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Portable debris hut frame possibility

I came up with this idea the other night for a portable frame for a debris hut. I was wonder what others thought of it's possibilities. I won't be able to build something like this for a while due to medical issues. If somebody builds this tell me how it worked please.

Topic by meddler    |  last reply

Rainbow vac for dremmeling?

Is this a good idea or no? I'm sure a few people on here know what a rainbow vac is, and it has the suction to work (although I try to use the low-speed mode if I can because it's a loud vacuum). I emptied it today however and there was metallic crap EVERYWHERE on the inside of the bowl. It wasn't that bad actually and washed out with water. But I was wondering, should I maybe use something like some dryer vent and make a plate to fit into my window?

Topic by Punkguyta    |  last reply

Any ideas on the best way to clean a file? Answered

I've been using one of my files a lot lately and the surface is covered in debris that won't easily shake loose. Any ideas on the best way to clean it?

Question by RadBear    |  last reply

Scholarship Idea: Lost Item Finder

By incorporating a metal detecting apparatus, the Create could constantly trek through the house collecting lost coins, jewelry, pain-inducing metal debris, keys, anything having metal and being small enough for the Create to collect. Larger Items should be easy for you to spot anyway.

Topic by Holeinmysock    |  last reply

I want to build a circuit generates UWB signal? can you help me?

UWB radar to find vital signal of human through wall or under debris  I want to make a circuit doing this can you help me with the part of generating UWB? 

Question by haithamM1    |  last reply

How to separate shredded aluminum and plastic at home?

I have a large amount of shredded aluminum heavily inter-mixed with shredded plastic and cardboard. I want to find a way to separate the aluminum from the other debris, so I can recycle the aluminum. Wanting to do this in my backyard to make a little extra cash for my kids.

Question by fire1971    |  last reply

Music Video Help?

Me and my friends are making a music video for a class we chose the song "A Dirge For The Underground" by Attica! Attica! We have most of it  done, but we are having problems with the last shot, we are doing of an explosion (not with actual bombs, just implying there are bombs). We don't mean like Die Hard, Action Movie, Jump to the Ground at the last second explosion, but the explosions you traditionally see when a building explodes, lot of smoke and debris as opposed to fire and a slightly sooty hero/heroine. It's just going to be blowing a lot of immediate debris and smoke blowing outward and then smoke drifting up. Best idea we've had so far is rent a big ass fan and set up a temporary business of cleaning out fires lol. We unfortunately do not have access to the media lab so digital effects are unfortunately not an option. Any better ideas (that don't damage the location, the owner would be pisssssssssssssed)?

Question by SuperCoPilot    |  last reply

water tank cleaning

I have a 14000 rainwater tank, and like to find a way go clean the debris from the bottom potentially recycling the disturbed water - so there is minium loss i have a ready supply of compressed air near by.,.,. can any one devise perhaps a venturi device that is easy to build, runs on compressed air and effectively vaccuums the muck from the bottom while recycling the caputred water....

Topic by agatornz    |  last reply

clean a pot that has been used to cook crab?

We cook crab after taking off the back etc. The pot is hard to clean as little bits of debris get stuck on the pan (I use a stainless steel pot). Any suggestions on how to have this stuff come off easier? Would spraying the pot before with PAM make any difference to taste of crab, or cleaning pot?

Question    |  last reply

I just got a PIC14000 -04I/SP for 9 cents. What should/can I do with it?

So I went to my local surplus store, and wouldn't you know, I found a bunch of components!  Among them were 556 timers, comparators, resistors, diodes, and this PIC14000 microcontroller.  What can/should I do with this little gem I found hiding amongst the debris?

Question by KentaGrace    |  last reply

Making a small wood chip biodigestor to produce methane?

I would like to build a small anerobic biodigestor first and then a larger one that I can use woody debri (chipped wood waste) to charge the digestor along with the right bacteria (some are better than others) and heat that will produce tons of methane gas.....  Any great ideas out there as I have acess to lots of chipped wood.......??? Thanks very much Peter

Question by Bigger battery    |  last reply

What is the fastest most energy efficient way to evaporate seawater on a small scale and collect the salt that reminds?

I tried standard sun evaporation in trays (1 gallon) and it takes far too long (not to mention all the debris that collects in the water during the evaporation process). Heating it over the stove uses too much energy. I am thinking a solar fan / heat combination. Your thoughts? (Note: The goal is to collect the sea salt.)

Question by ericrowe    |  last reply

Recycling Industrial Air Intake Filters

I have access to some used air inlet filter cartridges soon to be disposed from a gas turbine power plant that I work at. When in use, they prevent dust and debris from atmospheric air from passing through to the turbine....I am thinking of cleaning them using instrument air, and recycling them as furniture parts of for bookshelves and other upholstery furniture’s...does anyone know if they are safe to use for the inner frame of a couch for example?

Topic by 9jabuilt    |  last reply

Watch out for falling satellites

Watch out for falling satellitesWith no one at the wheel, should we be worried about the large US spy satellite now headed for a crash landing?US spy satellite 193 is predicted to de-orbit less than gracefully in Feburary or early March. The chances of it actually hitting a populated area are exceedingly small, but perhaps you can catch a few micrograms of it using Kiteman's How to catch a star Instructable.What is happening?An out-of-control US spy satellite will crash to Earth in the coming months, government officials say. The satellite is large enough that remnants are likely to survive atmospheric re-entry and strike the Earth, sometime in late February or early March, says Gordon Johndroe, a spokesman for the National Security Council.Is that normal?"This is relatively routine in that satellites de-orbit all the time," says Johndroe. Pieces of uncontrolled debris heavier than two tonnes -- mostly discarded rocket stages -- crash to Earth as often as once every three weeks, says Jonathan McDowell, an astronomer and launch observer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts.Many discarded pieces retain some power, so that controllers on Earth can guide them to a point far from human habitation, usually using a final dive into an ocean. In 2001, Russian space officials broke up the old Mir space station in this way over the South Pacific. That's not the case for this US one, however."Obviously, we want to take a look at the potential for it to land in a populated area," says Johndroe.What are the chances of it crashing through my roof?Exceedingly slim, says McDowell. Remember that some 70% of the Earth is water, and most lands are void of people. "There is no reason for people to get alarmed about it," he says.According to the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office, there have been no confirmed instances of serious property damage or injury caused by crashing debris in 40 years.

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply

Adruino cyclone dust sensor

I am looking for suggestions for building a wood chip / dust level detector for the collection can of a cyclone vacuum. I have tried using uv detectors, they get covered in fine dust and become in-effective.  I am thinking of using the ultrasonic sensor. My objective is to detect the level of chips and dust collected in the debris can, and sounding an alarm when the can gets to the full point. Any help on this subject would be appreciated.  I am new to working with these Adruino controllers and not real familiar with writing the Sketches for this. Thanks Don

Topic by Don D    |  last reply

Space Trash Crowds Orbiting Satellites

Two or three times a day, a satellite circling Earth narrowly misses destruction by an orbital hailstorm of junk sweeping the busy super highways of space.A spreading cloud of shrapnel from the collision of two satellites earlier this month is making wrecks for working spacecraft around Earth all but inevitable, analysts warn. As the ninth significant crack-up in two years -- including a punctured nuclear satellite -- the wreckage of Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 is fostering a chain reaction of collisions that puts billions of dollars of spacecraft and manned space flights at risk.Full article and really cool slideshow: Harmless Debris on Earth Is Devastating in Orbit - Wall Street Journal.via benjaneer.

Topic by noahw    |  last reply

BioDiesel-Powered Hauling

Recently, I've been re-doing one of our bathrooms. (An Instructables is in-progress.) This project, and a number of previous projects, has generated a quarter-of-a-garage-full of debris that can't go in our normal trash and wasn't going to be reused by us anytime soon: ceramic and glass tiles, cement backer board, grout and mortar, giant slabs of marble Christy scavenged 5 years ago, etc... When I came across Bakari Kafele's winning Instructable, Vehicle efficiency upgrades: 28.5mpg (so far) in 2.5ton commercial truck, and his BioDiesel Hauling business, I was spurred to action. Last week, he came by and we loaded the junk up to be recycled, reused, or taken to the dump. Here's to finding local businesses through Instructables!

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply

Smash atoms with Lego!

... or at least detect the debris of smashed particles with Lego: The LHC scientists do not yet have enough data to claim a discovery. But in the meantime, at home in Copenhagen, one physicist Sascha Mehlhase from the Niels Bohr Institute has made a part of the collider, the Atlas detector, out of LEGO toy bricks. »It took me about 48 hours to build the 3D model on my laptop and another 33 hours to actually put together all the pieces, this whole process spread out over several weeks,« explains Sascha. The model is made of 9,500 lego bricks and is about 1:50 in scale. There is no construction manual yet, but there will soon be one, he says on his website. The model is very intricate, even showing the innermost pixel detector. University Post article. Gallery of images.

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply

Tall irrigated hedge to pre-cool A/C condenser? Answered

I am thinking about planting a hedge around our air conditioner condenser to increase its efficiency. This would serve as shade for the condenser and as a means to inject water to keep the plant cooling the air as it evaporates the water. When rainwater is available, an aquarium pump could "irrigate" the hedge. When not available, a switch could control a valve for a high-pressure drip irrigation system. Both could be controlled by the compressor circuit. Keep the hedge trimmed about 6 feet tall and with just enough space around the condenser for a workman to easily maintain the unit (at least 3 feet from the condenser). The hedge would have to be drought resistant and one that does not shed leaves or debris. Any thoughts about this?

Question by VirgilB6    |  last reply

Rotating Antennae Wiring Question? Answered

Ok, something I've been thinking about for awhile.  Say you have an antennae/radar dish/etc that rotates 360°. Naturally, you have wires running up to the antennae connecting it to the rest of your circuit/broadcasting/receiving device. How do you prevent the wires from wrapping around the antennae and causing it to stop or causing the wires to break? I suppose you could reverse the antennae every so often to prevent this, but there must be a better way. Also, I figured you could have some sort of connection that rotated around, but it seemed that a rotating connection could be problematic if debris or something got in the way. It also doesn't seem like a very solid way to connect the two devices together.  Not actually building something here, just a curiosity. Thanks!   

Question by transistorguy    |  last reply

Catch a Christmas Present.

From my inbox this afternoon: GEMINID METEOR SHOWER: This weekend, Earth will pass through a stream of debris from extinct comet 3200 Phaethon, source of the annual Geminid meteor shower. Forecasters expect more than 100 meteors per hour to fly out of the constellation Gemini when the shower peaks on Dec. 13th and 14th. For most observers, the best time to look will be from 10 pm local time on Sunday night to dawn on Monday morning. Visit for photos, a sky map, and live audio from a meteor radar. Sounds like a chance to arrange a unique Christmas gift for a loved one. Update: I've done a bit more reading about the Geminids, and they may not be suitable for collection by magnets.  It seems they are the rocky remains of a dead comet, so lack metallic iron. However, I have added a map so you can work out where to look.

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply

Please help me identify this item!!!

A few of these items were found by 3 different volunteers during a beach cleanup in New Jersey, after Hurricane Sandy rolled through, destroying huge sand dunes and leaving debris everywhere.  They are clear yellowish glass tubes or ampules (ampoules) filled with a white powder.  I searched all over the internet for a match to these with no luck, but I did find an article on a large storm that hit NJ in 1962, in which a woman reported,    “We had sea grass everywhere, and there were glass ampules everywhere that contained a white powder. Our father told my sister and me not to touch them.”  Also found on the cleanup were old glass bottles all over the place from the 1920's-1950's so I'd imagine these could possibly be just as old.  Maybe they came from the sea, maybe unearthed from being under the sand for sometime? Any ideas on what this could be? Thanks for looking!

Question by SurfJockey    |  last reply


Has anyone out there ever managed to make a rat proof/squirrel proof bird feeder or know of a commercial one that works please?I love birds but not rats!My wife will not let me shoot the rats with my Webley .22 air pistol!At the moment I'm nearly rat free by only putting round suet balls in the feeder; as soon as I put seed in the feeder they're back. I've managed to stop the rats coming down the wire (amazing agility) by having a domed lid half way down the wire that when they try and stand on the lid it just tips and they fall off.I've seen various gadgets to try to solve this problem but all of them failed in my garden.I've done the usual things like making sure I keep the area clean below the wire feeder.I've tried having a tray underneath to catch the bits when Tits have fed from the feeder and husks fall to the floor - the rats leap from the bushes onto to the tray making it tip all of its debris onto the floor. I've tried hanging it in the most remote place - 6 rats turn up doing a war dance underneath it waiting for droppings to fall down!Anyone got any suggestions pleaseDennis

Question by Leviset    |  last reply

World's youngest inventor - holds patent for new broom.

A boy of five is thought to be the UK's youngest person to patent an invention after coming up with a labour-saving broom to help his father sweep leaves.Sam Houghton, of Buxton, Derbyshire, was just three when he came up with a double-headed broom to collect large debris and fine dust simultaneously. Sam, who was inspired by animated inventors Wallace and Gromit and Archie the Inventor from TV series Balamory, said: "I saw my Daddy brushing up and made it. There are two brushes because one gets the big bits and one gets the little bits left behind."I don't know if I want to be an inventor when I grow up but this was fun.""I was swapping from one broom to the other and he asked why. When I said it was to pick up the different leaves and twigs it must have got him thinking."He got a large elastic band from the shed and put it over the two brooms, holding them just the right way to use both together. He then called me and announced that had had made up an invention." The broom works with the coarser brush at the front to pick up larger objects and the finer brush at the back.Sam's invention has been taken up by the UK-IPO, which is hoping to use it to encourage other youngsters to come up with inventions through an initiative called "Cracking Ideas".BBC StoryCracking Ideas websiteIntellectual Property Office

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply

End of World One Step Closer. Or Not.

A vast physics experiment - the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - reaches a key milestone this weekend ahead of an official start-up on 10 September.Engineers had previously brought a beam of protons - tiny, sub-atomic particles - to the "doorstep" of the LHC.On 9 August, protons will be piped through LHC magnets for the first time.The most powerful physics experiment ever built, the LHC will re-create the conditions present in the Universe just after the Big Bang.This last sentence is the one that's caused a little panic amongst certain groups of the population - they are convinced that the experiment will create miniature black holes which will fall through the LHC towards the centre of the Earth, where they will orbit around, gradually consuing the planet from beneath our feet.When the collider is commissioned, the beams will cross paths at allotted points along the tunnel, smashing into one another with cataclysmic force.My God, have these people never seen Ghostbusters??Scientists hope to see new particles in the debris of these collisions, revealing fundamental new insights into the nature of the cosmos and how it came into being. Now that is seriously cool (well, hot, actually) - to be able to recreate what the whole of reality looked like mere femtoseconds after it started...BBC storyCritics have previously raised concerns that the production of weird hypothetical particles called strangelets in the LHC could trigger the mass conversion of nuclei in ordinary atoms into more strange matter - transforming the Earth into a hot, dead lump.Earlier BBC storyAmusingly paranoid storyAnalog Magazine article

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply

Fungal Fun: What are these small blue slimy wild mushrooms? And what about these big red buddies? And these...?

Small Blue Slimy Mushrooms?  Found these blue mushrooms peeking out from under damp, decomposing fallen foliage and such, behind our shed (location: Vermont).  These were maybe less than 2" tall, and they were slimy (sorta "doctored" the photo by carefully brushing away debris including pine needles that were sticking to the mushroom tops).  They're so cute!  Big Red "Ugly" Mushrooms?And while I'm at it with asking a mushroom related question, what are these big red ugly buddies?  They were found right nearby the blue babies above, but were growing off of a mossy tree stump.Wavy White/Brown Mushrooms?And while we're at the stump, what's this neat wavy growth?  It was on the top of this particular stump.White Fungal Growth?And again, with the stump, on the eastern side of it was this white fungal growth that I don't know what is either.Thought I'd include a photo of all the above discoveries together, since they in fact were found in just the same area.Giant Face-Sized Mushroom?This photo was taken two years ago, but since I'm asking all these mushroom related questions, thought I'd spew them all out.  So, what's this giant/face-sized one?Location for all this fungal fun is rural northern Vermont.  Having a hard time searching online, and just was hoping I might get lucky like last time with my asking about the dog puke fungus and green slime identification.  There's just so many neat things outside! :-)

Question by Pompom    |  last reply

White particles in water?

Ok, this is now driving me crazy. When I pour a glass (empty glass, no ice yet) of water (filtered, old filter) the water is clear. Pour over ice and big puffy white flakes appear. At first, I think that there must be crap in my ice. So I buy a silicone ice cube tray and use filtered water to make ice cubes. Second iteration: filtered water over filtered ice. Results: BIG FLUFFY WHITE FLAKES. So, that didn't work. My next thought was that maybe I messed up with the ice cubes. So, I switched to distilled water for the ice cubes. Third iteration: filtered water over distilled water ice cubes. Results: BIG FLUFFY WHITE FLAKES. Again I found myself with nasty debris floating in my water. What's next? Oh, maybe it's the detergent I used to wash my glasses. So, I wash a glass by hand with Dawn soap. Fourth iteration: filtered water over distilled water ice cubes. Results: you guessed it... BIG FLUFFY ****** WHITE FLAKES. Gotta say, it makes me want to pull out my hair! I just don't get it. So, here's my question: what's causing the white flakes? I read somewhere that cold temperatures can cause certain salts (not table salt) to precipitate out of solution. This can also be the case with Magnesium and Manganese. Does anyone else have a solution? I just want to drink some nice clear water. I thought for sure a Brita filter would do it for me.

Question by kakashibatosi    |  last reply


Sorry folks looks like the server screwed up my posting and i'll have to post my idea for home brewed 5.25in floppies all over again (the post eventually appeared several hours later so i deleted it) ok so where to start (*light bulb appears over head*) i got it if you have a 5.25in floppy get it out and look at it you'll notice that its pretty simple the first part you will notice is the plastic envelope enclosure thing which is just a single piece of folded plastic with some holes cut in it, just below the surface of the enclosure is a fabric or paper dust trap that keeps the disk debris free and finally comes the hard part the disk each disk has 3 components the iron oxide powder, the disk, and the binding glue stuff the holds the powder to the disk. now here is my crude theoretical unproven construction process 1. cut out the enclosure(i'm thinking a material like plastic card stock might work) (probable impossible by hand put it under a laser cutter or watter jet if you have one) 2.use 8 dabs of glue to glue the dust trap in place on the side of the enclosure that will come in contact with the disk 3.spray some adhesive onto the disk and bury it in iron oxide powder 4.remove the excess powder and spray it again with adhesive 5.carefully put the disk in the enclosure and fold the enclosure around it gluing the enclosure shut 6.stick it in your floppy drive and format it i'll have time to try this myself this summer until then feel free the criticize and question my sanity just PLEASE don't suggest buying disks from e-bay, thrift stores, flee markets, online, or any where else for that matter

Topic by clasic_traveller_diehard    |  last reply

Interstellar (movie) ScienceFiction

Spoiler alert. The butler did it!!  Just kidding.                 Category: Weird Planets! Water Planet-  How'd they know that the sea was shallow enough to land in? The ship's engines apparently can't run if wet. So landing here was pretty risky. Would you land a plane in a foot of water not knowing if it was 1000' of water? You can't take off if the engines are wet!                         When a big wave hits, (on earth) one of the signs is that the water in a bay will recede. Why didnt this happen when the big waves hit in the film?   Ice Planet-  80% of earth's gravity (IIRC)  Yet a "frozen cloud" can hold up it's own weight. Fun world, very sculptural. Is there any way these shapes can hold themselves up?  Might be more believable if planet had 10% of earth gravity.  Those jump jets also more plausible in low G.                 Category: Black Hole Appearance-  At first, this seemed pretty artsy- bizzare. But i'd read that lots of research + computer modelling went into it. So here's my assumtion explaining the visual:  The black hole has a simple ring of hot debris orbiting it like the rings of saturn. This stuff isn't close enough to have it's light sucked in. Looking above, or below the "hole", Light from the backside of the ring is bent around to our "eyes" by gravity. This causes the illusion of a second ring perpendicular to the first one. If we coud "look"  with some means unaffected by gravity, we would "see" a single ring.                 Category: Demise of Earth IIRC, the crop  blight is "using up" the N2 in the atmosphere??  um...  Overall, a really good flick, addressing big human questions. Of course the human story is the most important, tough decisions face these characters....  but chat on sci should be fun, too. 

Topic by Toga_Dan    |  last reply

Huge ball valves, worth to refurbish?

I have now already two of these huge ball valves we have on a machine at work.Soon I will have one or two more...The replacements always cost well in excess of $500, just for the part, excluding labour.If I am correct than even these big guys can be dismantled like their small cousins.Screw the screwed side open, remove the turning mechanism and them push the actual valve out.Please correct me if that might be different!The actual problem with ours is that after a few years of 24/7 use they start to leak through - not out in anyway.A visual inspection without taking them apart show build up on the ball part.No scratch marks or other damages that I can see.Where there is no build up it is shiny like a mirror.The seal are blue and clearly show the same abuse as the ball.I tried with some aluminium poking tool I made up and the debris is really hard and baked on onto these seal rings.My assumption is that only the seals started to fail.And as they are consumables I am starting to wonder if it is worth trying to find replacements and to clean up the valve after taking it apart.With only a manufacturer (from the machine, not the valve) part number but no markings or anthing on the valve itself I struggle to find any online place to check for genuine rebuild kits :(Any links for sites with lots of balls valves pictures (to be motorised) so I might one that looks identical?Last but not least: How to unscrew the damn thing?? LOLI tried in a vice with the largest set of plumbing pliers I could boorow but it won't budge at all.Would need an about 48mm spanner to grab the "nut" part of the valve.The pliers are almost a meter long but even swearing like the worst guy in town did not help to make anything move.Before cutting a custom made spanner from some re-inforcing steel plates: Is there any proper way of unscrewing a big ball valve?

Question by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Windows - Monitor turning itself off after a few minutes.

Today I faced a problem that according to my internet research on the tablet is quite costly and annoying. First off my specs for the computer in the basic form: Windows 7 on 32GB of RAM with a decent Nvidia graphics card. Problem: After a few minutes of use the screen suddenly goes dark, like when going on standby but Windows itself still runs as normal. Quite often when it happens the screen brightness goes up to max right before the screen goes dark. Taking out the monitor cable and pluggin it back in usually gives the screen a few seconds until it goes dark again. Official solution as suggested in many forums and knowledgebases: Take check if the problem is the same when using a different video port on the card - checked and it was for me. Check it the fan is working as it could be the card shuts down from heat problems - checked and cleaned the heatsink while at it. Replace the graphics card if problem persists - Why the hell would I do that???? My solution: Take the card out. Clean it with some air, especially the heatsink and fan. If have and old school office using paper and pen you might have one of these fancy easers with a blue part that is really coarse and has some fine particles in it. They were used to remove ink or pen writings instead of pencil marks. If you don't have one take some aluminium foil and crunch it to a small ball. Use the eraser/foil to clean the contacts of the card. The gold plating should come out nice and shiny, if it still looks dull keep working it a few minutes longer. Just rub from one side to the other over the contacts. Once fully shiny remove all debris by blowing it off - pay special attention to the tiny gaps between the contacts!! If in doubt use an old toothbrush (dry and clean of course) to clean between the contacts, a cottum bud works too if you are desperate. Put the card back into the computer and you have a really high chance the monitor stays on and will work fine from now on.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Ancient technologies revisted - The Moon

It was always up there in our sky.It inspired artists, song writers and created some of our greatest myths including werewolf stories.But is the moon really just some old rock giving us tides and a more stable weather?NASA tells us the moon is a hollow metal sphere.Astronauts reported Foo fighters and all sorts of optical objects that no radar would detect.To say WHAT the moon is would be controversial is an understatement but the facts are out there and are being accepted more and more by mainstream scientists.When I was a kid you would have not found any scientist taking seismic reading from the moon as prove that it is hollow.Today it is a widely accepted fact as we can not produce ANY evidence that the moon is not hollow.All this however only spans a few decades of exploring and slowly accepting facts for what they are.We still struggle to accept that ancient myths and writings as well as evedince written in stone is real evidence.Mythical creatures, gods and such come from the mind of people not knowing technolgy as we do today.They got depicted often as interpretations of the real thing.Some native tribe member from the Brasilian jungle would today not be able to make a drawing or even model of a helicopter that few over his head.It would look like anything but a helicopter and shows what was really visible with a lot of details lost, especially if it was flying a bit high.So let us assume just for the fun that these ancient texts and images really show us advanced technologies seem with the eyes of a underdeveloped (technical) brain.After all, we are happy to accept a lot of other things from the same texts without even questioning.A surprising amount of ancient myths and legends speak about the time before time.Or in more modern words, the time of creation.It is always a reference to when for those "reporting" self awareness and existence started.Some scholars though say it only the time when we learned to form our spoken words into a meaningful written language.This statement becomes painfully obvious when you explore cultures that never developed a written language in ancient times.Like the natives in Australia and namy native tribes in America.Many scholar these days consider that the ancient people only developed a written language as a requirement.But not as a requirement like we might think.You can teach one person something or give the person instructions.This becomes much more efficient if you can write it down and the other person can read it.It also revent mistakes and misinterpretations.It is the number one thing allowing us advance technological.Those cultures only adapting to a written and "documented" language long after their peak provide us a story that is shared throughout ancient cultures around our globe.We can hear the same from the mebers of those tribes that still have no written language of their own today.Some of them even started to see the importance and became authors and wrote books about the dreamtime and how their people and our world came into existence.In those older than ancient stories we hear about a time of great suffering and ongoing harship to survive.As long as thier stories go back it was like that.Put into modern context and stiched together from around the world:We had hurricanes on impossible power destroying crops and dwellings but the big cities always surived them.We had winters cold enough to freeze a glass of water in minutes.It was a hard existence and survival was everything.Whenever it got too hard though the people from the big cities offered help and shelter.Our struggle with this is already that during those time humanity neither knew how to build solid stone house now had a brain capable to design a complex city.Either way the powerful people from those cities decided one day that enough is enough and provided weather and climates to allow humanity to evolve.Once pure survival no longer requires 24/7 attention you find time for other things...Then what was it these ancient and unknow city dwellers did to fix our weather and climate?If you trust stories that were told from generation to generation for millenia then they placed a huge disk in the sky emitting enough light during the night so peole could see what is going on without needed a burning torch...The simple people back then were scared and thought their end is coming because this disk made everything so much worse.Huge earthquakes, tsunamies going hundreds of kilometers into the land, vulcanic eruption lasting for months on end.Decades of cold and miserable weather from all the dust and smoke in the air.But those powerfull people promised it will end soon and that the disk will bring stability and prosperity to humans.And when it finally happened and our world was the beautiful blue planet we know today the powerful people left - often together with their cities.Left to go back to their even bigger cities in the skies and amoung the stars.This huge disk was much much later named moon....A nice story, trust me I know....But we like to say that every story, every myth and every legend has a true fact here and there.Often overstated, or simplified but still there...The more we learn about ancient text, the more we actually understand why making sure these stories survive throughout time - the more we learn that they more truth in them than we dare to admit.How important would some historial fact for us today be so that we would try to preserve this knowledge for the thausands of year yet to come?We don't even have this concept :(So try understand how important, how valuable the core of a story must be that it really surived for thausands of years???!!!You could make a much greater story about how you invented the wheel and clock or how building dams allowed your culture to feed everyone through advances in farming.All those facts got lost, only the people from the skies and the disk up there remained important...Can we really be selfish enough to just ignore this fact and state it is impossible and never really happened?The storeis place the moon into our sky at around 100-250.000 years B.C....That is if ignore one tiny detail, but I get to that soon.Science provided us with real answers and fully debunked all the mathy about the moon being placed.When it was supposed to happen our geological structure was already subject to the gravitational forces of the moon.And thusands of years earlier the samples show exactly the same, so we can stop this nonsense of the the moon being artificial, hollow or even created and placed by someone.Or can we?Thing about these ancient stories is that they tell what was happening those "before", the ones providing help and guidance "now".Unthinkable, turst me again, I really know :(But as science states over and over again: Only fact we can see and explore speak the full truth.We found parts of the truth during the German space program and got scared enough to stop.Is it our advance in technology, defence and offense that gives the confidence to go back again now?Some say yes, other say it is a necessacity to go back.If we look who holds the power and who had and still has the control about most vital info deemed to be nothing for the public we have to wonder...It is a bit like a Star Trek comedy."Look! We united, we make a team efford, we are ready!"In reality though we just a bunch of cowards playing dirty games with each other.No one really wants to be just a part of it, they all just want to be first and stay in control.Coincidence? Hardly...What would be the possible implications of all this?Even if we could ignore ancient stories about the time before time we can't ignore basic facts.A hollow moon would indeed mean that just rock is not enough to give it enough mass.Would also mean it simply can't be coincidence that it has no rotation despite all we know about planets and moons clearly stating otherwise.Excluding even this problem we still struggle.No matter if there is rotation or not, the "millions" of years of space debris of quite large size would have left real evidence up there.But we find no real mountains, no really solid rock in or around the craters.And the damn things, despite this, seems to be so hard that no impact can create a deep crater....So of course we found some discarded scientists who started to count and cataloguise all these impacts.Thanks to NASA providing highly detailed images and orbital scans an almost easy task.First goal was to figure out or at least properly guess how much mass these hits added to the moon.Most of them would have been some icy mix with rock, only a tiny amount with mostly metal at the core.Since the moon still has some sort of working gravity despite being hollow a calcuable amount of debris would have settled on the moon and not that much would go back into space.Also some of what escaped would not have escaped orbit and the moon collected it over the years with its gravitational pull.The scientists struggled at one point when they found a weird problem.Not a single crater seems to have been caused by something hitting the moon at an angle.No one up there to clean up and no atmosphere either...Statistically speaking it is next to impossible that every rock that ever hit the moon came at a dead 90° to the area it would hit...Anyway, they ignored that tiny conundrum and moved on.We have a good idea how deep the craters are and how high the rings around them are.Everyone can agree that a crater can't be bottomless, because, well, it is covered by debris and rather flat.This flatness everywhere on the moon suggests that something "solid" must be under it - at a certain distance from the surface.With a margin of error in the region of just 17% the debris from whatever was hitting the moon to create the craters matches the thickness we would need to cover a solid sphere....Coincidence I know but still interesting to know...So when we can finally admit what the moon really is and how exactly it got up there we know for sure that we modern humans were not there first people roaming the planet....Does not mean that aliens were here or that they still are, just give a different perspective on our evolution and how the earth evolved.And we can just change what everyone takes for granted...But wouldn't it be nice when in a few years some astronaut calls home and says "Hey we fund a hatch under the dust!" ?What would we say then to ignore what we already know?

Topic by Downunder35m  

Exploding K-cups in a Keurig coffeemaker

Our Keurig coffeemaker is several years old. We began to see a ragged star opening in the top of the K-cups after brewing and coffee grounds various places outside the K-cup. All of the usual recommended fixes were no help. (See below.) This video gave me a solution that worked very well for us. (I have no personal connection to the video or its maker.) We now see only a neat round hole in the top of our K-cups after brewing, not a torn and ragged opening. Video summary: Remove two screws under the flip-up cover above the K-cup holder. Remove the decorative plastic cover by tugging at it. Snip the zip tie that keeps the soft white tube on the fitting. Pull the tube from the fitting. Hold the end of the tube over a cup. Cycle water through the Keurig until several cups come out clean. Clear the upper and lower needles of coffee grounds. Attach the tube with a new zip tie and screw the cover back in place. One word of caution: Very hot water spewed onto the soft skin at the base of my thumb and it was very uncomfortable. I draped a folded towel over my hand while hot water was being expelled from the disconnected tube at the top of the Keurig. Also, I ran quite a number of cups of water through the Keurig until I got three consecutive cups of water without any debris particles of any kind in the water. (I did not see an accumulation of coffee grounds like the man describes in the video, but I saw what was similar to pieces of a brown wing from a housefly.) In the two or three days following the procedure in the video we did occasionally have a K-cup blowout, but have seen only perfect round holes after a week or so, and we probably brew a dozen cups of coffee each day. The usual recommendations-- +Keurig's official recommendation as the cause of grounds migrating outside the K-cup is too much air inside the K-cup as evidenced by a domed lid on the K-cup before it is punctured. Their recommendation is to poke the top of the K-cup with a pin before putting it into the Keurig. Because of my observations and experience, I give very little credence to this. +Accumulated lime from the water needs to be descaled from the inside of the Keurig. Lime accumulation does cause a partially full cup of brewed coffee. We regularly descale our machine. We have also run water through our machine whenever we have seen grounds in our coffee and some grounds came out with the water. Descaling is a good thing to do, but I doubt it has a connection to bursting K-cups and grounds where they do not belong.  +Clogged upper and lower needles. The video will direct you to use a wire to insure open passageways inside the needles above and below the K-cup.

Topic by Phil B    |  last reply

Watch out everyone, the worlds ending. Sorry about that.

Scientists hit with 'end of the world' legal challenge over Big Bang experimentSep 1 2008THE biggest scientific experiment in history has been hit by a last-minute legal challenge - amid fears it could cause the end of the world.Opponents of the Large Hadron Collidor claim the machine may create a mini-black hole that could tear the earth apart.The £4.4billion machine, the most expensive experiment in history, is due to be switched on at the European Nuclear Research Centre - CERN - in Geneva, Switzerland, in nine days' time. Those behind the project hope it will unlock the secrets of how the universe began by replicating the conditions of the Big Bang.The machine will smash pieces of atoms together at high speed and generate temperatures of more than a trillion degrees Celsius. The collisions will create temperatures 100,000 times hotter than the centre of the sun in a space a billion times smaller than a speck of dust.But opponents fear the worst. An application for an emergency injunction was rejected on Friday and now the case will continue under human rights laws.German chemist and academic Professor Otto Rossler, one of the project's opponents, said: "CERN has admitted mini black holes could be created when the particles collide - but they don't consider this a risk. "My calculations have shown it is quite plausible these little black holes survive and will grow exponentially and eat the planet from the inside."We do not believe the scientists at CERN are taking all the precautions they should in order to protect human life." Professor Rossler claims in the worst-case scenario, the Earth could be "sucked inside out" within four years of a mini black hole forming. He argues the research violates the right to life under the European Convention of Human Rights. The legal challenge is against the 20 countries, including the UK, behind the project.Scientists involved in the project have dismissed concerns as "absurd". Particle colliders have been used by scientists for over 30 years without any noticeable harm to the planet. This latest machine, however, is the largest and most powerful ever constructed. Built 300ft beneath the French-Swiss border, it will fire particles round its 17-mile circumference 11,245 times per second before smashing them into each other.The machine will be activated on September 10, although it will be several weeks before the first particles are collided. Scientists hope that, among the debris thrown off by these collisions, they will find the elusive Higgs boson thought to be responsible for giving every other particle its mass, or weight.The CERN facility faces a second lawsuit due to be heard tomorrow, filed by environmentalists in Hawaii. But a safety report published this year gave the project the all-clear. It said nature produces higher collisions than the collider is capable of when cosmic rays hit the planet.CERN spokesman James Gillies said: "The case contains the same arguments we have seen before. "We are now concentrating on firing the first beams around the collider and then on fine tuning it until we can get collisions - when the science will start."Source: Daily Record OnlineWhat do you think about, A) this amazing use of particle acceleration and B) the technically plausible but remarkably unlikely end of the world scenario it might create?

Topic by lifelong-newbie    |  last reply


The “9/11” World Trade Center disaster horrified Americans as they witnessed people leaping out of 100 story windows to their death. There was simply no available escape system to facilitate a safe yet quick evacuation to the ground floor. Elevators weren’t working and internal staircases were blocked by sporadic debris, black smoke and fires. The situation was virtually hopeless to the point where many chose to jump rather than be burned alive. So here we are, with technology capable of constructing 100+ story buildings but without the means for external fire-escapes. Unfortunately, the public isn’t aware that at our current level of technology we can finally address this problem with our architects. We are talking about a means to rapidly deploy a flexible escape tube-chute from 100+ stories that hangs along a guy-wire which is pre-attached to our escape floor and anchored to the ground (Fig-1). This tube-chute escape system will deliver a person from 100-stories down to ground level and safely outside the building in under 10-minutes. Prior to deployment, the entire system is housed inside a container that is either attached to the outside of the building or built into a structured wall, opening to the outside at various floor levels. When in deployment, the inlet of the flexible escape tube will be anchored to the outside wall of a designated escape window and contain an inner diameter sufficiently sized to accommodate an individual. The tube’s exit end is tethered to a rope-wire that runs down our permanently located guy-wire, through a series of guy-wire slip-rings, and quickly pulls the tube's exit end to ground. The rope-wire is permanently attached to a winch-motor located on the ground. During deployment, the winch pulls the tube’s rope-wire down to ground level by slipping along the guy-wire rings. As the tube-chute deploys downward, it automatically forms a spiral about the guy-wire, creating a very long escape slide that gets anchored to the ground. A fully deployed tube-chute exhibits three basic attachments for stability: 1) a set of flexible slip-rings and tethers attached between the permanent guy-wire and tube to form its downward spiral, 2) a tube-chute inlet anchored to the outside of the building at various floor levels, and 3) a tube-chute exit anchored to the ground and providing a fully deployed and reliable escape system ready for use. As each person enters the tube-chute, they are only aware of the outside winds which buffet the tube plus the internally hanging cloth fingers used to slow their descent as they slide down to safety. They are not aware of any height and feel relatively secure due to their complete envelopment by both the tube and its touching fingers.  A 100-story descent would take about 6-to-10-minutes to reach the outside safety of ground while travelling at a speed of roughly 5-fps (3.5 MPH) as regulated by the spiral-ramp and internal cloth-fingers retarding gravity.   Technical  Details: The tube-chute is reinforced by a sewn-in spiral wire that gives it strength and flexibility. Its tube is made of heavy duty nylon, much like the large yet light air-hoses used on many high stress applications today. The tube cork-screws its way down and around a permanently deployed guy-wire that stretches from the designated floor of the building to the ground. The tube is sized for a person to enter and slide down the spiraling pathway until he reaches ground level. Gravity will act to propel the sliding individual down the tube. To counter gravity, we rely on the tube’s spiraling design to produce a gradually declining ramp that slows and checks an individual’s descent speed. The number of spirals and ramp-angle necessary to reach the ground will be sized to limit the gravity-induced speed so as not to endanger an individual’s sliding descent. That and the internally hanging cloth fingers guard against excessive speeds and will prevent skin-burns from the sliding friction. The tube’s nylon material is impregnated with anti-flammable chemistry and its exterior is aluminized to prevent radiative heatloads from causing a fire due to either direct flames or the radiant heat from indirect flames. A final note on the overall weight for this flexible tube-chute structure. Clearly, since we are designing a deployable fire-escape system, its weight must be kept to a minimum for deployment safety and reliability. Items such as the cloth materials, tube-wire reinforcements, and spiraling tube tether attachments must be carefully chosen for weight, strength and durability. While issues of weathering may not be that important, as it will be housed and protected from the elements, the shelf life of the various materials chosen is of paramount importance.

Topic by RT-101    |  last reply

Ancient technologies revisited - How did we build our first cities and when?

For this week it is the last part of my little series.We have many really old cities in our world, if you include temples and their often huge structures itis possible to go back almost 3000 years.That is if we trust our school books and university proffessors.Speaking about ancient cities is almost impossible with speaking about Atlantis, the Maya's or Rome.And we excavated many ruins showing us that in the old time we knew a lot more about building solid houses than today.The further back in time we go the more cities disappear and are replaced by settlements.Go a big step further and all we did was living in caves and hoping our fire won't go out.In Germany we have the reamins of a famous group of cave dwellers in the area called Neanderthal.The were happy cave dwellers around 30.000 years ago.A pretty damn long way to reach the times of our first cities made from stone even if you aim low....So KNOW when we started our first human settlements and we KNOW when we were living in cave and we KNOW almost everything that happened in between that made us the modern home sapienn we are today.Or do we????Some of our ancient cultures claim their cities and monuments were build by the gods or people from the sky long before time.In this context it means long before these tribes arrived or came into existence - they were there already.But we only know carbon dating to reliably tell the age of something.Problem with this is that you can't test things rocks as they were carved from older rocks and there is no difference in their "age".We need organic maretial like wood, or manufacutred things like pottery or formed metal objects to get a clue.Means if things like a big flood happened all evidence of times before could have simply vanished for the "time records".And mainstream archeology is always right - right?There is a big problem our histroy records are facing now.People started paying attention to undeniable facts.Like for example that animations showing us how our earth evolved and how the continets seperate are a hoax.Several ice ages happened, several times our ocean level changed by KILOMETERS!Still almost all of these animation show the coastlines unchanged - only the ice layer is added.But the changing sea levels are ignored.If you include all things plus changing sea levels these animation would give us a very different story.And so some guys came up with the idea to use what know about our topography on land and under water to check if there could have been enough "forgotten" land masses to explain certain things.Things like technolgy that we are forced to beleive did not exist during ancient times.The biggest single peice of land "discovered" was between Africa, Idian and Australia.About the size of Europe and China combined.Shortly after they set on a mission to find friends, financial supporters and tried to find "lost" cities.So far Atlantis was not found.But what was found and carbon dated - and how old are the cities??What for the church is the Ark of the covenant if for the people in India the ancient city of Dawrka - home of Krishna, one of the most importand gods over there.Ancient texts describe the city in great detail and it was declared nothing but a myth - like well, Atlantis.The most likely position of Dwarka was not too hard to find and extrapolate from the old texts but no one ever looked there until "recently".And after not too much searching a city almsot perfectly matching Dwarka was found.Go ahead and check when Kirshna ruled over Dwarka ;)Around 3100 B.C. or over 5000 years ago...Can we get closer to the Neanderthaler?I could now start a long list of cities and dates but I won't bore you that much today.The remains of an old city were found over 2000m below our current sea level.The first side sonar scans were claimed to show nothing but natural formations - according to "real" scientists.That is despite these scans being highly detailed....Of course it did not end there and remote controlled min subs with cameras and manipulators found funding and good use a few years later.The brought back images of roads, arches, walkways with perfectly square step at the end leading to higher levels.But also images or humans faces carved into stone - similar to those stone heads of unknow origins on the easter islands.And of course they collected all sorts of encrusted samples.A lot of it was useless debris but some carved wood, pottery pieces and even remains of metal were found - and carbon dated.The dating was performed several times by different instutions as the authenticty was questioned again and again.Finally the real scientists accepted the fact that the city under the sea is at least 40.000 years old....10.000 years before our caveman settled in Neanderthal.....Facts don't lie but still mainstream archeology and histry won't allow to make these fact known in school boks or normal archeology classes at our fancy univeristy.It would undermine the one thing that makes us special on this planet.It would mean we (current) humans are not the best god created - we are at best the second incarnation.....It would mean religion as we know it would be obsololete and become a farce.It would mean our technological advances in the last 300 or so years are nothing compared to what existed long before we thought cave men were the first humans.One human will accept and understand these simple facts but not their implication if EVERYONE would not just assume but ACCEPT that we are just second best...As said facts won't lie, so I will continue my series with a lot more mostly unknow facts and some realistic theories well worth thinking about.One day we might have the technology to explore these underwater cities properly but we might never figure our or accept how they were build.Well, unless we accept more than just these cities exists and how old they really are.Stay tuned!

Topic by Downunder35m  

Polishing small or very detailed metal parts - the easy way ;)

I should not get hoocked on the cummunity side here again but well, I am bored today...If you have a vintage car, some old steam engine models or even really old clocks then you know my pain.Copper, brass and sometimes aluminium was used and if not cared for in time they nice shine goes first.Dirt and dust come next.And with more time passed we start to consider leaving it as the polishing would take forever.Take one of my "hobbies": old mantle clocks...Literally everything inside is brass.Now polishing a bass backing plate with some holes is quite easy if you have an ultrasonic cleaner to clean the debris out of the tiny holes when done.Even tried to polish a sprocket or fine spring mechanism?If spoked then this is a really painful job.But the same is true if you have old copper and brass ware, like these old stenciled pictures on copper sheets.No matter what you try these jobs end up to take more time than what you imagined and in many cases fine details are left oxidised or filled with the polishing compount.Now imagine you could get rid of these tarnishes and discolorations without cramps in your hand and bying all sorts of polishing products?Sure there are the well known brands that polish a lot of metal with ease by simply wiping over them.But they use harmful and often toxic chemicals and are still no good for really fine details like grooves or emossed stuff.Wearing gloves and protection is often a must and at least I can't stand the stink of them.We all know how to clean our dishes, even how to get the dried on lasagne from last night off the dinner plates.So why not do the same with our brass, copper or aluminium parts?Just use a spongue, rub and wipe a bit, rinse off and let dry.Ok, those who tried before reding the rest might be a bit angry now as it does not work that easy.Well, actually it does, just don't use dishwashing liquid :)Let me give you two of the worst cleaning problems I encountered first:You did some very fine brazing to create something nice from brass or bronze.The flux you can wash off, but polishing the discoloration from the heat and resulting oxidisation will take longe than the brazing job.The other ecounter was the restauration of a petromax style blow torch of alomst 60 years of age - but thankfully it was never used for more than decoration.All brass and a lot parts impossible to polish due to size and being quite delicate.Now we all have ways to spend a lot of time and being creative to use normal ways of polishing.And, yes I did so myself for many years and kick can myself now too.Since we can't do any advertising here and I clearly don't want to promote any brands or harm other brands by rendering their costly products useless I need a way out that helps everyone.So, again, I am not trying to promote anything here!However I noticed someone in my favourite restaurants kitchen polishing some dark copper pot to a mirrow shine in less than 5 minutes!I was shocked and asked the manager to explain what I just saw.He was confused to say the least..."We clean our pots every day, sometimes more depending on what we cooked in them."Sure but what do you use to do what I need several hours for in minutes and with better results?"Just water and soapy powder to shine the metal sir. All natural product."Omg god or Kali! What makes it shine so quickly?"Shining powder sir!" - mind you the poor guy was now totally confused and worried, while I started to loose my insanity.He noticed the look on my face and went into the kitchen.Gave me a fance looking bag that apart from a lot of Indian writing I could not make any sense of stated "Shining powder" on the pack.When the manager saw the look on face this time he laughed and asked "How do you clean your copper pots sir?"I was speechless and just said with much more time and elbow grease...He packed about thimble worth of powder for me to try and said it would be enough for a medium sizde pot, just use a wet spongue and put a little bit of powder on it.And guess what the stuff worked as good as in the restaurant :(I can't even count how many hours I wasted polishing copper or brass parts with fine details.Or engine parts from aluminium with brass parts inside....With this stuff you just wipe and tough cases rub a bit harder and all is done in literally seconds.In tight areas or those with fine details you use a fine brush like those for painting in water colors.And with that and a spongue you clean even the finest details with ease.In an ultrasonic cleaner it even works on areas you can't reach, just wipe what you can reach and see somehow and it shines.Now if you want this magic stuff and check if the guy here is just pulling your leg then be prepared to pay a lot of money.200 grams of this powder will set you back between 5 and 15 bucks depending on where you shop.That is enough clean about 300 midsized copper pots or a few hundret meters of copper piping....Just ask for shining powder in your Indian grocery store ;)We all waste money or stuff we don't need, so if you have coper, brass or aluminium to polish then try washing it the Indian way - just for fun of testing something else.And if after that test you think the few bucks and information was well worth it than please post your experience with the powder in the comments below.I hope all those members here working with these metals will read this too, so if not help me to spread the word please ;)I am struggling to upload some pics I have taken from the blow torch but will try again alter once I reduced their size.If in doubt I will upload them to a hoster and link them.Disclaimer:I don't advertise, I don't promote!However I am so pleased with this dirt cheap product that I use it now as my prefered and natural option.For this reason I think it is worth sharing.It is not a magic cure! If you have pitted areas, solder marks or brazin coming out of joints it will not help.Same for scratches, they still require abrasive polishing to be removed.But normal dirt from being displayed for years, oxidisation and even slight discoloration from corrosion will vanish.And if the surface has a good polish underneath all this than it will come back with ease ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

The Moon - What do we really know and what is possible?

If we look up then seeing the moon is the most normal thing to us there is in the sky.But did you ever wonder how it actually got there? ;)Theories are out there by the lot, including those from real scientists.One of the most common is that it all started by catching the thing and that all was perfect at the time.Over time the orbit then stabilized.Other theories include that formed when our planet formed..What they all lack is what is common and true for all other moond out there: These rotate.According to science an object the size of our moon would need to rotate to maintain a stable orbit.No one told this to our moon, so it just stays in a stable orbit anyway.The only other accepted theory, that funny enough never mentioned OUR moon, is that the center of mass must be facing the orbiting planet.Now theories can run and wild if you let schientifically people loose on a subject.Official NASA data obtained by monitoring equippment on the moon supports the theory of the center of gravity.You see, sesmometers recorded "moon quakes" but also the impact of burnt rocket stages - the later were dropped on purpose.At first everyone agreed the equippment must be faulty but going through it again and again confirmed all works fine.So what got them so exited that was never officially made public?You see, every thing with suffient mass will create a sesmic shock on impact.On earth we can located the source of an earthquake or even explosion quite accurately.Same happened on the moon only with one difference to earth.Every impact caused a ringing effect.Like a bell, the soundwaves and shockwaves traveled through the moon for very long times.An early explanation was that the moon is made from really hard rock or that it might even have a metal core.This was rendered useless once the actual mass was calculated and it turned out the moon would rip us apart while spinning around us.The term "hollow moon" was born.Another interesting thing happens when you try to track down what equippment was left on the moon during which specific mission.Everything up there must have been installed at some stage.For some things though it seems there is no record when or where exactly something was left up there.Then there is the thing with the interviews...If you check the fuzz about the first moon landing then back then you couldn't help yourself but got exited as well.None of the three astronauts however appeared to be at least a little bit exited about going where no man has gone before.Somehow like visiting Iceland for the first time only to realise someone was there before you already.But it was the moon, not some easy to reach island...And while up there we did not see any exitement either, like fully staged and planned ahead.Like a not so 100% school rehersal.Claims that it was a fake and actually filmed in some studio have been verified to be false - they really were up there.After they came back two went silent and refused any interviews about the moon.All three though never spoke about anything we did not see on "live TV"...All the missing segments, the drop outs, the silence during communications...The money...Apart from the Pentagon making a disappearing act of 6Billion US, the already planned and staged moon missions were cancelled with no valid reason at all.One mission already ready to go to the launch pad, crew fully trained and briefed.Two more ready for final assembly.Official reason back then was "We have been there, it is time to explore new things."Almost the same statement was made by Obama a few weeks after he claimed "We will go up there again!".If you take away the costs for the abandoned missions then the money blown up to the moon has a huge difference to what can be tracked back.The lost sum equals out to about 8 more moon missions plus tons of state of the art equippment (back at the time it was state of the art).If you add what the Pentagon lost we are close to 15 more missions.The now...A few years back a lot of previously declared top secret documents have been released to the public.What was a good idea however turned out to be a bit too much.Quite a few documents were included that provide missing links to "incidents, missions, money spent"...Within these piles were documents indicating that space missions of the same extend as the much later moon missions were made.Same rockets, similar crafts, same requirements for water, food and oxygen, some though with just payloads of oxygen and water.Mind you though the documents speak from proposed options and not planned missions.And none of them had any exploration within it, just deliveries if you don't mind the comparison.Those documents about the ringing of the moon and how this would impact on the things we assumed to know about the moon were in there as well.What is really interesting though is what came back from the moon.None of it actually indicate that there is suffient ressources up there to justify mining.Funny enough exactly is planned on a military style.Seems fair enough considering the military can provide the best people for such a hard job.Some normal miner might have no problems getting under ground every day but knowing he is on the moon and might never make it back is another.With all the probing done that we know of you would assume the planned mining operations would be in an area rich in minerals, metals or at least something to generate fuel or oxygen.But no, it is planned to happen "on the dark side" and in an area that appearently was never explored in other ways then taking a few blurry pics while flying around the moon.However, both Russia and China claim to have been very close to this area long before details about the mining became public.And that brings us back to the past and what astromauts stated or to be precise refused to confirm or deny.In some videos we can see movements in the background.In several adio stream we hear the comments to what happens in the videos.If there is light moving around then it does not matter that is blue.You just wonder what it is and where it might have come from.Imagine the surprise if then in other videos you hear things like that the lights are back or that steam comes out of the moon like a gysir.There were official explanations for the first sightings made by the normal people when watching those videos on the NASA websites.Soon after the videos disappeared from the servers.Copies were made by the curious and quite a few videos were identified later to have contained "sightings" as well.Some even show what appears to flying machines with great manouverbilities.And if you take the high point of the happenings then it is also the same time when it was decided that we actually have no real interest in the moon.Astromauts later denied to have ever made any comments like that they are being followed or "escorted" by another craft.And the same Astromauts many years later still refuse to deny or confirm that what we could see and hear during their mission videos actually happened.Don't get me wrong but if the deny it then it just means we all saw some refections or such things.If the confirm it then we know something was out there with them.Doing neither usually means what we saw is ture enough to deny any knowledge about more details.Why then the sudden interest?Trump wants to get up there, military mining, private companies not to forget China.If there is nothing at all up there then why would they all spent money that could provide a much better living for those with low incomes?Even if it would be just for new schools and hospitals the money would be better spent if we trust the official claims about what is up there.The not so official claims....We already know NASA does not want to come with an official explanation why the moon sounds and reacts as if it would be hollow.Same for any video, audio or picture evidence indication there is sturctures on the moon or activities.Here is some of things that other people of great knowledge and with nice degrees under the belt say could, might or even is true about the moon.1. We have no evidence that the moon was always there, only what we have in record throughout history.Some claim the moon would be an artificially created structure.Indications of techonlogically highly advanced civilisations before us are there.And mining out a tiny planet and placing it in earths orbit is not far fetched if you consider higher technology levels than what we currently (officially) have.2. The satellite claim.Like the Death Star our moon could be an artifical satellite placed there for a purpose.What speaks for that theory is the impact craters on the moon.If it was never spinning or better rotating around all axis then a lot them would have been impossible.A crater always shows to some extend the direction of the impact.And on the moon they all apear to be direct and straight hits only.And even at some proper angle that against physics did not create a corresponding crater: Our plant would have been in the way.Officially it is claimed though that there would not be much of a directional crater because of the missing atmosphere and all debris settling evenly.Debris however does not explain the deformation from an impact at an angle.The satellite claim would also explain the missing depth in the craters.By the size of the bigger ones the crater should be much deeper and as said show some direction.If however the rocky surface landed there over time or is just the remaining natural hull then the craters could no go deeper.No advanced civilisation would design a stationary satellite that get a hole as soon as some big space rock hits it...3. Undocumented missions.If claims are true then we have been up there a lot more times than what our history lessons tell us.Tiny probes to analyse things, send data and so on are a thing not the the USA did.If you explain the reason for collecting seismic data by wanting to document an impact of an astroid then it is a joke.Sure it would be possible but what could we learn from the data?Nothing unless you consider that in some unoffial missions drilling was attempted on the moon.Sample collection to evaluate what is in the ground of use for future missions.Some documents now claim that all these attempts ended prematurely.Drills failed or broke, drill heads failed to go deeper and upon inspection were totally worn out.And all seemed to have happend at around the same depth.Although there is no atmosphere on the moon - if you stand on it you would be able to feel vibrations of the surface.Something astronauts would have felt during the drilling.And you can feel the difference between a vibration ending by stoping the drill and one that keeps going for a long time after...The dark side is visible in quite a few school books.Looks like the front with the brightness corrected just with different craters.Ever bothered to scan these pictures in and use some software to find matches to craters on the front of the moon ? ;)Anyways, those images show us the moon as near perfect sphere.What they don't show is how the images were actually made.They certainly did not use massive search lights from orbit to provide light for cameras.Means other sources were used, like IR, Radar, Microwaves and so on.Like we found the ruins of old civilisations by using satellites that can "see" through the forest and soil.And with that it would certainly be impossible to create such a nice and detailed image like we get from the front side.If some is edited, then why not all of it...And if all those missions we don't really know about also landed on the dark side it would explain a lot of things.All sightings seem to have disappeared to the dark side.And all leaked informations about previous missions before our first landing idicate the interest in the dark side was actually huge.They all ended though with one mission report claiming to have spotted lights on the dark side.Moving and stationary and when trying to get a better look by adjusting the orbit for the next round those lights were all gone.But audio recording indicate that from that moment on the astronauts were no longer alone and followed until turning back to earth.Several attempts seem to have been made to land near sightings on the dark side.Those where the astronauts returned home the never were the same again.Documents claim long treatment in mental facilites or suicide.The official missions appearntly started with the backstory of exploring.Some now claim it was attempt for a peaceful presence that still was not tolerated.4. Stories from involved companies.Even if NASA builds a craft themself they still need the corresponding supplies.And for a lot of things they are made outside by independent companies and contractors.Trying to track down early space mission again seems to confirm all claims about previous missions.The amount of materials provided would otherwise mean NASA actually crashed the majority of things right after take off without anyone noticing.5. Launches...So far all claims about previous moon missions or just secret ones were denied.I call this "plausible deniability".In all statements it is refered to the official launch sites.Things like being in public view and so on.What is not that commonly known is that there were a lot of capable launch sites available.After all big rockets have been tested in secrecy since we had the first.The claimed landing of the chinese started a big conundrum.At first the US claimed it never happened because there was no rocket that went up.Images prived by the chinese however clearly indicated the opposite.Not much later it was noticed that a few launches might have been misinterpreted as missle tests....What does that really mean?Quite simple: The surveillance is not perfect if the other side insists that it happened.The plausible deniablity is gone.If the US was "forced" to confrim they actually noticed the launches then it also means the chinese claims about the US doing the same could be true as well.And wasn't it a very important thing during the cold war to know when, where and why the other side launched anything?The silent agreement not to go up there again was broken many times...And although most if not all of these mission ended in orbit only it makes you wonder.What would be big deal even if all claims and conspiracies would be true?A hollow moon would defy what we know about how the universe works.With that it would also contradict some of solid laws of physics.So we need(ed) proof.Assuming we had that for a long time already then it leaves the big question of why it is hollow.Natural or artificial.Nothing natural would make sense so we investigate further.And if people still claim that they can use their little equippment to every now and then hear transmissions from the moon...Sure some things up there transmit data all the time but they do so on common frequencies and not in a range that is and never was used for long distance communications.The interest in the mon came back with our modern technology.We have watches with more computer power than what was used for the old moon missions.Materials and manufacturing methods that provide much safe crafts and space suits with a fraction of the weight of old designs.And we have new means of taking more or less limited energy up with us...We are prepared so to say.No matter what really is up there, no matter if it natural or artificial, just the fact that the moon is hollow changes our views on a lot of things....What do you think would be the best explanation for the data showing the moon rings like a bell?

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Ancient technologies revisited - The ark of the covenant

Not just for christianity is the ark something really special.Many of the old cultures meantion it - often in contexts that is mentioned in the bible at all.Unless it can be found all there is are theories and wild speculations.So for this round I will make it quite short and just sum up some of the highlights - in terms of technology.The ark is said to contain the two stone plates with the ten commandments.A nice story to get the godly touch into the bible context.If they are or were really in there then just as stone plates with some carvings on them.The real power of or in the ark is said to be of technological nature.Many cultures mention that the ark was responsible for impossible things or that it was involved when great disasters or great rescues happened.Like the crubling of the walls of Jericho.Horns might work for resonance effects but an earthquake at that time would be more likely.The blowing of the horns could have been the signal to activate the ark....The ark is said to have both great powers and great dangers.This seems to be confirmed by all these old stories were people that were not allowed to opened the ark.Same for those who were subjected to the arks destructive powers.If you check the old pictures and read the old reports you can help it and say "radiation poisoning!".One ancient text states it was a gift by the gods and who would need its power would have to first study it to confirm his worthyness.Anyone not accepted by the ark and attempting to open or use it would cause death and destruction.But it also states that whoever is granted all the wisdom of the ark will be able to re-create the tools of the gods and that he will be given the knowledge how to use them.Some could now go ahead and collect all relevant stuff from these old texts, pictures and myths.Then that someone you try to translate what was seen through the eyes of an "underveloped" human into terms of our modern age.Thankfully this was attempted several times already :)The theory I like best is based on the assumption that some higher beings or aliens left us the ark to guide our development.A bit like the reverse version of pandora's box.The theory is quite complex and specific in many areas with references to historic events and more.So before I reveal their conclusion I will give you an example of why so far everyone decided the ark can not fall into the wrong hands.If you would have a really nice and accurate rifle that never needs reloading or and special care and maintenance you would have an impossible thing for our times already.But someone from our time would find plenty of good and peaceful uses.Like living alone ina remote area and using it for hunting.Now imagine you would go back in time and hand such a rifle with instructions on how build it to someone like Genghis Khan.....Anyway, the conclusion from my favourite theory about the ark goes like this:It a combination of supercomputer, fusion reactor and matter converter all in one box.Science fiction fans might prefer the translation to a replicator with computer interface that allows you to create things from the 24th century - with a complete knowledge base on top...No surprise then that it was hidden their their last known owners in a location impossible to reach.Where is it?I leave finding it up to you but you will be able to use your favourite search engine to find many stories, films and documents about the location.It is claimed that when the second world war was basically done the ark was transported over the atlantic.A small island in Nova Scotia was long thought to hold the ark, the holy grail, the lost treasures of pirates and more.A more modern approach than trying to dig or drill tunnels to get to a seemlingly bottomless hole was to use cameras and sensors.Was not just for fun though as the constant flooding of the vertical shaft by up to three horizontal shafts made other things impossible.Diving was out due to the seperatin levels every few meters.The videos and sonar scans revealed nothing special, just what was already found at higher levels.Every now and then the sensors would drop out, same for the cameras.In some cases the totally failed and never worked again.More sensore were introduced to the hole.Samples taken when the water was rising in the shaft showed elevated ionisation effectscompared to the surrounding sea water.Other sensors detected high frequency RF emissions in short bursts.Nothing seemed to offer any conclusions about the causes, so samples from seperating wood structures were taken again but from the deepest level the probes could reach.Again the tests showed nothing to indicate why the water samples were so different or where the RF could be created.and just o be sure another carbon dating was performed on the samples.Older sample from much higher levels already confirmed age and materials used so it would not hurt.The tests had to be done several times with more sample pieces as the initial results were "incunclusive".They still are inconclusive!What does that mean in terms of carbon dating?It means that a sample return values that either can't be right or that two pieces taken from a bigger piece give different results.The got both for all samples taken from the deep....Some of the wood was dated to be just a few hundred years old, others from the same chunk close to 3000 years old and some section even had a negative age as if they came from the future.A tree grows naturally so no matter hwn you test a sample of it in the far future all samples will give you the same result.With no clues the scientist gave the results and test reports to a great variets of specialists in their field for consideration to explain how this carbon dating result could be possible.Several theories came back to our researchers...The dating analyses the decay rate of the C14 atom in all matter containing carbon.The decay rate however can change if the atom is or was subjected to more or less intense radiation or to high energy fields.As only low levels of radiation were detected by sensors this would exclude alpha, beta and gamma radiation.If all other options are exhausted than the impossible must be true.A higher, currently unknown or unspecifed form of energy is responsible.And depending on the operating principle and what we so far know about it in theory, a cold fusion reactor with failing or damaged shielding is a prime candidate.The conclusion of the researcher was the this hole must contain the ark and that it is indeed powered by a highly advanced type of reactor that we only manage to theorise about but we can't (yet) build one.Reasing behind is the theory that decades of tidal movement caused the lower parts of the shaft to collapse or that heavy debris made it through the flood channels during storms and hurricanes.What is the problem with this theory?Well, if the ark would really be at the bottom of this shaft than it would mean the researcher were right about who traveled over there to hide it.And that would implicate those in command of this guy actually possesed the ark - which would be unthinkable.But then again they followed and examined every story, myth and ancient text in relation to the ark and wasted enormous sums on expeditions to explore their locations.Worse still: It would mean those in charge of the ark knew they had lost despite its power - most likely due to a lack of time to understand its real functions?And if you would have the support of higher beings and still hide it in a place no one can access ever again it could mean you know "the others" shall never get to it either - unless they as well get the guidance of the gods.Isn't it then good to know in todays times that we won't be able to figure out what really is down this hole?If it is not the ark down there what is the next best theory for this hole?Considering the location and stories of those old tribes of the area there was no water in the times before time.Meaning in the far distant past it was a mountain top and the ocean was miles below it.What now seems to be some elaborate water trap might as well be the ventilation shaft of a city or industrial complex far below todays sea levels.And if some technology down there survived the times something might have failed and allowed it to be flooded.At least partially.Either way it is all just theory until someone made it to to bottom....

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Ancient technologies revisited - Ley Lines and Magic

Ley lines are a pure mythical thing, they do not exist, they do nothing.That is what science tells us....Myths and legends however always have a tiny bit of truth and honesty in them...No wonder then that we have detailed maps of these Ley Lines available, even your favourite search engine can find then for you.Many cities were build not just along these lines but directly onlo crossings or NODES of this invisble and non-existing grid.Quite an awful lot of them have names that got translated into more modern languages but never actually changed their original meaning.In almost all cases a reference to the stars or one particualr one or some constallation.Science and mainstream history says it is coincidence....No matter where you look in ancient texts the powerful cities were always located on the most powerful parts of the Ley Line grid.And funny enough it only took us a few hundred years to come with enough science to actually confirm that these lines actually DO EXIST.But finally admitting they are real because we can measure something is slightly different in these locations does not help to bring magic back into our world.Or did the magic actually never really leave?We hear about wonders that are impossible, like people being healed from all sorts of uncurable stuff by visiting certain places that are claimed to have healing powers.Is it really a surprise that almost all of the known places we have access to are located on a Ley Line node?The modern human can't except magic.In ancient times religion took care of magic, sometimes with brute force.Later science made sure that magic is forgotten and turned into just a myth.Now the base of magic is suddenly included in science, so the only logical conclusion must be that magic is back!But where is it?If I use a fancy looking "stick" to point at a truck and make it float through the air it would not a big deal."Oh look, what a great magician he is!" and the crowd applause pleases me...They wouldn't care how the trick worked, they just know it was some sort of trickery.And if the trick indeed would be real then some scientist would jump in to for an autopsy of my body and whatever I had with me....But if I would have done something similar 30.000 years ago I would have been declared a god....Humans always seek to find an explanation for things we fail to understand.And the more we study ancient texts with our modern eyes wide open we more similarities we find.The first archeologists to see and study Maya relics had no clue about planes, so obviously they interpreted models of them as something entirely different.This and many other misconceptions were carried on throughout time till today.Those who dare to look again and question what we "know" about ancient cultures for so long are silenced....Most end up to be labeled "Alien believer"...And we still fail to accept aliens or visitors from our own future into mainstream science...If Ley Lines exist it confirms that they must provide access to some sort of energy we no longer remember how to use.Ancient texts often speak about things we would today call a vortex.Be it as a doorway, something that does incredible things or just divides the red sea...Although totally out of magic science explored in theory how energy from a higher plane or continuum would manifest for us if they enter what we can see and experience.The conclusion is that it had to be in spiral or to be precise in all three dimensions vortex like style.It is partly based on facts we can already clearly obersver when one type of energy creates different one.Like a hurricane created by the difference in air temperatures becomes self suffient and stronger although the available energy to power it appears to be way too small....And of course our modern, linear math won't allow us to fully calculate what is really happening in a tornado...A technological gimmick to access the power of the ley lines might be just something tiny, like a resonator...We can't hear our favourite radio station if our tuner does not resonate at the same frequency...Our wireless chargin won't work at all if the sending and receiving coils are not properly matched to operate at common frequencies...The available energy would not only be basically limitless but also clean with no pollution, no waste products....So why we did we forget how to use ley lines?It was religion...They exist, they have powers and energies we have yet to understand.But do we at least have any theories were their power comes from?It can't be the stars as the ley lines are fixed structures, they do not move with the starts their nodes often represent.It can't be the ground or natural formations around either as there is nothing we can detect to be different.But we could try to accept a totally different theory about the center of our earth.Science tells us we a hard crust, then some molten rock and finally a liquid metal core that is somehow spinning and creating our magnetic field....Great story but sadly based on just linear math and our current theories of things we can't actually reach to explore.Funyy then how the greed of humatiy comes to the rescue...Diamonds are expnsive, especially those rare, pure and special ones.Several mines getting diamonds from very deep down in our mantle found strange things in some diamonds.Water....Ok, not water as we know it but the same building blocks.It was only confirmed to be water because when these "impurites" were analysed science already created this type of water.Part of a great science project theroy turned reality.With enough heat and pressure water changes the state of matter, it becomes ice.To be precise ICE7.It is a bit like a very energy plasma constantly being recycled.And it has magnetic properties in its crystalline structure but also on a sub atomic level in its plasma form.How would such a reaction be possible?Gravity of course.If you have water without gravity afeecting it you get a perfect sphere.With enough water your "drop" creates its own gravit by its mass.Add more and more more water and gravity will compress what is at the center.Keep adding and you create a minature sun running a cold fusion process with just hydrogen and oxygen.The natural forces of your movement around the sun and what is manipulated by the moons gavitational impact keeps the up the required motion for the fusion process.Ice7 could not exist in molten lava core with a spinning metal ball at the center.But molten lava under our tectonic plates and their movement is not problem at all if their mass is nothing but "floating debris" covering a huge cold fusion reactor.Compression by gravity and a "water" core create enough friction to melt rocks.We use the same priciple in friction welding in our industry...Unce the firction is great enough the to be welded metals melt and theep meltig until the rotation suddenly stops and all goes solid again as one single piece.The ley lines might be nothing more then emissions from our cold fusion reactor, like directed radio waves if you like to make it too simple.But ley lines are on the ground so the entire therory of Ice7 and cold fusion is just crap!?Science does not give up that easy and confirmed they are actually extending all the way into space.Satellites were able to measure the tiny variations when crossing ley lines and especially nodes where multiple lines intersect.The race to find what might be required to access the "magical" powers of our ley lines started ages ago.The only thing that has changed is the approach and who organises this search.One conclusion that was made again and again is that we will only be able to understand ancient technology once we understand what role the ley lines really play in what myths calls magic.To get a grasp how simple yet complex this understanding is we can go to the great pyramid in Aegypt.Build on a stron Leyline node and confirmed to be oriented by certain stars.You can look all the details about this up on your favourite search engine.Quite intersting once you realise the great precision and drive to aligne everything so perfectly.Even more when you realise the pyramid is also orientated properly on the ley lines.There are only a very few places on our planet that allow for the alignemnt of both stars and ley lines - they all have pyramids there with remarkably similar features or constructions to creat calendars and time keeping based on the movement of the sun and various planets.Some of these old cultrues even tracked the axial shift of our planet to have a warning system for a reversal of our magnetic field...But the great pyramid of Giza has nothing to actually track stars...Then why are all the "tunnels" to the "burial chambers" pointing prescisely at certain starts, including one in the Orion belt that even a decent telescope struggles to make visible?The same stars mentioned again and again throughout all ancient cultures....Some say the pyramids have powers, others say they were gigantic power plants, some they they were devices to accurately track the stars and to make sure whoever has the final resting place there will be able to reach and see his home planet.What if all of this has a true backgorund we yet fail to understand and explore?A now quite famous couple observing vulcanic activity around the globe managed to get quite precise prediction on not just when and where a vulcano is at risk to blow but also how severe the eruption might be.How is such an impossible "magical" prediction possible you ask?No magic, just pure science.The gravitational pull on our planet is not just affected by the moon, it just our biggest influencer in the game.Every planet out there in our soloar system creates gravity.And they all move around "randomly".If the aligned however things change dramatically.In the worst case all our planets between earth and sun are in one perfect line whle the rest of them is in a prefect line on the opposite side of the sun - the gravitational pull on planet earth is at max.Of course it is at the lowest when the inner planets are behind the sun and the outer planets behind earth.Thes seintists track this movement to predict in conjunction with the position of earth if a vulcanic active region would be subject to increased gravitational pull.Theory is it would cause and increase in magma pressure and movement.And the theory shows to be correct time and time again.Now try to imagine this:All the stars that have perfectly aligned channels in the great pyramid align with these tunnels AND all our solar planets align just right as well.If science is correct then around the time the pyramids were build this alignment was true.Get your calculator to check when the same conditions happen again and you might get a big surprise when realising the day is not that far away...Only too bad that we neither have the outer lining of the pyramid nor what was really inside these chambers at the time they were finished.Keep in mind that in most cases the pharao died long AFTER the pyramid for him was finished.We could wonder the same about many old cities in the UK, Europe and especiall Italy.No one denies that Rome was build in just seven days ;) or that it is build on a very secific point on the ley lines.Only few though know that the perfect spot on the lay lines is occocied by the center of the Vatican.Don't know about you....But if the pyramids are said to have had great powers when the time was right then what powers might the Vatican reveal when its alignment to its stars are perfect?Go ahead, start from england and follow the ley line all the way to rome.Take the names of some of the vital cities along the line and make the reference to the star or constellation they were named after.Like for the pyramid, these "bread crumbs" will tell you when the time for Rome is perfect.See what great historical events happen during past alignments and wonder what might happen during the next ;)And suddenly we get the feeling that magic is nothing but a boost of knowledge and technology handed to select few people.Only the most prestigious and "decorated" members of the church are allowed to access the secrect libraries of the Vatican.Even fewer are allowed to actually study them....And all of these few are "fluent" in many ancient languages.....So if GOD would ever return it would be in Rome and there would be people able to at least understand his written language and speak a few works in the old tongue.Imagine though another "god" would visit earlier in a religious location that aligns earlier?The race to be the first is already on whether we like to admit it or not.Only question is which god will be first and what magic will he bring us this time?Ley lines are as real as the cities and monuments build exactly and precisely on them.Some of them are older than humanity as know in from our books.Do some exploration of the ley lines nodes close to you.Listen to the myths and legends of the area, visits the places you hear about and try to see them with open eyes and a free mind.Dive into the past to find out where the origins of the stories and myths you found might lead you.Nature is all around and includes ley lines, we only have to allow to see and understand to imagine what might have been and what might be again.Magic is nothing but energy and technology observed by someone who does not know these things.Let a cave man watch Seinfeld and see what he draws on his cave wall once you and the TV are gone ;)

Topic by Downunder35m  

Your thoughts on "UFO's", strange things and the unknown

Don't take what comes below too serious please ;) I thought for the start of the new year it would be fun to talk about things we take for granted or that we would call nonsense. You know topis like those provided by Erich Däniken and other that think outside the conventional archiological range. Modern science has provided us with new insights into very old stuff but also a new look on things we thought to know better anyway. Here is some food for thought: 1. India... In this beautiful and old country it was discovered that hundreds if not over 2000 years ago people used lathe technology on stones. For example to make pillars with a weight over a few tons... Chains were created from molten rock and in many areas you find polished stone that even after hundreds of years still has a mirror finnish. Some of these creations are claimed to be made with hammer and chisel but how do you get a displayed accuracy that even modern technology struggles to provide? I don't want to clutter everything with video links but check Youtube and you will find temples in India showing musical granite pillars and chambers carved into solid rock with a precision that seems impossible! If that long ago human knd already knew about gear systems and lathe technology, then what else have we lost over time that we now claim as new technologies? How could anyone polish an entire granite hall and a big one that is to a mirror finnish? 2. Peru... Apart from being full of archeological wonders there is also the impossible to be found. The Nazca region shows, in aerial views, kilometer long and perfectly straight lines. In other regions, also in other continents, we can see images of strange people or artwork - again only from high above ground level. Some of the artwork is only in correct proportions and with proper contours if watched from a very specific angle to the mountain in question. The kilometer long lines are not simply on standard mountain faces but instead on top of mountain that have the top removed to be perfectly flat. And even with a lot of posible options to interpret the lines they look like any other huge, modern airport landing strips - including runways and tracks to areas we would call terminals or service bays. You can ignore all possible ways to interpret the design and possible use, what you can't ignore is the missing mountain top and level of accuracy on such a massive scale! 3. Pyramids... On all continents except Australia we find pyramid structures with very similar features in terms of proportions, angles and the way the face in a certain direction. In Egypt they just recently found another hidden chamber... Tunnels, too small for a human to fit point to stars and star signs. Some of the tools used to create were found with the help of small robots but also that some seem to be quite modern in age. Did grave robbers use them at a time were it is beleived that such tools were impossible to create? Or could they be as old as the pyramids itself? In south america we find pyramid structures looking quite similar to those in Egypt - why so similar in features and appearance if there was no contact between the two civilisations? To make things worse some of the Inca structures show tunnel and channel systems "leading" to the pyramid in question. Classic thought is that they were like tunnels to direct water or provide access in the beleive the jungle was not removed to hide the complex. Makes no sense if you see the city like areas that are now exposed and studied. I mean: how would created a city in the jungle without removing the trees?? What could make you wonder is a simulation that was performed several years ago. Based on a computer model in 3D different theories were tested. Irrigation was ruled out quickly, same for access routes or secret tunnels for the priests. One funny student got bored and decided to play god. Assuming the Inca priests would call their gods in the sky temple to provide rain he let a monsoon go down on the pyramid. The result was unexpected so he showed the results to his companions and they did the same test agin but simulated a massive airflow going down directly on the pyramid. Turned out the flow would be directed away under ground with more efficiency than systems Nasa uses today for rockets and space shuttles... Mind you the tunnels are far from straight and without this simulation it was trusted that they could not do this stuff... We now have rocket technology that uses surface direction and vector control. The square and flat designs leave a void insight that pretty much perferctly match the angles of those inca pyramids? Apart from pure coincidence, what could be the reason for this match in shape and angle with a tunnel system perfect to remove hot engine gasses? Ok, I admit, not all continents, the pyramids in Bosnia are just a hoax, so Europe is out of the race ;) Sorry Semir :) 4. Artwork... Be it here in Australia, the African desert or America - we find images of mystical people or rulers that could make you wonder. Again modern tech in the form color filtering, desitity readings and 3D scanning provided us details unseen before. If you think of gods in very ancient times and try to imagine you would be a native: What do think how many different images of their god could 100 people imagine? Let's agree it would be plenty... But if we study artwork in caves and rocks from around the world we find similarities that IMHO can't be explained. Many show features that, compared with modern technology, could be mistaken for helmets, gloves or even manual control systems. Others show things thought to be as simple as pine cones to resemble modern milling or finnishing tools. Again only possible by enhancing details the naked eye won't see. With no contact to each other and often thausand of years apart: What could the reason for having images of their gods show very similar and sometimes identical "features" ? 5. UFO technology and sightings... Some people love to post videos of secret weapons and UFO's that are simple rocket launches at a perfect time and with perfect weather conditions to attract attention. But what about the things we don't get to see? Just recently the US finally admitted to have a program to investigate what we might call "UFO activity", quite costly one too... This means a lot of leaked videos from fighter planes or spy planes you find on the net are actually the real deal. Often "enhanced" with editing tools but authentic ones have been released by the military and other organisations now too. If it happens over US ground and no US organisations admits to be flying the things we see than what it is? Right, it is a UFO - An Unidentified Flying Object! Does not mean it is alien, despite far too many people thinking an UFO must be alien :( UFO means just that! At the time of seeing it the ones seeing it can not identify the craft or "thing". And, no you are not alone! ;) Happens in all parts of the world and even commercial pilots upload what they can't explain. Oh, you are still a sceptic? Does that mean you think some of these sightings must be alien or do think someone down here uses technology we are not supposed to know of? If you are like me you might like to relax watching the live feed from the ISS. In case you are not try it anyway! Every noticed that that despite the stations own speed "forgeign" objects appear to come towards the station or even to grow in size very quickly? If so you also noticed another very strange thing... No matter what happens up there the stream keeps playing, even at times when the station is moved around a bit to avoid a possible hit with debris. But every single time something appears to move around the ISS or come close to it the feed cuts out. Ok, not every time, for well known stuff orbiting around like satellites, other stations, rocket lauchnes or supply flights they stay on. So, what are those flying objects changing course and direction or even circling the station? Why does the live feed cut out once an object is identified to be unidentified? 6. Roswell technology boom... Some think the US did take ownership of an alien craft, you know the stories and movies I mean... So called eye witness reports and some leaked documents all claim certain unknown technology in great detail. Anything from fibre optics and microchips, over "intelligent metals" to light enhancing glass lenses and seemingly indestructable fibres... Some say that if we would had the option to copy and understand the technology to copy it (without knowing anything about it of course) then the tech boom of the 60' would have been instantly. Imagine flat screen TV's and smartphones with GPS 50 years ago for everyone... ;) 7. Great land in the south - Antartica... The mysteries originating from Antartica range from Atlantis over hidden civilisations and living dinosaurs to the often claimed secret Nazi base with submarines and lost technologies. We all know that life as we know it can't really exists down there, so no strange animals, ancient creatures or a possibility to sustain a secret military base some 60 years ago. Or it there more to it?? Warm lakes containing fresh water with signs of life in them have already been discovered. Same for caves under the ice with temperatures far above freezing - constantly and again with signs of life. Ages ago the continent was still joint with other and in a warmer region so no wonder to find fossils. If we already found places that sustained life for thausands of years then what living things might be down there? Maybe even a place like the Galapagos Islands but for life thought be extinct - imagine Jurassic Park for real under the ice ;) With thriving life, vulcanos, rivers, lakes and all long before the dinosaurs it is not hard to imagine the remains under the ice and carved into the mountains. In todays times it all covered by ice and the sea level is much much higher, so again not hard to imagine that there might be rivers running off under the ice and into the ocean. Some maybe even connected to lakes in a hot spot sustaining life. A secret base from some secret part of the Nazi regime over 60 years ago?? Well, with all we know today about Antartica and is also known about the technological options available at that time it is possible. A submarine could have operated for days or even a few weeks under the ice with support ships available. Not just with so called secret tech but simply with a big sub on a minimum crew and the support of crude ways to reclaim and produce oxygen. If an entrance to a river leading to a suistainable area exists or existed at that time it would have been just a matter of time and endurance to find it. Of course we can't know if it was already found and removed or used since those with capable submarines and technology these days would not talk about it ;) But private or non government explorations map and drill more than ever, so once they hit "restricted areas" or create their own base and research station under the ice we will know ;) What to do if you actually see (or think you do) a real UFO?? Grab the oldest and dirtiest camera aou can find, mount it on the end of your longest fishing pole and create the shakiest video possible. And please make no references at all that would allow to get on the loctation, time or date. Jokes aside there is a good option these days, your modern smartphone, telescope, GoPro or favourite drone. A fake is often uploaded in very bad resolution often so low you might think an old webcam was used. Good fakes are often just a rocket launch, so check for this before you claim it is of unknown origins. Modern tech allows us to record a video in 4K at 60 or even 120FPS , so no excuse for a 320x240 AVI video LOL Optical zoom causes bad results so try to avoid it if possible. Image stabilisation can do wonders for free hand shots of moving objects, so crank it to the max even if the resulting video is a bit smaller in resolution. Geotagging is also a good thing as it allows an easy reference. You might see much more with you eye than what the video show, or in the best case the other way around. That means before you upload take a step back and try too see the video like someone who was not there when it happened! Are the movements reall that impossible? Is it really not just a plane, rocket flares? What sounds did you hear at the time or shortly after that might not be audible in the video? Sometimes a plane in the distance still is in the sunlight while you already stand in the dark - keep elevation in mind ;) Compare with other videos online that claim to be taken around the same time and area - sure you did not film a rocket launch? But if your video is crystal clear and shows the impossible in great detail you might want to check for the usual markings on military aircrafts or flashing lights in green and red. Still all good and impossible to explain? Then what are you waiting for? Tell us where, when and with what type of gear and upload the video so we get evidence of unknown technologies in the use/testing or an actual UFO - Unidentified flying object, until we know better. ;) Again don't take me too serious today but enjoy some of the thoughts and let your imagination wander off a bit. Lost technologies and knowlege exists, existed, is found again - whatever you want to call it. If humans could move stone blocks the size of a small house and create them with an accuracy down to the mm then they might have known more than we think they did. If we could melt granite to form new things, manipulate its sound or carve hollow heads of just a few mm in size then again we lost something well worth knowing. If in ancient times people had no way of seeing really distant and dim stars then how were they able to accurately map them and predict their movement? If milling and lathe technology was known and used when in other parts of the world we were happy to create simple and weak tools: How was it possible to create gears and know about planetary gear systems? If the evidence of the work clearly shows advance technologies used then where are the tools used and why can we find any written records or images of it being used? If even the all mighty US military, secret agencies and space programs fail to explain what they encounter quite often since we fly around: What is really that seems to try to hide from us while appearing to watch how we evolve, explore and fight wars? Since you still bother to read all this nonsense: If it appears we have "evidence" of the existance of beings capable of flying or even space travel since the dawn of time and add all the modern evidence: Is it possible someone or something has been watching us since humans came to be? Did "they" guide some cultures at some stage during their evolution to show us modern ways of creating alloys, machine stuff or understand what was magic or the gods at that time? And if they did help our evolution in some parts then why did this greatly improved society disappear with no more trace than their stone remains? How would we react if they dare to help us again? Is there a reason that even after countless encounters noone tried to shoot one of the UFO's down? I mean, not even a claim for trying since Rosswell..... Not any evidence of a recent landing either..... Or are we just watched so closely because they want something back we too from them??? ;) I blame all spelling mistakes on my annoyingly unresponsive keyboard. But if you still find some then feel free to keep them! I still demand a fee if use them to make money from them ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

The little moonshiner....

Found an old topic that someone reactivated with a reply, so I though I do a new one to make it easier. "Moonshine" can be as tasty as any good spirit from the shops. I have done a few liters back in my days... There are a few things to consider right from the start though. What type of sugar is used, e.g. fruits, corn, wheat, potatoes or plain sugar and water. Equally important is the yeast, some prefer natural fermantation, others use baker's yeast, most prefer dedicated yeasts for wine. Even the water used plays a role in the final taste!Hygine is another thing that many people overlook or neglect. Anything that can grow in a warm and sweet enviroment will grow rapidly! That means if your yeast is not good or fast enough, other cultures can take over and sometimes totally change the outcome and quality. In some cases, like with fruits to the better but usually to the worse. Imagine you want to bake a nice cake with vanilla in it. But since your vanilla stick is already quite old and you stored it together with your garden herbs in one jar.... You get the idea of taste I hope ;) Just go from start to finnish like you would prepare chicken meat together with fish - keep it clean, keep it healthy.The still.... Now, if you trust some old blokes doing moonshine since they were kids then it all sounds so easy. But for the hobby brewer there are now tons of options available. Basic pot stills you can put on your stove, electric ones that are basically just an electric boiler with a cooling tube, tower models with several levels of control or the good old "reflux" still in copper. Why is it important to know your way around stills? Again, if you ask a cook then he will tell you why he uses a certain pot for certain dishes or why he won't work with certain materials. Sometimes it is for taste or ease of handling, often just preference. Lets check the main differences in material. We have the modern stainless steel and the classic copper. Stainless steel is easy to clean, won't affect the taste and won't cause any chemical reactions that would alter the taste of your product. That is true only if you trust the manufacturers ;) To compensate for the problems I will explain in a bit they use all sorts of gadgets. I call them brewing helpers and explain them in a bit. Copper on the other hand is now quite expensive and also deemed to be a pain to clean and sanitise. To be honest: how hard it is to clean a still only depends on the design. If you can seperate it into nice straight pieces with good access you can clean anything. But copper was and still is the prefered option for drinking vessels and cookware in a lot of cultures - and it is coming back into our kitchens now as well. Why is that then? Copper has natural sanitising abilities but also reacts with a lot of chemicals. And since copper is considered to be a "good" metal, these reactions usually happen only directly on the copper. Meaning all reaction products stay on the copper as well. Work with fruits or potatoes and a copper still can look dark black and really ugly when done. Do the same in a steel still and then compare the taste ;) Copper produces a far better taste! Especially sufur based compounds react strongly with the copper but also anything causing bad smells or tastes is reduced big time. To flux, reflux not not to flux at all!? A basic still heats the mesh to a set temperature, a cooling coil or similar lets the steam condensate and the alcohol (and everything else) drips out. More complex models have a more tower like appearance and with that allow for a better temperature control. Here the steam will cool down in the tower and at the right height you have the outlet. Brings a much more refined product. The best is still the reflux still however. Here the steam is allowed to travel further and cool down completely. Only a fraction is allowed to come out while the rest runs back down into the heated pot. From first to last model the quality, taste and purity improve. Lets take a closer look on what actually happens inside a still:Once the mix is hot enough that something can turn into a vapor or gas form it will try to escape. That is why we usually discard the first "head" coming out - it contains the most methanol for starters but also the worst of tastes. Again more on heads and tails later ;)In a simple still all steam produced is now turned back into a liquid.One reason why the alcohol concentrations is quite low, around 40%.But also the reason for the low quality taste that can happen.Even with a generous amount of head removed literally everything that is in the opt ends up in the spirit.A good temperature control is a must have and the less deviation the better.And as with all pots running low, once you are low enough all impurities left in your mesh will be concentrated.If the bottom now gets too hot they release unwanted tastes...We skip the tower models and go right to the reflux as the later is just better and includes all there is to say about the tower models anyway.At least on a hobby level a reflux still already starts with a quite tall boiling vessel.It just allows a better and more evenly heating of the mesh inside.While the bottom part is hotter than the top currents form that constantly mix what is inside.The heat is controlled so there is no real boiling, in the best option so that no part of the pot will go over 85° C.When all is hot enough so the first alcohol could run out the system is actually still closed.All vapour has to run back down the tower - which is why some towers even come with cooling fins...As a result all things with a low boiling point will stay in the tower as vapor and once the still is opened they come out first.The heads can be much smaller then too ;)Since the outlet is set at a suitable height and is naturally cooler than the steam, a lot of steam will condense above the outlet.Much more below it and only a fraction is collected to run to the outlet.That means that once the system has reached stable temps throughout that the tower is filled with ethanol vapour only.And since it is constantly re-boiled and runs back down and up all that comes out is already at quite high concentrations.With a good setup as high as 95% vol.It also means that you can have a great level of control about what exactly ends in your ethanol.Depending on how high the outlet is located a different amount of things that can either bond with ethanol or have a similar boiling temperature will be collected.Sole reason why most simple pot stills are designed to work with sugar and clean water only...When working with fruits as a base you often want quite a lot of the flavours and tastes preserved.Only experience and trying will get you tot he sweet spot where the alcohol content is just right and all wanted flavours are included.Go too high with your quality and the alcohol is too pure, go too low and the taste is bad...Which of course brings us back to why you should take your time before the cooking starts!I know far too many people who have no patience when it comes to the end of fermantation.Some yeast might be still active, far too much sugar left over in the mesh or just not enough care in general...You want most if not all of the sugar gone and used.What is not dead in terms of yeast needs to be dormant due to the alcohol concentration.And that can be the tricky part already!You see, once yeast dies off quickly due to the alcohol only the strong survive.In some cases, especially if you re-use your leftovers often, these few can still be active at over 20% of alcohol volume in the mix.The best option is to have a spare fridge and to put the entire container or drum in there.Let it sit cold for a few days, the yeast goes dormant, all sediments settly down to the bottom as no CO2 is produced anymore.Once all is really nice and clear use a hose or similar to remove the clear content only!Be careful here and once the levels are low use a seperate container to drain off!Take out what you can and if in doubt let what you take settle again for a day or two.Doing this time consuming step will make sure you only boil up what brings you the good stuff.On the other hand, when using potatoes, fruits or such you might have to press the liquid out and and add that to what you drained off already.I prefer to do this first and just put it back into the big drum again to let it all settle together.Ok, you only use sugar anyway but what comes out just does not taste or smell right...Would also mean you only use a basic still...As mentioned before the heads are what contains all the nasties.There are ways to actually measure if there is methanol present but for what we do now this is not so important.When the dripping start use shot glasses or such to catch it.Preferably while watching it ;)Smell what it is the glass when you put the next one under.The first glass should smell quite bad anyways.Quickly the smell in the glasses will change to something more "pure" and alcohol like - now start collecting for use.With a simple but good controlled still you will see the flow increases and levels out at some point.When the volume starts to go down your tails start.It is good practise to now use a seperate collecting vessel for the rest until what comes to fully discard.At some point you will notice the difference between just enough and really good temperature control.In a really good system the flow will go down to a slow drip or even stop.While in a dirt simple one the flow will just slow down for a while and then suddenly start running again.This running happens when the remainig water starts boiling...Keep smelling what comes out and once the taste or smell changes noticably again use a different container to collet what comes out. - This is you first tail collection.What comes out until the smell and taste go bad is your second tail collection - now you can turn your still off for a while.Let all what you collected cool down to room temperature is not already.Check what you collected from the heads, helps to have small jars for this ;)From start to last the smell should get better.If the last two or three collections smeel somehow interesting then add them to your main collection.Smell the first tail collection again - it should not be that bad anymore, especially if you let it cool down slightly open.Especially when working with fruits you might to add quite a bit of this to your main collection.If only sugar was used just move on to the last tail collection.In case you still don't like the smell mix the tail collection together and keep in a seperate and sealed vessel.Those tail collections can then later be used to destill them again (with more tails from other runs) to get a decent cleaning alcohol or something that might still be worth adding in small amounts for a better overall taste.However for sugar only mixes it can be considered to be for cleaning purposes only.What you have now is little waste and a lot of almost good alcohol.It still contains more or less amounts of unwanted things that mainly come from the yeast and their by-products.To "clean" you alcohol the best option is to destill it again - it will also increase the concentration quite a bit.Best option here is to use properly filtered and prefeably demineralised water to get back to a full fill of the still.If your still is quite small and what you collected would make for one or two full fills then go for it.Be warned though that you should not fill it up to the full mark, a bit under is better as the mix now will boil far quicker and more violent.Personally I prefer to have the alcohol conectration in the still at around 205% only.As we already discarded the worst of the worst in the heads during our first run only a tiny amount, like half a shot glass should be too bad in terms of taste and smell.Whatever comes after shall be fine.Again, once the tails start try to be carefull and if you can slow things down a notch.You will see a quite destinct reduction in the flow rate once the tails start - use a new container right away.The alcohol concentration should now drop quickly too as another indicator.If you want just pure tasting alcohol add what you comes out from this point to your tails container for later use as you don't want to drink it.Again, for fruits and potatoes you might want to keep the first bit of the collected tails.You alcohol concentration should now be already over 75% even if a basic still was used.The overall volume you collected will be lower accordingly of course - so don't be too disappointed by the liters you got from the second run.In a perfect world you now would use some nice barrel and let your creation age...But since we do moonshine...There is a chance that even after two runs you still taste and smell things you don't want or like.So if in doubt do it all again and get to 90 or more percent...Either way the final stuff should be now either watered down (filtered and clean of course) to the desired level.How to further improve on the outcome....There are little helpers along the way to get far bette results than without using them.If you check ready to go kits then they often contain specialised yest strains, a carbon mix and some "clearing aids".The yeast part is obvious, although I do prefer life prt wine yeast anyway.Carbon or activated charcoal is used to bind some of the bad odors and tastes the yeast produces.Keep in mind they are designed to work together, unlike using proper wine making cultures.Using power yeasts without carbon always results in a low quality.The clearing aids actually change the acidity levels and cause some things to mineralise or otherwise change so they settle to the ground.But they mainly make sure the yeast is dead.If you only use sugar then these kits are your easiest option and just follow their instructions.For fruits or anything else however you might want to try the slow route and use actual wine making yeasts for a change ;)And of course here we do not use carbon at all as we actually want to keep the taste of waht we use.We already had the proper way of getting the mesh to settle down, so that bit is clear.For sugar only you can now try to run your creation through activated charcaol or just add it and mix it.Let it sit and mix again for a few days.You do not need to filter the black stuff out, just drain it carefully and run the last bit through a coffee filter.Nothing will end in your destilled product.Inside the still you can use ceramic bioling thingies of all sorts.They provide a surface for water or mix to boil on instead of just the bottom.If you can't them for a good price then just use the stuff for aquarium filters ;)As said earlier too, copper is good but most modern stills are made from steel.If you can't find any copper wool pot cleaners you can cut some plumbing pipe into small sections.Inside the boiling vessel they will quickly turn brownish black while collecting bad things.Cleaning is easy with some cirtic acid/delimer/coffee machine cleaner...For a tower or reflux still it really helps to have these copper pads or wool inside for a far greater surface area to aid condensation and slow down the run off.I know how hard it is to get the stuff these days so if no other option use stainless steel ones and only loose the benefit of more cleaning through chemical reactions.Tools that come in handy....Monitoring the sugar and alcohol level to know when the mesh is right is quite obvious.What might not be is that you can correct bad level towards the end of fermentation.Yeast already dying slowly but far too much sugar left? Just add luke warm water to lover the alcohol conectration...Yeast going dormant with low alcohol levels? The sugar might be out so chack and if in doubt add some more.A good stir will help the remaining yeast to get more active in a day or two.So these little glass measuring tools should be put to good use from the start.During the destillation a purpose made overflow pipe to hold your alcohol tester is extremly helpful!The destilled liquid goes in through a pipe or hose at the bottom of the pipe.The bottom is closed, the top open to allow to drop the alcohol tester inside.Overflow or outlet should be just under the rim.During your run you can now see directly how the alcohol content changes.It will stabilse once the heads are finnished and get a slight rise just before it drops during the tails section.Improving basic desing of a basic still...Once you are done with a dead simple pot still and buy a reflux or tower model you might wonder why you did not build one yourself.What looked good on the pics and in the shop turns out to be still a bit away from perfect.The outlet might not have any flow control or is located to low/high.The vital overpressure protection might be missing and the thing sometimes runs out like a garden hose...For the later you can slavage some old pressure cooker and use the weight with the screw in counterpart in the lid ;)A simple hole in the top with flat weight on it works too, I used an old rubber plug from my bathtub one (could not find the purpose made one in time).For the outlet you can cheat a bit ;)Wrapping the tower with some insulating material improves on the heat loss - this helps if the still struggles to heat enough to provide a proper flow rate.Cooling the tower with wet towels, running water or similar well help on hot days or if the outlet is located reall high with little chance to provide decent condensation in the lower parts.How to cheat with the barrel....No matter if you just run with sugar or if you prefern corn, wheat, fruits....For some spirits good taste means good age.And well, good age for commercial spirits usually happens by resting in wooden drums.Oak, white oak, red gum and several other types of wood are used.Some small destilleries even use only locally available wood and won't even tell you which tree it was...Means we have a few chocices if we don't want to stick to the well known classics.But how do we make a barrel ?A good one is not just made from any old wood - the wood needs to be of the right age and moisture.To keep it simple just treat it like your firewood and let it rest for the same time.A good barrel is often "charred" - burnt with a flame or by rolling it with burning charcoal inside.This does two imortant things:1: It provides charcoal to bind remaining bad stuff.2: It releases some sugars from the wood plus resins and othe stuff.Both are an essential part of the final product and aging process!Now it becomes clear why a good sprit cost more than vodka...Using a neutral vessel like glass to age your spirit is one thing, preparing the wood the right way another...You see, size matters here in several ways.Big chunks provide a decent surface are without causing too much debris.The also provide more tannins for the color and more resins and sugar.Smaller chunks provide more charcaol for a higher level or binding impurities.But both will soak up far more alcohol than the correspong barrel size would!Obviously, if you are on a small scale on only got about 5 liters of alcohol to deal with loosing much is bad.The best way to char the wood IMHO is inside a clsed can or steel box.Just a small vent hole and a lot of turning with the right eye for when the wood is charred enough to be black and sealed.Opinions vary here but I use about a cup full of wood per 5 liters of alcohol at around 93% vol.Some goes for the storage, apart from dark some can't really agree here.Tossing and turning is as much prefered as undisturbed resting - take your own pick.The thig I do differently after the filtering off is to re-use the wood that is soaked.It goes into a freezer bag until the next run of the still and then the frozen wood is just added to the second still run to get back the alcohol in it, plus some nice taste and smell :)

Topic by Downunder35m  

Hydrogen Peroxide at home and in the Garden

Although the topic is quite old for some of us and mostly because I am too lazy today to make an Instructable: Hydrogen Peroxide ! Back in the day Hydrogen Peroxide was mainly known for the ability to bleech your hair, later it replaced chlorine based products for the preparation of paper and organic fibres. For me it is a good opportunity to go back in time and to pull out some of the remedies my grandparents already used. Who knows, there might be something that helps you or you might know other good uses that I failed to mention here, so feel free to comment. First off: What actually is hydrogen peroxide? We could check Wikipedia but I think it is enough to say that it basically water with an added oxgen mulecule which turn the stuff into a quite powerfull oxidizer. When hydrogen peroxide reacts the added oxygen is released and the normal water remains. Precausions and health risks. In the normal supermarket form hydrogen peroxide comes at a strenght of just 3%. This is just enough for wound treatment or cleaning off a fresh and small stain. The stuff you can buy at your hair dresser comes in concentrations of 5-15%, above that it is of little use to them. Pool grade peroxide however can come as high as 50%. It often requires a permit of at least leaving a copy of your drivers license to buy such high concentration but well worth it price wise. The downside of anything above 5% is a risk for your skin, eyes and airways. So when handling hydrogen peroxide you should waer long sleeve rubber gloves, safety or better swimming goggles and make sure that you don't create vapour by spraying it against the wind direction. Having water at hand to dilute and spillage on your skin is always good. What happens to me if things go wrong? Well, if handled correctly nothing should go wrong but of cause the worst would be eye contact. Getting concentrated hydrogen peroxide in your eyes means extreme pain and even with rinsing it out asap eye damage is more than just possible. Again: wear proper eye protection and if spraying use a filter mask, the paper type is enough!!! Nothing immediate happens on sking contact but a few minutes after contact the skin will turn slightly brown or goes white. This is caused by the oxygen release into your skin cells, if washed off quickly after noticing the discoloration will fade after a few hours. Prolonged exposure of the skin can cause skin cells to fully discolor and living cells might get damaged - a burning sensation is usually the sign that you need to wash the area now ;) Enough bad stuff said, let's see what we can do in the garden.... Fungal infection of your old roses or on your fruit trees? Sometimes the weather does not like our plants and by the time we discover a fungal infestation it is usually pruning time. There are commercial producta available that work quite well but especially the copper based ones tend to do more harm than good in th long run. An alternative is a solution of 10-20% hydrogen peroxide. Spray generously over all affected parts of the plant, leaves, twigs, stem and all. Make sure everything is properly wet! In some cases the fungus can act as a water replellent and it seems impossible to get any of the solution to wet these areas - a drop of dish washing liquid into the bottle will fix this! Watever runs off can be left as it only helps to get oxygen into the soil but of course you should not soak the area... Leave it on for about an hour, around 20 minutes if it quite warm. Rinse all off with clear water and repeat every 2 days for 5 treatments all up. After this time wait 2 or 3 weeks and check if the fungus still gows in some hard to reach areas. If so then repeat the treatment there until satisfied but wait another 2 weeks every 5 single treatments. In some areas of the world certain types of fungus on roses are refered to as "rust". ----- Moved into a new home and the garden beds smell really bad? The last house I moved into had a previous occupant with a big dog but no time to clean after his pet. The garden beds looked dead and I mean so dead that I could not even find weeds in them. And the smell was a distinct mix of old dog poo with lots of fresh cat poo mixed in it - the perfect outdoor pet toilet :( Trying to dig it all under made me recover that the top soil was more §$&*# than soil. I had to get rid of the bacteria of all the poo and somehow neutralize a lot of the unwanted "nutrients". The solution was to first loosen all the soil as deep as I could go. Then I added rice straw (but anything straw like or dry grass will do) to mix it through. At this stage I wished I had a gas mask LOL All up the contaminated garden beds covered about 20square meters. I got a 10 liter canister of pool grade hydrogen peroxide, from this I diluted down with 20 liters of water and a few drops of dishwashing liquid to help with the soil wetting. All was applied as evenly as I good with a watering can and then the area was covered with some tarp to try keeping as much oxygen on and in the soil as possible. A day later the tarp was removed and all beds watered with hose to drowning point. This watering was repeated every 3 days for 3 weeks to drive out all the excess and unwanted nutrients from the poo. The smell was already gone except for some cat urine residue which disappeared after some rounds of watering. Three months after the initial treatment I did some soil tests, added nutrients were required and the next season I had vegetables growing :) ----- Planting? Whether from seeds or seedlings, give hydrogen peroxide a try! I use a 5% solution to soak the potting mix I use before putting my seeds in it. Not only does it kill a few of the unwanted things that might still be in there but it adds a lot of oxygen into the soil, which gives the seeds a much better start. For seeds I use a 5% solution as well but only leave them in for about an hour before placing them between some wet paper towels until they start germinating. This way I can be sure all harmful bacteria and fungal spores are dead and I can use a sterile seed to keep going. Might just be my opinion but I think the germination rate is better and seedling in comparison start growing faster and stronger. Home uses.... As we learned before hydrogen peroxide, at least in higher concentrations is a powerful way to remove fungus. In our bathrooms we often have the problem that the ceiling starts to develop black spots as in the colder times water condenses here and takes a long time to dry off. If you now go to your favorite hardware store they will recommend the use of a chlorine based product, basically bleach... And although it does the job it also means your house will stink for days and if you scrub the ceiling you will get it on your sking and stink too. Hydrogen peroxide at 20% or higher concentrations can be sprayed onto the cleiling :) Of course you will need good protection for this and all things color should be removed, like towels or floor mats. By protection I mean a minimum of swimming goggles, a tyvek suit or similar to cover all exposed skin areas and at least a paper dust mask, better a filtered respirator like you use for spray painting or using insecticides. If you have a spray bottle with an adjustable nozzle then a stream is far better than a spray mist!! Not only is your exposure far lower but it much easier to wet the ceiling quickly. Wet all affected areas, then leave and the room, close the door and take off all clothes you used t protect you. The clothes can be left out to dry but double check that you had no soaked spot where your sking might have been in contact - if so rinse the skin with plenty of water! It will take some time to work and then dry, so best to do this in the summer time or if during the colder times you need to make sure the room is porperly heated and aired out to dry! Repeat until all black spots are gone, really bad areas will leave a permanent discoloration looking like a slight brwonish color is the ligh it right otherwise you won't see it. Once fully dry it is best to scrape off all lose paint and then to use a acrylic based sealer before giving the ceiling a fresh coat of white. The sealer will prevent the water to penetrate more than the paint level and if you get the fungus back on the paint it is far easier to clean ;) ----- Carpet cleaning.... When moving into a new rental with carpet on the floor you often are left with areas indicating the carpet might be "clean" but the underlay certainly is not. You can fix the underlay but you certainly can make sure all harmful stuff is gone from the carpet. Carpet cleaning machines can be hired but often much cheaper if you buy the "recommended" cleaning product with it. Rent is usually based on a daily base and price depends on how much cleaner you need. If you only want to desinfect the carpet which otherwise looks mostly fine than go for the smallest pack available and use it to spot clean areas you want cleaner first. For the desinfecting part I recommend to test how high you can go with the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide before using it on a big scale - keep in mind the carpet will never be fully dry and the remaining peroxide will continue to act! Test a 10% solution first before you go higher as you don't want to buy 30 liters or more of pool grade peroxide - just trust me on that one and only try to buy this much you do want to get into trouble a few days later! If 10 percent solution left on the carpet does not cause any bleaching of the fabric (unwanted bleaching that is) you can try higher for spot cleaning in demanding areas. A good spot to try the solution is under the cover or duct outlets, under these joining bars where carpet changes to tiles (if you can lift them off) or in wardrobes if the carpet goes inside. There are two way to treat your carpet once the general cleaning is done. a) use a garden sprayer or similar to wet the carpet This is good for single room treatment like for the baby room but especially on thicker carpets it requires a lot of solution and can become costly. Once wet leave for at least 30 minutes so the peroxide can do its thing, then use the machine with either the solution filled or just to dry off the carpet. I recommend to use the peroxide solution in the machine as it allows for better penetration and it will remove more soiled solution this way. If your catching container starts bubbling like mad it means you have a lot of §$%&#+ in the carpet and it might be best to first clean it all with the normal carpet cleaning agent before using the peroxide again - again tesing on smaller areas can help wasting the peroxide. If you need to store prepared solutions than it is best in a cold place. It will take several hours on an otherwise clean carpet for the peroxide to fully disappear so it best to use shoes and prevent skin contact during that time - especially if a baby crawls around ;) ----- Toilet.... We don't want to talk about it but everyone needs to clean their toilet sooner or later. For most things in there using the toilet brush when it happens will keep things clean and healthy. But what if someone in the house is sick or with a weak immune system? You could use all sorts of commercial cleaners and desinfectants but a wipe with wet towel or cloth soaked in a 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide will quickly eliminate all harmfull things on your seat, lid or bowl, including the buttons to press and the door handles ;) Just wipe and leave it wet for a minute or two then wipe again and ry - done! Personal use I always pack a small bottle of supermarket grade peroxide when going off road or camping trips. Although we now have modern desinfectants that won't stink or otherwise harm you I still prefer the old stuff ;) If you are far from civilisation than the last thing you want to need is medical attention for something that started as small as a scratch or graze.... Out in the unkown wilderness you will never know if the rockk you just crash landed on was used as a urinal by a fox the night before... A bit of gravel left in your skin might contain harmful bacteria... A cut with your own knife?? - What did you all cut since the last proper cleaning of the blade? You see where I am going here, a small thing might turn into something really nasty a day or two later. If you clean a freash and minor wound properly and then rinsie it with hydrogen perodixe most if not all harmful leftovers will be killed by the releasing oxygen. Of course this pretty much useless on bleeding wounds or where it is obvious that you won't be able to remove all debris from the wound - here it means you trip is still over in favour for proper medical treatment. The thing is that hydrogen peroxide was basically abandoned for all wound treatment once the modern "cleaning aids" became available as the peroxide will not only attack harmful things but also living tissue. The claims goes as far as causing bad scar tissue, damage to blood vessels and even "burning" of the tissue. One big problem I have with all these claims is that they were never really mentioned until the new meds came out. IMHO exposure time and how you use it it the key - common sense if you ask me. Noone should ever soak a wound in peroxide, if it is that big that you need to soak it you need medical attention anyway. And as said you should rinse the wound, that means all remaining liquid should be allowed to flow off - this will only leave a minor amount of peroxide in the wound and the exposure time will end with once all oxygen is released. For minor wounds I only use a paper tissue or cotton bud soaked in peroxide and wipe the wound.... ----- Smelly feet? Ok, maybe not the best way to start a conversation but we all know what sneakers do to our feet in the summer... Insoles with copper and activated carbon will help a lot and at least "cure" your sneakers while they are off your feet and have time to dry. But the smell is actually cause by bacteria growing from everywherey in your sneaker to your sking, actuall starting at your sking... If you wear your sneakers for long periods of time time or even whenever possible and also suffer from a bad smell hydrogen peroxide might be able to help you. Most sneakers will tolerate a machine wash and should come out germ free, if that is no option pack them in a sealed back and leaven them in the freezer over night - this will kill all bacteria and remove the smell. Now to break the endless cycle you need to remove the bacteria from inside your skin. So daily sock changes, freezing shoes and washing feet is a must! Your feet will really benefit from a foot bath in a 5% solution of hydrogen peroxide. To keep costs at a minimum use a container that is just the right size for your feet and prepare the solution from pool grade peroxide. I an ideal case you should not need more than 2 liters but all used product can be stored cool and re-used the next day, after that you need to make a new batch. Keep your feet submerged for at least 10 minutes. This will allow a deep penetration of the skin but might result in some white spots that will disappear after a few hours. Consenquent foot baths can be reduced to 5 minutes. After about a week you should notice that wearing your sneakes no longer causes and bad smell and you can stop the treatment. Freezing the sneakers over night, dialy (or more) sock changes and daily, proper cleaning of your feet should prevent any further bad smells :) ----- Bleaching your hair Althoug it was done for many years I really can't recommend using hydron peroxide for this purpose! Any concentration strong enough to have a proper effect in a reasonable time will at least cuase skin irritation. Back in the days they said your burning scalp is what you need to endure to get blonde hair :( And as said already you really don't want to get that stuff into your eyes... General uses If you have a fruit based stain then cahnces are hydrogen peroxide will remove it, especially if fresh. Even at supermarket concentration repeated application and proper drying off with a paper towel or similar will remove even red wine or beetroot stains. ------ Blood... On you skin blood is easy removed with cold water, same on other surfaces but washing off is no option a wet cloth or cotton piece will work fine. Hydrogen peroxide is good if things need to go fst or if the surface is porous, here the releasing oxigen will drive out the blood with the bubbles. ----- Fish tanks... If you love your tank then you really hate to medicate or even worse have a bad algea infestion, especially the stuff of the black kind. A change to activated carbon filter material is always recommended after a medical treatment to remove all leftovers from the system. However, certain medication simply won't be affected by a carbon filter and stay in the system until fully used or broken down otherwise. Especially in bigger tanks a partial water change is often out of the question as it would cause too much additional stress to the fish and plants. Hydrogen peroxide can help to break down most if not all remains of the used medication while at the same time adding more oxygen to the water. To be sensitive and safe in all enviroments I recomment to calculate the concentration based on the volume of your tank and to add the required amount of peroxide very slowly into the outgoing water stream from your pump. By slowly I mean in terms of a slow drip if using solutions over 10% to be added to the tank. If in doubt remove a suitable amount of tank water into a bucket and add the concentrated peroxide to reach the final tank limit. I strongly recommend to stay below 2% in favour over additional treatments a few days later if required. That means the diluted solution you add should be entered into the tank slowly if in doubt add a glass full every few minutes. For the treatment of the dreaded black algea you do the same 2% solution but be prepared that it will take several treatment until you see them die off. If you can then it is best relocate the fish for a few days so you can use a stronger solution of 5-8% just with the plants left in the tank. When transporting fish in a bag it can pay off to add a little bit of 3% peroxide to the bag to give additional oxygen for transport. I do this maually for every fish I buy from a store so I can be sure all fungus and bacteris is killed of before I introduce it to my tank. Really helps to prevent loosing a lot of fish just because you added one or two more to your tank ;) For the normal sized transport bags I use a good shot glass full of 3% peroxide in case you wondered. ----- Fridge and freezer Be it after long use or because you bought one second hand - once empty and warm some of our colling gadget just smell bad. A good clean with a hot water and your favourite cleaning agent is a good start, no need for aggressive stuff ;) If clean but still smelly, like after a power failure with fish in it you might want to go one step further. Best option is to use a spray bottle and a peroxide solution of at least 15% here. Use proper protection as mentioned above and spray all surface with the solution until soaked. What you can take out you take you take out, clean properly and then wipe or brush with the same peroxide solution. Bare aluminium should be handled with caution as in some cases it can oxidise badly, leaving a white and not removable crust behind. Here it is best to wipe and then wipe again with a cloth soaked in clear water to limit exposure time. No need to dry out - wipe out and check if it still smells, if so repeat and wiped off all areas as good as you can with a solution soaked cloth. Once the smell is gone dry out and enjoy smell free use from now on :) ----- Fruit and vegetables Unless you know exactly what happened to it you might want to clean your vegies and fruits properly before using them. Pesticides, herbicites, fungicites.... Not mention normal fungus and bacteria on the product.... On a commercial base hydron peroxide baths are often used to clean products for sensible people, hospital use or long term storage. For a personal use this only makes sense if you have free and unlimited access to the peroxide. An alternative are ozone bubblers. Expensive models can eb bought in shops or online, complete with timers or even a gauge showing the concentration in a room. On a hobby level for the kitchen sink we can use an ozone generator, air pump and bubble stone from the aquarium store ;) Let the pump bubble out the ozone for a minute or two, fill the sink with the fruit and veggies and move them around every few minutes. Best of course with an open window to limit you exposure to the ozone! Rule of thumb: If you can smell it is already too much in the air! The ozone in the water does the same as the peroxide: It breaks down harmful things with pure oxygen. The downside is that it is very harmful for your airways and body in general, so against all what youtube can offer I actually prefer to treat my fruit and veggie in a sealed bag. Place them inside, push out as much air as you can and then fill up with the ozone from the generator. Once the bag is full leave for about 30 minutes then wash and use or place the things in the fridge.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply

Looking for a cheap compressor with a high pressure rating or for airbrush use?

Today a friend of mine asked me if I know a way to reduce the noise level of his compressor in the work shed. With the current heat he prefers to work in the evening and nights, which does not make his neighbours too happy. His main use for several airbrush guns and sometimes for mormal airtools or the big spray gun for an undercoat or similar. So his main concern is oil in the airline and the actual flow rate is of second concern as he has an old 25kg propane cyclinder as an additional air tank. For relative low air volumes I would suggest an old fridge compressor. With a thicker pipe at the outlet that is filled with stainless steel wool most of the oil stays in the compressor. That is if this pipe is a) long enough b) upright c) of sufficient diameter so there is enough for the oil to avoid it being pushed up A second, standard oil seperator will be enough for the oil level required for airbrush stuff - and most other things too. If there is no pressure regulator on the airbrush system it is best to add a small air tank and shut off valve for it. In our case however a fridge compressor would be just enough to keep the bigger airbrush gun running but not to fill the tank at the same time. Not to mention the problem of fluctuating pressure levels. Since we already had a tank and pressure shut off connected to the loud compressor it was only a matter of finding something that keeps the neighbours happy. The first thing we did was to check how often the compressor comes on and how long it runs till the tank is back to pressure. With that and the stated air volume on the compressor we guesstimated that something a bit bigger than the compressor of a window airconditioner should be sufficient. The search begins.... If you don't know what to look for I give you a few hints: Older airconditioners often run on R22 or R12 - both use quite high system pressures which is a bonus, but more on that later. As a rule of thumb for these compressors you cans say: the bigger the higher the flow rate. At the local wreckers and scrap yards we found a few units but noticed the bigger ones often used three phases and not just one :( So we opted for the R22 compressor of a 4.5kW unit. Keep in mind the 4.5kW is for the entire system, so the quite massive fans can be removed from the sum. Usually the compressor alone is the 2.5 - 3kW range. Ok, we found the big thing but how does this help us? First things first ;) The oil was removed as the housing stating the original oil amount. This allowed us to use an oil rated for air use that has little to no water absorption qualities - you don't want water in your compressor. With the usual heat the water should be no problem anyway. Next was a pressure test to make sure the thing actually still works, so we added some plumping in the form of standard connectors to the inlet and outlet. We got well above 200PSI and abondoned the test at this stage as it was more than enough already. The air volume seemd to be well more than expected too so let'S move to the next stage. A fridge or aircon compressor always needs to have a certain amount of oil in it as it will otherwise seize and overheat quickly. But they are also designed so that the oil mixes with the refrigerant to cool all moving parts. So the biggest hurdle is to make sure the oil stays where it should stay and won't enter or get lost in the tank. Only real option for this to use something to catch the oil that is capable of releasing it into the compressor once it shuts off. Now there are several options for this so I start with the most basic: A "catch can" will get most of the oil, especially if filled with stainless steel wool or similar. Downside is that you have to find a way to get it back into the compressor. A step better is a thicker pipe filled with stainless steel wool to catch the oil. If placed upright and the outgoing pipe can be bend a bit upwards you have a good chance that most of the oil will sweep through the valves and get back down into the compressor housing. But only too often the cheap or even free compressor is better than expected and the oil won't get back into the housing as the vlaves are just too good. The last and IMHO best option is a pressurised return system. Most compressors for bigger aircons have a seperate filling port or sealed off piece of pipe. In this case you can do a simple check to see if they are usable for our purposes. Open the port of pipe and use a simple bike bump or similar to get some pressure in it. With a dedicated oil filling port you are best off but they are hard to find. The air you pump in should come out of the high pressure side - you might need a little pressure to overcome the valves. If you hear any bubbling in the housing (use a pipe on your ear or a sensitive microphone) it means you are going through the oil inside the compressor - perfect! You might not hear any bubbling but the port or pipe is still usable. Get ready with your fingers and start the compressor. The fill pipe should be sucking air in, same for the service port if there is one. A dedicated oil port should not suck but instead force some oil up if you cover the high pressure outlet. I assume all is good and no oil is splashing out of the open pipe or port. Add a small amount of oil with a syringe or similar into the port/pipe. If you see an oil mist coming out of the high side it is bad news. Clean outlet air is good. To get the oil back from the catch pipe or can we have to add a hose or pipe with a needle valve. It needs to be adjusted so that there is only a very little airflow (or oil mist) coming out. This regulated outlet is now being connect to the port/pipe with a bit of suction that we found earlier. Now every time the compressor runs the collected oil is forced back into the compressor :) Please double check the port/pipe used is not directly connected to the intake port! The last thing you want is a puddle of oil going into the cylinder and damaging it! They are designed to move gas but not liquid! If in doubt use a hardened sttel nail or similar to create a small puncture in the top of the compressor housing if there is nothing else to use. Check first if the material sound very thick, if so it might help to drill with a 5 or 6mm drill first - only about 1mm to make sure you won't enter the housing and conimate it with metal shavings! Once you have a small puncture hole of about 2mm in diameter get some 2 component metal repair glue mix and add a suitable connection for the collecting pipe/can. If you feel up to it you can of course use a blow torch and solder the connection on. Now we have the compressor working with a oil return system that also gives up very little to no oil at all in our system. You might now think you are good to go but you should at least add a decent and fine filter to the air inlet ;) The compressor noise of a bigger system can still be an issue if thicker pipes are used that allow the noise to travel out. Keep in mind they usually run in a fully closed system.... As we only need to match the noise level of the compressor itself a solid steel can like an old fire extinguisher in the 1kg rage is a good way out. Fill it with filter wool and a fine filter pad after adding some hose connectors either end. You can misuse the trigger nozzle and keep it to seal the top if you braze a connector on it. If the intake here is about 5 times larger than the pipe connection to the compressor itself the air flow going into the thing is low enough for a cheap paper air filter can or box if you have a quite dusty enviroment to work with. The real trick is to have a hose or pipe on the inside of the fire extinguisher connected to the compressor pipe connection. A garden hose is great here as is reduces the noise quite good and is dirt cheap. Make a lot of about 2mm sized holes in this pipe and close the other end of it off. Now the compressor will suck it through the small holes and the soft garden hose reduces the noise, the surrounding padding brings it down to basically nothing. The special case of clean air for airbrush.... If you read this for the sole purpose of airbrush use then this chapter is just for you, all other might want to skip it. The two things you don't want to enter your gun is oil or water. Both are a common thing in normal compressors due to lubrication and pressure difference resulting in condensation of the humidity in the intake air. Oil free compressors of good quality can cost quite a few bucks and often require ongoing replacement of membranes or piston seals. A refrigeration compressor with the above modifications already provides clean enough air for most airbrush users if a proper tank is used to store enough of the compressed air. So you might just want to add a basic oil filter or very fine paper filter close to the regulator. For very detailed work with very sensitive paints you might want to build a filter box containing of several layers of oil absorbent paper. This stuff is often used in the industry to clean up minor oil spills and bind oil very well. A PVC pipe (pressure rated please) with 5-8 layers of filter screens should last about a lifetime before the filters need changing if the diameter is in the 10-15cm range. That leaves us with the dreaded problem of condensation and water contamination. Depending on the type of paint and gun used a small amount of water vapour is usually no problem. Solvent based paints usally show their disliking by unwanted drops or run offs caused by water droplets. Of course you just go and buy a professional dehumidifier and accept the ongoing replacement costs for the cartridges... But if you are in a climated that has above 30% humidity for most of the year than you will have to remove the water one way or the other. A big enough storage tank for the air that is upright usually helps to release any condensated water prior to usage. But if you use a homemade tank you might want to avoid this problem completely and forget about water in the system altogehter. Silaca gel is the answer here, specifically the indicating variety that changes color once "full". A spaghetti glas or similar should be big enough unless you are in a very humid climate - is so just use multiple in a row. The air intake side for the compressor has to go through the silica gel to be effictive. This mean we need two holes in the lid. One with a pipe or hose going all the way to the botom - that is the air intake side. The other right on the lid - this is the air outlet side which continues to the compressor intake. With the color change in the silica gel we can estimate how much usage we have left until we have to heat it up to remove the water. If this color change happens quite fast from the bottom to the top, let's say within three days or less than you really need to use more jars with silica gel in a row or a longer one - like using a long and clear acrylic pipe instead. Of course you can always just cut holes and "viewing glasses" along the length to a PVC pipe.... No matter how wet your climate is you want to get at least 100 hours of compressor run time before you need to recharge the silica gel. This brings us to the recharging.... Once the color changes and you only have about one quarter left to the top you want to get the water out of the gel and re-use it. To do this you simply heat it up in your oven to around 120-150°C - the supplier should state the max temp for this. If you use a gas oven or one with limited accuracy here it is best to stay within the 120° range. You need to stir and mix the gel or use something big enough like an oven tray. But be aware that these little balls are like glass! The roll and bounce like no tomorrow! IMHO it best to use an old cooking pot that has no plastic handles for this and not to overfill it. This allows for easy mixing without making a mess that might cause a bad trpping hazard on your kitchen floor tiles! Once the gel is back to original colr it is time to let it cool of to a safe temperature and to fill it back into our canister or pipe. Tanks and shut off systems.... We have a refrigeration compressor working for us, and since it was for R22 we can use much higher pressures as a simple compressor from the hardware store. The low pressure side is used to 70PSI or around 5Bar of pressure in normal working conditions. The high side often works at pressure in the range of 200-300PSI or 14-20Bar! The tank we used is a big propane tank that was restamped at some stage in his life for the use of LPG - so it was tested to quite high pressures. The lower pressure limit is what keeps the stored gas liquid at the given temperature. For Propane at an imaginary 30°C this would around 155PSI or 10Bar. The stamped test pressure, although outdated, showed 600PSI or around 40Bar of pressure with no problems - and the thing was thick in the walls... The old shut off switch from an old air compressor was adjustable after removing the safety cap with a bit of force and the help of few cold beer. With a little tank attached we adjusted it to turn the compressor off at 250PSI or around 17Bar of pressure. If your tank is old or has no test pressure stamped on do your own test in a safe location. Make sure the area is secured so there is no chance of debris from a brusting tank can go anywhere - this includes to chain down the tank itself ;) Use the aircon compressor to fill it up to 300PSI or 20Bar of pressure - this should be tolerated with ease by any propane or LPG tank. Shut the valves and let it rest for a day or so. It is best to do this in the early morning so the heat from the day will slightly increase the pressure. At the end you still want to have a working tank and no major pressure losses. All of our mods on this tank were done without actually harming the tank. This was possible as the original valve had a release port for filling purposes - as it standard on most refillable ones. Here we removed the valve and added a pressure guage instead - better to know what is happening than to assume things. As this "port" had a seperate connection to the bottom of the brass valve we added as T-connection to allow for the connection to the compressor. Just be be really sure a thin piece of copper tubing was brazed to the exit hole of this port so all incoming air will be going down and away from the outlet connection with the big shut off valve on top - which we use to actually isolate and close the tank when not it use. Last thing required was something to connect the pressure shut off switch and regulator to. That was the only major expense on this project as we had no old BBQ hose or similar to get a suitable connector to the tank. We bought a simple adapter for the use of smaller hoses and cut the unwanted bits off we there was only the bottle conntector with the nut left. After removing the rubber ring we brazed piece of copper pipe onto it. Here we drilled holes and fitted severy connectors. First for the pressure switch, then for the connection to the pressure regulator and two standard ones with a ball valve for air hose connections. One air hose connection female, the other male so a standard compressor can be connected as well or "backfilled" for additional and mobile storage use. As we wanted to avoid any reduction in the safety and burst pressure no release valve was added at the bottom on the tank. The added silica gel filter stage was used instead so no water will get into the system to begin with. Additionally, and painfully for me and me friend, the inside of the tank was coated with a layer of acrylic paint to prevent and rust as it was free from it when we checked it at the beginning. This involved filling a suitable amount of paint into it, closing the top while keeping the thread clean and then to move the tank around to cover the inside evenly. If you do this be prepared for some weird movements with your friends LOL Once we were sure all ust be covered by paint at least three times we released the exxess paint and allowed the inside to dry with the assistance of some air forced to go in with a length of pipe. This was repeated 3 times... Then another two just for the bottom third of it where there might be some moisture after all... Now you don't want to remove the brass valve with everything connected to it just to turn the tank over to releae the collected water. Instead we made sure the added pipe on the former relese port would go all the way to the bottom of the tank. If any water collection is suspected only the connection to the compressor needs an additional valve for the disconnection so the water will be force back out here. To make this easy and fast we used standard quick connectors and a piece of flexible airhose rated to 20bar of pressure for the connection to the compressor. We checked the performance of the moisture removal and oil removal only for a few hours of running time while priming some surface for later use. The compressor oil used was very smelly to say it nice but nothing coul be smelled in the first paper filter after the pressure regulator. To check for remaining moisture levels (65% humidity in the house) we used a 10m length of clear PVC tubing going through an ice bath. After 30 minutes of moderate air release there was no condensation on the inside of the tubing visible. Of course if you only need it for air supply and don't care about a bit of moisture and oil you can keep it simple ;) Benefits of doing such a stupid thing: For starters noise and the peace of mind that you can do a lot of airbrushing until the compressor needs to kick in again. Then of course the benefit of an almost silent system compared to a standard compressor - something you can actually tolerate while doing art. But the real deal is knowing YOU did it and you did it for cheap. Warnings and some advise... I know, it should be at the very beginning but I just hope you read till the end ;) If the compressor fails from overheating you are up for a new one. This means the tan size should be within the limits of what the compressor can handle - same for what you actually use on air. You want an empty tank to be filled before the compressor feels hot to touch - quite warm is fine but if you can't leave your hand on it then it is too hot. Same story for the usage. There is no point in using a tiny 10 liter storage tank if you need that capacity every few minutes. The compressor would only have little pauses and overheat quickly. You want a good balance of usage time before the tank goes below supply pressure and running time of the compressor to get it to full pressure again. This brings us to the safety of high pressures. Where possible only copper tubing or sufficiently rate hoses should be used, the later as short as possible to avoid them acting like a whip if something goes wrong. When it comes to the safety of the tank you want to make sure to stay withing it's rated limits. All benefits of a compressor capable of producing over 500PSI otr close to 35Bar is wasted if your tank and pressure regulator can't handle it. This must not mean that you try to use a gas cylinder of unknow age and pressure rating and assume it will work! If in doubt use a lower shut off pressure and stay within the limits of normal air compressors - which is around 120PSI or 8Bar. Never, ever use a tank that is compromised by inside rust or bad corrosion on the outside! If you don't know how to braze copper tubing, pipes and connectors then check out some of the great Instructables about it! Whenever you know you won't use any compressed air for more than a few hours close all valves especially the ones going back to the compressor on the high pressure side! Some compressors really don't like a huge pressure difference constantly pushing on the reed valves. If your tank is big enough to allow for more than one hour of operation before the compressor has to top it up you might want to consider a one way valve right on the compressor outlet. This will prevent any massive pressures going onto the valves - especially helpful for modern compressors that only rely on the sealing capabilities of the clyinders or rotary system used. One thing you should always consider is a pressure relief valve rated for about 50PSI more than your tank pressure - it can be added to the pipe ;) If the shut off valve ever fails the relief valve gives you the ease of mind that it will blow before your tank does. Maintenance... If modded correctly the compressor should stay in the compressor and the compressor itself should not overheat from use. Having said that your compressor might force out a little more than your best catch system can handle. If that becomes a problem it might help to use an oil with a lower viscosity. If all fails it just means you need to top up oil once the last last paper filter is filthy or use slightly more to begin with so the intervals are longer. The silica gel, if used should be recharged before all of it is wasted - no point in adding it if you use it once full of water. If no gel is used there will be water in the storage tank. Even with the added paint and a good air filter it is possible that nasty things grow in there. Making sure the tank is emptied of any water after long uses and again before the next use is good practise. If no pressure gauge is used on the tank you must make sure the shut off valve is always working fine and within set parameters. I strongly recommend using a gauge and if not to perform a pressure check of the system every now and then to confirm all is within parameters of normal operation. A compressor constantly running means you either use far too much air or you have a leak - same story if the compressos kicks in after some of forgetting to shut it off and close the valves. If you keep the above in mind the salvaged compressor should work just fine for many years to come. Troubleshooting and alternatives.... You put everything together the right way, double checked and something is till not right? Maybe my crystal ball helps me to find something... 1. Always oil coming through the catch system. It usually means you use too much of it. A salvaged compressor, if the refrigent was removed legally from the system should still have a "correct" level of oil inside. Too much oil would mean is being pumped through the system at an excessive rate. Very thin compressor oils tend to do that in the compressor is misude like we do. Changing to standard mineral oil can help here. As a last resort you can use a pressure gauge or good judgement to allow more flow through the needle valve from the catch system back to the compressor. Too much backflow here would mean we loose system pressure to the set level of this needle valve! 2. The R22 rated compressor seems to be unable to produce enough pressure. First do a leak test using soapy water to rule out any leaks. Do a back pressure test on the ports. If you can push air through them in the reverse way with ease it means the valves are damaged making the compressor useless. You need to replace it. A regular cause with our type of usage is a constand back pressure from the storage tank to the compressor. To prevent this it might help to mount an electric solenoid between the compressor and storage tank. Such valve should be off when the pressure switch is engaged and on when the pressure switch is disengaged. This prevents the coil from overheating but requires a "normally off" type of valve. A good source at the wreckers are cars with LPG systems installed, they usually have suitable 12V valves somewhere on or near the tank and filler cap. 3. I am using several kg of silica gel but still get a lot of water in my storage tank. Going overboard in a humid climate can be a good thing here but if moisture makes it into the tank even with great amounts of silica gel there are only two causes: a) the tube or cylinder used is not long enough or not wide enough to allow the absorption of all the moisture going through. b) the flow rate is too high and the temperatures are too. For the first the solution is obvious enough. The second is related to the first for the diameter and lenght but temperatures constantly above the 30°C while operating somehow limits what the gel can do. Using a cooling coil on the intake side or simply putting the gel containers in icy water will help to a great deal here. If that is not an option than I suggest to layer the gel and to seperate it with fine paper filter screens. This will slow and even out the airflow allowing for more contact time with the gel. 4. The compressor gets very noisy after some time. If "some time" means more than 30-45 minutes you simply have it running too much and it overheats. If the noise increases too much when reaching the shut off pressure it can mean the pressure is too high for it. 5. Can I use multiple compressors from smaller units or refrigerators to get enough air volume? Of course you can but it might mean you have to lower your pressure expectations. Consider that each individual compressor would get the back pressure from all other compressors running while it's outlet valve is closed. To avoid premature failure you want to make sure the compressors are shut off at a lowver pressure. 6. I don't want to use a big tank but require a good airflow for airbrush. Two or three fridge compressors working one after the other with a small tank to keep the output pressure even can allow for about 30 minutes runtime per compressor. With three it gives one hour for the the first to cool off and should be enough for ongoing work. Downside is you need to make some sort of automatic switch to "rotate" to compressor working. Last words.... Is you find any spelling mistakes you can keep them. However, if you use them in any way to make a profit with them I kindly ask for 10% of your earning from it ;) Why did I not make an Instructable out of all this? Well the day was very hot, the beer very cold and my mobile phone at home, so I did not take any pics. To top it up the whole thing is now in a seperate box for additional noise reduction so it can be used in the same room where the guy is working. Of course he just used a nailgun for the job without any regard of access or at least easy view of the two pressure gauges. Typical if you have a great idea and the cold beer tells you to forget all about screws or hinges ROFL Only comment was: You created it and it works fine, why would need more than the pipe connections for the gel and regulator? Maybe he will reconsider when the service is due....

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