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How long does domestic beer keep?

My dad is wondering for a Refridgerated keg, how long domestics would keep.

Question by xGzuzfreakx    |  last reply



US Distributor of HB Electronic's LEDs - www.Buy-LEDs-Online.com

I just completed an order for a couple hundred LEDs and batteries that Instructables will be using at SXSW next week to make LED Floaties at PopSci's SXSW afterparty. I ordered them from Buy-LEDs-Online, a US distributor for the well written about HB Electronics. HB Electronics is the recommended vendor of LEDs for LED Throwies and LED Floaties. They ship direct from China, but unfortunately they were out of stock on their throwie packs. Buy-LEDs-Online helped me out by providing everything we needed with great phone and email support and super fast shipping. Robert from Buy-LEDs-Online was not only very helpful, but said that he knew of Instructables and that he uses the site to determine what products he should carry. So, if you're looking for LEDs for your next project, I highly recommend getting them from Buy-LEDs-Online.This is not an advertisement and my opinions are unsolicited. These are the words of [www.instructables.com/member/noahw noahw], LED purchaser, Instructables Content Producer, and debutante extraordinair.

Topic by noahw    |  last reply


I'd like ideas for a domestic ejection-seat, any about? Answered

For artistic purposes, "we" are interested in making an ejection mechanism to remove a person from a household arm chair. I've thought of> Springs Gas-rams Sealed gas-struts (car tailgate) My main sticking points are: pushing the thing down if not using active gas-power, and the hassle of gas valves etc. All suggestions welcome

Question by lemonie    |  last reply


How to make biogas for domestic purpose (cooking) from organic waste?

Some part of the world the price of LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) which is the main source for cooking, and I know people used to make biogas from cow dung etc.,but in my case we haven't any cattle and I was told that it can be done through organic like kitchen waste etc.., Thanks in advance.

Question by roshan2    |  last reply


Is it possible to adapt a domestic Aircon unit to feed five dog kennels,

I have been asked to supply cool air to five kennels, adobe built, in a row.  I am proposing to Build a funnel box around the inside unit to feed air through pipping (drainage/plumbing) to the individual units.The engineer/salesman has told me it is immpossible to do this and a much larger/expensive system will be required.  Would any one care to comment on this ? I was planning to fit a small fan at the far end of the tubing to aid in the flow of air and take back pressure off the unit.  As with most of the instructables I have seen here, I know this is not the "correct" way of doing the job, more of a hack but at the moment I have more time than money

Question by wagman    |  last reply


1. AC Voltage stabilizer? 2. UPS? 3. Inverters for domestic use?

1.  In my area where I live we have power (electricity) facilities but the voltage always fluctuating and we have to attach expensive VOLTAGE STABILIZERS to each and every electric/electronic items for to avoid damages. I am expecting some valuable ideas to make cheap and best  voltage stabilizers / UPS / Inverters. Is it possible that I can connect one unit (VS) to multiple gadgets. Thanks in advance Roshan.

Question by roshan2    |  last reply


Can an induction heater for domestic use (2000W) of 220V/60Hz be used efficiently with 230V/50Hz power supply?

I purchased one Induction heater (2KW) in Korea where the supply voltage is 220V/50Hz. I want to use this in India where the supply voltage is 230V/50Hz. Can this be used? 

Question by Eappen    |  last reply


How do you tame a chicken so you can pick it up without it pecking or scratching you? Answered

My family are getting chickens for our back garden and apparently chickens aren't very friendly sometimes. How do we train them to be more domesticated and tame?

Question by harryashbee    |  last reply


When installing a domestic pressure pump how far can the pump be away from the tank it's sourcing the water from?

When you install a pressure pump would it be possible to have the pump 200 meters away from the tank it's sucking from if the pump is lower than the tank by about 1 meter? Thanks in advance

Question by Aglife4930    |  last reply


Can I combine my oil-fired forced air furnace & oil-fired domestic hot water heater? And then tie in solar heated water?

Currently, we have an oil-fired forced air furnace and an oil-fired domestic hot water heater.  I would like to combine the domestic hot water heater and the furnace somehow so we can heat them both by solar heated water from a panel on the roof, and use oil as a back up fuel.

Question by cscott2008    |  last reply


Replacement suction motor housing?

I have a couple of motors and fans from domestic vacuum cleaners that got their casings damaged beyond(main user acceptable) repair. Having just started using a router, my next project has to be a cyclonic dust collector. Rather than used the current domestic vacuum I'd like to utilise one of the salvaged suction units, has any one got advice or suggestions on mounting/ design of a shop vac? As they were a quick salvage job on the way to the tip I didn't get much of a look at how things went together, filter arrangements etc

Question by Stan1y  


can I glue nylon sheets instead of sewing?

I want to make a tarp but don't want to stitch the waterproof (pu coated) nylon. Has anyone tried glue or welding with a hot domestic iron?

Question by stillalive    |  last reply


Electricity generation through turbo jet aero engines?

I have few turbojet aero engines, which are not use able on aircraft now. i want to use it for electricity generation for domestic purpose. if some one can advise me on this issue. cost effectiveness may not be considered.?

Question by dildarkhan41    |  last reply


Dr. Who Birthday Cake

This Dr. Who cake by Domestic Scientist with a flying Dalek is pretty freakin' awesome. It's clearly a labor of love and to make it even more awesome it doesn't even use fondant, but modeling chocolate. Check out the link for more info. Dr Who Birthday Cake via CRAFT

Topic by fungus amungus    |  last reply


What do you think is the point of getting married?

I'm just curious. Why should someone marry someone? Why not just domestic partnership? What about gay marriage? I'm up for a debate. If your points are not appropriate, message me. Really, go ahead. I wanna know.

Topic by Warlrosity    |  last reply


What do you think is the point of getting married? Answered

I'm just curious. Why should someone marry someone? Why not just domestic partnership? What about gay marriage? I'm up for a debate. If your points are not appropriate, message me. Really, go ahead. I wanna know.

Question by Warlrosity    |  last reply


Gravity water lenses: What's the best material for the water retainer? (cheap and easily available in the market) Answered

Hey all! I was looking to develop the water lens concept for a wider domestic use. Could you guys recommend some material that could be used for forming the base of the lens? I had thought of using Clear Mylar sheets. Thanks.

Question by SaumiJoshi    |  last reply


Ultrasound Cleaning

For maintenance purposes, I would like to construct an ultrasound cleaning tank. Preferably an encapsulated ultrasound transducer and generator that could be used in an old solvent cleaning tank which now should not be used. From reading a little about the subject, its application would find a wide use as a clean and environmentally friendly solution in many industrial and domestic applications. Is it feasable and cost effective to build a generator and an encapsulated transducer, and are there any websites to go to to find out more?

Topic by brianeggar  


How do I build a converter to run a 3-phase 1/2hp motor from a single-phase residential mains?

I got an old industrial sewing machine cheap. Cheap because it has a 3-phase motor, which made some other hobbyists reject it. The other option at ~150$cdn would be to replace the motor with something more domestic.

Question by berserk    |  last reply


Smell Fighting Contest

Here's an interesting contest that's up for a couple more weeks: the Smellfighters Swirl Innovation Contest .  The goal is to identify some funky domestic smell that you could do without and propose a solution for it. From the look of the entries so far it shouldn't be too tough to have a fighting chance. Enter it by Dec. 21 for a shot at the top prize of 2,000 Euro! You guys are great at coming up with ideas so this should be easy to check out and try. Give it a shot.

Topic by fungus amungus    |  last reply


Machine to mix and cook at the same time?

Hi everyone. Can anyone suggest how to safely customise a heavy duty food mixer (I have a Kitchenaid) to allow a heat source to be placed underneath? I basically need to mix and cook at the same time. There are various low-powered electric stirrers (I’ve tried using a Stirio) for domestic use, but then there seems to be nothing commercially available in-between that and huge industrial machines. Any suggestions very gratefully received. Thanks Michael

Topic by mjh12345  


How to Clean Septic Toilet with Baking powder and Vinega

Septic Toilet can be cleaned in the following ways:Springle 1/2 cup of baking powder inside the toilet bowlAdd white vinega on it and wait before scrubbing the entire bowl. This is a safe method of for cleaning septic thank.If anyone know any other method, please feel to make your contributions.

Topic by Oniyinay  


What animal eats the body and leaves the head and feet? Answered

This morning there was the remains of a rat in my yard, The head, gallbladder, and 3 feet were in a little pile and the body had apparently been eaten.  Anyone know what animal does this?  I live in Fort Worth, Texas and we have rats, crows, possums, raccoons, coyotes, domestic cats, snakes, and mink in our area.  I know of several predators that will eat the heads and leave the bodies, but this one has me stumped.

Question by CatTrampoline    |  last reply


Cruelty to animals isn't okay...

Personally, I'm not an activist or animal maniac of any kind... but I find this instructable really irresponsible for the site to host and promote: "DIY Kitty Crack: ultra-potent catnip extract" The debate in the comments alone discusses how dangerous this can be for animals... and whereas I'm sure instructables bears no responsibility for what users do with their newly found knowledge, there's a line you guys should draw in the sand:  don't support teaching people how to kill domesticated animals. Take it down...

Topic by coiney  


Animal Questions

Welcome to Animal Care, Rescue, and Rehabilitation! Here you can learn how to nurse wild or domestic animals back to health, share your knowledge and experience, or give simple tips and tricks. Any Instructables involving animal care of any kind are welcome. You can ask questions here regarding animal care in this topic. ( Example: I just saw a baby bird fall out of it's nest, what do I do?) I might not be able to help you in some cases (I know most about rabbits), but hopefully others can.

Topic by Spl1nt3rC3ll    |  last reply


Did everyone else earn an Instructables Halloween card? Answered

I got a vague and generic email saying I have earned a Halloween card from Instructables. Then it asked for my name and mailing address. It this some sort of marketing gimmick so that Instructables can sell my information to a bunch of scam artists and the publisher's clearing house? Or is Instructables secretly working with the FBI to turn in people who have submitted Instructables that adversely affect the economy and/or domestic security? Or am I just really paranoid? Cuz I really think I earned a Halloween card. :)

Question by klee27x    |  last reply


How to wire up same lights with 3 different switches? Answered

It might sound weird, but I have a van with 3 different doors, 2 x sliding ones & rear barn ones.... So what Id like to do is install some super bright LED lights on the inside roof, but have a separate switch available at each entry door if that makes sense? I know you can have a 2-way hallway switch with domestic lights, but not sure how a 3 way install would be made? Thanks heaps :)

Question by smokie1969    |  last reply


"The Romaurie-Effect"

I have been using refrigeration compressors for many years as vacuum pumps. When I started in commercial/industrial refrigeration some 30 years ago, all the engineers in "Prestcold" Bournemouth branch made their own small portable vacuum pumps from discarded domestic refrigerators. It almost appeared to me, a newcomer to the industry, a competition of sorts to make the most practical/aesthetic unit possible.Some engineers made varnished wooden cases to house the compressor. These were ideal for all small refrigeration vacuuming requirements. My interest over the last few years has been to use these "home-made vac-pumps" to produce vacuum filled inverted aquaria. "The Romaurie-Effect" as shown on "youTube".This is an on-going project.

Topic by romaurie    |  last reply


[Research] Electronics you redesigned or remade DIY for creative reuse

Do you have any obsolete electronics that you remade or redesigned for difference purpose of use than originally designed? We want to hear about your experience of DIY remaking or redesigning of an obsolete electronics. Please share it with us for us to further research on sustainable design by completing the survey located at the website below: http://www.wonderment.org/ewaste/ewaste.php We are researchers at Carnegie Mellon University studying creative reuse of domestic e-waste for sustainability. This study is intended to explore the experience of green activists of how they reuse, redesign, and remanufacture their obsolete electronics for purposes than originally designed.  Thanks! Sunyoung Kim & Eric Paulos sunyoung.kim, eric.paulos@cs.cmu.edu

Topic by shallyya    |  last reply


Watch 2016 Obama’s America online | Download 2016 Obama’s America Movie | Watch Ted Movie

2016 Obama's America is a New hollywood documentry movie of the holywood and it is very nice documentry movie of the holllywood and many people liked its story..it is too good than other documentry movie so i loved this movie...2016 Obama’s America Obama film, opening last month in only a few theaters, boasts a domestic cume of $9.2 million, the top gross of the year for a documentary (excluding nature films). Bully was the previous crownholder with $3.5 million. Watch 2016 Obama’s America online | Download 2016 Obama’s America Movie | Watch Ted Online

Topic by sellinsegio  


Green Crude?

"Sapphire Energy has built a revolutionary platform that uses photosynthetic microorganisms to produce a renewable, high-value replacement for fossil fuel petroleum. This domestic crude oil requires only sunlight, CO2 and non-potable water - and can be produced at massive scale on non-arable land."They call it Green Crude, an algae produced product that could one day replace gasoline. It's not biofuel, or ethanol, and it doesn't require any plants or farmland. The only things consumed are waste water and CO2. They say it could also be made into jet fuel. It seems too good to be true! I can't find anything about the cost, efficiency or speculated time line, but they do have some big investors and are planning on increasing production soon.The CompanyWhat do you guys think?

Topic by Weissensteinburg    |  last reply


New Animal Welfare Organization

           Hello, I would like to share a concept I have been initiating for the past few weeks. I am seriously considering starting a new international organization website for the welfare of animals. Targets of interest would be adoptions, animal abuse petitions, awareness of social and domestic problems, and more. The main aspect of this organization will a website dedicated to spreading news about related topics to the world.      This would be a nonprofit NMI (no money involved) organization, and I am already aware of the legal steps necessary to start a charity of this kind.       Furthermore, I would like to hear popular opinion on the following points; -Name: The name would be AnActs. "An" is short for both "ANimal" and the word "an" itself. -Motto: "Animal Acts of kindness go a long way." -Growth: AnActs would start as a local organization, based in Ohio, and we would hopefully spread around the world with the creation of our website. -Staffing: We would need a full-time staff of moderators for the website, volunteering with the incentive of service hours and professional skills. -Real-life contributions: AnActs would be involved in rescue and biological services both in domestic and natural domains.      If you could give your opinion on any or all of the above points, or anything else in general about the proposed "AnActs," it would be deeply appreciated. Also, if you are interested on being involved in the initiation of this organization, feel free to contact me via Private Message-but be aware, this is in the VERY early stages of development.       If you want to see the test community, see the recently started AnActs community on Google Plus. We are already gaining members! If you have a Google Plus account, feel free to join and share!      I (Nerfrocketeer) have large amounts of experience both in starting NMI organizations (the NK3AE) as well as working in Nature. I am NOT, however, a professional in any field relating to animals. I would really appreciate your input. -NK  

Topic by nerfrocketeer    |  last reply


Connecting External Plastic Water Storage Tanks

I would like to ask a couple of questions about joining two external water storage tanks. The tanks have a capacity of 1,500 litres each and my plan is  to connect the two tanks with one inch pvc piping. The domestic water inlet is low pressure (and that's being kind!) but tank A is usually full. My question is will there be enough pressure in tank A to feed water through the one inch pvc piping and into tank B without using a pump? If you consider the water pressure to be high enough to transfer water from one tank to the next, how many tanks could be connected in this way (I am thinking of four tanks)? The outlet from the water pump feeds 9 washing machines in a small launderette. Sorry about the awful drawing. Thanks for any advice in advance.

Topic by apex2000    |  last reply


MIT team designs plane that uses 70% less fuel

Planes use a massive amount of fuel to move passengers and cargo around the world. A new design from an MIT team could cut this fuel usage by 70%. This is great news and would make flights cheaper and pump out a lot less carbon. The bad news is that air traffic is expected to double in the next 30 years and the earliest these designs would be in the air is 2035. MIT designed their D-series as a 180 passenger aircraft meant to replace the domestic 737 market. Conventional airplanes utilize a single fuselage design, while the D-series uses two partial tubular shapes placed beside each other — which accounts for the bubble nickname. The plane utilizes a host of technological advances to decrease its fuel consumption. It has thinner longer wings and a smaller tail and engine placement at the rear of the plane instead of on the wings. All of these features account for part of the reduction in fuel usage. MIT Team Unveils Airplane that Uses 70 Percent Less Fuel

Topic by fungus amungus    |  last reply


led n00b here, need a little help

Hey guys i am new to electronics and figured id start with leds, my first project will be to make a torth from a penguin caffinated mints tin using some domestic batteries, some Super bright (17000mcd) 3v Green LEDs and 10 resistors only described as "Used to operate a 3.3v LED on a 5v Power Line. " and the same for the 10 12v resistors. now can anyone tell me. when would i need a resistor in my circuit? (i know the one for the 12v line would be perfect for arraching to a car battery and not killing the led.) but the 5v resistors? when would i use them? when i make this torch i will be using 2 or 3 aa batteries, 2 aa batteries make 3v and these leds are meant for 3.3 so im assuming i wont need a resistor however if i used 3 aa (4.5v) would i need the 5v resistor or would it be to much? im sorry im confusing thanks

Topic by Cew27    |  last reply


Netting circle - The crafting and DIY crazes are catching on with websites such as Etsy and Instructables

Instructables and Etsy appear in the OttawaSun article Netting Circle.If you're into creating, but you're not into domestic arts, try Instructables.com. This subversive site bills itself as "the world's biggest show and tell." Anyone can contribute how-tos and get feedback.The postings are slightly unusual, sometimes even extreme, such as how to build a cheap still to make moonshine, turn a shotgun shell into a USB stick case or make shoelaces from tape.The projects for extreme DIYers are uploaded by users who offer step-by-step guidelines along with photos. "It's a reaction against a mass-produced culture," says founder Eric Wilhelm in the Telegraph.Sounds quite similar to the 18th and 19th century backlash against the advent of mass production which created the arts and crafts movement in the first place.Wilhelm started an earlier version of the site several years ago while a starving student seeking advice on how to make equipment to cheaply support his kite-surfing hobby. More news and press about Instructables here.

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply


Labware for Sale

Hey guys, Over the years I've collected a fair amount of glassware other junk from various institutions. Unfortunately, my preoccupations as such don't permit as much time to pursue my hobbies. However, I'm abroad now, and will be until mid-December, so I can't actually supply much more info than generalizations about the materials. If anyone's interested in hearing more, reply on this thread or message me. Also unsure about some of the fitting sizes. To my knowledge I'm pretty sure I have: 1 - Allihn Condensor 2 - 1L Round bottom boiling flasks sv. - 500ml Round bottom boiling flasks 4 - VariACs 2/3 - Cases of 15ml glass screw-top vials 2/3 - Cases of 15ml plastic screw-top vials many - Ground glass stoppers many - Ground glass neck bottles (apothecary style!) 3 - Glass retorts 1 - 5L Glass carboy with broken outlet nozzle 1 - Drying chamber with vacuum attachment 100's - 15/30 ml glass tubes They'll be shipped from New England; only domestic inquiries please.

Topic by Cat on my Lap    |  last reply


Make that FIFTY Things To Do Before You Die

The man who co-wrote the best-selling adventure travel guide 100 Things To Do Before You Die has died at the age of 47.Unfortunately, Dave Freeman had only visited half the places mentioned in his book whose recommendations included a voodoo pilgrimage to Haiti and running with bulls in Pamplona, Spain.Ironically, he died in a simple domestic accident, falling over at his home in Venice, California, and hitting his head. According to co-author Neil Teplica, his friend's mantra was: 'You should live every day like it would be your last. There's not many people who do.'Mr Teplica said: 'He didn't have enough days but he lived the life he wrote about.'The guide, which was subtitled Travel Events You Just Can't Miss, started life as a regular website feature called The Coolest Place on Earth. As readers started sending in reports of wild and wonderful festivals around the globe, the two men vowed to try them all out. Everybody has a list of places to visit, or things to do, but what is your making bucket list?What should everybody make before they die?Daily Mail articleBuy the book onlineOne Hundred Scientific Things To Do Before You Die.

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply


Need a shock type collar for a fixed male cat to stop him from attacking a fixed female cat when he gets too close. Answered

Our 8 year old fixed male cat has decided he hates a fixed female in the house. He only attacks her, we thought fixing her would help, but it did not...he stalks her, and attacks her and bites her around the neck. We thought if we could put a low frequency shock type halter on him so when he gets within a few feet of her it would give him a small shock so he would avoid her. She of course would also have to have a collar on to "see" him coming. We have tried many different things, at this point she is safe in a separate room with a screen door, but that isn't fair to her or the other cats. Thank you and no I do NOT like the idea of shocking him, but I also do no like the fact she can be laying sleeping in a window, doing nothing wrong and he just jumps her. BTW..he is a very large Maine Coon/Siamese mix..about 18 lbs and she is a domestic short hair about 8 lbs...so it is never fair. 

Question by lzigler    |  last reply


Uncharted Play is looking for talent

The creators of the SOCCKET, the first energy-harvesting soccer ball, are currently seeking creative thinkers with engineering backgrounds for our our 12-week Product Development Internship Program. All associates will be working on Uncharted Play's new product lines, as part of a multidisciplinary team of engineers and designers. The program is based in New York City. Scheduling is flexible, with a minimum of 20 hours per week required. As this is an unpaid internship, school credit may be offered as compensation, as well as consideration for joining our team after program's end.  Openings: Mechanical Engineer, Electrical Engineer, Operations Engineer Personal Characteristics: Go-Getter Attitude Fast Learner Creative Thinker Problem Solver Technical Aptitudes (Mechanical Engineer): Excellent visualization and 3D CAD skills Demonstrable Prototyping skills Knowledge of manufacturing processes Product development experience is desirable Knowledge of Design for Manufacturing knowledge is a plus Technical Aptitudes (Electrical Engineer): Ability to design, develop, test and troubleshoot analog and digital circuits Demonstrable prototyping skills Robotics experience is desirable Experience in the DIY community is a plus Technical Aptitudes (Operations Engineer): Knowledge of Supply Chain Management principles Willingness to interact with suppliers, both domestically and internationally Ability to construct models and metrics for operational efficiency Experience in the manufacturing industry is a plus If you are interested in becoming a Product Development Associate, please email your cover letter, resume and a brief example of your technical and/or creative skills to info@unchartedplay.com with "Product Development Candidate" in the subject line. You will be contacted within 7 business days on the status of your application.

Topic by vangelUP    |  last reply


DepositPhotos the new photobank is open.

DepositPhotos (http://depositphotos.com) the new photobank is open. Photobank is being in accumulating state and welcome photographs and illustrators for cooperation. Therefore, we Start a special Promotion Program for Photographers. To take part in the Photographers Promotion Program it is required to pass the exam and then perform activation in the Promotion tab. After that, money will be added to the account for each accepted image. Info: http://depositphotos.com/pages/promo The nearest plans cover launch of other language versions of the site and actions for customer attraction. Expansion of upload ways is announced. Strengths: • The promotion program - $0.20 per each accepted image (on 500 images); • Convenient uploading and attributing, autofeeling by the previous attributed file. Mass autofeeling (to a file group), as well as piece; • Author commissions is 44 to 60%; • Cash may be requested starting from $50. Money received upon the promotion program may be ordered without any limitations; • Money transfer systems are PayPal, Moneybookers, Webmoney; • Detailed statistics of image sales and views; • Photo upload process and intuitive user interface is simpler than ever to use, making it quick and easy to offer images for sale; Customer offers: A unique tool set for purchasing maximizes customer audience: • Credits; • Subscription; • SMS-payments; • The on-going offer of "a second image as a gift" (moreover, authors of bonus images receive royalty like for a general purchase). All Buyers of DepositPhotos during Buying an Image by Credits receive a Gift – the Second Image Free of charge! The photobank features: • There is a symbolic exam of 5 images; • At registration, a document proving identity (a domestic or foreign passport, driving license etc.) is required; • A free bonus image for a piece purchase; moreover, both the authors of the sold and bonus image receive the royalty; • Separate registration for authors and customers; • The royalty size depends on the quantity of sold images. DepositPhotos is all about giving image buyers and sellers the best deal on the net! So whether you’re looking for a new place to showcase and sell your photos and images, or whether you’re looking for a new resource to buy them, you’ll find DepositPhotos.com to be a cut above the rest!

Topic by D_Promouter    |  last reply


Categories: A New Way of Looking at Instructables

We sent out this announcement to showcase the new Categories available on Instructables. Tim O'Reilly wrote about why he likes them, which made us pretty happy. Are you finding them useful and intuitive?--ChristyApril 4, 2007Alameda, CA -- Instructables has just released Categories, a new feature that will enable users to better browse, sort, and share knowledge online.Instructables.com is a free site that founder and CEO Eric Wilhelm describes as "a place where passionate people share the things they do and how they do them. It's an on-line DIY magazine, written by the people who read it."Current Instructables range from recipes and home repair tips to art, science, and LED projects. "The categories emerged organically as the site has grown," Wilhelm explains. "It was time to apply a taxonomy."Users may now tag their Instructable with two of eight categories: Art, Craft, Food, Home, Life, Not Liable, Ride, and Tech. Food, Art, and Tech categories are basically self-explanatory. Craft includes sewing and knitting as well as welding and woodworking; Home is for useful domestic organization and infrastructure; Ride includes cars, bikes, boats, planes, and other "things that go". Life skills can be found in Life, while Not Liable is for anything that should come with a warning label- things of interest to 14-year-old boys of all ages and genders."Categories will make browsing and sorting Instructables easier," Wilhelm says, "so users and advertisers can directly target their areas of interest." It's easy to search cross-listed projects, and Instructables in the overlap are often among the most exciting. A few examples: Art + Tech = LED ThrowiesTech + Craft = Floppy Disc Bag Craft + Not Liable = Marshmallow Gun Not Liable + Ride = Kite + Ice + Butt + BoardInstructables began as a way for the founders to document their own personal projects, and soon grew into a separate company. Since then Instructables has exploded in popularity. Instructables won the 2006 Wired Rave Award for Industrial Design, was showcased at the Web 2.0 Launchpad, and is listed by Technorati as one of the top 100 blogs. It currently has over 3,600 projects and 60,000 registered users.Instructables home page: https://www.instructables.com.

Topic by canida    |  last reply


Salami Fridge/ Fermentation Chamber

I am trying to set up a salami / prosciutto fridge at home. This is good for everybody haha.FYISalami needs certain parameters to correctly culture and age.Day1 22-24C 95% Humidity Day2 18-20C 90% Humidity Day3 16-18C 85% Humidity Day4 14-16C 80% Humidity Day5 12-14C 80% HumidityDay6 12-14C 75% Humidity Day7 10-12C 75% Humidity To Age 10-12C 75% Humidity I have-a domestic fridge which I have cut and fitted an exhaust fan in the front a humidifier a light globe (for warming) a grey electrical box – holes cut and 4 single power points fitted.a Lcd display and control board (from Jaycar) for the arduinowhat it needs to do is the following I want the control panel to have, temp control, humidity control, I want the exhaust fan to run 1min every 4 hours – this is because ammonia builds up as a gas in the chamber, this needs to be removed via the attached fanI want the humidifier, the light and the fridge to be controlled by the same “temp” control; Ie Day1I set the fridge to 95% humidity and 24CLight on to temp then off - or on/off as needed Humidifier on to correct parameters then off - or on/off as neededExhaust fan comes on and the computer compensates this evacuation and temp/humidity is onDay2I set the fridge to 90% humidity and 22CLight on to temp (or fridge cooling, depending on temp)Humidifier on to correct parameters Exhaust fan comes on and the computer compensates this evacuation and temp/humidity is onEtc.. etc..etcNow this also means this needs to be adjustable via the little control box because some thicker sausage takes longer and thinner less… ie Humidity1=95%H 2=90%H 3=85%H 4=80%H 5=75%Htemp1=24C 2=22C 3=20C 4=18C 5=16C 6=14C 7=12C 8=10CAnddddd prosciutto doesn’t need this type temp/humidity drop. It only needs a stable 75% humidity and 12CThe idea is Ill have a sparkey wire up plugs into the humidifier, light, fan and fridge.. they all plug into my super sexy grey box that has 4 plug holes on it ( ill send you pictures)..The inside of the box - a 4 switch relay... to power the toys a connection and lead in that gives power…. And I have access to the liitle LCD screen to adjust the parameters when needed.I assume I need to get more electrical/computer parts for this.. and the program written that controls all this info.any info will be rewarded with salami.!!!!!!!

Question by BojanG4  


[newsletter] Kill Ants, Crush a Can, Make a Talkbox, and more!

Sign-up for our newsletter here. Apr. 17, 2008 Welcome back! We have lots of news for you today. New contest! RoboGames has partnered up for our Robot Contest. Show how to make a robot or just a part of it and win a trip to RoboGames 2009! Contest winners announced! See who won the April Fools Speed Contest! We had a blast at Yuri's Night with our Show & Tell. Check out our pictures from the event to see our booth and the awesome 4'x4' Lite-Brite! Check out these cool instructables! Horn From a Drinking Straw How to make a cool horn out of a drinking straw. A musical instrument is easier to make than you think. posted by shoemaker on Apr 8, 2008 How to Make Great Fresh Mozzarella Cheese There's a world of difference between the mozzarella you buy in the store and what you can make yourself, and it's well worth the effort. posted by mikemwa on Apr 6, 2008 Thermal test chamber for edge-of-space testing Before you send an autonomous glider up to about 100,000 feet, here's how to run some tests to make sure it can handle the conditions. posted by 3ricj on Apr 9, 2008 Electric Mountain Board Convert a mountain board into a battery-powered ride without damaging the board, then remove the system for standard riding. posted by Vurp on Apr 14, 2008 Kill household ants - Super cheaply On a budget? Got an ant problem? Do not fear, because Domesticated Man and his sidekick Handy Hand have the answer! posted by domesticatedman on Apr 14, 2008 Green Science Fair! April is Photo Month! Bake and decorate! Make A Talkbox Have you ever listened to Peter Frampton's guitar solos and asked yourself, "How can I do that?" Here's how. posted by MitchBCool on Apr 13, 2008 Canon Wired Remote Make a wired remote for your Canon Digital Rebel or similar digital cameras! Great for those slow shutter speeds. posted by videokid842 on Apr 12, 2008 Make Your Own Antique Medallion A quick and easy way to make a great-looking metallic badge from some aluminum foil, a glue gun, and a permanent marker. posted by KaptinScarlet on Apr 15, 2008 Two Dollar Laptop Stand At just two dollars this is the cheapest laptop stand we've seen yet. posted by proyZ on Apr 8, 2007 How to crush a can on your head Learn how to do this classic bar trick with any of those cans in your recycling bin. posted by suggsugg on Apr 3, 2008 Now go make something awesome, and I'll see you next week! - Eric

Topic by fungus amungus  


Energy return on investment for various different energy sources

We're used to thinking about the cost per unit of energy (e.g. $/gallon of gasoline) with the implicit assumption that cost is a rough indicator of what is required to obtain that energy. The Oil Drum has a nice piece on Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and the implications of using low EROI energy sources. To dive right in, it's instructive to think about the EROI of domestic oil production as a function of time:100:1 in 193030:1 in 197011-18:1 in 2000EROI on the Web part 2 of 5, (Provisional Results Summary, Imported Oil, Natural Gas)Energy return on investment, sometimes called EROI and sometimes called EROEI, is thought by many, including myself, to be a critical issue for determining the past, present and future status of human society. It is usually considered in terms of energy return on energy investment, but it can also be considered in terms of energy return on monetary investment. While much of human progress has been attributed, rightfully, to technology, much of that technology has been a means of using more energy for human ends. This is true for fire, knife blades and spear points (energy concentrating devices), the development of agriculture and the increase in its productivity and, essentially all aspects of the industrial revolution.EROI is simply the energy delivered by an energy-obtaining activity compared to the energy required to get it. If the numerator and denominator are expressed in the same units (barrels per barrel, MegaJoules per MegaJoule) the result is a dimensionless ratio, i.e. 100:1 or 10:1). Obviously a higher ratio implies a more desirable fuel than a lower one, other things being equal (which is rarely the case). The concept is extremely simple in theory but often very difficult in execution, mostly because society generally maintains its records in monetary rather than energy terms. Another problem is that the U.S. Government has not supported such studies in a consistent fashion and it is my perception that the quality of some energy records as are kept by e.g. the U.S. Departments of Energy and of Commerce appear to be deteriorating in recent years. Thus deriving the energy cost of getting energy (or most other things) is generally somewhat, and oftentimes exceedingly, difficult. A second problem is that the usual measure of the quantity of a fuel, its heat value, often does not give a full assessment of that fuel's ability to do economic or other work. Most simply electricity and thermal heat from e.g. coal or oil have a great difference in their ability to do work, such as we are willing to trade three or four heat units of coal or oil in a thermal plant for one thermal unit of higher quality electricity. Thus if the input and output fuels are of different quality then it is often thought desirable to weight in some way the inputs and the outputs. A third problem is that it is important to consider boundaries: how large should we draw the boundaries of the energy analysis for the inputs? We will consider these issues in far more detail in later publications but there are many reasons why it is important to make summaries of EROI available at this time even though many uncertainties exist in the numbers that we present here, and indeed with any numbers that might be possible to generate.via jforbess

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply


Safe component sellers?

First off a Question for site/community, then I will lead into the reasoning/need behind the question. Do you or someone you know in the community have kits you put together to sell yourself or do you utilise a site, that contain the major orange bold parts most of the robots require? If no are there any the community would recommend that are reliable for multiple purchases. For instance I wish to build a Autonomous turret, is there a person who collects the parts and makes kits in this community, or a site that does this?  The kits may consist of things like 1x TTL laser diode,1x LidarLite V2,8x XT connectors  and 2x PWM driver board.     Or do you have a affiliate you use who do kits?.Are there any specific sites you have given on the orange links that you recommend or trust? In the sense that my overseas purchase will be as safe as if I made the purchase from a local retailer from Australia? (eg if a incorrect or broken part arrives they have a system that overseas customers aren't going to be held financially accountable for return of incorrect part or for the replacement/s?   For instance, the  autonomous sentry turret will cost 240euro more buying via separate websites as a  part by part job .Essentially adding $600au because I have to get 8 companies to post 8 separate items with 8 separate international insurance and postage costs added., Clicking external orange links leads me to about 7 or 8 different websites to purchase these items, so I would like if possible a list of those website you trust and recommend for the purchases, or maybe even a site that if kit's are not available that if  I give them a list,  they would be willing to put the effort in (after i prepay of course) to gather and send as one order, rather than what i currently will have to do, and purchase from 8 different stockist. When I say parts, I am referring to the orange parts on any given job, (not the grey ones you can pick up from local hardware/electrical store's but the orange ones) I can go to Amazon( Us version of the site not the Australian version) and make a few purchases for items in bulk, but not being the Australian proxy of the site, I may end up having electrical items disallowed because of local restrictions( eg I have been warned that the  purchase of lasers for domestic/personal use maybe illegal in Australia, if the laser in question can be modified past a certain power output.) REASONING/NEED BEHIND MULTI-PURCHASE/BULK PURCHASES. I have selected 15 robot/autonomous type projects, which I intend to put into one drone of sorts to make myself a remotely controlled android/drone for specific purposes.   it will be a slow process as I teach myself, enlarging power supplies for multi purpose drones, learning about multi system networking instead of expecting one system to control the whole drones etc, it may take me 1 year, it may take me 10 years but the idea's I have can't ever eventuate if i don't begin the journey, so for now, this is the first step.  Essentially I wont need to purchase  every item from the 15 task's( overlap double usage items  etc) but there will be allot of parts which will be single use parts, and allot of parts which I might not even need later on to multi link, but to make the original robot/design I will need them.

Question by cozzzaaa    |  last reply


Electrical / Electronics Engineering Position in Chicago - RAW THRILLS

Hi everyone, We have one of the ultimate electronics positions available. We make coin-op arcade games and constantly innovate our electronics to differentiate our games from the home consoles. We're looking for someone that can hack innovative technology and make it work in our market. Official job posting is below. Please check out www.rawthrills.com for more information about our company! JOB INQUIRIES SHOULD BE SENT TO jobs@rawthrills.com. Please include a resume and an explanation of your qualifications and interest. ====================================== Available Position: Highly Motivated, Entry Level Electrical or Computer Engineer Raw Thrills, Inc. - February 2010 Raw Thrills, the leading US manufacturer of coin-operated video games, is looking for an enthusiastic Electrical or Computer engineer to join our Electronics Engineering design team. You will be working as an efficient member of a small team on products that continue to gain domestic and international market-share. Immediately, you will contribute to the design and verification of electronics, firmware, and software. In addition to the internal team, you will work with partner engineering companies to develop & maintain products, and interact with contract manufacturers to troubleshoot issues on-the-fly as they arise on the production line. You will collaborate with several experienced engineers and programmers, all the while working independently most of the work day. At Raw Thrills, our arcade games are designed entirely in-house, from the ground up. They are composed of custom mechanical parts (wood cabinet, plastics, metals, etc.), an off-the-shelf PC, a monitor, custom wiring, custom electronics & interface devices, and custom game software. As part of the Electronics Engineering team, you will be involved in much of the arcade game’s design, from low-level circuitry to high level software, and everything in between: * ESD testing & EM compliance * Custom circuit & firmware design * System integration & validation (peripherals ↔ PC ↔ API ↔ software) * Operating System (Windows Embedded) maintenance * Device driver & device-application interface (API) programming * Device functional & longevity test design (including GUI PC software, firmware, and mechanical construction) * Coordination between mechanical and electronics design * and more! Required Skills: * Demonstrable working knowledge of C/C++: need examples of work and debugging proficiency * Solid understanding of digital circuit design & troubleshooting digital systems (from circuit to PC software) * Experience designing & implementing a digital system from the ground up (school project, internship, etc.) * FPGA (VHDL or Verilog) and/or MCU (c or asm) programming competency * Self-sufficient and motivated to independently learn * Proficient with standard bench tools: soldering iron, oscilloscope, DMM, etc. Bonus Skills: * Programming experience with PC↔device communication: USB, RS232, LPT, etc. * Schematic capture and PCB layout experience * GUI programming experience (Win32 or Linux) * Active knowledge of Linux / home Linux user * Working knowledge of common scripting languages (Python, bash, Windows batch, etc.) Example Projects: * Design low-cost circuitry to robustly control addressable LEDs for eye-popping lighting effects * Design, implement, and perform game system latency testing (create hardware/software as needed) o EX: What is the round trip time from button-press to in-game feedback? Where are the bottlenecks? * Design hardware diagnostic software to allow automatic system diagnosis by end-user * Design automated functional test software for completed PCB assemblies * Design circuit and layout PCB for contact-less sensor module o Determine and perform validation testing * Add interface firmware features (i2c, Dallas 1-Wire, etc.) to MCU based board and update PC API so that game programmers can leverage the new features

Topic by rawthrills  


Declaration of Independence

When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the creative bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all makers are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Tools, Warranty and the pursuit of Customness. - That to secure these rights, Websites are instituted among Makers, deriving their just powers from the consent of the members, -That whenever any Form of Website becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Webspace, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Ideas and Projects. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Websites long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Webmasters, and to provide new Guards for their future security. - Such has been the patient sufferance of these Users; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Website. The history of the present CEO of Instructables is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these Members. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.He has refused his Assent to Features, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.He has forbidden his Staff to pass Forum Topics of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.He has dissolved Comments and Topics repeatedly, for opposing with (wo)manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these Users; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Free accounts; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Features.He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent to TOS for establishing Moderating Powers.He has made Sherrifans dependent on his Will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Filters without the Consent of our legislatures.He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our TOS; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:For protecting them, by a mock Trial from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:For cutting off our Allsteps with all parts of the world:For imposing Pro fees on us without our Consent:For depriving us in many cases, of the benefit of Refund of Fees:For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences:For abolishing the free System of Exchange of Ideas in a neighbouring Webspace, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these directories:For taking away our Favorites, abolishing our most valuable Features and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Websites:For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation, and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & Perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized website.He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Spammers whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all OSs, platforms and softwares.In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be El Jefe of a free people.Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Hacking brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their staff to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.We, therefore, the Representatives of the Members of Instructables, in Freenode on #instructables, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good Posters of these Forums, solemnly publish and declare, That these united Dirs are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent Sites, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the Robot Crown, and that all TCP/IP connection between them and the Site of Instructables, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent Sites, they have full Power to assign Mods, post content, contract sponsors, establish Advertising, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent Sites may of right do. - And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Tools, our Kiteboards, and our sacred Honor.None of the above, is, of course, intended seriously. Dur. IT'S A JOKE, peoplez. Sheesh.

Topic by Lithium Rain    |  last reply


Idea for a non-ideal Carnot cycle based engine.

Initial Stirling engine conceptFor some time I was contemplating an idea for a Stirling engine that would work quite differently than the other designs that I came across. Whole internal volume of an engine may be viewed as a closed-loop pipe, trombone-like slide mechanism allows this pipe to change its length. Electrical fan replaces displacer and pumps working fluid throughout the engine constantly and in one direction. Some portion of the pipe is replaced with branching structure that consist of two heat exchangers (hot and cold) and regenerator. On both ends of this structure special valves are located that connect one of the structure’s parts to the main pipe, so that whole engine forms one closed-loop. While this happens, both of the unused parts are completely bypassed.This design should have many advantages. Working gas is in constant motion and little energy is wasted on accelerating it. Gas may pass many times through heat exchangers, allowing for much better approximation of isothermal processes. Disconnecting unused heat exchangers from the rest of the engine should minimize volume of dead spaces.There are some drawbacks to. Slide mechanism allows only very small changes of total volume (compression ratio is low), and that limits engine’s ability to operate with higher temperature differences. Piston, which is part of the slide mechanism, and especially valves, are heavy and this makes them unsuited for high speed operation, making the whole engine bulky. I also except that an area of all surfaces that are sliding against each other and produce friction would be higher than in traditional Stirlings.Problems with Stirling cycleIdeal Stirling cycle (Fig. 4) consist of two isothermal processes (constant temperature) during which work is performed, and two isochoric processes (constant volume, no work performed). Isochoric processes function is only to change temperature of the working gas, and this takes a lot of energy to do so (especially if gas with high heat capacity is used). Regular Stirling engines try to minimize this inefficiency with regenerator. But when I tried to analyze this process mathematically, I noticed that even regenerator with very high heat capacity cannot store more than half the energy needed to perform next isochoric process (see lower left part of the spreadsheets for more details).Fig. 5 represents heat pump (or refrigerator) working in a modified Stirling cycle. Isochoric processes represent transfers of heat to and from the regenerator. Rest of the temperature change is performed by polytropic processes, during which heat flows to or from the heat exchangers and also work is performed. I chose to represent heat pump, instead of a engine because engine working with this modified cycle wold require isochoric processes to be performed midstroke (or transfers of heat to regenerator would have to be performed during polytropic processes, when working gas changes its temperature also due to work being performed).Note that I am using word polytropic to indicate processes where gas changes its energy both due to heat transfers and work performed. When special cases of polytropic process are mentioned (isothermal, adiabatic, isochoric) I use their specific names.Solving those problems with Carnot cycleLegendary Carnot cycle consist of two isothermal processes (just like Stirling cycle), but changes of temperature are accomplished by the adiabatic processes (no heat transfers with the surroundings), instead of isochoric ones. This has huge advantage, because when energy is added to the working gas during adiabatic compression, all of it can be later recovered during adiabatic expansion.Design I previously mentioned can easily be adapted to work as a Carnot engine. Only change that is necessary, is replacement of regenerator with the empty pipe (ADIABATIC PIPE in Fig. 2). When valves connect this empty pipe to the rest of the engine, there is no heat transfer between working fluid and thermal reservoirs. Any changes of engine volume modify temperature and pressure in a approximately adiabatic fashion. To model what happens with the engine I used slightly modified Carnot cycle (Fig.3). Just before adiabatic process end, short polytropic process begins. It is done so that loses associated with valves connecting both adiabatic pipe and heat exchanger to the main part of the engine for a short period of time can be better simulated. Heat pump working in this cycle is shown in Fig. 6.Design detailsEngine uses special valves, which external shape resemble truncated cone. Smaller base of this cone faces main part of the engine, larger one heat exchangers. Inside there is a pipe, with one opening right in the center of smaller base. The other opening is located off-center on the larger base, so it can connect to the one of the heat exchangers or adiabatic pipe (which are situated just like chambers of a revolver’s cylinder in respect to each other). As this engine engine will most likely operate under low RPMs, flywheel will have to be connected through a transmission with very high gear ratio. The flywheel will have to be quite bulky as well. This poses another challenge, as the pressure inside engine’s tubing will be higher than atmospheric, and at least space around the other side of the “piston” will have to be pressurized as well. If only the immediate surroundings will be pressurized, and gears, flywheel, electric motor/generator will be outside of the container, then very inefficient seal will have to be employed. If everything will be located inside the pressurized container, then fast moving parts will be working against dense gas. Pressure in this area ideally should have such a value, so that on every piston stroke energy is both added to the flywheel and extracted from it as to make energy storage requirements more manageable. This requirements may also be further reduced by employing some other energy storage form. And of course exchange of heat between main part of the engine and this pressurized section must be taken into consideration.Then, there is problem of heat exchangers. They can be either large diameter pipes with fins, or smaller diameter ones that are densely packed (this seems to be must popular configuration in Stirling engines). As heat transfer with the outside of the engine takes around half of the piston stroke, it might be a good idea to employ two pumps of heat transfer fluid per each of the two heat exhangers. One would work constantly to transfer heat from some large heat reservoir, the other would transfer heat to the working fluid only when it is necessary. Some another heat exchanger would have to be placed between those two circuits.And there is also a question of the piston. Basic trombone-like version could be replaced by the something similar to the design drawn in Fig. 7, where two parallel tubes, connected by U-shaped piston, are replaced by the coaxial pipes with volute on the outer section that allows connection another parallel pipe. Piston itself has then small tubular part attached which allows working fluid to pass from outer section to the inner section. This design has only one high pressure seal, is possibly lighter, but fan that pumps working fluid will probably need to be more powerful. Problem of sideways motion of the piston must also be analyzed, and it can be either resolved with piston skirts or the crosshead. Interesting aspect of this problem is that while most frictional forces in the engine are mostly independent of the engine speed, forces associated with this sideways motion of the piston increase with engine rotational speed.Another possible improvement would be making adiabatic pipe shorter than the heat exchangers, which would reduce volume of dead spaces.Engine parametersIn case of a engine that uses helium as a working fluid, has minimum volume of 46.7 liters, maximum volume of 70 liters, operates at temperatures of -5°C and 37°C with the speed of 15 RPM you can expect that it will produce 1138W of power at 8.13% efficiency.In the case of heat pump that operates at the same parameters you can expect that it will require 2300W of power and achieve COP 4.95You can find calculations, diagrams and the detailed descriptions inside non-ideal_carnot_engine.zip (it is unfortunate that Instructables do not support uploading .zip files and other file formats any more, and I have to use another website just to upload few spreadsheets).Possible applicationsI started thinking about this concept when considering applications of thermal energy storage. In more northern latitudes largest factor in domestic energy consumption is heating. So, at least in my opinion, any movement toward replacing fossil fuels with renewables should focus on this largest contributing factor. And this actually is quite fine because storing 1 kWh in a tank filled with water, rocks/concrete or simply in the ground is much cheaper than storing it inside lithium-ion batteries. And general idea behind this low temperature engine, was that some part of this large amount of energy stored to be later used to heat buildings, could be converted into electricity.It should also be able to work in reverse as a heat pump or refrigerator.

Topic by rarinn