel there are only two causes: a) the tube or cylinder used is not long enough or not wide enough to allow the absorption of all the moisture going through. b) the flow rate is too high and the temperatures are too. For the first the solution is obvious enough. The second is related to the first for the diameter and lenght but temperatures constantly above the 30°C while operating somehow limits what the gel can do. Using a cooling coil on the intake side or simply putting the gel containers in icy water will help to a great deal here. If that is not an option than I suggest to layer the gel and to seperate it with fine paper filter screens. This will slow and even out the airflow allowing for more contact time with the gel. 4. The compressor gets very noisy after some time. If "some time" means more than 30-45 minutes you simply have it running too much and it overheats. If the noise increases too much when reaching the shut off pressure it can mean the pressure is too high for it. 5. Can I use multiple compressors from smaller units or refrigerators to get enough air volume? Of course you can but it might mean you have to lower your pressure expectations. Consider that each individual compressor would get the back pressure from all other compressors running while it's outlet valve is closed. To avoid premature failure you want to make sure the compressors are shut off at a lowver pressure. 6. I don't want to use a big tank but require a good airflow for airbrush. Two or three fridge compressors working one after the other with a small tank to keep the output pressure even can allow for about 30 minutes runtime per compressor. With three it gives one hour for the the first to cool off and should be enough for ongoing work. Downside is you need to make some sort of automatic switch to "rotate" to compressor working. Last words.... Is you find any spelling mistakes you can keep them. However, if you use them in any way to make a profit with them I kindly ask for 10% of your earning from it ;) Why did I not make an Instructable out of all this? Well the day was very hot, the beer very cold and my mobile phone at home, so I did not take any pics. To top it up the whole thing is now in a seperate box for additional noise reduction so it can be used in the same room where the guy is working. Of course he just used a nailgun for the job without any regard of access or at least easy view of the two pressure gauges. Typical if you have a great idea and the cold beer tells you to forget all about screws or hinges ROFL Only comment was: You created it and it works fine, why would need more than the pipe connections for the gel and regulator? Maybe he will reconsider when the service is due....

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Star Wars X-Wing Rogue Squadron Costume

Hello Fellow Instructables Members! I created this costume over the course of 2011.  It is an X-Wing from Star Wars.  My friend and I designed it, and I built it.      The total cost was about $120.00.     The original plan was to make it simply a costume i could mount on the frame of a hiking backpack.  I decided to add in the option of placing it on my bike in order to take of some of the weight.  I had a bit of an issue with the front wheel though.   I can only make it balance when i am strapped into the backpack and sitting on the seat.  I should have thought this one through a little more clearly.  It would seem not everything in life can be "Winged."     The backpack mount is set just where R2-D2 would be.  I used my Dremel and cut a hole out a of a salad bowl.  It is not in the picture due to issues I had with wind conditions at the time and balance.  I'll upload pictures soon.  And yes, you can see out of the cockpit.  Seeing in, well, that's another story. Materials: ~ PVC pipe ~ Spray Paint ~ Hiking Backpack Frame ~ Insulation Foam ~ Red Hot Blue Glue ~ Glue Gun ~ LOTS OF ZIP TIES! Wingspan: 10' Length: 14' Any Questions, please feel free to message me :D Before I put the covering on it here is a test I did :

Topic by _-MacGyver-_  


Underwater Jetpack Project. [HELP NEEDED]

Im planning on making an underwater jetpack something like this. However I'm a bit to dumb to figure out all the ESC and electronic components of brush-less motor systems.   Im also limited because this is a school project and in order to be reimbursed the materials need to come from amazon.  I will be using it in a chlorinated pool for demonstration but salt water resistance would be nice.  My requirements are as follows:  1.  Propeller must be covered as I may do another project after this one that requires fingers (im thinking 6in diameter pvc pipe with chicken wire or a metal grill over the ends) 2. Modifiable for different circumstances.  (I already cut up an old backpack and screwed a plywood board to it for mounting the propellers and  batteries, however I may decide to go with hand or foot mounting instead.   3. A trigger operable switch. (Cordless drill style although I don't care that much about speed control.   I'm planning this project to be for a senior year high school project (next year) so I have plenty of time. Do you guys think something like this would work for the propellers?  Their for air so I would expect significantly reduced performance in water.  However if they are to high rpm/low torque to spin properly in water perhaps I could keep the enclosure and switch out the motors for higher torque ones.

Topic by TypeNameHere  


How do I directly power a standard 12v 2a Led strip directly off AC outlet/switch?

Hey all!  So I have an idea for a project to make some safety running lights for the stairs and some for around the light switches in my home to provide a night light of sorts and also allow for easy navigation at night. Now, I am still new to Electronics and electrical circuits in general and in fact the farthest my knowledge really extends is to the last project in the book Make:electronics which only really deals in DC. Now on to the real meat of the question. How could I safely tie a small circuit consisting of some SMD led light strips running at 12v 2a DC to a standard AC line going into a light switch? I would normally just use a standard "wall wart" PSU but I want to integrate the circuitry beyond the leds behind the light switch panel. I'm mostly looking what type of components I would need, maybe an overview of what needs to be done(or detailed step by step would be cool too :) ). I know there is probably a lot more knowledge I would have to gain to really do this properly so I would also ask for some good educational material covering what I am doing and some more similar topics. I have found that most of my projects involve lighting and being able to directly pipe off of an AC line without a wall wart would be lovely. Thanks All!

Question by kealil    |  last reply


Pommel horse revisited: How do I construct a pommel horse?

Assuming I have the the means to obtain the required materials Pommel horse revisited: Assuming that hardware can be obtained, i.e, the core,  be circular tubing, solid steel or wood core, hallow construction( example, think of a construction a post using 4 2' x 4', ergo a hallow post),  pommel handles, the polyethylene foam, the vinyl or leather covering, the leg supports, be they wood, square or circular tubing, and the necessary tools ( wood/welding) how is a pommel horse made to closely match a regulation pommel horse http://visual.merriam-webster.com/sports-games/gymnastics/gymnastics/pommel-horse.php(not a trainer)? Answers should include the following:  Feel free to add to this list as I am sure it isn't complete in your answer. Construction materials and hardware used to construct the pommel horse, aside from the aforementioned basics. i.e, use of a solid core like 4 8'x8' posts, a circular tube, or variations to achieve the desired dimensions/ If the design includes the bread loaf taper, how was this achieved? How the pommels were attached and the hardware used.    If the pommels are fabricated how was this done, but lets assume they will be purchased. Variations of supporting base structure is acceptable. Answers need to include how supporting base is attached to the horse and what hardware or means of attachment are used.     A. If leg supports are adjustable, by way of circular tubing or square tubing with holes that can be locked into place, are they prefabricated?      a1. How were the adjustable height leg supports constructed. For example, Think of sliding a smaller pipe into lager one, or square tubing for that matter.        a2. How were the legs secured in this configuration to compensate for possible lack of rigidity/support?  Clamped B. If legs or wood and adjustable, how is this achieved and by what means, for instance, drilled holes and wooden dowels or longboats, etc...      Thanks to all those who dive into this. I've searched patents, several hundred search engines and archives and found all but nothing.

Question by Phukitol    |  last reply


A New, Global Oil Quandary: Costly Fuel Means Costly Calories - Peak cooking oil?

The interconnectedness of the world can sometime be striking. I noticed yesterday that Safeway, a west coast grocery store chain, has converted it trucks to biodiesel. Due to increased fuel-demand for things that were previously only considered foodstuffs, the cooking oils carried by the biodiesel-fueled trucks were probably significantly more expensive. In Malaysia, this has even idled some plants design to refine oils into biodiesel:Here on Malaysia's eastern shore, a series of 45-foot-high green and gray storage tanks connect to a labyrinth of yellow and silver pipes. The gleaming new refinery has the capacity to turn 116,000 tons a year of palm oil into 110,000 tons of a fuel called biodiesel, as well as valuable byproducts like glycerin. Mission Biofuels, an Australian company, finished the refinery last month and is working on an even larger factory next door at the base of a jungle hillside.But prices have spiked so much that the company cannot cover all its costs and has idled the finished refinery while looking for a new strategy, such as asking a biodiesel buyer to pay a price linked to palm oil costs, and someday switching from palm oil to jatropha, a roadside weed.from the NYT article A New, Global Oil Quandary: Costly Fuel Means Costly CaloriesAnd there's more: as more and more baked goods eliminate trans-fats, those fats are often replaced with palm oil, so the pastries carried by the biodiesel-fueled trucks are themselves consuming more edible oil. While this will increase the price to make and ship a snack cake in the US, it has much greater effect elsewhere. Since people in the developing world get such a large percentage of their calories from cooking oil, increased prices have caused riots:No category of food prices has risen as quickly this winter as so-called edible oils -- with sometimes tragic results. When a Carrefour store in Chongqing, China, announced a limited-time cooking oil promotion in November, a stampede of would-be buyers left 3 people dead and 31 injured.

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply


Cloning the famous ARA-2000 antenna for SDR use

Several years ago the company behind the original ARA-2000 antenna, Dressler Hochfrequenztechnik, closed.The ARA series of antennas, like many other products by this company never got a patent, instead it was trusted that no one would bother to replicate it.A bit like the Swiss Army knife, many tried to copy it, none really managed to match the original quality.There is quite a bit of hacking still going on for this antenna, most projects though seem to be abandoned at the time of writing this.I am currently trying to figure out how to create an entire clone that everyone who knows how to properly use a soldering iron can build.There is a lot to consider here...The active element is of quite unusual shape and needs to be wound around a cylinder of a pretty accurate diameter.My initial tests showed that for example aluminium foil with some unavoidable wrinkles already has a negative effect.And a change in diameter of just 2mm means the entire antenna only performs badly for the entire band.This part is thankfully already solved to my satisfaction using thin copper sheets and some stiff plastic sheet.Quite a pain though is the MMIC part - the amplifier that makes the antenna active.There is a ton of MMIC blobs available, either solo or as a ready to go amplifier.Downside is that without really knowing any characteristics of the original is comes down to guesswork.And as most of the cheap SDR dongles won't provide a BIAS TEE I will opt for an external power supply for the amp.I might provide the option for a inline use a bit later though.Why clone the ARA-2000 antenna?For starters you need to forget the mythical stories you might have heard about this antenna."Picks up even the weakest signals!", "Totally linear over the entire bandwidth" and so on...Without the amplifier the antenna is actually not even average in therms of reception performance.My initial tests with a network analyser showed that the anteanna actually is behaving really weird (without the amp!).Although this first bit needs further testing, it seems that most, if not all of the work in the 1.5-2GHz range is done by just the straight connecting strup going from the amp, or in my test case the coax, to the wrapped antenna part.For anything in the more interesting frequency bands it seems that the antenna is not using anything like a discone, whip or ground plane antenna.Instead the 3rd harmonics of a given frequency provide the max power output from the antenna but it arrives at the cable at the right frequency.Especially in the lower frequencies, below 200MHz there is also quite some phase shifting happening.As a passive antenna it seems to be almost impossible to find a frequency to transmit on without using some matching trickery first.But when it comes to size or looks, the ARA outperforms everything you can think of unless you want to constantly adjust the length of your whip antenna.And if you check what is available in real (user) data in terms of noise and signal quality than most other antenna types are far worse.The design provides a wide frequency range with very little noise, almost like a build in filter.Considering that mostly harmonic frequencies are used not that surprising.Getting hooked on SDR means you start little and then you want more and more.Unless you really need the low frequency HAM bands below 50MHz the ARA is a good choice that just makes sense.What is quite surprising in the original is the total lack of protection for strong signals.Sure, we might never need a lightning arrestor because all is enclosed in plastic and has little attraction lightning, but someone hittiing the transmit button close by....I will have to do some more checks to determine whether or not more protection is required.What is the problem with amplifier?For starters, no one really knows what was used in the original - they all just guess based on how well the real design matches some datasheet.Means whatever was used might as well be a custom made solution.I checked a few datasheets for MMIC amps but could not find any useful reference to the handling of things like negative gain, phase shift or a constantly changing impedance.Some however state that a 50 or 75Ohm signal is provided at the output.If I interpret that correctly than those MMIC's not only amplify but also do some matching.In most cases you won't need an amp that works outside what the antenna can provide.Problem is that I don't like regretting things later on ;)So IMHO it would be best to use a wideband MMIC covering all from about 1MHz to a few GHz.Additional filters can then cut off what is not required or where the antenna starts to fail.What is clear by the original design is that the cable shield acts as a ground and most likely also has a balancing function.It would make sense to add a ferrite trap close the the receiver to filter out what the cable might otherwise mess up.Can the frequency range be lowered to get even the low HAM bands?The answer is YES and NO.It is not a big problem to extend the cone shape and then hope to come much lower.Issue with this is the helical, long periodic design.As basically only the 3rd harmonics are used for all interesting frequencies any ARA type antenna going much lower would end to be really long.You can't just make it longer!One thing is to have a full and even number of turns.The original only had two, three turns is bad, four means the entire antenna is slightly longer than your average downpipe for your roof gutters....Other, seemingly logical alternative would be to stick to two turns and to increase the diameter.Apart from the size problem here we would also change the shape of the foil quite a bit and I have not done enough tests with that to provide a conclusion.Are there alternative design options?As it turns out copper pipe is available in 80mm diameters for the use in chimneys as well as downpipes.With a proper machine it would be pretty straight forward to remove what is not used as the active element.Milling a pipe or rod is these days a common thing in many good workshops.But on a hobby level and low budget....One of the best options for cheap test antennas of this design is to use tinting foil - the cheapest you can find ;)Just read the lable and make sure it does not use a metalised film.If it has no UV protection and no tinit at all it is best but hard to find.A little less stiff is the stuff to cover school books or cupboards.Vinyl is bad though!If you look for copper foil in the cheap online places you mostly find the suff used for shielding in rolls of 200x1000mm.Unless you have a really sharp knife or really suitable sissors this stuff is a pain to cut as the glue tends to stick very good to whatever you use to cut through.Don't ever try one of these blade type cutters for paper and pictures unless you put a slight oil film on all cutting surfaces first....In some hobby shops you can get copper foil without any glue in different thicknesses - this stuff is the prefered option.Not only cheaper than the China rolls with glue but you invest a bit more and get a thickness that does not wrinkle right away when working with it ;)Cheap, steel downpipe and cutters or nibblers?I though about and I tried - and I failed LOLUnless you use a pin type nibbler and custom made rig the result is quite bad - at least mine was.What works though is to use thin aluminium sheets, cut them and then bend them around a suitable template.But I ran out of old laminated sings to salvage and the duble sided ones I have left are too much work.What comes next?Well, I have a few rolls of copper sheets coming next month, the cheap glue covered type.This time however I will leave the plastic cover on and use tape to secure the foil to the pipe.A two-stage amp with external power supply is coming too so I can do some more tests in this area.For the time being I will opt for some 3D printed end caps but with a bit of luck can find something easier next time I have time to waste in the hardware store.Excluding cable and a cheap USB or 12V power supply, the current costs of building the anteanna are around $40US.About half of that if you don't cennectors and attach the coax directly.Another experiement I am working on is to use copper tape, 12mm wide, to create the antenna in a semi-fractal style.I am hoping this will provide a high enough gain so the antenna is usable without an amplifier.Right now the biggest issue is to find a really SDR suitable way to deal with strong signal close by.I will keep you update here when I start with the new antenna and upload some pics along the was of building it.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Perfecting DIY dog boot? (Any cobbler gurus out there?)

Hi, I have a dog who I adopted off the street who has a stub for a paw. The padding on his stub is deformed and since he has not toes/claw he is always getting this stub cut up when he runs around (just barely more than a year old and runs around like a nut). He is a real sweetheart and a big lug at the same time (100lbs) which has made it a bit more of a challenge. (I tried to put the photos inline with the post but when i tried to publish the whole post was blank so I just attached them). Design Issues Sleeve/leg durability To resolve this problem I have been trying to make a shoe that will #1 Actually stay on snugly and #2 Last more than a few weeks. It has been an evolution starting off with bought doggie “booties” which were pretty much worthless, to a old indestructible (until now) hiking sock + “shoe goo” to a sewn nylon sleeve thingy + shoe goo. This is the best we have been able to come up with as he destroys (since he is so active), I was going to go to the dump to see if I could get some used airbag material as I had made a dog bed cover from the stuff before (previous dog who was hell bent on digging through her rubber foam bed) and it was friggin bullet proof. Keeping it on So the shoe goo + nylon sock is the closes we have come so far, the sock/sleeve part kind of works because it allows us to “strap it on” above his hock so it doesn’t slip down/off, that worked great when we were using a softer material but this more durable nylon stuff (from an old suit travel bag) seriously rubs around his hock, I am guess I will try some sort of padding (shoe insole?) around the inside where we strap it on, bulky but just using a thick sock to provide a protection wasn’t enough. I’m not in the US (or a western country) at the moment so I haven’t been able to get my hands on proper Velcro and the Velcro I managed to get he has decimated (I think mostly due to crappy Velcro but also again his just scraping up against just about everything) so I was going to try a belt of sorts but am hoping someone has a better idea. Durable Sole that Stays on Shoe goo is the best we have come up with so far for a sole as everything else I tried just didn’t work (tried rubber pipe stopper thingy, Ear Bulb Syringe, modified mini-plunger) either because they didn’t fit how he walks on that foot (can’t describe it but a ball type shape is needed) or they were too hard to affix to a sleeve in a way that they would stay. The best version we have come up with so far has involved the afore mentioned nylon sleeve (durability) with shoe goo smeared in layers on the end. This has been workable but the shoe goo doesn’t stick to the material as well as I would like and is starting to come off after about 2 months. As with the other issues, any suggestions would be appreciated!

Topic by gaikokujinkyofusho    |  last reply


The animatronic project Is finished

Here my instructableMy Animatronic Mod ProjectIn 2003 I made a casemod MONSTERMOD ( picture 1), Just a creature sculpture tearing out of a PC case.And It Didnt Move . So , I want the next MONSTERMOD to MOVE.Maybe to tell me that I have email.... Picture people's PCs having Heads .There favorite movie star or rock star maybe a animal. Maybe like Hal from 2001Space Odyssey .But, My animatronic Mod Has no A.I. But maybe one day. Im programmingthe 16 servo movements into the PC and press the play to play the movements a lipsync routine.Well, For Over 2 years now I have been working My Animatronic Mod.My Animatronic Mod is a floating creature head over a desktop case.( picture 2 IMG_1383.jpg)It controlled my a 2 Mini SSC II (http://www.seetron.com) this allow the computer to control 16 RC servos.16 RC servos = 16 Movements .I made the teeth out of dental acrylic, The samething denture are made of.Teeth and fangs are made 1st in tooth color dental acrylic and shaped.Then are placed in dental wax .,the mold is a silicone putty is place on the teeth allow to setup overnight.To demold the wax is melted away with boiling water leaving the teeth in the silicone putty sockets.This is called the lost wax process.( picture 3,4,)After I made the eyes out of dental acrylic ,Which is a molded ping pong ball is 40 mm .In half 20 mm sandwhich in between the 2 halves is a metal small metal ball 10mm give me a ball joint and socket.The iris is a painted metal washer. The veins are silk yarn And is cover with clear dental acrylic .The white of the eyes was changed to black color ,To give more of a alien look. ( picture 6,7)I molding the finished eyes alginate and casting them in ultracal 30, ( picture 8) Ultracal 30 is the hardest plaster made.And place them in the sculpture.This will be for Proper registration for the eyes in the skull.( picture 9 )I had to sculpt face in Roma Plastilina Clay ( picture 10)and mold it in silicone( picture 11a,11b, 11 ) This molding process called a matrix mold . A layer of water clay cover theentire clay sculpture and Ultracal 30 is place on top of the water clay .After setup ,Its demolded and water clay removed .This water clay has made a space for the silicone.Matrix molda thin layer of water clay is place ( picture 12 ) and made the core A .This gave me the thickest for the skin .Molded core A in silicone and a thin layer of water clay is place in this mold also this made core B.And this gave the thickest of the Skull. Now I have 2 molds.( picture 13,14 )Mold 1 is the Skin moldMold 2 is the skull moldI casted foam rubber in mold 1 ( picture 15,)http://www.monstermakers.com/foam.htmlTo make the foam rubber skin337 gms. base67 grams foaming agent33 grams curing agent15 flow enhancer24 grams gelling agent4 grams ammoniaThe room temp73 degrees 40%Using a Sunbeam MixMaster Mixer1. Speed #1 - 1 minute (to blend all components)2. Speed #10 - 3 minutes : blend all3. Speed #3 - 4 minutes : refine4. Speed #1 - 30 seconds :refine5. Speed #1 - 30 seconds : ADD GELLING AGENT ( picture 16 )6. Speed #1 - 30 seconds : Backturn the bowlFoam rubber can be tricky.Mold 1 was place in a Hot box oven for 11 hours at 125 degrees .= A very soft and flexable skin ( picture 15,16 )Hot box oven 3'x 3'x 3 " plywood box with foil insulation with a single burner. This must be watched.( picture 17,18,19)I casted urethane Plastic from smoothon.com in mold 2.This gave me the Skull,The skull was trimed and dental acrylic teeth and eyes were place inside the skull .The mechanics were place using R/C servos.The skin was painted with PAX ( is a flexible paint). The skin was glue on rubber cement to the skull .And the hair was glued rubber cement also and placed.Hair is from National Fiber Technology ,Hair 1 was Blended Black and Brown modacrylic with White and Brown Mohair and Natural Goat hair.And hair 2 Black with gray texturized modacrylic with Yak and Horse hair.The PCMy motherboard (MSI KT6) and AMD 2500xp video card (MSI 6600)The case is LIAN LI PC-V800B .To make the lip sync move ,I used VSA , Visual Show Automation , http://www.brookshiresoftware.comThis aloud me to make a lip sync animation routine. Synchronize with graphical audio MP3 file.Not only that My Animatronic Mod looks Wicked ,It Talks Back.(Picture 1st floor) ( Picture 2nd floor)I designed the animatronic so I could repair it if needed, And the support pipe is like a swing arm so I can work on the PC too. By removing the back of the skull. Inside there are 2 floors the bottom floor has 6 servos :1 Head Up + Down2 Eyes Up + Down and left + right2 Eyelids1 Jaw2nd floor 7 servos3 right,left and center Brows1 Nose3 upper lip wireAnd also 2 servos are in the Jaw for lower lip wireand 1 left + right servo gimbal= 16 servosWhen uncovered ,Here is 32 feet of servo cable.(picture32 feet )The only thing connecting to the PC and the Animatronic is a modular cable (Lookslike a phone cable). Which is plug into a modular adapter that plug into the PC's serial port . The end of the modular cable plug in Mini SSCII Serial Servo Controller.you would be surprise how many people are into making monsters. Ive beenmaking monsters , masks and makeup fx for 30 years now.I put my 2 hobbies that Ienjoy together.Computers and making monsters.Im a dental lab tech. for 20 years now .I make dentures for a living.Thank You so muchGary WillettTo see Video Demos http://www.youtube.com/willettfxhttp://www.servocity.com..................For Servoshttp://www.nftech.com/ ...................For Hairhttp://www.smooth-on.com/ ............ Silicone,Urethane PlasticbooksTechniques of Three-Dimensional Makeup by Lee Baygan Special Make-Up Effects (Paperback)by Vincent Kehoe Men, Makeup & Monsters: Hollywood's Masters of Illusion and FX (Paperback)by Anthony TimponeStop-Motion Puppet Sculpting: A Manual of Foam Injection, Build-Up and Finishing Techniques (Paperback)by Tom Brierton Stop-Motion Armature Machining: A Construction Manual (Paperback)by Tom Brierton MagazineCinefex

Topic by willettfx    |  last reply


Very old shielding materials and techniques for permanent magnets and resulting possibilities

Forromagnetic meterials are not just called that for no reason.It comes from ferrous - iron.Iron has the highest permeability at normal temperatures.That means a magnet is attracted to it very strongly.We utilise this for transformer cores, the stuff inside a relay and the moving latch of the relay itself.Like current from an electrical system magnetic fields like to take the easiest route possible.Air is a very bad medium, so any iron close by will be prefered even if it is at a slight distance.You can check with a magnet, a steel bar and some iron shavings - please cover the are with plate first ;)Slightly less known is the option to also guide and extend the magnetic field this way.If you check how far the magnetic field of a magnet reaches and note that distance,then you can add some steel bars or rods at the poles - the field will extend through the metal.The most powerful example of this are the shielded magnets used for hooks or speakers.Except for a tiny area the entire magnetic flux goes through the metal.So in this lefover area the magnetic flux density will my many times greater than what the magnet alone would be able to.What most people don't know is that magnets also interact with other magnets in terms of their fields changing and distorting.The Halbach Array is a good example of this.Seen as a single magnet the array would have one weak and one strong side instead of even strenght for both.Wherever magnetic fields change a conductor can produce electricity or current.This in return causes an electromagnetic field that opposes the one from the magnets.Just drop a magnet through a copper or aluminium pipe ;)Since these distortions are widely unknow to the hobby tinkerer mistakes can happen ;)In the early days of exploring science some people already knew about shielding.And they also knew that certain metals have certain properties.Where it is quite hard to create a good coil from steel wire, copper works fine as it is not magnetic.What would then a copper shielding do?If you have two moving magnets with only a tiny gap then the resulting field distortions are quite huge.A copper shield around the magnet like a pipe would then react to these changes and also create a megnetic field that works in relation to the enclosed magnet.In simple terms it means the shield would let the magnet appear weaker or stronger depending on the field change.A quite old document I found gave some hints on how people thought in different directions back then.It was in regards to the design of a magnet motor by the way.Here various magnets were shielded in tube made of a copper-bismuth-alumium alloy.These tubes were then electrically connected so it created a single loop conductor.The claim was that the resulting electromagnetic field of this ring would drive the fields of the enclosed magnets sideways out of alignment.Like bending straight pastic tubes sideways.This "pulsating" would always happen when the magnetic binding forces reach max and so basically drastically weaken this binding effect.Another document talks about a "magnetised brass rod".A holes of the rod diameter is drilled through a block magnet.Not from north to south but through the middle where the flux is greatest.The claim here was that if that rod rotates fast enough a very low voltage with a very high current will be generated.Sounds easy and interesting enough that I might have to test one myself one day.The best one however is what I consider a hoax or being as good as Starlite.Someone back in 1908 claimed to have created a material the reflects magnetic fields.In lame man's terms it would be like an insulator around some electrical wire.The claim and some pics showed it, was that no magnetic field can pass the material.Or to be correct only a tiny fraction of what would be possible through air.A small magnet inside a longer tube of this material would create almost the same attraction to steel at the tubes ends as on the magnet itself.Measurements showed the field strength would be almost equal to a long mangnet of the same field strength.Imagine guiding the field of a big and powerful magnet through a tube around some corners or other magnets and then end in just a tiny hole for the entire flux...Too bad he never shared his secret formula to anyone knows to mankind.Isolation...Imagine you have an array of changing magnetic fields and quite strong magnets.Then you might face the problem that your focus on the "working" end neglected the other end of the magnet (stack).Providing some iron core material will keep thes field lines contained and away from interfering with your setup ;)But it also allows to use te otherwise unused end of your magnets more directly.For example by guiding to another magnet to affect its field strenght ;)Placing a sheet or steel between two magnets in a setup provides a "shared pole" so to say.If you have a north and south pole on a rotor at a distance of 5mm then a sheet of steel between will drastically weaken the strenght and reach of this combined field.It is like pulling the arch between the magnets down to make it more flat.And at and an angle the resulting field will also be slightly angled ;)Capping...When I first encounter this many years ago I couldn't really make sense of it.Quite complex..If you check the magnetic field lines with iron filings or similar then you notice how they go in a rounded manner from pole to pole.This is because the single field lines are of equal polarity and will dirve apart like opposing magnets.By capping the ends of a magnet you provide a short.Instead of diverting out like mad they will follow the cap and create very intersting magnetic field in return.If both poles are capped it is like pressing the magnet flat but without having a field on top of the oles - only aorund the center part.For this the thickness much must match what is required for the flux density.As a rule of thumb: if the end is still very magnetic then it is not enough material tickness ;)Interacting fields in a tube...This one is quite old too and seemed to have found no usable inventions apart from simple magnetic spring replacement systems.But it gave me some clues about Tesla "earthquake machine" ;)If you place a magnet in a tube and at it's ends magnets with opposing fields to the one inside then you can fix this magnet in place.Push one magnet deeper and the distance from the inner magnet to the other end will shrink the same amount.In this old paper two coils were around the pipe with the inner magnet between them.In this gap and at about the same width as the magnets length another coil was placed.Violent shaking would then create electrical energy at much higher level then modern shaker torches.In return an AC current on the outer coils would cause the inner magnet to move back and forth to create electricity in the center coil.According to the paper possible uses include: core less transformer, measuring minute changes in AC voltages, providing free power from a running motor...The last one had me stumbled for a very long time.Until I considered a different configuration.The whole thing is basically a linear DC motor - with correct timing of course.And in some motors we use permanent magnets.I am starting to wonder what would happen if we would design a rotor magnet like this?The running motor would be subject to constant field changes that affect the rotor.And a normal motor is always "even".By using four magnets instead of one we can push the field really flat.This means the area where the coil would operate (about 1/5 of the magnets area) will have a much stronger field.The resulting torque should be higher by about 25% !!Even a simple two coil model setup should show a significant increase in performance here.Timing is critical here but I tried some calculations based on 8 poles and the required "on times" for the coils.In a standard motor configuration with a single rotor magnet the coil is active for about 12° of the rotation.With a 4 magnet configuration this "on time" can be reduced to under 8° of the rotation to get the same amount of torque.An energy reduction of about 4% if you neglect losses and only think in time.If you think in terms like impulse energy then we are talking of about 15% !Shorter on time but still much higher flux density overall than for the long standard timings.Going the long run now:If you check how most DC motors work then you realise soon that for most one rule seems to followed.Only use one coild pair at a time.This is quite contradictive if you consider the geometry and options.A dual commutator would allow to use a second coil pair with a field OPPOSING the magnets instead of being attracted to it.After all: on you bike you pedal with both legs and not just one...And if you do it professionally then yu do the same as I suggested for the motor - you use the up pull of your legs as well.Doing it brushless only requires amodified h-bridge desing to drive the second coil pair at the right timing.Some will now say that it requires twice the energy, I say that for the same motor size your get twice the torque!Just imagine what that means in possible weight reduction for a motor - or its size to deliver the same torque at the same power levels when a normal motor is used ;)The more poles the more complicate the precise timing but no big deal really with modern electronics.Can it be improved even further?I though long and hard about that one until I considered EMF.A DC motor produces a lot of it when the elecromagnetic field collapses in the the coils.We do not utilise this energy...There is a tiny delay until the released energy levels are at max.My theory is that it should be possible to divert this energy into another coil set.If that coil is not the next active but still within a strong enough field area then the EMF would actually add to the drive of the motor.Only downside is that according to my calculations at least 16 poles would be required to get an optimum result.Way above of what I can create in my little garage :(In theory it should then be possible to reach about 98% efficiency for the motor....

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


SteamPunk Typewriter Keyboard for PC!!! Handmade please look!!

Check out this eBay auction for the following SteamPunk Typewriter Keyboard!!http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item;=170344004923&ssPageName;=ADME:X:AAQ:US:1123"SteamPunk" Typewriter Keyboard for PCThis is a custom made "Steampunk" Typewriter Keyboard that is fully functional and works with any PC! I hand made this over the course of many weeks of hard and meticulous work, using the guts of a very solid Logitech PC keyboard system which I completely rebuilt over many stages, into this solid, beautiful, and unique piece of antique technological art! Three separate sets of antique Royal glass typewriter keys make up all of the keys besides the handmade brass keys (described below). I can personally guarantee this keyboard is completely unique, and you won't find anything like it out on the market! This new beautiful style of combining the old Victorian look with new high-tech products is becoming very popular from young teens looking to be creative and inspired to rich business CEO's wanting something beautiful to match their office. Think about the all the joy and beauty this would bring to your life (not to mention bragging rights!). Right now is your chance to own a piece or art and history which you can put to use everyday!This keyboards design consists of:Solid glass keys from a three different sets of original antique Royal early 1900's typewriters.Hand and naturally aged copper top and bottom rails.Custom, hand punched, leather backing (perfectly fitted and stretched over the top and seamed underneath).Custom bent steel side brackets (which have been properly welded to the copper rails to make a very solid keyboard).Beautiful antique cloth wire loom covering computer connector.Hand made brass Esc key, F keys (done in roman numerals), Arrows, and nine keys above Arrows (because they didn't make any of these keys on antique typewriters).Brief "Steampunk" HistorySteampunk is a sub-genre of fantasy and speculative fiction that came into prominence in the 1980s and early 1990s. The term denotes works set in an era or world where steam power is still widely used usually the 19th century, and often Victorian era England but with prominent elements of either science fiction or fantasy, such as fictional technological inventions like those found in the works of H. G. Wells and Jules Verne, or real technological developments like the computer occurring at an earlier date.Functionality and BeautyAs I keep strongly pointing out, not only does this piece of techno-art look beautiful, but it also works as beautifully too! All the keys were lubricated then meticulously aligned and ergonomically angled with high strength silicon glue, which will stand up to many years of hard use! Keys that weren't available (such as the F keys and arrows) I custom made from brass which was then clear coated for years of protection.A Brief Fabrication ProcessThis whole keyboard started with an idea in my head one day, and then turned into numbers of sketches and design ideas until I filled my notebook and decided it was time to make it! I started with a high quality Logitech PC keyboard, and gutted it down to the bare parts. Then after trimming all the borders off the top frame I perfectly aligned the key frame back together with now a flat surface. Next I had to hand cut all the key tops off and level them for attachment of the Royal typewriter keys. During this process I custom made the copper/steel rails and side pieces making sure the height and angle was ergonomically correct. Next was the custom punching of the leather backing which was quite difficult to align perfectly, but came out beautifully! Finally the smaller things like the light posts, cloth wire loom, painting and copper aging, and electrical work was done. (P.S. Like I said, this is a very brief summary of the complete process! Many, many steps took place during this fabrication!)Level, Sturdy, and Desk Scratching Friendly!This frame was professionally welded together by a hired welder who meticulously made sure was level and solid. Every detail about this keyboard was thoroughly thought through, down to the hidden padded bases so it won't slide around on your desk or scratch it!You Wont Find Anything Like It!Obviously you can tell by now that this is a very custom piece of art that you have the chance to own and display in your office or home! You can't imagine the beauty of this in real life, pictures just simply do no justice! A few other people have attempted to make such type of typewriter keyboards that consist of the original ugly plastic base and just changed keys.... this keyboard goes above and beyond the bar and you will not be disappointed!Reduced Environmental ImpactAs always, I tried to stay eco-conscious while designing and fabricating this keyboard. It was designed with the following features to reduce its environmental impact:High quality polyurethane based Leather alternative (no animals harmed!)Recycled copper pipingOriginal and restored Royal typewriter keys.Highly recyclable parts (although you'll never want to get rid of this!)

Topic by maxter32    |  last reply


An idea for highly directional and loud loudspeakers

I am currently playing around with vibration experiments.Mainly in the ultrasonic range though.But when messing around with some vibration speakers I found a not so well documented misuse for themEveryone wants a big TV these days but once you have it the sound often turns out to come from a tin can.Those with a good entertainment or at least stereo system won't mind hooking the to it.The rest usually opts for a sound bar or how I like to call them shredderbox.Sooner or later they just fail to produce the sound you had on the first day - or they cost a small fortune.What is the secret to a powerful speaker?Firstly efficiency.Secondly the design.You need the right material to produce a more or less even reaction at all intendet frequencies.The design makes sure those frequencies that need extra attention get more volume output, like by using a little pipe for the low frequencies.Some even include a dedicate speaker for these low volumes.What if you could just build you own soundbar on a budget?If you have a failing soundbar with the actual speakers as the problem you could salvage the electronics.In case you can make do with headphone input or RCA connections than any cheap amplifier will do.Leaves the speakers...Vibration speakers are still underestimated for their uses...I tried the the usual approach of using a glue on vibro speaker:Place it on surface tha gives a re more or less decent sound.The thing is though that there is no ideal surface for them.A table can sound like the highs are missing, a hardwood desk might not produce any low frequencies while a window or plaster board wall bring the problem of wiring and vibrations.To check the reactions of sound on different media I, one day, mounted one speaker under a big tin can.Right in the center.The fun hit me when my tests with water were over and tried to play a song with the empty can.Of course there was some degree of tin can sound but the directional qualities together with the wide frequency spectrum made me experiment.The key is to find the right material and shape!You want something that is hard enough to vibrate properly but soft enough to allow for lower frequencies.I tried pipes, boxes, old plastic containers....But nothing seemed to provide a broad and even sound spectrum without distortions.If you vibrate a surface then only at certain, resonant frequencies destinct patterns will form if some dust or similar is place on the surface.In all other cases there is only chaos.Preventing the harmonics to form prevents harmonic vibrations to build up to distortion levels.Like it or not but waste seems to work just fine as a speaker ;)I made a plug to fit reall tight into a 2 liter juice bottle neck.The original plastic cap is just too soft.A vibro speaker glued onto the plug and the bottom of the bottle cut out and the soun was quite impressive.Proper use is however limited as the speaker would need to be mounted upright.Next thought was to utilise the bottom of the bottle too.By cutting a round hole in the side of the bottle I got an even more directional speaker with a better response to low frequencies.Placement of said hole of course affect how certain frequencies travel and where nodes can form.The size might also matter as the hoe itself, or better the material around it can get resonant at certain frequencies.You can cheat at bit though by using sticky tape, duct tape and so on as dampening meterial in badly affected areas.Especially with a wall mount for the speaker and the bottle hanging down behind the TV the effect is good compared to a standard shredderbox. The above design is certainly not for everyone although I think it has a wow factor to it if you show a decent sound coming out of a juice bottle ;)My next step was trying to find out how more fancy designs could work.So just stop reading here unless you like the idea of creating speakers that should not even work.Back in the old days we had more than just the speakers with magnets and cones.Anything that can vibrate can produce sound.It all depends on how much of it we can actually hear.My first exotic idea to really misuse a vibro speaker is a vibrating harp.Does not need to be in the classic shape though.A string in a resonance box, like a harp, guitar, violine and so on will start to vibrate at the set note.This is true even if the force for the vibration is external.You might remember the old school experiment with the two pitch forks on their boxes?Hit one and the other starts to swing too.If you make a resonance box for a vibro speaker with internal or external wire strings at different tensions or lengths you can amplify the sound for the notes that correspond to the strings.Make a relatively large box with some sturdy wires for the frequencies between 60 and 100Hz and you have a really powerful subwoofer from just 20W of input power...I think you get the idea on how to use amplifying strings now ;)My second and total misuse is the xmas tree.If you are a sparky by old trades then you might remember the mechanical frequency meters for generators or other things that required a stable supply.Well, if not than you should know the little wind up toys that play a melody with a drum and tiny forks.Imagine you would replace the glue plate with a rod.Depending on material and length harmonic nodes will form at various places and frequencies.Between those nodes the swing is maximised while the node itself appear to be stationary and without and vibrations at all.For example a steel rod of 1.2m would have a single standing wave at about 1kHz while a copper rod of the same lenght will be much lower in the frequency for a single standing wave.The xmas tree assumes that the rod is of such material that no single standing wave can form below 200Hz and that it won't swing too much at other resonant frequencies.Since aluminium is easy to work with and available in flat and thin bars already it would be my first choice for the branches of the tree.The required length is calculate based on the speed of sound in aluminium - you find online calculators for that.You want the lenght so that you end up with an even fraction of the wavelength you want to "play" with that strip.This allows for the rod to be placed right in the center of the strip where the standing wave movement is zero in the node.Make a lot of thin strips to get a broad frequency response.Placement on the rod can now be crucial.The best option I found so far is using a threaded rod and tapping the holes in the strips.The strips swing quite violently if long and at certain frequencies.And those not in resonance will still transfer their momentum to other strips.This can cause unwanted harmonics.Most evident when a single strips swigns violently at a certain frequencies.Adjusting the angle by turning it is often enough to get out of the overlapping harmonics.With enough strips it then really looks like a tree with flat branches.The sound might not be as loud and impressive as a plastic bottle as the virations are going up and down.But if placed in the right spot it not just looks nice but also makes people wonder where the sound is coming from.Last but not least my yet to be tested hidden speaker system - due to renting restrictions :(If you own a house of the standard frame design then you have plasterboard walls and ceilings.With a large enough surface of the right material, one or two vibro speakers can cover a really wide frequency range at good volume levels.So far I could only do tests in an old wooden window frame but the priciple works the same way between the wooden frames of a wall or ceiling.In my experiments a standard plasterboard sheet needs to be 100 x 100cm to get a more or less decent response for the lower frequencies.Before you rip your walls down use a stud finder and place your vibro speaker on the plasterboard between two studs or beams.I found that two speakers for the lower frequencies and three or four for the higher ones make a good sound.That is per channel and if you have the right size plasterboard sheet in the right place.No point if your left side is further away from the TV than your right.Ideally you replace the entire sheet with the speaker in the right spot on the new sheet but on the back.For obvious reasons this is far from being a perfect solution.But if you plan a full renovation anyway...A way out for older houses is the wooden floorboards.They make excellent resonators for low frequencies.The directional speakers could then still be hidden in picture frames of the right thickness and design.Anyways, I hope I gave you some ideas here ;)

Topic by Downunder35m  


"Secrets" about CB/UHF antennas on your car

Despite more and cellphone and internet coverage mobile radios are still a favourite of people in remote areas or just loving to explore by 4WD.And for most the complex task of starting with this great hobby ends by buying a radio and antenna.Of course the raio goes it fits best and that is fine but what about that antenna and while at it what type of antenna do you need?Let's start with the great myth that so called rugged or heavy duty antennas are really worth their money.Durability and stiffness is their main selling point or better was.At highway speeds they won't bend and flex around like your whip antenna.In the bush they won't swing all the way down onto the painted parts of your car either.But then again, a more solid steel whip on a spring base would do the same - but won't look as cool or proffessional...Inside those plastic or fibreglass rods is a dipole antenna, in rare case you get a 5/8 configuration or even a normal steel whip with a pipe around it...Means in terms of reception or transmission quality they are not a tiny better or worse than any other antenna out there.Come down to well it is tuned and where the radiating part is located.Location...There are often obvious choices to put an antenna, like that nice mount or your nudge- or bull-bar.Or the good old boot clamp in the back.I have even see 4WD's with the antenna mounted onto the rear bumper :(Why is it so important to place the antenna correctly?Place on the front corner of your car it is not only quite low but also partially covered by the metal parts of your car - limiting where the antenna can properly radiate.If you ever got some half decent training on a tiny handheld UHF radio then you remember to seek higher ground if you can't get anyone to hear you.The same is true for the antenna on your car.You want nothing obstructing it.People with a long spring base often think of it as just an elevated foot.Most of these however are "ground idependent", which means they actually form a dipole with the antenna you screw on the top.Having this "pole" below bonnet hight is quite bad for your reach and reception quality already.Mounting just a normal whip on a direct foot here means you might have better luck with a handhelp from inside the car...The best would be right in the center of your roof, the highest and most centered point.This provides not only the optimum radiation pattern but also give you that little edge in terms of higher ground.How much gain do I need and how long should my antenna be?Gain is quite relative if you ask me as it far more important to mount the antenna in the best possible place.A 3DB antenna on the roof will often provide better reception and range than a 9DB mounted on the bullbar.Assuming you have the best feasable location than to simplify it:The further you can see the higher DB you want if reaching far is the main objective.For general use a 4.5 - 6DB antenna is always good.In hilly terrain range does not matter that much, here you want the outgoing signal to be as strong as possible and with a shape that allows better coverage by being more like a sphere.For extreme cases it can mean on a 9DB antenna your friend that is just over that little bump ahead is not visible and with that can't hear you.On a 3DB antenna however the signal is strong enough to reach that blindspot at a short distance.The overall length of an antenna can be deceiving for UHF frequencies.What matters is where the antenna is radiating from.In most cases it will be the top 15 to 30 cm of your antenna.For a dipole or ground independent antenna you often need to include the entrire base mount.Antenna tuning....For the good old 27MHz bands we always had our SWR meter at hand and tried to get the best tuning.Since the big jump to UHF the commercial antennas come pre-tuned and are claimed to be good to go.That means that are within acceptable performance to fit almost all installation locations.In terms of SWR reading it means that 1 over 3 is still perfectly fine.Would have been an outcry on 27Mhz though in my times.What is true though that there is not that much real difference to notice between a near perfect 1 over 1.1 to 1 over 3.If you would bother to a distance test it might be less than 200m you gain on the near perfect antenna.For the reception it does not even matter all, so why bother anyway?On the much lower frequencies a really good SWR does not only mean you can get your signal much further out there but also that your transmitter is happy.Modern ones are now all digital and have ways to protect and compensate for bad antennas or cables.Together it means we could just forget about these few extra meters and move on.The stress on the transmitter in your UHF radio however is still there ;)The reflective energy from a badly tuned antenna has to go somewhere and that is usually back into the transmitter.The bit that lost directly to your antenna, as said, does not matter too much with the overall limited range of the UHF frequencies.I did quite a lot of experimenting with my own and commercail UHF antennas, so a network analyser and SWR meter was a requirement anyway.In terms of output power a good SWR reading means you get what your transmitter is capable of and set for.With an SRW reading between 2.5 and 3 however a 4W radio might only actually transmit 3-3.5W.With a bad mounting and an not so optimal cable it might go below 3W!Distance is not so much affected by this as we now know, but the loss in power on 3DB antenna in hilly terrain can make the difference between being heard and your signal getting lost in static on the other end.Repairing a blown transmitter often costs more than a simple SWR meter for UHF, so why not add it to the Xmas wish list? ;)Two antennas...In some case you want two antennas.Be it for two different DB ratings on the same radio or for totally different frequencies.High and centered is still best here but you should keep the antennas as far apart as possible, preferable at different heights as well.On a single radio it does not matter too much but right next to each other the unused anteanna is like these beams on your TV antenna on the roof.Unlike the directional and watned features in a Yagi antenna the unused element means we change the radiation pattern.In the worst case creating a blindspot from which direction we won't get any signals.As a rule of thumb let them be apart at least twisc as far as the wavelenght, so for UHF over 65cm.

Topic by Downunder35m  


3D printing filament recycling guide

If you print a lot then you also have a lot of plastic to waste.Support structures, brims, failed parts....At some stage you start to wonder if it makes sense to invest into a filament extruder.A filament extruder is a simple way to make you own filament.A 25kg bag of granules in ABS cost only a few bucks and it will last like forever.It also the prefered choice for a plastic extruder of any sort - fresh, new and clean material!I do collect a lot of leftover plastic from my projects, is it worth getting a machine to recycle it?Trust the advertisements of the commercially available models you buy one right away - if you can afford it...But there is always a catch!What are the basic requirements when collecting you already used filament?It would be easier to state what you should avoid at all costs, so let me start with the most forgiving filament types - ABS and PLA....Both will require that you keep your filament clean at all costs.You want dust removed before the filament even enters you print head and same for all that you want to recycle.Conatminents are the biggest deal breaker when you recycle filament!!!That means parts of dissimilar materials,like when printing with two heads are just rubbish and go in the recycling bin outside.The difference between ABS and PLS for recycling comes with the material properties.ABS, if not printed too hot does not change too much, PLA on the other side usually ends up to be more brittle than new filament.ABS should not be heated too high, same for PLA when you recycle.But when PLA gets too hot it not only becomes really runny but also deteriotes very quickly.Run a bit of PLA through print head like when changing filament or cleaning the head.Do one run at normal temperatur, one run at 240°C and compare how the extruded and colled string reacts ;)PLA is also prone to oxidisation and burning, espcially the black type is tricky here as you won't be able to see it, so avoid black if possible.If it happens then you end up with rock hard piece, the size depends and can be tiny or bigger than a grain of sand.A total nightmare if you did not spot that black spot in the filament and let the recycled stuff run through your printer.A total block of the nozzle is the result.Nylon I can't really recommend for recycling, too complext to handle it properly.Same for filled filament like the wood or metal types.With them it is really easy to accumulate a lump of filler that does the same block to your nozzle.To wash or not to wash....No matter what you try there will be always some contaminents that end in your collected material.ABS can be washed with water and does not require too much fancy drying.If in doubt you can even try your dishwasher or with a good bag your washing machine - both require proper rinsing several times and the last run with some added alcohol to demineralised or destilled water.I use a box with a flyscreen cover and let it dry outside in the sun for a while.PLA does not go too well with water especially with added soaps or detergents.On the other hand it has no big problems tolerate things like Acetone.Downside such solvents also dissolve a lot of contaminats which mean even though you can recycle your washing Acetone many, many time you always need fresh Acetone for the rinsing.If you can try too keep all as clean as possible to eliminate the need for washing.Can I get better results from my cheap filament maker or the one I build for some online instructions?I find that there is always room to improve on things.Before you even think about extruding your home made filament think about how to get your failed print into the thing ! ;)The most vital part comes before you even heat the machine unless it is a really fancy one with a build in and big enough shredder.That is right you need a shredder of sorts to be able to get your recycled material fine enough for the filament maker.Some models you might quickly find as tutorials to build your own use basically a big wood drill for the mechanical part to simulate a meat grinder for plastic.Even the better ones for real money often use this basic system in one way or another.The problem is that you need to get all air out the material before it ends up to be the outgoing string you roll up.Any bubbles in filament will certainly have consequences if the bubble appears during the printing of visible areas.Imagine printing in vase mode and hitting a bubble during the last 20 minutes of a 3 hour print...Unless it is dirt simple hobby built there will some mechanism to deal with the air.However if what goes in is already very fine material it melts easier and air has it a lot easier to find a way out.A good shredder will produce quite small granules but not strips or blocks.The have their limits for intake size though.The best way to get through bigger builds is a band saw, if have a clean table you can even recycle the "saw dust".I prefer to heat bigger parts in the oven at moderate temps and then to use a hammer or press to flatten it first.No shredder or no money to add one to the list? No problem!If your filament maker does not have a pre-heated feeding area of sorts it makes sense to add one with aheating mantle and external temperature controller.Trust me, if you have odd stuff to push in it is way easier if the material softens already before it enter the extruder drive part.As the extruder will get quite warm anyway it can be as simple as adding a short pipe section with the heating mantle between the extruder inlet and feeding funnel or hopper.the temperature in theis areas should of course be will below melting point and slightly above the temp when the material start to become plyable.Hence the external temp controller here.With this heating in the fedding area you really need to get your recycled material into a suitable size and shape to allow the material to be transported easy into the extruder.Ok, I got it working, sort of...You will need some time to find the prefect temperatures for per-heating, extruder temps and coooling, so take it!If your filament comes out with bubbles or fine (hard and unwanted) particles it makes sense to cheat.Most filament makers include a filter before the melted material enters the nozzle and really hot part.In some cases this filter can be as simple as a steel mesh.If none find ways to add one ;)Said filter screen should be quite fine, preferably even finer that what you find in your faucet that airates thewater for the sink.As a rule of thumb the mesh size should at least 15% finer than the nozzle size you intent to use.Anything that makes it through will only be a problem for your nozzle if a lot of crap comes through and that you should be able to spot right away when the cooled filament comes out.If despite this you still get too many bubbles check first if your temps are not going too high so the plastic start to boil in an area.Too much speed can also cause a failure to expell all air in time, reducing the speed (watch the temps!!) can often resolve this nagging air problem.It it really worth it then?On a hobby level only if you print a lot and know you will keep going like this.Otherwise you really need to be able to source or build your filament maker as cheap as possible.Someone with a little print shop and three machines running 24/7 will certainly have a good benefit over time.Especially if the recycling is part of the overall printing process.Recycled material could be used in a dedicated head and extruder for supports, infills and so on.For example in the printer dedicated to produce the biggest parts as these usually have bigger nozzle sizes anyway.In a commercial sense however it must be considered what the material is worth in terms of normal recycling and the added hours and electricity cost for making your own filament.Unless even the cheapest commercailly available filament still costs much more than what you need to invest to the machines and electricity over the time the man hours are the biggest killer.If you need someone to monitor the filament maker and keep feeding it while making sure the spools wind up correctly then your own spools might end up quite costly.So decide carefully before you invest or use you oven and a mold to make you own recyled plastic bricks for your garden beds and such.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Options to improve cooling and reduce consumption for portable coolers

I recently had to start learning how to service airconditioners on the fast and that learning got me thinking about my portable coolers.... Some of us like to go camping or on longer fishing trips, so there might be one of those 3-way fridges in use or a better cmpressor model. The one thing they all have in common is that they can only cool down to a difference in ambient temperatures. No matter which way we turn it the cooling produces heat and that needs to get away somehow. The other big thing is the cooling cycling - or the lack of it on a warm day. After some reading and thinking I came up with some ideas that might be applicable to your existing cooler if you are willing to mess around a bit. Let's start with the produced heat, shall we? Down here in Australia most people either have the fridge in their4WD or camper. In a car or small camper trailer there is often the problem of airflow, so the cooler might be doing overtime for no other reason than a lack of airflow. If you check online sites like Amozon and Ebay you quickly find fan systems meant to be installed inside the cooler to get lower temperatures and a quicker cooling of fresh goods. The thing is that the box is quite well insulated and the benefit of the airflow goes only as far as it can reach. And even if the box is quite empty and you would have a benefit of the cold air moving around it won't change the fact that "improved" cooling always comes with more heat in this case. But if we use one of these fan systems to actually improve the airflow on the hot side we not only get better cooling but also a reduce power consumption - something worth considering if you have no backup power generator.... This of course brings us to placement. As I have done the mistake myself you might be tempted to put a 3way cooler onto your seat. Opening it with the back free means the lid always gets stuck on the seat, do it the other way around and you block the airflow. If you do put it on the seat then make sure two things match: 1. The thing is secured properly. 2. The airflow from your aircon is able to reach the hot side of the cooler. Even permanent installations in a camper benefit from a good airflow. Often the fridge or freezer is built into some sort of bench and the airflow behind might be very limited. A simple solution here is to add a vent on top of the bench to allow the hot air to escape. A better one is to use a fan that is powered together with the heating element or compressor and drives the hot air to the outside. How to improve the cold side of the box or fridge? Well, to be honest there is not much that can be done unless you are prepared for some serious work. Depending on compartment size, contents and how full it is a little fan can help to keep the temperatures even but it won't help to get it cooler or reduce the cycling periods for the cooling. The only really working way that I found is to use a "battery" for the storage of the cold. The cooling works by checking the inside temp of the box and if above the set temp the cooling won't stop. This is all well and good while we have a constant supply of power but once we are on batteries it would be great to keep the active time to a minimum. A working solution is to build a container that fits around the cooling element. Smaller types often use an aluminium heatsink, bigger types might come with a compressor and an evaporator. In either case proper sealing is important! Most good models are fully waterproof, meaning even if you would fill them with water they would not leak in other areas than the door. But double check and if in doubt use a bit of silicone to make sure. Ok, but how do we "store" the cold coming from the device? Cold packs ;) These things contain a ready to use mix that holds cold temperatures quite well. Another really good alternative is alcohol or radiator coolant, although the last has limited capabilites in terms of holding capaity for the cold as it is desinged to exchange heat fast rather than to keep it. With a suitable sized and sealed box around the active cooling element we will need longer to actually see any cooling happen (with a warm "battery") but that can be compensated for by good planning or a frozen water bottle. If the cooling element is covered with a box of cooling gel then it has to cool this first before anything happens inside the box. But once it does the pack is already far below the normal temp it would have during normal operation. Remember the inside of the cold pack cools down first before the outside will get cold ;) So once the set temperature is reached the device will shut off. But since the cold pack is far below the set temp it will continue to cool our box until the core is warmer than the set temp. Quick thinkers will now say the benefit is lost as the time required to cool the "battery" down again is much longer than the normal cycle time - and they would be correct. But as we get much colder temps inside the gel box the overall running will still be less compared to normal operation. And since from the second cycle on the gel is only warming up to operating temp of the box it will be much faster than with a warm box. Another benefit might be the ease of cleaning and ice removal. Some peltier driven coolers have big cooling fins or a quite bad design for the heatsink allowing mould to grow where you can't remove it easy. If the box is made from stainless steel and flush with the back wall of the box we won't have that problem anymore. Ok, but how much is good or too much for the size and gel content? You got me there as it is bit tricky. You don't want to loose much usable space for starters and you don't want to wait hours for the gel to cool down if the box was not used. IMHO the size should fit the cooling element with about 20% to spare all around. If stainless steel is not an option than aluminium is the next best choice. Thin sheets can either be be cold formed with a hammer or "brazed" with a good torch and the right rods. Ok, before that route is there anything I should consider or do first? Depends ;) 3-way systems usually use a flame or heating elements to heat an ammoia solution. After years of neglect corrosion can form and reduce the amount of heat transfered into the system and reducing the efficiency this way. It might help to take the heating elements out once a year or so to clean them and the contact areas from any corrosion or dirt build up. With a fixed shedule for this you won't have the problem of never noticing a badly corroded heating element either - and this is the main failure on these systems.... Modifying your camper or making a few mods to your 4WD drawer system is not for the faint of heart and should be done with consideration. The last thing you want to do is rush things to find out it was not necessary. Before cutting holes check if you can't find the room for the fan in a different spot and use ducts to control the airflow - sometimes it is easier to blow air in than to get air out ;) When it comes to creating vents or connections for air to the outside always make sure it is waterproof and insect safe! If you can let the outlet go downwards so water won't run in, for 4WD trailers consider a flap to prevent water from going during a river crossing. Flyscreens will not only prevent insects from coming in but on the inside also prevent dust to go eerywhere - allow to the removal and cleaning! The salts used in these cold packs can be corrosive, so you have to make sure there are no leaks and that there is no steel to come into contact with gel - this includes screw ends hidden in through-holes. If in doubt use a coat of paint but keep it as thin as possible. Even on peltier systems it might be impossible to remove the heatsink without massive surgery on the internals. So before you take it all apart to gain access check if it is far easier to seal around the box opening and possible screw connections using silicone. The cooling battery can be screwed on and sealed with silicone as well as an easy escape route. Although for this to work you need to check if the material of the box allows for a proper bond with the silicone! Some materials just won't allow anything to stick at all, even after sanding them. So do a test first in an area where you would be able to cut the silicone away without causing damage. If you can rip or peel it off the surface you should not try to use a cooling battery screwed to the wall, only use a box that is fully sealed with the cooling element and has a seperate back - one complete unit around the cooling element. I have a 3-way system with a freezer compartment that does the cooling for the fridge too - what can I do? These units either provide good freezing with the fridge temps too low or good fridge cooling with no freezing capabilites - depending on the thermostat used. Our problem is that is next to impossible to add a cooling battery of the normal kind to these systems. The L-shaped freezer box can really only be added with a L-shaped cooling battery from underneath. Only if you don't need any freezing at all you could add a cooling battery to fit into the freezer box shape. In either case the benefit is somehow limited by the way the thermostat is used. If there is no temp control for freezing it should be fine. Warnings... Only peltier driven coolers are free from refrigerants. Every 3-way or compressor system uses refrigerant as evident by more or less piping and heating elements. Never attempt to screw anything into a cooling element containing refrigerant! Even if you think between the channels all will be fine it won't be! The material is just pressed to form the channels and any damage caould mean refrigerant leaking out! Use silicone instead and make sure all surfaces are properly cleaned before applying it, also wait until the silicone is really fully cured before putting any stress on it. As said, these cooling gels can be corrosive, especially if DC voltage is involved. Make sure that everything that is not aluminum or plastic is properly sealed before allowing ongoing contact with cooling gels. Do not attempt any of this if you have to ask yourself what tools you might need or how make a suitable container for the gel. If in doubt check Google on how to work with aluminium or stainless steel if there are not enough Instructables for it. The gel will expand a little bit if it freezes, this no problem in a metal container if you allow for a bit of flex or on the side added strength  - whatever suits you better. Another option is to get a few different cold packs (by the active ingredient) and to do a check in a little container. Freeze it and note whe level cold and warm. Little to no difference means nothing to worry in terms of expansion during freezing.

Topic by Downunder35m  


Pure cacsaicin from chilli peppers

I already had a quite long Ible in the making when it downed on me that not too many people should actually create such a dangerous substance at home.So instead I decided to just write a bit about the history, general procedures and what is possible or not.If you already made your own chilli exptract for a special hot sauce or your home made pepper spray then you feel right at home.Those who never done anything like it or at least some essential oil extractions might just find some other interesting stuff to read.I won't go into all details here as those with the basic knowledge will already know the precautions and most things.Capsaicin...The stuff that makes your exes run, clear you nose and makes you sweat like you on fire.At least if it comes within you favourite dish.In the pure form it is a severe irritant and should be handled like explosives or concentrated acids.You just won't make a mistake with this stuff twice - trust me!What really harms you is not the capsaicin itself, it is your bodies reaction to it!It stimulates the same nerves responsible to feel heat and pain, sometimes those for a severe itch as well.And unlike a normal reaction you would get from hot water, it won't stop until it is fully removed.Even after this the body keeps reacting for bit longer.On the skin you can end up with blisters like from a real burn, in your airways it can make breathing impossible!And lets just say that swimming goggles won't look as dumb and funny on your face once you realise you got some fine crystals on your face....If you dare to continue then I assume you are well aware of the risks, dangers and PPE requirements!Pure or extract?I checked tons of so called instructions on how to make pure or 99% pure capsaicin from chilli peppers.They all just produce a really crude mix of goo that happens to have a lot of capsaicin in it.If it is red or even darker it is nowhere near pure.If it has a weird smell that has really nothing in common with chilli than it is even worse.If it is more or less colorless, with a very strong scent that your nose does not like at all then we are getting somewhere.So why is it that we always end up with this color that is impossible to remove?Extracting chilli peppers....A thing most people ignore a bit when in a hurry is that an alcohol extraction requires DRY alcohol.You just won't tolerate water in it, which is why often methanol comes easier and cheaper than ethanol.Some people even think just because the alcohol is either evaporated or distilled off that all is good when using things like methylated spirit.Ever had the problem that you used that stuff and your hot sauce made you vomit after realising that it comes with a bad and extremely bitter after taste?That is the stuff that makes your home depot ethanol unuasable ;)If you use homegrown or otherwise fresh chilli you need to fully dry it first!Don't be fooled by people stating they did it with fresh peppers.What you get this way is some of the worst extractions you can get.Don't be fooled to think you need some Carolina Reaper either.A big bag of chilli powder from your grocery store will do just fine.So what is all in our extract?Alcohol or any other solvent usable for a capsaicin extraction also dissolves a lot of other things.Like the beta carotenes that give the extract the organge to red color.The skin and the entire fruit also contains oils, plus the shiny outside is mostly due to wax...All of this ends in your extract....You not only get what you want and might not mind but also everything else you don't want.Making the difference....The impossible we do right away, for miricles or wonder allow a day or two of processing ;)Assuming you end with a rather large qauntity of alcohol the concentration of everything is relatively low.If you used something like a Soxhlet extraction you already degraded a lot of the capsaicin due to the heat.And even after the best filtering you might have a clear solution but whatever is not a solid is still in there.Imagine you would put it all into a freezer....Surprisingly a lot of stuff won't stay in solution once cooled down enough.Especially if you give it a few days.Depending on what you started with you either get a slimy looking sludge or some crystals showing.Either way it needs to be filtered out and washed.For the washing use the same pure alcohol as before but make sure it is well cooled.If any cacsaicin was already forming crystals then they will be washed into your solution again now to a little extend.But you removed an awful lot of the wax if it was not capsaicin already. ;)Testing the slurry we collected.When using chilli powder from the shops I noticed that there is often no wax to be found at all.While for fresh produce the content is significant.Once dry you make a simple test with water.Capsaicin basically does not dissolve in water, so it would sink to the bottom while wax floats ;)I assume you ended with little to no wax but fine capsaicin instead.From the natural form it is very hard to get crystals bigger than a dust particle.This only happens if the temperature is cold enough and the concentration high enough.As my entire setup is quite small I usually prepare several 500ml plastic bottles that I fill to one quarter by height with chilli powder and then fill up to half with methanol.In the end I use a full 1kg bad of chilli powder but only a may of 5 to ten bottles.Making the most of it.When using alcohol extraction you want to use a little of the solvent as possible.Use means here wasting it instead of recycling it.Once I filtered my white slurry out I destill the remaining solution to reduce it by 50-75%.An almost dark red color is usually when it is time to stop.After this I place it back in the freezer for a day to check if more crystals or slurry forms.If so then I filter it off again.What is left is then mixed with recycled and fresh methanol to soak more chilli powder in my bottles.Means I discard the filtered of chilli poweder once washed, recycle what I can from the methanol and keep whatever the slurry produces that is not wax or dissolves in water.Depending with how much chilli you start you will get to the point where your filtered solution is already dark red.Since the final capsaicin won't dissolve in water you can destill with some added (destilled) water.This way you recover the alcohol without risking to get a sticky goo everyhwere that you need to clean off.It is quite possible to get some more capsaicin this way as with the alcohol leaving it will participate out.Simply filter the solution once the alcohol is recovered.As the beta carotenes won't dissolve well in water either it is best to perfom this destillation while all is mixed.If you can't do this then don't worry to much, it just means a few more minutes of cleaning later ;)Testing the final product....What you have left once the slurry is dried should be almost colorless with maybe a pale yellow in it.Fully dried it should appear as basically white.There should be no smell to it, nothing to tickkle you nose.Colorless and odorless.For whatever reason I still sometimes end up with a very faint smell.Not really chilli though...Depending on the temperature the products is either quite hard to almost britlle (when frozen) to almost wax like at room temp and above.I highly recommend against testing whatever you have on your skin or to ingest it!!!Waste some sauce base like ketchup (you can add it later to your sauce again) or some butter - I prefer the later.Butter become liquid well below the 65°C celsius decomposition temp for capsaicin, so it should dissolve very easy in it.Take a shot glass with just enough butter for a sandwich and dip a toothpick into your product.Make sure there it a tiny bit on it and not that the toothpick has a thick coating!Once cooled down while mixing every now then spread it on some sandwich and take a bite.After a minute or two you should definitately feel a difference to just butter - hopefully not too hot.If nothing happens repeat with a bit more on the toothpick.Still nothing at all usually means you filtered out only by-products and for some reasons managed to make the capsaicin disappear.Hints and tips that might safe your bacon....Methanol boils at about 64°C, ethanol at about 77°C.Capsaicin starts to decompose at 65°C.Not a big deal but if you get to the 80° mark, which is easy which ethanol you might have to use evaporation instead of destillation and waste the alcohol to your surrounding air...Water...For the final product it is not a problem but during the extraction process it is.Despite some people claiming otherwise both the quality and amount of what you end up with are lower.It seems some of the capsaicin binds to the water molecules with the help of some other stuff that the plant material provides.And when you try to destill a solution that was contaminated with water from the chilli it tends to foam up quite badly.While with pure alcohol and fully dried product there is no foaming.What to expect when collecting the end product...At room temperature you can dissolve what you get in product from one kg of dried chilli powder in under 10ml of pure alcohol.However at -20°C next to nothing dissolves in the alcohol.That means as long as you have still over lets say 1000ml alcohol extract then very little will participate out.Just one reason why I prefer to work with small batches - keeps the concentration higher from the start.The more you destill off and re-use the higher the capsaicin concentration in the alcohol will be.So before you start to add any water for the destillation you need to be aware of the consequences.I found out that first destilling most of the alcohol off the single rounds that got too dark in color helps.I just collect this conentrate for the final destillation process.Key is to destill this off to the point where it just starts to thicken up a bit.It should still be liquid but act almost like a thin oil.You don't want it so thick that is crates a coating on the walls when you move the liquid around.In case it did happen just add a tiny amount of alcohol again.Put in the freezer for a few days....Empty into your filter and let as much as possible drip out.Rinse with as little alcohol as possible - have the rinsing alcohol at -20C as well .Do not wash the filter with water but with the frozen cold rinsing alcohol.Cover the filter up and leave in a cool place for the next run - have something under it as it might still let a drip or two off.The remaining liquid leave to evaporate off until it just starts to thick up again a tiny bit - back in the freezer for a day or two.Filter out again then while still a bit wet turn the filter over to remove most what is in it.I prefer to empty onto a teflon sheet and to wear full PPE here....While still wet you try to remove more from the filter with a fine but short brush, knife or whatever you find suitable.Do not continue any action once the stuff starts to dry!Place the filter into a sealed bag and leave in your freezer for when you do anthoer extraction - this way you loose far less product ;)When doing a final destillation with added water to cover all the alcohol you are left with the remains of the original product, minus all solids.Beta carotene is quite beneficial, so it would make sense to include it into your hot sauce.Plus there will always be some leftover capsaicin in it.If you want to use this part of the extract as well to really get what is possible then IMHO slow is better.You can't just destill off or boil off the water to get a nice "sauce" base.The capsaicin that is left would be mostly decomposed and with no effect anymore.A clear sign of too much temperature is bad smell that really turns you off.Hard to define in words but trust me, if you smell it you know what I means as you woul refuse to have this smell coming from your final hotsauce.During the summer it no problem to just leave it out to evaporate in the shade !You can do it in full sun but must make sure no sunlight gets into the liquid.UV decomposes at least a lot of the karotenes....Special equippment at hand? If you happen to have a vacuum pump or at least a salvaged fridge compressor you can safe a lot of time.A buchner filter for 500ml in the top is quite cheap but you can build something similar with a normal funnel.Look it up it you want...A proper buchner filter however already comes with a very fine glass filter built in.Means you don't really need any filter paper - I still add it as it makes the cleaning easier.Instead of waiting several hours for gravity to do its work on a coffe filter you are done in a few minutes.Well worth trying out!For the water destillation of the remaining end product, or by-product if you like, vacuum also helps.CVD or Closed Vacuum Destillation sound complicated but is really simple.One pressure vessel is filled with the solution to be conectrated, the other is kept empty.Connected with a suitable pipe or hose and fully sealed.The extract is heated to about 40°C while the empty vessel is placed into an ice bath.With the pump and the help of a valve create just enough vacuum so create small bubbles in the heated vessel.Close the valve and a few hours later there should be far less water in the hot one while the frozen one builds up ice.Every now and then check the vacuum gauge and if require start the pump again.You can do with just the pump and one vessel....Problem is that the oil in your pump will quickly get far too contaminated with water.You could add a conatainer with something like an absorbent but it would have to be sufficient for all the water you need to remove.Most of all it must be able to absorb it fully before the airstream enters the compressor.The benefit is that the capsaicin can't decompose at all.In a vacuum or close to it anyways, a lot of the things that procude smell also disappear through the compressor.Won't help it was already a stinky mess but will certainly reduce the smell of the concentrate.If you prefer to keep this aroma for your final sauce then do not use a vacuum.Why not a Soxhlet or similar device as used for essential oil extraction?The benefit seems to be clear:You have a relatively large vessel to hold a lot of chille powder and can let the alcohol cycle and wash it out completly...Theory is not always reality.....Firstly the alcohol runs through it many times while it dissolves what it can from the powder.That means each round you actually wash with a higher concentration until there is equal amounts in the alcohol and the powder.You waste about 50% of the end product unless you repeat it all several times with fresh alcohol.Worst of all however is the temperature, even if you use methanol.To make the alcohol evaporate enough to make the process work properly and in a timely fashion it must be heated to above 65°C, in most cases even with a proper heating mantle you won't have the temperature control tight enough.It is quite possible to destroy 70% of the capsaicin this way....The condesers used are also not really suitable for these low temperatures.Means you should use ice water to cool.Either way you will loose a lot of what could otherwise be product.Funny things that might stumble you along the way.In the freezer the solution will participate out a bit.However, when back to room temperature most if it will still be there, only a fraction goes back into solution.I could not figure out why this happens but once heated to about 40°C it all dissolves again.Filter fully blocked by the product?The fine sludge can be a problem even with a proper vacuum filtration unit.Especially if the product is still not really a solid once fully dried.A paper filter can be re-used many times but whatever makes it past and into the glass filter is tricky.You should not get much here if the paper filter was fine enough but if it builds up to the point where it makes the filtration long and slow:Remove the paper filter and add a small amount of luke warm alcohol.If it does not start to trickle through already give it a minute or two before turning the vacuum on.Starts a bit slow but should clear up quickly, if in doub repaet with a large volume of alcohol.I prefer to do this cleaning before I start a new bag of powder or whever I need to restock.Means I can use the same alcohol I had to clean the filter to add to the bottles with powder ;)Nothing gets wasted if you are prepared....If you find any typos in the above then feel free to keep them.However if you decide to use the typos for monetary gain I would kindly ask for 5% of the net profit made from my typos.;)

Topic by Downunder35m  


The Rock 1000

Well the biggest rock countdown finished on friday the countdown takes 100 hours over 10 days see if you can find your favourite songs sorry Dj rock only so you wont find your songs here# Artist Song 1 Metallica One 2 AC/DC Thunderstruck 3 Led Zeppelin Stairway to Heaven 4 Metallica Enter Sandman 5 AC/DC Back 'n Black 6 Foo Fighters Everlong 7 Nirvana Smells Like Teen Spirit 8 Metallica Nothing Else Matters 9 Guns 'N' Roses November Rain 10 Rage Against The Machine Killing In The Name 11 Guns 'N' Roses Sweet Child 'O Mine 12 Foo Fighters All My Life 13 Shihad Home Again 14 Motorhead Ace Of Spades 15 Pearl Jam Betterman 16 Guns 'N' Roses Paradise City 17 Pearl Jam Alive 18 Pink Floyd Comfortably Numb 19 Pearl Jam Black 20 Tool Sober 21 Metallica Fade to Black 22 Queen Bohemian Rhapsody 23 Kings of Leon Sex on Fire 24 Metallica The Unforgiven 25 Green Day 21 Guns 26 Pink Floyd Another Brick In The Wall 27 Blindspott Nil By Mouth 28 Pearl Jam Daughter 29 Tool Stinkfist 30 Pink Floyd Wish You Were Here 31 Metallica Master of Puppets 32 Shihad Pacifier 33 AC/DC Highway To Hell 34 Metallica Whiskey In The Jar 35 Bon Jovi Living on A Prayer 36 System of a Down Chop Suey 37 Eagles, The Hotel California 38 Live Lightning Crashes 39 Black Sabbath War Pigs 40 Smashing Pumpkins 1979 41 AC/DC Hells Bells 42 Foo Fighters Best of You 43 Jimi Hendrix All Along The Watchtower 44 Guns 'N' Roses Welcome to the Jungle 45 AC/DC You Shook Me All Night Long 46 System of a Down Aerials 47 Metallica The Unforgiven II 48 Foo Fighters Monkey Wrench 49 Foo Fighters My Hero 50 Meatloaf Bat Outta Hell 51 Rage Against The Machine Bomb Track 52 AC/DC T.N.T 53 Pearl Jam The Fixer 54 Iron Maiden Number of the Beast 55 Red Hot Chili Peppers Under The Bridge 56 Black Sabbath Paranoid 57 Green Day American Idiot 58 Guns 'N' Roses Civil War 59 Rage Against The Machine Know Your Enemy 60 Ozzy Osbourne Mama I'm Coming Home 61 Blindspott Phlex 62 Nirvana Lithium 63 Audioslave Like A Stone 64 Pink Floyd Shine On You Crazy Diamond 65 Sublime Santeria 66 Led Zeppelin Kashmir 67 Bush Glycerine 68 Metallica Sad But True 69 Rolling Stones Paint It Black 70 Soundgarden Blackhole Sun 71 Audioslave Cochise 72 Beatles, The Come Together 73 Smashing Pumpkins Bullet With Butterfly Wings 74 Radiohead Creep 75 Led Zeppelin Black Dog 76 Nirvana Come As You Are 77 Alice Cooper Poison 78 Red Hot Chili Peppers Californication 79 Pearl Jam Jeremy 80 Foo Fighters Learn To Fly 81 Dire Straits Money For Nothing 82 Metallica Sanitarium 83 Rise Against Hero Of War 84 Pearl Jam Black 85 Foo Fighters Let It Die 86 Iron Maiden Run To The Hills 87 Alice In Chains Would? 88 Guns 'N' Roses Patience 89 Linkin Park New Divide 90 AC/DC Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap 91 Shihad Run 92 Lynard Skynard Free Bird 93 System of a Down B.Y.O.B 94 Skid Row 18 and Life 95 AC/DC Rock n Roll Train 96 Def Leppard Pour Some Sugar on Me 97 Shihad My Minds Sedate 98 Who, The Baba O' Reily 99 Faith No More Epic 100 John Lennon Imagine 101 Sublime What I've Got 102 Led Zeppelin Whole Lotta Love 103 Guns 'N' Roses Don't Cry 104 Linkin Park One Step Closer 105 Ozzy Osbourne No More Tears 106 Niravana About a Girl 107 Queen We Will Rock You 108 Poison Every Rose Has It's Thorn 109 Split Enz I Got You 110 Pearl Jam Elderley Woman Behind a Counter in a Samll Town 111 Aerosmith Walk This Way 112 Live I Alone 113 Who, The Won't Get Fooled Again 114 Green Day Good Riddance (Time of Your Life) 115 Th' Dudes Bliss 116 Disturbed Down With The Sickness 117 Cranberries, The Zombie 118 Iron Maiden The Trooper 119 Cult, The Fire Woman 120 Pearl Jam Release Me 121 Pink Floyd Young Lust 122 Guns 'N' Roses You Could Be Mine 123 Violent Femmes Blister In The Sun 124 Pearl Jam Even Flow 125 Def Leppard Armageddon It 126 Spiderbait Black Betty 127 Aerosmith Love in An Elevator 128 Offspring, The Self Esteem 129 Silverchair Tomorrow 130 Supergroove Sitting Inside My Head 131 Linkin Park Crawling 132 U2 With Or Without You 133 Foo Fighters The Pretender 134 Deep Purple Smoke on the Water 135 Linkin Park In The End 136 Aerosmith Dream On 137 Audioslave Original Fire 138 Bon Jovi Wanted Dead Or Alive 139 Kings Of Leon Use Somebody 140 Pink Floyd Run Like Hell 141 Queens of the Stone Age No one Knows 142 Fleetwood Mac Go Your Own Way 143 Opshop Maybe 144 Split Enz I See Red 145 Green Day When I Come Around 146 Metallica Hero of the Day 147 Offspring, The Come Out and Play 148 Rolling Stones Start Me Up 149 Verve, The Bittersweet Symphony 150 Iron Maiden Can I Play With Madness 151 Bob Dylan Hurricane 152 Rammstein Du Hast 153 Ben Harper Ground On Down 154 Shihad The General Electric 155 Nirvana Lake of Fire 156 Filter Hey Man Nice Shot 157 Red Hot Chili Peppers Scar Tissue 158 Eric Clapton I Shot The Sheirff 159 Feelers, The Venus 160 Queen We Are The Champions 161 Collective Soul Shine 162 Disturbed Inside the Fire 163 Bush Comedown 164 Jimi Hendrix Voodoo Chile 165 POD Alive 166 Steppenwolf Born To Be Wild 167 Marcy Playground Sex and Candy 168 Thin Lizzy The Boys Are Back In Town 169 U2 One Tree Hill 170 Stone Temple Pilots Plush 171 Jimi Hendrix Hey Joe 172 Stone Temple Pilots Interstate Love Song 173 Motley Crue Dr. Feelgood 174 Pearl Jam Yellow Ledbetter 175 Mick Jagger Hard Woman 176 Staind Outside 177 Talking Heads Psycho Killer 178 Shihad Everything 179 Midnight Oil Beds Are Burning 180 Red Hot Chili Peppers By The Way 181 Rolling Stones Sympathy for the Devil 182 Linkin Park What I've Done 183 U2 I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For 184 Shihad Comfort Me 185 Everlast/Sanata Put Your Lights On 186 Live Selling The Drama 187 Led Zeppelin Ramble On 188 Radiohead Karma Police 189 Nickelback How You Remind Me 190 Pink Floyd Learning to Fly 191 Elemeno P Verona 192 Cult, The Sweet Soul Sister 193 Metallica Until It Sleeps 194 White Stripes Seven Nation Army 195 Ozzy Osbourne Close My Eyes Forever 196 Drowning Pool Bodies 197 Dave Dobbyn Whaling 198 7 Mary 3 Cumbersome 199 Dragon April Sun In Cuba 200 Disturbed Land Of Confusion 201 Aerosmith Janies Got A Gun 202 Blur Song 2 203 Bruce Springsteen Born In The USA 204 Red Hot Chili Peppers My Friends 205 Rage Against The Machine Bulls on Parade 206 Eric Clapton Cocaine 207 Guns 'N' Roses Mr Brownstone 208 Feelers, The Pressure Man 209 Pink Floyd Hey You 210 Creed My Own Prison 211 Chris Cornell Bill Jean 212 AC/DC Are You Ready 213 Marilyn Manson The Beautiful People 214 Steve Earle Copperhead Road 215 Billy Talent Rusted From The Rain 216 Bon Jovi You Give Love A Bad Name 217 Foo Fighters Times Like These 218 Faith No More From Out Of Nowhere 219 Hello Sailor Gutter Black 220 Green Day Basket Case 221 Def Leppard Animal 222 Pearl Jam Last Kiss 223 Korn Freak On A Leash 224 Billy Idol Rebel Yell 225 Metallica The Memory Remains 226 Doors, The Riders on the Storm 227 Red Hot Chili Peppers Give It Away 228 Beatles, The Get Back 229 Red Hot Chili Peppers Higher Ground 230 George Thorogood One Bourbon, One Scotch, One Beer 231 Faith No More Evidence 232 Iron Maiden Wasted Years 233 Oasis Wonderwall 234 Clash, The London Calling 235 Smashing Pumpkins Today 236 Led Zeppelin Rock n Roll 237 System of a Down Lonely day 238 Living End White Noise 239 Jimi Hendrix Purple Haze 240 Incubus Megalomaniac 241 Collective Soul December 242 Blink 182 All The Small Things 243 Beatles Revolution 244 Airbourne Diamond in the Rough 245 Green Day Jesus of Suburbia 246 Tool Forty Six and Two 247 Jimmy Barnes Working Class Man 248 Puddle of Mudd Blurry 249 Men At Work Down Under 250 Foo Fighters End Over End 251 INXS What You Need 252 Live Lakinis Juice 253 Living Colour Cult of Personality 254 Lynard Skynard Sweet Home Alabama 255 Green Day Welcome To Paradise 256 Ozzy Osbourne Crazy Train 257 Matchbox 20 3am 258 Megadeth Symphony of Destruction 259 Nirvana In Bloom 260 Elemeno P Fast Times In Tahoe 261 Metallica No Leaf Clover 262 Mutton Birds Dominion Road 263 Muse Plug In Baby 264 Motley Crue Girls Girls Girls 265 Live The Dolphins Cry 266 Pink Floyd Time 267 Pearl Jam Worldwide Suicide 268 Ozzy Osbourne Bark At The Moon 269 Doors, The The End 270 POD Boom 271 U2 Elevation 272 Rolling Stones Satisfaction 273 Pearl Jam Animal 274 Everclear Santa Monica 275 Dave Dobbyn Slice of Heaven 276 AC/DC For Those About To Rock 277 Audioslave I Am The Highway 278 Bush Everything Zen 279 Skid Row I Remember You 280 Red Hot Chili Peppers Dani California 281 Faith No More Last Cup of Sorrow 282 Aerosmith Sweet Emotion 283 Kings of Leon Fans 284 U2 Where The Streets Have No Name 285 Eskimo Joe Black Fingernails, Red Wine 286 Exponents Why Does Love Do This To Me 287 Incubus Nice To Know You 288 Guns 'N' Roses Estranged 289 Police Roxanne 290 Feelers, The Larger Than Life 291 Supergroove Can't Get Enough 292 Foo Fighters Long Road To Ruin 293 Led Zeppelin Over the Hills and Far Away 294 Marilyn Manson I Don't Like The Drugs 295 Nirvana The Man Who Sold The World 296 Pink Floyd On The Turning Away 297 Pearl Jam I Got ID 298 Papa Roach Last Resort 299 Led Zeppelin Dazed and Confused 300 Grinspoon Lost Control 301 Cold Chisel Cheap Wine 302 Feelers, The The Fear 303 Pearl Jam Not For You 304 Pink Floyd Money 305 Shihad Bulletproof 306 U2 Pride 307 Guns 'N' Roses Knocking on Heavens Door 308 Puddle of Mudd She Hates Me 309 Soundgarden Blow Up The Outside World 310 Deep Purple Black Knight 311 Alice In Chains Man In The Box 312 David Bowie Space Oddity 313 Killers, The Somebody Told Me 314 Queen Another One Bites The Dust 315 Eve 6 Inside Out 316 Guns 'N' Roses Live and Let Die 317 Nickelback Something In Your Mouth 318 AC/DC It's A Long Way To The Top 319 Kings of Leon On Call 320 Lou Reed Walk on the wild side 321 Nirvana Heart Shaped Box 322 Foo Fighters Big Me 323 Icehouse Great Southern Land 324 Cult, The Edie 325 Stonesour Through Glass 326 Ozzy Osbourne I Just Want You 327 Opshop No Ordinary Thing 328 Don Henley The Boys of Summer 329 Nickelback Figured You Out 330 Jimi Hendrix Foxy Lady 331 Pearl Jam State of Love and Trust 332 Verve, The The Drugs Don't Work 333 Swingers, The Counting The Beat 334 Kid Rock Bawitaba 335 Whitesnake Here I Go Again 336 Soundgarden Fell On Black Days 337 Smashing Pumpkins Disarm 338 Aerosmith What It Takes 339 U2 Angel of Harlem 340 Motley Crue Smokin In The Boys Room 341 Velvet Revolver Fall To Pieces 342 Bob Dylan Jokerman 343 Blindspott Yours Truly 344 Alice Cooper Only Woman Bleed 345 Metallica Fuel 346 Bryan Adams Summer of 69 347 Incubus Are You In 348 Cult, The Wild Flower 349 Supergroove You Gotta Know 350 Linkin Park From the inside 351 Exponents Erotic 352 AC/DC Who Made Who 353 Mutton Birds Anchor Me 354 Green Day Hitchin A Ride 355 Headless Chickens George 356 U2 All I Want Is You 357 Soundgarden Spoonman 358 Twisted Sister We're Not Gonna Take It 359 Rolling Stones Wild Horses 360 Weezer Say It Ain't So 361 Bruce Springsteen The River 362 Candlebox Far Behind 363 Dave Dobbyn Loyal 364 Green Day Know Your Enemy 365 U2 One 366 U2 Desire 367 Pluto Dance Stamina 368 Metallica The Day That Never Comes 369 George Thorogood Bad To The Bone 370 Kid Rock All Summer Long 371 Neil Young My My Hey hey 372 Nickelback Photograph 373 U2 Sunday Bloody Sunday 374 Powderfinger My Happiness 375 Supergroove Scorpio Girls 376 Collective Soul The World I Know 377 Breaking Benjamin Diary of Jane 378 AC/DC Rock n Roll Ain't Noise Pollution 379 Blink 182 Dammit 380 Led Zeppelin All Of My Love 381 Foo Fighters D.O.A. 382 Hello Sailor Blue Lady 383 Faith No More Easy 384 Meatloaf Paradise By The Dash…. 385 Linkin Park Breaking the habit 386 Def Leppard Lets Get Rocked 387 Disturbed Prayer 388 Phil Collins In The Air Tonight 389 Staind It's Been A While 390 Van Halen You Really Got Me 391 Metallica Turn The Page 392 Rolling Stones Angie 393 Soundgarden Burden in My Hand 394 Shihad Wait and See 395 Who, The Who Are You 396 Red Hot Chili Peppers Otherside 397 Doors, The Roadhouse Blues 398 U2 Who's Gonna Ride Your Wild Horses 399 Faith No More Ashes To Ashes 400 3 Doors Down Kryptonite 401 Alice In Chains Rooster 402 Cold Chisel Bow River 403 Grinspoon Chemical Heart 404 Janes Addiction Been Caught Stealing 405 Nickelback Never Again 406 Clash, The Should I Stay 407 Feelers, The Anniversary 408 Zodiac Mindwarp Prime Mover 409 Led Zeppelin Houses of The Holy 410 Powderfinger On My Mind 411 U2 Even Better Than The Real Thing 412 Pearl Jam In Hiding 413 Bon Jovi Bad Medicine 414 Buckcherry Lit Up 415 Red Hot Chili Peppers Soul To Squeeze 416 Midnight Oil Power and The Passion 417 Scars On Broadway They Say 418 U2 Mysterious Ways 419 Foo Fighters Breakout 420 Gary Moore/Phil Lynott Out in the fields 421 Nirvana All Apologies 422 Sublime Wrong Way 423 Split Enz History Never Repeats 424 Shihad Alive 425 Doors, The LA Woman 426 Metallica King Nothing 427 Led Zeppelin The Song Remains The Same 428 Fuel Haemmorhage 429 Jeff Healy Band While My Guitar Gently Weaps 430 Kooks, The Niave 431 Cult, The Wild Hearted Son 432 Rolling Stones You Can't Always get What you want 433 Red Hot Chili Peppers Aeroplane 434 Van Halen Jump 435 Smashing Pumpkins Tonight Tonight 436 Evanescence Bring Me To Life 437 Dragon Rain 438 Breaking Benjamin So Cold 439 Hunters and Collectors Holy Grail 440 Pearl Jam Corduroy 441 Poison Something To Believe In 442 Tom Petty Learning To Fly 443 Velvert Revolver The Last Fight 444 Kenny Wayne Sheppard Blue on Black 445 Iggy Pop Lust For Life 446 Audioslave Show Me How To Live 447 Oasis Champagne Supernova 448 Soundgarden Rusty Cage 449 Clash, The I Fought The Law 450 Shihad You Again 451 Stone Sour Bother 452 Twisted Sister I Wanna Rock 453 Days of the New Touch Peel and Stand 454 Led Zeppelin Dy'er Mak'er 455 Ozzy Ozbourne See You On The Other Side 456 Pearl Jam Nothingman 457 Who, The My Generation 458 Verve, The Lucky Man 459 Rolling Stones It's Only Rock n Roll 460 U2 The Sweetest Thing 461 Black Crowes Hard to Handle 462 Feelers, The Supersystem 463 Urge Overkill Sister Havana 464 Red Hot Chili Peppers Suck My Kiss 465 John Mellencamp Jack and Dianne 466 Sixx AM Life is Beautiful 467 Dire Straits Brothers in Arms 468 Jet She's A Genius 469 Filter Take A Picture 470 Cars, The Just What I Needed 471 Counting Crowes Round Here 472 My Chemical Romance Welcome to the black parade 473 Tom Petty Free Falling 474 Stone Temple Pilots Big Empty 475 Shihad La La Land 476 Ben Harper Please Bleed 477 AC/DC Let There Be Rock 478 Beck Loser 479 Queen Fat Bottomed Girls 480 Smashing Pumpkins Zero 481 Doors, The Light My Fire 482 Radiohead High and Dry 483 Metallica Mama Said 484 Lenny Kravitz Are You Gonna Go My Way 485 Stone Temple Pilots Vasoline 486 U2 Vertigo 487 Incubus Drive 488 Talking Heads Road To Nowhere 489 Angels, The No Secrets 490 Goo Goo Dolls Iris 491 HLAH Hootenanny 492 Pink Floyd Mother 493 Offspring, The Why Don't You Get A Job 494 Doors, The Break On Through 495 Living End Raise The Alarm 496 David Bowie Cat People (Putting Out The Fire) 497 Metallica For Whom The Bell Tolls 498 Cold Chisel Khe Sanh 499 U2 Beautiful Day 500 Dandy Warhols Bohemian Like You 501 Blind Melon No Rain 502 Black Sabbath NIB 503 Black Crows She Talks To Angels 504 A Perfect Circle Judith 505 Def Leppard Love Bites 506 Elemeno P Nirvana 507 Queen Headlong 508 Rob Thomas/Santana Smooth 509 Red Hot Chili Peppers Around the World 510 Split Enz Shark Attack 511 Soundgarden The Day I Tried To Live 512 Quiet Riot Come on Feel The Noise 513 T Rex Get It On 514 Radiohead Fake Plastic Trees 515 Puddle Of Mudd Psycho 516 Van Halen Running With The Devil 517 Offspring, The Pretty Fly 518 INXS Original Sin 519 Marilyn Manson The Dope Show 520 Skid Row Youth gone wild 521 Queen / Bowie Under Pressure 522 Datsuns, The Harmonic Generator 523 Robert Plant Heaven Knows 524 Foo Fighters Stacked Actors 525 AC/DC Ride On 526 Blink 182 What's My Age Again 527 Blue Oyster Cult Don't Fear the Reaper 528 Butthole Surfers Pepper 529 Green Day Wake Me Up When September Ends 530 Eagles Life in the Fast Lane 531 Incubus I Wish You Were Here 532 Cold Chisel Flame Trees 533 Airbourne What's Eatin' You? 534 Goodshirt Sophie 535 Rolling Stones Brown Sugar 536 Green Day Boulevard of Broken Dreams 537 Tom Petty American Girl 538 Soundgarden My Wave 539 Santana Black Magic Woman 540 Silverchair Anthem For The Year 2000 541 R.E.M It's the End of the World As We Know It 542 Pearl Jam I Am Mine 543 Radiohead Just 544 Presidents of the USA Lump 545 Rob Zombie Living dead Girl 546 Simple Minds Waterfront 547 Creed With Arms Wide Open 548 Aerosmith Crazy 549 Collective Soul Where The River Flows 550 Gary Moore Still Got The Blues for you 551 Shihad Rule The World 552 R.E.M Losing My Religion 553 Push Push Trippin' 554 Snow Patrol Chasing Cars 555 Soundgarden Outshined 556 Foo Fighters Baker Street 557 Billy Idol Eyes Without A Face 558 Live All Over You 559 Shihad Debs Night Out 560 Sex Pistols Anarchy In The UK 561 Red Hot Chili Peppers Desecration Smile 562 Iron Maiden The Evil that Men Do 563 INXS Kick 564 Hoobastank The Reason 565 Rage Against The Machine Renegades of Funk 566 Smashing Pumpkins Cherub Rock 567 Linkin Park Shadow of the Day 568 Queensryche Silent Lucidity 569 Elemeno-P 11'57 570 Midnight Oil Forgotten Years 571 Papa Roach Forever 572 Oasis What's The Story Morning Glory 573 Casanovas California 574 Crash Test Dummies Mmm Mmm Mmm 575 Feelers, The Beautiful Feeling 576 Mutton Birds Nature 577 Nirvana Rape Me 578 Our Lady Peace Superman's Dead 579 Tom Petty Refugee 580 Stokes, The Last Nite 581 Jimmy Eat World The Middle 582 Police Message In A Bottle 583 Tonic If You Could Only See 584 T Rex 20th Century Boy 585 Offspring, The Original Prankster 586 Van Halen Hot For Teacher 587 Feelers, The Stand Up 588 Jet Are You Gonna Be My Girl 589 Led Zeppelin Nobody's Fault But Mine 590 Marilyn Manson Personal Jesus 591 Th' Dudes Be Mine Tonight 592 Powderfinger My Kinda Scene 593 Tom Petty Mary Janes Last Dance 594 Fuel Bad Day 595 Dragon Are You Old Enough 596 Franz Ferdinand Take Me Out 597 Europe The Final Countdown 598 Offspring, The Gotta Get Away 599 ZZ Top Legs 600 Nirvana Where Did You Sleep Last Night 601 INXS I Need You Tonight 602 U2/Green Day The Saints Are Coming 603 Talking Heads And She Was 604 Seether Fine Again 605 Pearl Jam Brother 606 Black Sabbath Black Sabbath 607 Arctic Monkeys I Bet that You'd Look Good on the Dancefloor 608 A Perfect Circle 3 Libra's 609 Aerosmith Livin On The Edge 610 Coldplay Yellow 611 Finger Eleven Paralyzer 612 Genesis Home By The Sea 613 Good Charlotte Motavation Proclamation 614 Men at Work Be Good Johnny 615 Ugly Kid Joe Everything About You 616 Killers, The When You Were Young 617 White Stripes Icky Thump 618 Golden Earing Radar Love 619 Evanescence Going Under 620 Talking Heads Burning Down The House 621 Silverchair Pure Massacre 622 Split Enz Six Months In A Leaky Boat 623 Shihad Beautiful Machine 624 Police Can't Stand Losing You 625 Powderfinger Sunsets 626 U2 Bullet The Blue Sky 627 Metallica Die Die Die My Darling 628 Led Zeppelin Misty Mountain Hop 629 Green Day Longview 630 Billy Idol Flesh For Fantasy 631 Candlebox Cover Me 632 U2 When Love Comes To Town 633 Evermore Running 634 Pink Floyd Great Gig In The Sky 635 White Stripes My Doorbell 636 R.E.M Drive 637 Mi-Sex Blue Day 638 Green Day Working Class Hero 639 Boston More Than A Feeling 640 Foo Fighters Generator 641 Pearl Jam Immortality 642 Who, The Pinball Wizard 643 Elemeno P Every Day's A Saturday 644 Choir Boys Run To Paradise 645 Daughtry It's Not Over 646 Exponents Who Loves Who The Most 647 Snow Patrol Take Back The City 648 Bruce Springsteen I'm on fire 649 Faith No More Stripsearch 650 R.E.M What's The Frequency Kenneth 651 Offspring, The I Choose 652 Reef Place Your Hands 653 Queen A Kind of Magic 654 3 Doors Down Loser 655 Alice Cooper No More Mr Nice Guy 656 Manic Street Preachers Your Love Alone 657 Police So Lonely 658 Incubus Dig 659 R.E.M Man On The Moon 660 Tenacious D Tribute 661 Third Eye Blind Semi Charmed Life 662 Van Halen Why Can't This Be Love 663 Fuel Sunburn 664 David Bowie Ziggy Stardust 665 Foo Fighters Resolve 666 Red Hot Chili Peppers Breaking The Girl 667 Semisonic Closing Time 668 Muse Hysteria 669 Dave Dobbyn Love You Like I Should 670 Green Day Warning 671 INXS Good Times 672 Lit My Own Worst Enemy 673 Robert Plant 29 Palms 674 Offspring, The Gone Away 675 New Order Blue Monday 676 AC/DC Money Made 677 Matchbox 20 How Far We've Come 678 R.E.M Pop Song 89 679 Shihad Leo Song 680 Split Enz Dirty Creature 681 Hoobastank Disappear 682 Kiss God Gave Rock n Roll To You 683 Linkin Park Numb 684 Van Halen Panama 685 HLAH Cornbag 686 Bon Jovi Blaze of Glory 687 Black Sabbath Iron man 688 Ben Harper Excuse Me Mr 689 3 Doors Down When I'm Gone 690 AC/DC Heatseeker 691 Linkin Park Bleed it Out 692 4 Non Blondes What's Up 693 Chad Kroeger Hero 694 DD Smash The Outlook For Thursday 695 Luger Boa On My Mind 696 Exponents Victoria 697 Creed What's This Life For 698 Good Charlotte Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous 699 Def Leppard Rockit 700 Incubus Anna Molly 701 Led Zeppelin Good Times Bad Times 702 Living End Wake Up 703 Peter Gabriel Sledgehammer 704 Oasis Don't Look Back in Anger 705 Rolling Stones Love is strong 706 Foo Fighters The One 707 Crowded House Something So Strong 708 Placebo For What It's Worth 709 Billy Idol Sweet Sixteen 710 Audioslave Doesn't Remind Me 711 Motley Crue Home Sweet Home 712 Finger Eleven Falling On 713 Hoodoo Gurus Whats My Scene 714 Dishwalla Counting Blue Cars 715 Kings Of Leon Notion 716 Jimmy Barnes Lay Down Your Guns 717 D4 Sake Bomb 718 Dave Dobbyn Welcome Home 719 Muse Starlight 720 Bleeders She Screamed She Loved Me 721 Crowded House Better Be Home Soon 722 Disturbed Shout 723 Gary Moore Walking By Myself 724 Grinspoon No Reason 725 R.E.M Stand 726 Poison Your Mama Don't Dance 727 Seether Fake It 728 Australian Crawl The Boys Light Up 729 Midnight Youth All On Our Own 730 Icehouse We Can Get Together 731 Matchbox 20 Push 732 Motley Crue Saints Of Los Angeles 733 Kiss Crazy Crazy Nights 734 Living End Roll On 735 Neil Young Like A Hurricane 736 Foo Fighters This is a Call 737 Pearl Jam Rearviewmirror 738 Soul Asylum Misery 739 Saving Abel Addicted 740 Live Freaks 741 INXS Never Tear Us Apart 742 Linkin Park Somewhere I Belong 743 Noiseworks No Lies 744 Pluto Long White Cross 745 Default Wasting My Time 746 Deep Purple Hush 747 Creed Higher 748 Bruce Springsteen Dancing in the dark 749 Athlete Wires 750 AC/DC Whole Lotta Rosie 751 3 Doors Down Here Without You 752 Hunters and Collectors Throw Your Arms Around Me 753 Korn Word Up 754 Pink Floyd Lost for Words 755 Puddle of Mudd Control 756 Primal Scream Rocks 757 Shihad One Will Hear 758 Red Hot Chili Peppers Behind The Sun 759 Powderfinger Lost and Running 760 Church, The Under The Milky Way 761 Oasis Live Forever 762 Guns 'N' Roses Nighttrain 763 Pantera Cemetery Gates 764 Audioslave Be Yourself 765 Deep Purple My Woman From Tokyo 766 Midnight Youth The Letter 767 Monster Magnet Space Lord 768 AC/DC High Voltage 769 Fur Patrol Lydia 770 Jimmy Barnes Sweat it Out 771 Matchbox 20 Disease 772 Fratellies, The Flathead 773 R.E.M Everybody Hurts 774 Everlast Black Jesus 775 Cake The Distance 776 Counting Crowes Rain King 777 Checks, The You And Me 778 David Bowie Changes 779 Guns 'N' Roses Chinese Democracy 780 Exponents I'll Say Goodbye 781 Hole Celebrity Skin 782 Lenny Kravitz American Woman 783 Live Shittown 784 Goo Goo Dolls Name 785 HLAH Comfortably Shagged 786 Spin Doctors Two Princes 787 Muse Knights of Cydonia 788 Billy Idol Cradle of Love 789 Daughtry What I Want 790 INXS Devil Inside 791 Motley Crue Same ol' Situation 792 Nickelback Rockstar 793 Silverchair Greatest View 794 Melissa Etheridge Bring Me Some Water 795 Tool Schism 796 John Mellencamp Paper and Fire 797 Incubus Warning 798 Lenny Kravitz Fly Away 799 Janes Addiction Mountain Song 800 Everclear Heartspark Dollarsign 801 Billy Idol White Wedding 802 Buckcherry Too Drunk 803 Creed My Sacrifice 804 Deep Purple Highway Star 805 Oasis Cigarettes and Alcohol 806 Pink Floyd Have A Cigar 807 Metallica I Disappear 808 Goo Goo Dolls Here Is Gone 809 Led Zeppelin Immigrant Song 810 Opshop Secrets 811 Black Crowes Remedy 812 Iron Maiden Hallowed Be Thy Name 813 Ben Harper Steal My Kisses 814 Cold Chisel You Got Nothing I Want 815 Marilyn Manson Sweet Dreams 816 Midnight Oil King of The Mountain 817 Alice In Chains Heaven Beside You 818 Jimmy Barnes Driving Wheels 819 Rise Against Re-Educate 820 Crowded House Don't Dream It's Over 821 Bloodhound Gang Fire Water Burn 822 Airbourne Running Wild 823 Aerosmith I Don't Want To Miss A Thing 824 Tool The Pot 825 3 Doors Down Behind those Eyes 826 AC/DC The Jack 827 Blue October Hate me 828 Bon Jovi Keep The Faith 829 Live Rattlesnake 830 Eagle Eye Cherry Save tonight 831 Collective Soul Smashing Young Man 832 Aerosmith Dude Looks Like A Lady 833 Foo Fighters Low 834 AC/DC Moneytalks 835 Def Leppard Hysteria 836 Candlebox 10,000 Horses 837 Alice Cooper Schools Out 838 Blacktide Shockwave 839 Bush The Chemicals Between Us 840 David Bowie China Girl 841 Kings of Leon Crawl 842 Pink Floyd Keep Talking 843 Silverchair Ana's Song (Open Fire) 844 Pearl Jam Nothing As It Seems 845 R.E.M The One I Love 846 Raconteurs Steady As She Goes 847 Red Hot Chili Peppers Tell Me Baby 848 Harvey Danger Flagpole Sitta 849 INXS New Sensation 850 Nickelback Too Bad 851 Cure, The Friday I'm in love 852 Velvet Revolver Get Out The Door 853 Ben Harper Diamonds On The Inside 854 Rob Zombie Dragula 855 Semisonic Singing To Me In My Sleep 856 Tadpole Blind 857 Red Hot Chili Peppers Knock Me Down 858 Silverchair Straight Lines 859 Queen Tie Your Mother Down 860 OK Go Here it Goes Again 861 Soul Asylum Runaway Train 862 Th' Dudes Walking In Light 863 Seether/ Amy Lee Broken 864 Whitesnake In the Still Of The Night 865 Grinspoon Better Off Alone 866 Dire Straits Sultans of Swing 867 Jet Cold Hard Bitch 868 Feelers, The One World 869 System of a Down Spiders 870 Simple Minds Sanctify Yourself 871 Soundgarden Pretty Noose 872 Nickelback Saving Me 873 R.E.M Orange Crush 874 Snow Patrol Run 875 Poison Nothing But A Good Time 876 Kaiser Chiefs Ruby 877 Guns 'N' Roses Rocket Queen 878 Shinedown Second Chance 879 Billy Idol Shock To The System 880 Johnny Cash Hurt 881 Atlas Crawl 882 Australian Crawl Downheatred 883 Blindspott Room To Breathe 884 Bon Jovi It's My Life 885 Hinder Lips of an angel 886 Tom Petty Into the Great Wide Open 887 Oasis Roll with it 888 Counting Crows Mr Jones 889 AC/DC Sink The Pink 890 Coldplay Clocks 891 Split Enz My Mistake 892 Steriogram White Trash 893 Green Day Holiday 894 Bruce Springsteen Radio Nowhere 895 Cage The Elephant Ain't No Rest For The Wicked 896 Extreme More Than Words 897 Seether Remedy 898 Simple Minds Promised You A Miracle 899 Feelers, The Astronaut 900 Mutton Birds Giant Friend 901 Living End Second Solution 902 Lenny Kravitz Believe 903 Hunters and Collectors Do You See What I See 904 Motley Crue Kickstart My Heart 905 Live Heaven 906 Icehouse I Can't Help Myself 907 Nirvana You Know You're Right 908 Spacehog In The Meantime 909 Seether Driven Under 910 Robbie robertson Somewhere Down the Crazy River 911 AC/DC Anything Goes 912 J Geils Centrefold 913 Stellar All It Takes 914 Angles, The We Gotta Get Out Of This Place 915 Killers, The Read My Mind 916 U2 New Years Day 917 Supergrass Sun Hits The Sky 918 Ozzy Osbourne Perry Mason 919 Goo Goo Dolls Slide 920 Guns 'N' Roses Yesterdays 921 Opshop One Day 922 Cult, The She Sells Sanctuary 923 Seether The Gift 924 Clash, The Rock The Casbah 925 Feelers, The Communicate 926 Cult, The Love Removal Machine 927 Killers, The Mr Brightside 928 Poison Unskinny Bop 929 Muse Uprising 930 Australian Crawl Reckless 931 Alien Ant Farm Glow 932 Danzig Mother 933 3 Doors Down It's not My Time 934 Bloodhound Gang The Badtouch 935 Matchbox 20 Long Day 936 Mockers, The Forever Tuesday Morning 937 POD Youth of Nation 938 INXS Mystify 939 Nickelback Some Day 940 ZZ Top Gimme All Your Lovin 941 Lifehouse Hanging By A Moment 942 Aerosmith The Otherside 943 Kings Of Leon Revelry 944 Tom Petty Running Down A Dream 945 Datsuns, The Stuck Here For Days 946 Tom Cochrane Life Is A Highway 947 Steriophonics Dakota 948 Angles, The The Dogs Are Talking 949 Keane Somewhere Only We Know 950 Stellar Violent 951 Bon Jovi Have A Nice Day 952 Lost Prophets Rooftops 953 Men at Work Overkill 954 Red Hot Chili Peppers Love Rollercoaster 955 Darkness, The I Believe In A Thing Called Love 956 Barenaked Ladies One Week 957 Mile High Now 958 Airbourne Too Much, Too Young, Too Fast 959 Crowded House Locked Out 960 Dandy Warhols We Used To Be Friends 961 Tom Petty Don't Come Around Here No More 962 Feelers, The Fishing For Lisa 963 Feelers, The As Good As It Gets 964 David Bowie Lets Dance 965 Exies, The Ugly 966 Garbage Only Happy When It Rains 967 Chills, The I Love My Leather Jacket 968 Train Drops of Jupiter 969 Pearl Jam Dissident 970 Steriogram Walkie Talkie Man 971 Verve, The Sonnet 972 Phantom, Rocker and Slick Men Without Shame 973 Weezer Buddy Holly 974 Cars, The Drive 975 Weta Calling On 976 Led Zeppelin Heartbreaker 977 Thirsty Merc In The Summertime 978 Peter Frampton Do You Feel Like We Do 979 Calling, The Wherever You Will Go 980 Talking Heads Once in a Lifetime 981 Weezer Hash Pipe 982 Doors, The Touch Me 983 Killers, The Bones 984 Refreshments, The Banditos 985 Panic Channel, The Teahouse of the Spirits 986 Guns 'N' Roses Better 987 Red Hot Chili Peppers Can't Stop 988 Zed Renegade Fighter 989 Live Turn My Head 990 Wallflowers One Headlight 991 Offspring, The Hammerhead 992 Weta Let It Go 993 U2 Sometimes You Can't Make it on Your Own 994 White Stripes Blue Orchid 995 Travis Why Does It Always Rain On Me 996 Velvet Revolver Slither 997 Hootie and the Blow Fish Let Her Cry 998 Phantom Planet California 999 Pearl Jam Given To Fly 1000 Joan Jett I Love Rock n Roll

Topic by Fred the Penguin    |  last reply