Stored energy

    Alot of people have amazing instructables on how to gather energy  be it solar, wind or hydro electric but not alot on how to store it. So I guess what i really need is some storage instructables cuz Im at a total loss. Please help. 

Topic by hackencoff   |  last reply


Carbon Fibre Flywheel (for energy storage)

I'd like to build a flywheel but I'm not sure what I need to know before i start, Is it difficult to do? Is it possible to accomplish with off the shelf parts? Any help at all would be appreciated greatly.

Topic by nuncoop   |  last reply


Anyone achive solar power overnight?

Here is how to do it: Use a standard 55 gallon steel drum and stick one of these on it. http://ieverred.en.made-in-china.com/product/tqZQNGTCJARz/China-Thermoelectric-Power-Generator-TEC1-031100-.html Provide water cooling for the TEG: http://www.customthermoelectric.com/Water_blocks.html If your water is 20 Celcius, you should pump 36 Litres/hour to keep max power output. Also hook up piping for hot oil for heating Now wrap it with 400 mm of rockwhool insulation. Fill it with molten salt and heat it to 250 Celcius. Tadaa: 24 W of power output, round the clock. (minus the power for the cooling pump, maybe 1-2 W) I calculate that the temperature will drop from 250 to 225 Celcius in 16 hours. To get the temperature back up in 8 hours you need to heat it with 2400 W. You can do this easily with a solar trough system of about 3 m2. A trough is good because you only need to align every few days. Budget Oildrum 50$ ? Salt 370 kg  = 150$? TEG 80$ Cooler 80$ Pump 15$ Piping 100$? Trough (plastic sheet and mylar) 100$? high temperature oil pump 500$ ? About 1000@ total. Does seem like a lot for a little. Anyone have a better idea?

Question by eripe   |  last reply


Solar storage help

Hello! I'm new to the forums, but I've read many instructables. I'm looking to create a solar-charging messenger bag. I decided on a powerfilm flexible solar cell that is 7.2v 200mA. Amazon has them for slightly above $50. I originally wanted to use a xtreme mac Incharge portable to store the power,(PLEASE CORRECT ME IF I AM WRONG) but I think that may take too much to convert it from 120v in to 7.2v in. The benefit of this item is that it has two 1w usb output charging terminals. That means faster charging.  The second idea is to send the solar energy to four AA Energizer rechargeable (1.2v 2500mAh) NiMH batteries. The benefit of using AA batteries is they can be used for other things and that they can be easily replaced after running through charging cycles(I don't know the life cycle of rechargeable batteries anymore). Any assistance offered would be greatly appreciated. I have the bag, will be ordering the solar cell later this week, found the incharge portable at a thrift store, and always have plenty of batteries and wires. Thanks!

Topic by chokingjaik 


Hydrogen for renewable energy storage- total system efficiency?

This is a question that has been bugging me for some time, especially since the questions about methanol synthesis revived my interest in energy storage. Say I have a wind turbine or solar panel or whatever, that produces 1000 Wh per day.  If I use that electricity to electrolyse water, store the generated hydrogen at roughly atmospheric pressure in an upside-down water butt or a big gas-tight bag in my shed (don't worry, I'm not going to actually do this) and then feed it into a generator converted to run on H2, what percentage of that initial energy input would I get back out?  20%?  5%? 1%? The follow-up questions to this are a) How does that compare against a battery bank? What about a similar DIY-style pumped water storage system? b) What one component of the system should be improved to raise the overall system efficiency? Electrolyser, storage, generator? c) Are there any other DIY-friendly methods for storing intermittently generated electricity that I'm not thinking of? And, I suppose, d) Does doing this and providing 5-10x your overall power requirements in wind turbines work out cheaper than spending thousands on batteries?

Topic by PKM   |  last reply


How to build a clockwork robot?

Http://www.dailykos.com/stories/1632015#comment_65467648 To enter the Fukashima U2 with radiation at 1000 SVR plus can a clockwork autonomous robot gathering data with sonar be designed to go where no autonomous robot has gone before. The reason is all electronic devices would cease to function at about half that  SVR level. The clockwork mechanism would need to be designed to provide autonomous movement  so all sensors would have to be non electronic devices. Might mechanical sound, pressure, temperature or other forces be used for controls? Is it possible to provide a mechanical power storage source Compressed air energy storage (CAES) Fireless locomotive Flywheel energy storage Gravitational potential energy (device) Hydraulic accumulator Liquid nitrogen Thermal Brick storage heater Cryogenic liquid air or nitrogen Eutectic system Ice storage air conditioning Molten salt Phase Change Material Seasonal thermal energy storage Solar pond Steam accumulator Thermal energy storage (general) Chemical Biofuels Hydrated salts Hydrogen Hydrogen peroxide Power to gas Vanadium pentoxide What sort of time/energy is achievable?

Question by Rowland Whittet   |  last reply


Can I use a bunch of AA Batteries setup in cells in place of a deep cycle battery for green power storage? Answered

Hello, I have been looking more and more into solar and wind power generation as well as ways to store the power. I am still in the planning stages and have not yet tested anything. What I usually see in almost every green power storage guide is to use deep cycle batteries mostly of the types designed for solar, golf carts, etc. That would work fine but they are always rather expensive atleast any I have found online (if you know a cheaper source I would love to hear about it). So my question is this could I just buy a bulk quantity of AA NiMH (the new ones without memory) or AA Lithium ion batteries and set them up in series to make cells of 8x AA per cell for 12v total then connect all cells in parallel for my battery bank? I am not sure if this would actually be more expensive as it is just an idea I had and have been unable to find someone that tried it (perhaps I am searching for the wrong thing). It seems to me this could be more effective as I could replace one battery in the cell when it goes out and be able to constantly repair the cells in that manner. Has anyone tried this and does it work? Would it require a special charge controller unlike the usual ones sold for solar? If anyone knows of any guides that show this please share them as I would love to do more research on this before I make a decision. I think I saw once on some show that the electric car they showed was setup in this way. Anyway thank you for your assistance it is greatly appreciated!

Question by TiamatStudios   |  last reply


The future of "mobile" energy...

Right now our current standard is still to use LI-Ion batteries when it comes to rechargable and power demanding devices.We all want more power for our phones, laptops or battery powered tools on the job.And we also want to be able to charge our batteries faster and faster.Back in the old days a D-Cell like lead acid battery in a flashlight was good for about 3 hours until it started to dim a bit.With up to 4 batteries inside they were not just heavy but also quite hazardous.Chargin was usually done over night and you just hoped they were not blowing up while charging.I spare you the other types that came after and that we still use as they all have their good and their bad sides.If we trust our marketing experts than quite soon we will only have electric cars on our roads and battery the size of a suitcase shall be able to run your car for hundreds of miles.The ideas of graphite based batteries or those using crystals and their forming reactions are all great and promising.Some will certainly make it to the consumer in a few years.The one thing that we are never told though is where all the energy to charge those batteries is supposed to come from.Replacing the combustion engine with electric motors is one thing but if no fossil fuel is used....Energy does not come out of thin air!Right now a lot of countries already struggle to provide a reliable power supply grid and distribution network.If you ever enjoyed a scorching hot day during a blackout caused by everyone using too much electricity you know what I mean...The population is growing as fast as the energy demand for our industries.Solar and wind are well and good but without proper storage solutions of not real use because no one can really predict how much they can produce.You know, weather and such things...If we trust our so called experts than all will come together really nice.By the time we have really powerful batteries we will have enough alternative energy supply chains up and running to keep them charged.I have a few issues with this entire concept, so let's see what other people have to about this:Imagine you have a nice and big cabin somewhere really remote and beautiful - but with no electricity for miles.Obvious solution for the modern hunter or nature lover is to invest into free energy.Free because that is how your solar, battery and inverter system would be advertised.You buy the stuff and after that all the electricity comes for free - the things pays for itself!Reality is a bit off though as you need to maintain and replace the costly batteries over time and such things.All this however totally changes for a residential home.Getting a huge solar system on your roof is no problem.Getting off the grid next to impossible.You see, once (or even before) you sign up for an electricity contract it is defined that your home is in a residential area.This brings certain limitations like the requirement to connect ot gas (if available), water, sewage and electricity.Only way to enjoy your "free" energy is by getting a good deal with your supplier.Some countries do it differently but around here it goes like this:Whatever you use still comes right off the grid.That is because your solar system really struggles to cope with load changes and providing surplus back to the grid.And since your meter is not capable ofworking properly with it either...To make it "fair" it is metered how much you use and how much you supply.Most companies here even do this on at least an hourly base - just to fair...For your bill the amounts are then adjusted.What you supplied is taken off.Sadly in most cases going negativ is not an option - if you provide more than what you use only your supplier is laughing.To make things worse what you supply is valued far lower than what you get from the grid.Often the difference is above 20%.Control....Around here quite a few people basically covered house, shed, carport and all with solar panels.This was while we had a great subsidy from the government to go solar...After now over three years most of these people still struggle to get anywhere near even for their investment.Without the grants the timeframe to break even was estimated to be around 12 years - which is about the time for when you need to replace the lot anyway and start over.Some do get nice savings on their bills though but families with kids not so much...If you have little to no chance to get your investment back before you have to replace it, then it is not really that much of a good deal after all.Imagine in town with hundreds of small houses everyone would be able to get the same money back for the electricity they provide...Pay 18 cents per kWh from the grid and get 18 cents perkWh for what you supply and once you provide more than you use you get money back.The providers won't allow this to happen as it means they not just loose some money but also they would lose control.How could they justify another price hike?How could they explain the blackouts?Why should tey pay you at all... ;)If a city with enough open and unused space would decide to go solar on a huge scale and while add also add a lot wind turbines....Someone would need the electricity provided and someone need to step in for those times where demand is above supply.Here the old triangle of power goes into full swing....You see a city or town would need also need a sub station to handle the electricity and to distribute it to the town houses, shops and so on.Funny thing is that only a "provider" can do such things.Doing it privat is usually only possible in really remote areas, like big mining outposts that just have no other option than using generators or solar/wind.And in most areas a town or city is no longer allowed to be a provider of electricty - at least not in the drirect form.Buying in bulk is no problem, having your own supply system however is not in the books.Right now most, if not all the big wind and solar farms are owned and operated by energy providers.There is billionaires everyhwere who could build a solar and wind farm the size of Texas if they really wanted but they won't do it either...Starts with the land, goes over the usage rights and won't end with activists claiming how bad it all is.Means it won't happen and if it does then the energy providers get together and claim they guy might have money but does not have the right to provide energy unless he actuall starts a corresponding company and plays by their unwritten rules.Can we still dream about it though?The dream is kept alive like the fire of hope that is only a tiny amber.If you sign up for electricity you are asked if you would like to pay bit extra so your electricity comes from alternative sources.Why is that bad, after all it is green?The initial investment might be huge for a wind farm but after that it is more or less just providing mone out of thin air.You can look the cost up for the new windfarm build near you.Same for the electricity prices in that area.And also the expected output of the entire farm.Do the math and calculate how quickly they break even....Once they do it only profit but you still pay the extra to go green.A bit like the new road that came with a toll....After 5 years the motorists paid it off but 10 years later they are still being charged while the road is disintegrating...Now add electric cars and our constantly rising consumption to the mix...We can't provide the electricity ourselfs as we don't get fully paid for it, we can go off grid either.The atom as the source of electricity is being phased out slowly as well.Finally as some might say, considering the thausands of years we have to deal with the produced waste and what aftereffects the storage might bring.Our providers will keep their grip on us for as long as they can.No government will stop them as in return they wouldn't have electricity.A cold war if you like.We never cared how much fuel our cars use until the OPEC decide to limit supplies and drive the prices up.And you can see the riches especially in Saudi Arabia.For most of the big OPEC players it really does not matter anymore whether or not they have oil or not.They make the same or even more money by other means and more modern means now.After this initial shellshock we woke up and decided that for the shopping trip of the wife a small car with just 4 cylinders will do.Overcrowded cities and roads also pushed us more into thinking small.Again it took force to go further, this time by governments slowy "going green".Emmissions, greenhouse gasses, polution, particles and corbon monoxide...Sounded all godd in the ads but it meant we could no longer afford our old car or even got banned from entering the town center with it.But a lot people still can't afford a modern car that meets the standards.Once they finally got the money and car the laws change again and they need yet again a newer car.This created a huge export and recyling market and profits for other people though.And what differenc did it all make in reality?While we were forced to improve and lose money countries like the US refused for years to even consider reducing the pollution.Countries like China and Russia even increased their pollution to impossible levels.We all remember how Bejing was literally shut down for the Olympics so the athletes have a chance to survive the games...We know how the pollution or global warming problem is misused to make money.The governments get huge payouts in the form of taxes from those cars that can't meet the specs.The dealer smiles with the increased sales of cars.And again the government smiles too as they get taxes from this as well.We know it happened before and is still happening with everything realted to fossil fuels, global warming and pollution, so why would electricity be any different?Reactors and coal fired power plants are phased out with basically nothing to replace them.Solar and wind will provide and till then we keep what we really need to keep....There is no plan for what comes after coal and the atom.There is no alternative.Batteries need electricity.And providers will always be the middleman controlling both the price and the availability.So how does this actually work you might wonder...No matter who invents or produces a new device to provide electricity - there is a very limited market for them.A farmer can't buy a full size wind generator and place it on his land...But an electricity provider can buy thausands of them....And if you go bigger than ask yourself who would need a 10 or 100MW fusion generator?Providing electricity is only a viable option if you go big and if you can sell the excess with a profit margin.Leaves only our electricity providers as customers.If you don't have to care about the buying price because it will be put down one way or the other onto your customers than it is like a credit.Only difference is that once it is paid off you start to get money back!Imagine that for your bank account ;)And if you know what you sell can have a very generous profit margin because your buyer does not care then the solar or wind farm will be quite costly to build..."We know we are not cheap, but who else can deliver you what you need?"And like our big supermarkets there will be an agreement on what the wind generator can cost.Ressources....Be it wind, be it solar or just the modern electric motor in your car - they all require stuff that is very limited on our planet.Take Neodyminum.Without it we have no wind generator or fancy motors as we wouldn't have powerful enough magnets.Vital elements and mineral required are only available in a few spots on our erth in quantities justifying mining them.I won't make this much longer than it already is, so please look up what is really needed to keep our future solow and wind projects alive.Then go and check where we can find thes things in good quantities.Once you did you might realise why the world tolerates the abuse of human rights, freedom or just self expression in other countries ;)If only China would stop today to export and sell their rare earths and prcious minerals basically our entire production worldwide would suffer quickly.Entire industries break down quickly and prices for certain things would literally explode.The US already started to re-open long abandoned mining projects as suddenly even the most costly operations become viable again.Think about this next time you fancy a world free of cars and truck using combustion engines ;)

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


I need help with my digester project ? Answered

Hello i   have   attached  a  drawing  of  a project  i   am   thinking about  , but   like ususla have some  questions i  need  help with. 1.  you  see on the drawing   i  have  included   a   storage tank.  Do you think  it will work    laid out like this? 2. How  can i    compress the  methane   enough to runa    smal  generator? 3.What would  be   the size  of  teh    safety  gas  valve   i should  purchase. I have no idea of  how   much pressure  a  smll  8 to 12 hp  generator takes to   run . Any help anyone  can  give  woudl be  greatly appreciated. thanks, andy

Question by andy1917   |  last reply


Has a hobbiest ever made a compulsator?

Compulsator is a method of energy storage, give high pulse currents.

Question by rp181   |  last reply


Idea to Store Solar, or Wind Energy in Tanks in Central, South American, Africa

 I go to Togo, West Africa, and they already use, or need the black water tanks. they can have the water pumped using solar, windmills, or rope pumps, then allow it to fall, and light their houses with LED lights, and charge their cell phones. So what do you think, anyone have experience using these cheap hydro generators? Do they work? Do they last? Is there enough water pressure? Thanks, Andy Lee Graham https://www.hobotraveler.com/blogger.html

Topic by hobotraveler   |  last reply


What the Candidates Say About Energy

What the Candidates Say About Energyhttp://www.energycentral.com/centers/news/daily/article.cfm?aid=9641919RepublicansRUDY GIULIANI: Says "every potential solution" must be pursued, including nuclear power, increased energy exploration and more aggressive investment in alternative energy sources. Says energy independence can be achieved through a strategy that emphasizes diversification, innovation and conservation.MIKE HUCKABEE: Wants to lessen U.S. dependence on foreign oil by pursuing "all avenues" of alternative energy: nuclear, wind, solar, hydrogen, clean coal, biodiesel and biomass.JOHN MCCAIN: Wants to limit carbon dioxide emissions "by harnessing market forces" that will bring advanced technologies, such as nuclear energy, to the market faster. Seeks to reduce dependence on foreign supplies of energy. Wants the U.S. to lead in a way that ensures all nations "do their rightful share" on the environment. As you may know,McCain was AWOL in December on the key Senate vote to secure an 8-yearSolar Investment Tax Credit extension -- and he could have been the hero by casting the 60thvote (it failed 59 to 40 with only McCain being AWOL).MITT ROMNEY: Wants to accelerate construction of nuclear power plants as part of a "robust, cleaner and reliable energy mix." Seeks energy independence not by halting all oil imports but by "making sure that our nation's future will always be in our hands."DemocratsHILLARY CLINTON: Says she's "agnostic" about building nuclear power plants. Prefers renewable energy and conservation because of concerns about nuclear power's cost, safety and waste disposal. Wants to spend $150 billion over the next 10 years to cut oil imports by two-thirds from 2030 projected levels, with some money going toward alternative energy.JOHN EDWARDS: Opposes nuclear power because of cost and safety concerns. Favors creating a $13 billion-a-year fund to finance research and development of energy technologies; wants to reduce oil imports by nearly a third of the oil projected to be used in 2025.BARACK OBAMA: Says the U.S. can't meet its climate goals if it removes nuclear power as an option but says such issues as security of nuclear fuel, waste and waste storage need to be addressed first. Wants to spend $150 billion over the next 10 years to develop new energy sources. Seeks to reduce"oil consumption overall by at least 35 percent by 2030."

Topic by ewilhelm   |  last reply


What material retains heat the best? Answered

I thought of something I could make for an Instructable. To keep the idea until I publish, I'll exclude the actual idea. I need a material for this project that will retain heat from a microwave for ≥20 to ≥30 minutes. It will be about 8x8x1 inches. What can I use for this? Here are some things I found to be helpful: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_capacity http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/130523-zeolite-thermal-storage-retains-heat-indefinitely-absorbs-four-times-more-heat-than-water http://www.fraunhofer.de/en/press/research-news/2012/june/compact-and-flexible-thermal-storage.html http://www.igb.fraunhofer.de/en/press-media/press-releases/2014/sorption-energy-storage.html

Question by knexpert1700   |  last reply


Make supercapacitors from graphite in a DVD burner

The outline is that you can deposit graphite oxide (a cheap bulk material) onto a film of PET (the plastic used in Coke bottles), hit it with a commodity infra-red laser (such as the one in a $30 LightScribe DVD burner) and end up with a form of activated carbon material that can be used as the electrode in an electrolytic capacitor.  Add some aluminium foil, separator membrane and electrolyte and you've got cheap, robust energy storage.  The headline numbers are a few hundred milliFarads per cubic centimetre at a few volts, which works out to 1.36kWh per cubic metre of stacked capacitors.  It's still about 50 times less energy per volume than lead acid batteries, but you could store as much energy as your house will need overnight in the size of a garden shed or a set of bunk beds.  They charge/discharge in seconds and retain >95% capacity at 10,000 cycles so seem suitable for storage to even out intermittent energy generation from, for example, solar or wind power. I'm really thinking about cost here- unless I'm missing something fundamental it doesn't seem like producing these on a high volume roll-to-roll process would be excessively difficult, and the cycle life means the replacement time would be many years even in heavy usage.  Could you get sufficient kWh per dollar to make these a viable storage mechanism for home-scale renewables? There's a more informative article here.

Topic by PKM   |  last reply


Compressed Air Battery

A simple example of how a compressed air battery works. This one, of course, is not very efficient. https://www.instructables.com/id/Compressed-Air-Battery/

Topic by bubal   |  last reply


solar engine storing capacity problem pls suggest a suitable ckt or method to store energy for max time atleast 1 min

Hi myself abhishek frm gwalior making a solar engine using a 4700uf cap to store energy but it is not helpful to drive a motor when we remove the power frm it . the ckt is nt giving any storage we also tried 10000uf capacitor pls suggest any appropriate modification

Question by bestads27 


efficiency (not efficacy) of CPUs/computers? is all the power input technically converted into heat? Answered

It has recently been fairly hot where I live, especially in my room, where computer hardware seems to be increasing the temperature by a good 5-10*F over other rooms. This got me thinking, and was wondering if any computer engineers/physicists may know the answer to this one. If I am running a power-hungry intel CPU, coupled with RAM and maybe SSD storage (I wish!) is all the power fed into my system being converted into heat? In other words, if my rig consumes a good 250W-400W, and there are no transducer devices drawing power (LEDs or lights, speakers/microphones, monitors, motors, heaters, phone chargers, etc,) and all the energy is used for data collecting, and calculating, then is *ALL* the energy converted to 250W-400W of thermal energy (heat)? or do the data operations themselves in fact require energy and maybe entropy or something plays a role? where it would seem that 400W of input yields an apparent 399.981W of energy output + data.

Question by -max-   |  last reply


Paper Batteries

Has anyone read anything about the up and coming Paper (thin) batteries ? Paper Batteries: A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper.A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and supercapacitor, combining two components that are separate in traditional electronics. This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy. Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have the potential to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies.What do you think? Will it replace these monsters one day?

Topic by Goodhart   |  last reply


A central non-electric grid electricity storage system for solar and wind energy with future expandibility

I have been thinking and reading about building a system so that I could surf using a laptop, charge lights, charge mp3 players, mobile phones, rechargeable batteries so that if possible they would not need electricity from the grid, rather that would be optional when there would not be enough power that was found otherwise. I had first thought to work this out in a group as a kind of project, as there are others but I don't really know that many people with those skills. The idea is that you start very basic, with say one solarcell and the electronics. The electronics should allow plug to when you wnat to have the money you can add another, in serie or parallels so they give more power. This can then be plugged in to a system that stores that electricity in batteries. The system should also be so that it allows to connect for example one or more small selfbuild wind turbines, like the ones found here, so that in the best case you get electricity from both, or one of both but with the possible option to get electricity from the grid so that if necessary you can charge something from there. That would mean it would include an electricity meter, and maybe the possibillity to add that self powering powerplant as well.So basically you have two projects. Or maybe three. The casing to add small solarcells in, and then be able to add several casing together. The electronics to put them in serie and then a central electronic system, which allows to connect solar casings, self build windmills, batteries, the self powering power plant, possibly the possibility to add it do the grid, and last but not least the possibbility to charge things. That could be a seperate part of electonics. As one of the things I had been thinking about is to allow to connect fuel cells to it. I prefer us in what already exist, so I would suggest using the following instructabels projects or learning from them:a Savonius Wind Turbine,Ted Baer's Bicycle Wheel Windmill, savonius windmill alternator,introPringles Wind Turbine,DIY 1000 watt wind turbine,A remote controlled power RGB LED mood light,Power LED's - simplest light with constant-current circuit,Circuits for using High Power LED's,personal powerPlant, ... others may follow laterLike for example the Charge Any USB Device by Riding Your Bike but then connected to the portable usb batteries, so they could be also connected to the central charge unit. The connectors could be usb connectors. I saw some time back a connector which had a 4 port usb block attached to it, but other connector types would be usable as well. In adition, it should be able to switch on automitcally when the sun goes down, but allow a control a button or remote control to trun them manually off, so that no needless electricity is wasted. I know this is a lott at once, but its more my kind of thing to work on more complete/complex systems. The lights that would be used with this would be led lights, powered a la sunjar, using the same technique. So that them turning off and on, is mostly controlled by the sun going up and down. My idea was that with such a system, I could add piece by piece, and still have light, and electricity indepency from the grid, and I would know the cost, so that once I would have bought the pieces it would generate electricty whitout to much further cost.Solarcells would typically provide 8V or 12 V, this could be smaller ones, the casing would be is supose made of plexiglas, with pieces that standup to keep them appart, and holes for the cables, and a backside, that stays dry as well. This is what is on the drawing: the solarcells feed into the sersol which puts them in not parallel and then transport the current to the cen1 which directs it to the batteries to store it. The same for the windmills. But they go to the windmills, which puts there current in not parallel. The powerreg, regulates the power of the personal power plant, it can discharge, but also just regulate. There is connector to the grid, so if there is no electricity or not enough electricity it can be taken from the grid. There is the possibillity of a remote, which would work in connection with the cen1. The batteries might need extra electronics to see which one is full and to divert the current to another battery, and to get current back to the powersockets which could be regular oens, but also preferably usb ones. The other two connections could be for for example fuel cells, or something else. The control solar cells is simply to turn the connected sunjars which may still each have there own solarcell, on or off by the rising or going down of the sunn. The remote, is to turn them off manually.The casing should be sturdy but not to expensive, it may have to include somethings to keep it right, but the idea is to be able to put them after glass as well. The idea is that the electronics design would be free, or very cheap, so that people can build this themselves, the casing shouldn't be to expensive but that can differ on taste, most parts or thing likes windmills would be the DIY type or possibly ones you can buy as well, and most parts would have to be, off the shelf. I'll try to add a basic drawing, and some sketches, to give you a better idea. I'm not that good at that, i'd admit.

Topic by Floris Vermeir   |  last reply


Solar Power Towers Efficiently Using Brayton Cycle

I want to point out a solar to electric generation concept that has yet to be seen anywhere, even though it originated back during the Carter Administration's ERDA programs of the late 70's. I’m talking about solar power towers that convert solar energy into electricity at the hundreds of mega-watt level. While power towers do exist today, and the world currently does have a handful of them as shown in Fig-1, none use the Brayton Cycle nor can they boast an energy conversion efficiency at the mid to upper thirty percent level.  A group of engineers got together at a think tank organization called Sanders Associates in Nashua, N.H., several decades ago, and designed a unique Brayton Cycle, 100 MW solar Power Tower concept for generating electricity. This was accomplished under ERDA (Energy Research Development Administration) who gave us a phase-2 follow-up contract that took our phase-1 design and built a working scale model at the 10 KW level. This model was tested at the Georgia Tech Solar Research Facility and "registered" ~37% electric solar conversion efficiency. The system used ambient air as its working fluid, and was to be located in open-spaced desert regions. Phase-2 was lost to competition using a closed-loop liquid sodium system that boiled water into superheated steam at 900F to run a turbine that generated ~21% overall electric conversion efficiency.  Apparently, at that time ERDA would rather haul water out to the desert than use ambient air to generate electricity? The politics of their decision is beyond reason and clashes with improving the world’s development of green technology energy.  ERDA shut out our better technological performer and safely locked it away for another day! ERDA's official reason for turning us down: "this technology uses excessively high temperatures (2500F versus 900F) that are dangerous to workman maintaining the equipment". But that was back in the 70’s, maybe we’ve learned to deal with high-temp heat by now?   Solar Energy Concept Using Low Pressure Storage Our solar power tower would collect the sun’s energy by locating its ceramic heat exchanger on top of a tall tower as shown in Fig-1. The tower was located in the center of a field of active sun-searching mirrors (heliostats, Figure-2). These mirrors reflected sunlight onto our ceramic honeycomb heat exchanger, producing a concentrated flux intensity level that heated it to around 2500F. At the same time, low pressure fans generating only a few psi pressure would suck the ambient air through the honeycomb, heating it to just under the 2500F and then passing it through energy storage silos which stored the heat down to ~150F. We purposely designed the energy storage charging phase of our hot air system to work at only a few psi above ambient as a safety feature. The sun effectively acts as the combustor of our jet engine or Brayton cycle engine. Once the sun heats the air, it passes through heat exchangers consisting of a labyrinth of underground silos that are temperature segregated. These silos receive our 2300F airflow and cool it down to about 150F, transferring this heat into solid salt containers which turn to liquid once they have absorbed sufficient heat. Figure-3 is a schematic of this underground energy storage facility and shows the airflow being heated by a fully charged set of silos containing liquid salt-bricks. This airflow direction is reversed when we charge the silo’s salt-bricks. The bricks are kept in specially insulated, high pressure silos (located underground for added insulation) that store the heat energy at one atmosphere for later use. These underground silos act as our energy storage batteries, and when needed would discharge their heat energy accordingly into the moving airflow. This energy storage concept permitted the generation of electricity at night and during overcast days. Two sets of storage systems are required for continuous operation. One would be charging at low pressure while the other is discharging at high pressure through the Brayton engine to generate electricity.   Electric Energy Generation at High Pressure Electricity would be created by turning an electric generator at high speed. The generator was turned by running a jet engine connected to it.  The engine’s combustor for heating the air is effectively the sun, hence the name Brayton cycle for generating our solar electricity (Figure-4). The heat from the molten salt containers would increase the energy of the high pressure air coming from the compressor, and would then force it through a typical turbine that turns this energy into high rotational speed to run the generator and make electricity. Our solar jet engine sucks in ambient air using its compressor, as all jet engines do, and blows it through a series of silos at high pressure whose stacked bricks are held at different temperature levels. We start our airflow through a silo held as low as 150F and work our way up to ~2300F as we pass through our last, hottest silo which acts to complete the effective solar combustion process. This air preheating technique dramatically improves our energy turnover capability and allowed us to convert solar energy into electricity at near 37% efficiency. During our electric energy generation phase, the silos of our Brayton system requires operating at many atmospheres of pressure just as in any jet engine combustor using petroleum-based JP-fuel.      

Topic by RT-101   |  last reply


What's the best way to store pedal & solar power into a battery bank?

I'm looking to power some blenders & other small devices with a battery bank & I want to store power in these batteries from pedaling bicycles & possibly solar power. Just need a little help on all of the essentials and how much power I will be able to garner through a system like this. Thanks!

Question by nicksisson   |  last reply


How can I construct a piezoelectric generator using cheap materials??

Hello! I am asking this because I need help in making my research project for my fourth year in high school. The concept of my research is to harvest energy from people stepping on something similar to stairs. after harvesting the energy, I plan on storing it in a pair of AA NiMH batteries for future storage, but I am still not sure on how I will go about this. As a high school student, I don't have any advance knowledge on making generators like you brilliant people do.  Please help me. Thank you!

Question by maxene   |  last reply


Options to improve cooling and reduce consumption for portable coolers

I recently had to start learning how to service airconditioners on the fast and that learning got me thinking about my portable coolers.... Some of us like to go camping or on longer fishing trips, so there might be one of those 3-way fridges in use or a better cmpressor model. The one thing they all have in common is that they can only cool down to a difference in ambient temperatures. No matter which way we turn it the cooling produces heat and that needs to get away somehow. The other big thing is the cooling cycling - or the lack of it on a warm day. After some reading and thinking I came up with some ideas that might be applicable to your existing cooler if you are willing to mess around a bit. Let's start with the produced heat, shall we? Down here in Australia most people either have the fridge in their4WD or camper. In a car or small camper trailer there is often the problem of airflow, so the cooler might be doing overtime for no other reason than a lack of airflow. If you check online sites like Amozon and Ebay you quickly find fan systems meant to be installed inside the cooler to get lower temperatures and a quicker cooling of fresh goods. The thing is that the box is quite well insulated and the benefit of the airflow goes only as far as it can reach. And even if the box is quite empty and you would have a benefit of the cold air moving around it won't change the fact that "improved" cooling always comes with more heat in this case. But if we use one of these fan systems to actually improve the airflow on the hot side we not only get better cooling but also a reduce power consumption - something worth considering if you have no backup power generator.... This of course brings us to placement. As I have done the mistake myself you might be tempted to put a 3way cooler onto your seat. Opening it with the back free means the lid always gets stuck on the seat, do it the other way around and you block the airflow. If you do put it on the seat then make sure two things match: 1. The thing is secured properly. 2. The airflow from your aircon is able to reach the hot side of the cooler. Even permanent installations in a camper benefit from a good airflow. Often the fridge or freezer is built into some sort of bench and the airflow behind might be very limited. A simple solution here is to add a vent on top of the bench to allow the hot air to escape. A better one is to use a fan that is powered together with the heating element or compressor and drives the hot air to the outside. How to improve the cold side of the box or fridge? Well, to be honest there is not much that can be done unless you are prepared for some serious work. Depending on compartment size, contents and how full it is a little fan can help to keep the temperatures even but it won't help to get it cooler or reduce the cycling periods for the cooling. The only really working way that I found is to use a "battery" for the storage of the cold. The cooling works by checking the inside temp of the box and if above the set temp the cooling won't stop. This is all well and good while we have a constant supply of power but once we are on batteries it would be great to keep the active time to a minimum. A working solution is to build a container that fits around the cooling element. Smaller types often use an aluminium heatsink, bigger types might come with a compressor and an evaporator. In either case proper sealing is important! Most good models are fully waterproof, meaning even if you would fill them with water they would not leak in other areas than the door. But double check and if in doubt use a bit of silicone to make sure. Ok, but how do we "store" the cold coming from the device? Cold packs ;) These things contain a ready to use mix that holds cold temperatures quite well. Another really good alternative is alcohol or radiator coolant, although the last has limited capabilites in terms of holding capaity for the cold as it is desinged to exchange heat fast rather than to keep it. With a suitable sized and sealed box around the active cooling element we will need longer to actually see any cooling happen (with a warm "battery") but that can be compensated for by good planning or a frozen water bottle. If the cooling element is covered with a box of cooling gel then it has to cool this first before anything happens inside the box. But once it does the pack is already far below the normal temp it would have during normal operation. Remember the inside of the cold pack cools down first before the outside will get cold ;) So once the set temperature is reached the device will shut off. But since the cold pack is far below the set temp it will continue to cool our box until the core is warmer than the set temp. Quick thinkers will now say the benefit is lost as the time required to cool the "battery" down again is much longer than the normal cycle time - and they would be correct. But as we get much colder temps inside the gel box the overall running will still be less compared to normal operation. And since from the second cycle on the gel is only warming up to operating temp of the box it will be much faster than with a warm box. Another benefit might be the ease of cleaning and ice removal. Some peltier driven coolers have big cooling fins or a quite bad design for the heatsink allowing mould to grow where you can't remove it easy. If the box is made from stainless steel and flush with the back wall of the box we won't have that problem anymore. Ok, but how much is good or too much for the size and gel content? You got me there as it is bit tricky. You don't want to loose much usable space for starters and you don't want to wait hours for the gel to cool down if the box was not used. IMHO the size should fit the cooling element with about 20% to spare all around. If stainless steel is not an option than aluminium is the next best choice. Thin sheets can either be be cold formed with a hammer or "brazed" with a good torch and the right rods. Ok, before that route is there anything I should consider or do first? Depends ;) 3-way systems usually use a flame or heating elements to heat an ammoia solution. After years of neglect corrosion can form and reduce the amount of heat transfered into the system and reducing the efficiency this way. It might help to take the heating elements out once a year or so to clean them and the contact areas from any corrosion or dirt build up. With a fixed shedule for this you won't have the problem of never noticing a badly corroded heating element either - and this is the main failure on these systems.... Modifying your camper or making a few mods to your 4WD drawer system is not for the faint of heart and should be done with consideration. The last thing you want to do is rush things to find out it was not necessary. Before cutting holes check if you can't find the room for the fan in a different spot and use ducts to control the airflow - sometimes it is easier to blow air in than to get air out ;) When it comes to creating vents or connections for air to the outside always make sure it is waterproof and insect safe! If you can let the outlet go downwards so water won't run in, for 4WD trailers consider a flap to prevent water from going during a river crossing. Flyscreens will not only prevent insects from coming in but on the inside also prevent dust to go eerywhere - allow to the removal and cleaning! The salts used in these cold packs can be corrosive, so you have to make sure there are no leaks and that there is no steel to come into contact with gel - this includes screw ends hidden in through-holes. If in doubt use a coat of paint but keep it as thin as possible. Even on peltier systems it might be impossible to remove the heatsink without massive surgery on the internals. So before you take it all apart to gain access check if it is far easier to seal around the box opening and possible screw connections using silicone. The cooling battery can be screwed on and sealed with silicone as well as an easy escape route. Although for this to work you need to check if the material of the box allows for a proper bond with the silicone! Some materials just won't allow anything to stick at all, even after sanding them. So do a test first in an area where you would be able to cut the silicone away without causing damage. If you can rip or peel it off the surface you should not try to use a cooling battery screwed to the wall, only use a box that is fully sealed with the cooling element and has a seperate back - one complete unit around the cooling element. I have a 3-way system with a freezer compartment that does the cooling for the fridge too - what can I do? These units either provide good freezing with the fridge temps too low or good fridge cooling with no freezing capabilites - depending on the thermostat used. Our problem is that is next to impossible to add a cooling battery of the normal kind to these systems. The L-shaped freezer box can really only be added with a L-shaped cooling battery from underneath. Only if you don't need any freezing at all you could add a cooling battery to fit into the freezer box shape. In either case the benefit is somehow limited by the way the thermostat is used. If there is no temp control for freezing it should be fine. Warnings... Only peltier driven coolers are free from refrigerants. Every 3-way or compressor system uses refrigerant as evident by more or less piping and heating elements. Never attempt to screw anything into a cooling element containing refrigerant! Even if you think between the channels all will be fine it won't be! The material is just pressed to form the channels and any damage caould mean refrigerant leaking out! Use silicone instead and make sure all surfaces are properly cleaned before applying it, also wait until the silicone is really fully cured before putting any stress on it. As said, these cooling gels can be corrosive, especially if DC voltage is involved. Make sure that everything that is not aluminum or plastic is properly sealed before allowing ongoing contact with cooling gels. Do not attempt any of this if you have to ask yourself what tools you might need or how make a suitable container for the gel. If in doubt check Google on how to work with aluminium or stainless steel if there are not enough Instructables for it. The gel will expand a little bit if it freezes, this no problem in a metal container if you allow for a bit of flex or on the side added strength  - whatever suits you better. Another option is to get a few different cold packs (by the active ingredient) and to do a check in a little container. Freeze it and note whe level cold and warm. Little to no difference means nothing to worry in terms of expansion during freezing.

Topic by Downunder35m 


I was given a 42uF 12KV oil capacitor. Any suggestions for having some high tech fun with it? Answered

It's rated for oscillatory currents, pretty old, but it is in good cond. electrically. I can easily and safely charge and discharge it. The thing is, it was free, and I suppose I couldn't turn it down. Now what? The highest voltage I would possibly need a filter cap for is 4500 for an amplifier, so that's out. The "oscillatory currents" rating makes me think it was for energy storage and high frequencies. It is likely from LANL surplus. Can crusher? disc launcher? I'm mainly interested in suggestions for projects that will focus on a fast discharge and high peak power levels, and do not require a lot of additional items, but I am open to any decent ideas.

Question by Opcom   |  last reply


can v store both diferent freqncies of dc frm solar and wind in a same storag batery and can we use sme invrtr for both?

I and my friends are doing a project on hybrid energy systems solar and wind combination my doubt is that can we combine both solar and wind power which is dc and of different  frequencies is there any equipment to convert them and store in same battery .do we have to keep a single inverter or double inverter so that we can reduce our project cost and make our project at cheaper rates at 350$. please help.

Question by shane.sandilya   |  last reply


Maintaining a stable voltage on a wind turbine?

Every couple weeks a new instructable comes up on some green energy thing or another, but one I am really interested in is wind.  The problem I see is that with wind ranges from 5 - 25 mph, the voltage change is extremely problematic.  When I see people putting permanent magnets on alternators for use with wind, it seems ridiculous.  Even if you are using an inefficient battery-storage off-grid system, you still need to maintain 12-15 volts to charge your battery, and an alternator is made to do that by varying the magnetic power.  Now I understand the extremes of a alternator's voltage regulator are likely fairly narrow, but still quite useful in generating wind energy.  What I am looking at is 3-5kw of grid-tied power.  This is great and all, and possible in for me, but I don't see how I could maintain a stable enough input for it to work.  Most inverters are for solar power and aren't grid tied. The next most common are grid tied solar which take 12v DC and scale it to 115 ac across three phases.  Finding a grid-tie 5kw 3 phase in and out ac grid tie inverter is extremely hard, but not impossible.  The only thing that is impossible is finding one that can handle highly unstable voltages.  So the options I am left with are using a variable transformer to bring the wind power down to 12v and then rectifying it, then pumping it through an inverter which leaves me with 70 - 80 % of the original power.  My other option is to, like a car alternator vary the rotor voltage to maintain the desired end voltage.  The one problem I see with this is that there is a large amount of potential energy not tapped.  For example lets use 1 as the relative output as well as the input to generate a magnetic field.  If the speed is 1 then both in and out are 1.  If the speed is 2 then the in will be .5 now the out should stay at 1.  But if the in had remained at 1, then the out would be 2 so essentially you are losing half of your potential energy.  This isn't a problem in cars because they aren't tapping the maximum power possible. All the time, they don't need it.  This is a problem with wind turbines, so is there a way around this?  What wold you recommend to do for grid-tied wind power.

Question by jj.inc   |  last reply


Is my understanding of capacitors correct? Answered

I am currently working on a "Tutorial Tuesdays" video for my YT channel about capacitors covering some of the basic theory, real-world ratings and considerations, and maybe some cool demonstrations with how to use them and stuff. I just want to make sure that I do understand them correctly,so hopefully you smarter people out there can tell me if I am wrong in any way. 1) A capacitor stores energy in a electric field between two electrically insulated conductive plates, the strength of which will depend on the proximity and surface area of the plates, the dielectric constant. 2) Can I compare "electric charge" to mass; "voltage" to density; and "capacitance" to volume as an analogy? (yes, I know I am ignoring dielectric constants and strengths.) 3) If I look at the peak to peak AC current through a capacitor, and the peak to peak AC voltage, can compare the ratio of the two figures to figure out capacitive reactance? (example: If I have one volt peak to peak AC applied across a capacitor, and I see 10mA of current peak to peak, does that mean the inductive reactance is 100 ohms?) 4) Are the most important things to keep in mind with capacitors in general are "working voltage" (the maximum voltage a cap can withstand), "capacitance" (how much charge a capacitor can store for some given voltage)  "ESR" Equivalent Series Resistance, which is how 'good' the capacitor is, and "temperature" (which can potentially adversely affect the performance and ratings of a capacitor)? 5)Uses for capacitors include Energy storage, analog filters, DC removal, voltage transient suppression, voltage smoothing, timing/counting AC coupling, data storage, phase shifting, motor starting, etc. 6) The ---| |---- symbol represents a generic non-polarized capacitor      The ---| (---- or --[] []-- (with one box colored in) symbol represents polarized capacitors    The ---|/|---- symbol (with a slash in the middle being a slanted arrow) represents variably capacitors 7) Should I try to learn how to work with complex impedance (capacitors, resistors, and inductors in all sorts of weird configurations) Also, can I treat reactance in general as a resistance when looking at capacitors in series or parallel with resistive loads and stuff?

Question by -max-   |  last reply


Scottish Island Stays off Grid - replaces diesels with 95% Green resources.

The Scottish island of Eigg (pronounced "Egg") has never had mains electricity, and has had to rely in expensive diesel generators for the power they do use.Devices that require 24/7 supplies, such as fridges, have been an unknown luxury.Today, though, that all changes:A renewable energy supply giving the Isle of Eigg power 24-hours-a-day has come online for the first time.The £1.6m system for the island in the Small Isles between Skye and the Ardnamurchan peninsula uses a mix of hydro, wind and solar power.It has been designed to generate more than 95% of Eigg's annual energy demand and is backed up by a battery storage system and two diesel generators.Residents have previously relied on diesel generators and hydro schemes.The dream of green power has taken 10 years to realise. A total of 45 households, 20 businesses and six community buildings on the island are linked together by six miles of buried cable that forms a high voltage network.The whole project was organised by the community themselves - at the switch-on ceremony (in the local tea shop), the island's children gathered round a candle-lit map of the island and blew the candles out as the power came on.Before the switch-on:homes were powered by diesel, wind or hydro-generatorselectricity was unreliable and restricted to certain hourssome residents went without washing machines and vacuum cleanersthe noise from the generators could be heard for milesDiesel was delivered by boat but services sometimes cancelledBBC News storyBBC Magazine article, with comments.

Topic by Kiteman   |  last reply


The Eco Powerplant

  Creating a Permanent IcePack in the Eastern Sierra A permanent Ice pack in a north south valley of the Carson Basin could insure constancy of water supply to Fallon area farmers and ranchers. Creating a permanent icepack in Northern Nevada is technologically and economically feasible, given the right location . This project will be solar powered, and serve as a peaking unit during times of high electrical demand. This technology will produce energy from solar by PV Panels mounted on a giant spanning grid over a north south valley in the eastern Sierra. A properly excavated mine could also serve as a location. Proximity to gas distribution and an electrical sub line are also important . This facilities' economic importance as a producer of LNG from surplus stock cannot be overstated. The upper part of the oval consists of a space grid spanning the valley or excavation. It is covered with steerable PV panels. The PV panels may be inserted into the grid or used to create liquid air , which in turn can be used to produce LNG. The thermal energy storage as liquid air would be contained underground in the mountainside itself.In Northern Nevada, these mountains are usually solid rock formations imbedded in sandy detritus, an excellent insulating material. Vast amounts of wind power are also available during spring and summer.   During summer peak demand, liquid air could be re expanded to run generators.   And most importantly , this plant will produce as a by product of its operation large amounts of water in the desert by freezing the ground on which it operates. Wet air passing over an expanse of frozen mountain rock will condense, and either form ice or rain. The production and maintenance of a liquid air production and re-expansion facility will also produce large amounts of water during times of high humidity.   Suitable locations in the Eastern Sierra would by necessity by close to either the Truckee or Carson River Basin.    

Topic by Mud Stuffin 


Attempting to create tiny, wearable, covert, simple button click counter for behavioral mod

Hi all, I've been searching both this forum and the internet in general and strangely have not come across what I'm looking to do even though to me it seems very simple. Here are the specifications/requirements of the device that I am trying to create: -extremely tiny form factor (ideally a ring sized device but I'll settle for a thin bracelet) -unobtrusive/inconspicuous (I guess a thin bracelet that could hide under a sleeve might be best) -battery powered/untethered (This is essential. The device would be useless if depended on a connection to a computer or wall socket) -battery life must last a full day -data logged is just a simple time/day stamp that would indicate when a button was clicked by the wearer      (wearer would manually click the button during the day when certain thoughts came up for him/her)       This requirement indicates that the micro controller chosen would need a clock built in and        some kind of storage - be able to upload the data to a computer I did my preliminary research considering these requirements and I came up with the following electronic components that might work: - teensy 3 (has real time clock and 2K EEPROM which should be plenty of memory for storing date stamps) - ulog (1MB of usable space across 3 analog channels, couldn't find anything about a built in clock) - Pro Micro - 3.3V/8MHz (not sure about built in real clock  but storage is 32K flash space) - OpenLog (wasn't clear about how much built in storage and didn't see any build in real time clock) These are the best I could find. If anyone has better suggestions please let me know? My idea is to connect a Mini Push Button Switch to one of the digital inputs on one these micro controllers/data loggers and write a simple sketch that records the time the button was pushed in a MMDDYYhhmm format (10 bytes per click). To power any of these micro controllers/data loggers I was planning to use a Coin Cell Battery - 12mm. I was going to sew the micro controllers/data loggers on one side of a thin piece of material that would serve as a bracelet and sew the battery on the other side. Although I'm not sure how to fix the battery to the cloth and how to connect it to the micro controllers/data loggers. I'm guessing I could find some kind of battery holder for the 12mm cell battery? Other Questions about my assumptions: Will I have enough storage left over on the flash space or EEPROM to store the data click after the sketch code has been loaded in? Will a watch battery provide enough energy to run this device all day? Is the Coin Cell Battery - 12mm the correct external power source for this project? I encourage any feed back, criticism, comments, help of any kind to move me along with this preparation so that I can move forward and purchase the parts I need. Thanks! Michael

Topic by mhussar   |  last reply


DIY DVR (PVR ?)

No, not the mythTV variety, but the real deal. I've been messing with uCLinux on various chip, which led to a vague daydream that I sketched out on the train today. These are my notes on a personal DVR. I say personal because its design for MY needs, and not the typical user. It also happens that no commercial DVR will meet these specs without being mired in lawsuits (see replayTV). Why an embedded solution and not MythTV? I've had mythtv boxes, they can be a lot of fun, and a lot of frustration. Mostly, I don't have room for a second computer, I don't want to use a ton of energy to record a few programs, and no matter where it ends up in my apartment, I will be able to hear it at night. MyDVR: I already watch all my TV on the computer. Either by TV tuner or Xvid. I don't need a Tivo style DVR that will play back content on a TV with a nice menu display. I need a mass storage device that records TV shows. I want Xvid. MPEG2 is huge. Its also kinda ugly. I really really like the look of the XVID codec. It takes a reasonable amount of space for a decent encode (~178 meg per ~20 minutes HDTV). I want multiple tuners...I mean, what if there are two (or five) programs to record simultaneously? Basic design: A motherboard with 32 bit CPU running uClinux (probably a chip from Freescale). These usually have USB and an ethernet MAC (but no PHY). USB 2.0 mass storage device emulation on the USB port. This way the unit can be hooked up to a PC for easy video extraction. This might also have some configuration abilities, but that would require a custom mass storage controller driver - YUCK! Ethernet with HTTP server for show scheduling. IDE interface to a big hard drive. The tuners and encoders would be on add-in cards. The add-in cards would have: 1. A tv tuner. 2. A DSP with xvid encoding. 3. Probably a small uC to control the DSP and tuner. Whats already in my knowledge domain (stuff that I already know about -or- could I really do it?): 1. I've been messing with uClinux for a while. What fun. 2. USB mass storage controller implementations are numerous. check. 3. Embedded HTTP server - check. But I have not routed a PCB using an external PHY. This looks messy. Perhaps a ENC28J60 instead? 4. I've been reading up on some XVID DSP implementations. There are also some commercial MP4 chips, but I bet they're pricey! 5. I picked up a bare PAL tuner at the surplus shop. Time to play. There are a few things that make this project easier than a Tivo clone. There is no video output. No need to do fancy display overlays synced to the incoming/decoding video stream. This is encode only - no need to load, decode, and display the XVID. I'm kinda testing the waters on this project. I'm going to get some DSPs and try to do real-time XVID compression. Also, I need to figure out the tuner card. Any suggestions within the scope of this project would be awesome! Especially if you've worked with uClinux and have a processor recommendation.

Topic by ian   |  last reply


Setting up a new apartment, what would you do?

Greetings all, I am soon to move to South Korea and will be sharing a bachelor with my wife on her ESL teaching contract.  I would like to see how many instructables we can take advantage of while there and want to get input from this totally awesome community and what they have used/would suggest to use. Our Goals: - Reduce energy use - Increase healthy environment/food/liquid intake - make best use of small area - nothing permanently altering structure of apartment. Example: The first problem we have to overcome is the problem of a single bed.  While it is easy to say 'just go out and buy a double or an air mattress'.  The problem is that we have to keep the original bed and have zero storage space.  The idea that I found which could potentially help through the use of a Loft Bed instructable which would help us 'lift' the single bed out of our way and allow use to effectively use it for any guest that may stay over as well as get a bigger bed into the apartment. I also saw a really neat instructable using Tesla CD-Turbine and thought maybe there may be some useful electricity to be gained since there is no water bill. Also any number of various LED projects for lights and such. I used this instructable for water filtering at home and will do so while in Korea. Any other ideas would be welcomed!

Topic by DragonDon   |  last reply


FREE DOWNLOAD 1915 ELECTRICITY FOR THE FARM

This is not a scan of the original book, but the original book converted to text with OCR, and strictly proof read with QC controls. Thus the charts, formulas can be copied and pasted into something else.  www.gutenberg.org/etext/27257   ELECTRICITY FOR THE FARM LIGHT, HEAT AND POWER BY INEXPENSIVE METHODS FROM THE WATER WHEEL OR FARM ENGINE BY FREDERICK IRVING ANDERSON AUTHOR OF "THE FARMER OF TO-MORROW," ETC., ETC. New York THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1915   PREFACE This book is designed primarily to give the farmer a practical working knowledge of electricity for use a slight, heat, and power on the farm. The electric generator, the dynamo, is explained in detail; and there are chapters on electric transmission and house-wiring, by which the farm mechanic is enabled to install his own plant without the aid and expense of an expert.    With modern appliances, within the means of the average farmer, the generation of electricity, with its unique   conveniences,   becomes   automatic,   provided   some   dependable   source   of   power   is   to   be had—such as a water wheel, gasoline (or other form of internal combustion) engine, or the ordinary windmill. The water wheel is the ideal prime mover for the dynamo in isolated plants. Since water-power is running to waste on tens of   thousands of our   farms throughout   the country,   several chapters are devoted to this phase of the subject: these include descriptions and working diagrams of weirs and other simple devices for measuring the flow of streams; there are tables and formulas by which any one, with a knowledge of simple arithmetic, may determine the power to be had from falling water under given conditions; and in addition, there are diagrams showing in general the method of construction of dams, bulkheads,   races, flumes, etc.,   from materials usually to be found on a farm. The tiny unconsidered brook that waters the farm pasture frequently possesses power enough to supply the farmstead with clean,   cool,   safe   light   in place of   the dangerous,   inconvenient oil   lamp;   a   small   stream capable of developing from twenty-five to fifty horsepower will supply a farmer (at practically no expense beyond the original cost of installation) not only with light, but with power for even the heavier farm operations, as threshing; and in addition will do the washing, ironing, and cooking, and at the same time keep the house warm in the coldest weather. Less than one horsepower of energy will light the farmstead; less than five horsepower of energy will provide light and small power, and take the drudgery out of the kitchen.   For those not fortunate enough to possess water-power which can be developed, there are chapters on the use of the farm gasoline engine and windmill,   in connection with the modern storage battery, as sources of electric current.   www.gutenberg.org/etext/27257

Topic by Lateral Thinker 


Very Small Scale Power Generation in Developing World

Hello Everyone, I volunteer for a non-profit which distributes solar lanterns primarily to students as well as people who are in need of the lights.  Things have been going well but a lot of people have inquired about us providing access to a higher powered version for various reasons and we've noticed that some households go back to their old ways when the lanterns don't receive enough sun during the day.  Temporarily we are solving the problem by having local entrepreneurs charge batteries for the families for a small fee but we feel that this should not be a permanent solution. It's not the price that's the issue it's that sometimes the people have to walk for a number of kilometers to get to the nearest charging station or have to cross dangerous terrain (I have personally experienced this). Over the last 3 years we have helped over 5000 families by giving them solar lights so we would like to modify all those units to have more stable energy generation. Our current version has an output of 5 watts. We are looking to buy or build a unit which produces a maximum 8wh an hour until the fuel source runs out or something that can generate in a more slower rate such as 40wh in 16 hours so we can let it run overnight and have the power stored in a battery. We are primarily a donation driven group so something with low cost and maintenance would be really great.  We highly subsidize the price to a large percentage of the households but we also provide them free for the lowest 10% of households who can't even afford the lowered price. I personally think that something which can generate electricity from hydrocarbons due to their high energy density and easy access would be ideal but I'm not an engineer so what do I know.  I'm not sure if this helps in any way but a number of years ago we transitioned a large number of houses from wood fired stoves to gas and as all the families that we help actually have access to gas I was wondering if any good technology exists where electricity can be generated by gas that can meet the low cost and maintenance criteria.  I've looked into thermoelectric generators but they are really inefficient and people will be wasting money to heat their house in a country where average temperatures are in the 30'sC I also see a future issue regarding battery degradation as we use small lead acid batteries and while thinking of a way to solve this I came up with the following idea and is one of the reasons that I'm posting on instructables. What if a pedal powered flywheel generator was built with a 200W generating capacity and 40Wh worth of 'storage'.  When you pedal you will spin up the flywheel and it will store the energy until you need the electricity again and we could also wire up the solar panel that we already use to spin up the flywheel.  So when the sun is out the panel is used and on rainy days and during the night you pedal for a couple of minutes for one hour of lights.  If the flywheel can store the energy for a number of hours then someone could pedal for a couple of minutes at a time throughout the day and not have to do it at night. This is just an idea that I came up with and if anyone has any ideas I'll be really interested in knowing about it (obviously the above solution is not ideal because they have to put some work into generation but it's the best that I can do).  I've quite recently been looking into different types of fuel cells powered by m/ethanol and others like solid oxide cells and they seem interesting (does anyone here have any experience in building these type of cells?).  This community has a lot of intelligent members who think outside the box so I'm confident that we can come up with something. This ended up being a bit longer than expected and if you've read this far, thank you. I wasn't sure about what section to post this in, square peg is the one I chose out of 5 so if this is wrong please feel free to move it to the correct section. Help and advice will be very much appreciated. Kindest Regards

Topic by ragun8   |  last reply


The K'nex Innovations Challenge (KIC) - Round 1 (UPDATES, PLEASE READ)

Seeing as a lot of interest in the challenge has been expressed, the judges and I have decided to host this round now. This round's chosen topic is: Weapons Any weapons are permitted for posting, so long as:  -They are functional - all guns must fire.  -They are your own design - this means that no modifications of other guns will be accepted.  -They are posted between the deadline times. Any posted outside these times will not be accepted. It is also not acceptable to re-post.  -They are posted on the site in the form of an Instructable, Slideshow, or Video. The more detailed your submission is, the more likely we are to understand your submission. Please use correct english and annotate where appropriate - we are judging on many criteria!  -They only use K'nex pieces, rubber bands (or other means of elastic potential energy storage) string and tape. Cut pieces are permitted, but do take into account that more cut pieces won't get you better marks. We are trying to maximise the potential of K'nex, not mutilate our pieces! Please post your entries at any time from: 12:00 Midday GMT September 1st and no later than: 12:00 Midday GMT October 1st.   (Central American Time = 6:00 AM) Entries will not be accepted if they are posted beyond the deadline, no exceptions. To submit your entry, post an Instructable, Slideshow or Video of your weapon, titled "KIC Entry: - " You must post a link to me on this forum topic, or via Private Message. Judging will commence immediately following the final deadline. The top 20 highest-scoring entries will qualify for round 2. Please use this topic for general discussion and submission - no spam please, it makes judging and entry accepting much harder. You have one month. Good luck! List of Entries: Beanieostrich Seleziona Masterdude KnexFreak360 rec0n EDIT: Thanks to a suggestion from TheDunkis and Dj Radio, I am allowing teams to work on a single project in order to share ideas and optimise the weapon.

Topic by The Jamalam   |  last reply


Throwies reimagined - Really I did tried :) :| :/

Seeing other forms of making interactive throwies, eg using microchips impresses me.However i think it is important that we try parts of the B.E.A.M philosophyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BEAM_roboticsNamely keeping things simple, and avoiding the use of microprocessor.The component of a interactive throwie is that it has1. Power storage2. Trigger3. Circuit4. LED5. (optional) Power collection of radiant energy.I like to see more suggestion on ways we can address each issues.But to kick start the issue, can you see if my idea is feasible.essentially for my prototype not-yet throwie, I used a circuit from http://unconventional-airsoft.com/2003/11/16/momentary-fan-switch/#more-21to create a throwie that on sensing motion, doesn't flicker but turns on for a while.By ensuring that i use few and simple componants, i hope to keep cost per throwing down.Unfortunately my problem is that using a resistor to keep the capacitor from draining too fast from the base, actually decreases the voltage drop to an unacceptable level at the led.On my end it is unsolvable for the moment. Maybe you can work out how to make a cheap throwie, that can still do these functions or more.Any ideas how to solve this?Other Ideas for throwies1.Open and attach a switch to a barometer, to have a air presser passive trigger.2. A leave shaped pad with two conductors that do not touch, to act as rain sensors. (Resistance increase when leaf dries)3. Is sensitive to infrared radiation from side, so that the throwie is trigger-able by other activated throwies. (As well infrared devices)4. Has a short loop of coil to recharged capacitors, by outside induction.5. If activated rarely, uses a tiny single solar cell to charge capacitor.6. Has a hook to be easily collected for recycling. (Using a simple loop of wire on a pole [Like a dog catcher pole] )7. A single thermistors in series with led.8. A tricolour LED, and a Two light resistor. One LDR acts to sense if it is day an night, if night a low power light is activated. Only when an object strays near, and reflect light into another LDR, does the throwie get triggered at all.9. A throwie triggered by vibration.10. A throwie that responds to radio waves.

Topic by akimbo m   |  last reply


Acer laptop, what mother board does it use?

 I have a acer aspire 5542, And would like to know the mother broad it uses Thanks for your help Brand Acer Model Aspire 5542 Operating system Windows 7 Home Premium 64 Bit Processor / Graphics AMD Athlon II Dual-Core M300 2.00 GHz ATI Mobility Radeon HD 4200 Series Memory 4 GB Dual-Channel DDR2 SDRAM 667 MHz Hard drive SATA 500 GB HDD 5400 rpm Display / Resolution 15.6-inch HD 1366×76 resolution high brightness Acer CineCrystal TFT LCD, 16:9 aspect ratio, 8 ms response time, 60% color gamut Removable Storage 8X DVD-Super Multi double-layer drive Wireless Support Atheros AR5B93 Wireless Network Adapter 802.11 n, b, g Communications Broadcom NetLink Gigabit Ethernet, HDAUDIO Soft Fax Modem with SmartCP, Acer Video Conferencing with Integrated Acer Crystal Eye Webcamer featuring 640×480 resolution, Bluetooth 2.1 Input Devices Full-size keyboard including number pad, Synaptics touchpad with Multi-Gesture support Power 6-cell Li-ion with up to 3 hours of battery life Accessories Extra battery, external USB floppy, extra AC adapter Security software/features Acer Backup Manager1, Acer Bio-Protection1, Acer eRecovery Management, McAfee® Internet Security Suite 2009 Trial, MyWinLocker®, Nortonâ„¢ Online Backup Other Software Acer Arcadeâ„¢ Deluxe featuring Acer CinemaVisionâ„¢ and Acer ClearVisionâ„¢ technologies, Acer Crystal Eye, Acer GridVistaâ„¢, Acer Launch Manager, Adobe® Flash® Player, Adobe® Reader®, EarthLink®1, eSobiâ„¢, Google Toolbarâ„¢, Microsoft® Works with Office Home and Student 2007 Trial, NetZero®, NTI Media Makerâ„¢, Oberon GameZone, WildTangent® Memory card reader Media Card Reader supporting SD, MMC, RS-MMC, MS, MS Pro, xD Accessible memory slots 2 slots Maximum Memory Expansion Up to 4 GB Ports Headphone/speaker/line-out jack with S/PDIF support, Microphone-in jack, Line-In jack, Ethernet (RJ-45) port, Modem (RJ-11) port, DC-in jack for AC adapter Additional Ports None Audio Dolby®-optimized surround sound system with two built-in stereo speakers, Optimized 3rd Generation Dolby Home Theater® audio enhancement, featuring Dolby® Digital Live, Dolby® Pro Logic® IIx, Dolby® Headphone, Dolby® Natural Bass, Dolby® Sound Space Expander, Dolby® Audio Optimization, Dolby® High Frequency Enhancer technologies10, True 5.1-channel surround sound output High-definition audio support S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface)11 support for digital speakers, MS-Sound compatible Built-in microphone ENERGY STAR Qualified Energy Star 5.0 Weight 6.16 lbs (2.8 kg) with battery Dimension 15.1 x 9.9 x 1.03 to 1.5 inches, 383 x 250 x 26 to 37 mm Thinness 1.03 to 15 inches, 26 to 37 mm Network Card Broadcom NetLink Gigabit Ethernet, HDAUDIO Soft Fax Modem with SmartCP PC Card Slot None Webcam Acer Crystal Eye Webcamera featuring 640×480 resolution Multimedia and Entertainment Acer Arcadeâ„¢ Deluxe featuring Acer CinemaVisionâ„¢ and Acer ClearVisionâ„¢ technologies, Acer Crystal Eye, Adobe® Flash® Player, NTI Media Makerâ„¢, Oberon GameZone, WildTangent® Warranty Limited 1-year and 90 day warranty options available depending on country, 1-year limited warranty on primary battery. Optional HP Care Pack Services extended warranty

Question by andreblue 


need ideas on greenhouse

Hi there,I live in Boston, MA and I am looking for some advice on Greenhouse construction for winter gardening only (and vegetables that are appropriate for that as well). I am looking to build a greenhouse that I can put up in the fall and take down in the spring for growing a winter garden. It will have to be able to be taken apart into its components and stored in a shed in summer months since my family has no need for it then. Due to the fact that it will be used in the winter, it will have to be highly insulated and have a heat sink that will be able to help maintain a constant growing temperature for the plants inside. Ideally I would like to avoid expending much energy heating the greenhouse. I am, of course, also doing this on a budget. Here is what I have come up with so far. 1. I will use triple-wall or 5 wall polycarbonate panels for the walls of the greenhouse2. I have found a few insulating products that look like they could be useful3. I am thinking of using a solar collector water heater as part of the heat sink- easy to construct on my own : https://www.instructables.com/id/Solar-Thermal-Water-Heater-For-Less-Than-Five-Doll/ that could circulate hot water into the heat sink4. I am learning about heat sinks and thinking that I want to use the simplest design and organic materials (mud, rocks, or water) to hold the heat during the day and release it at night.5. The greenhouse footprint can’t be larger than 8’ x 10’ 6. I prefer the simplest construction that meets my needs (and the easiest to put up and take down)Questions that I have:1. What are the possibilities for using compost as a source of heat?2. What about a PVC frame?3. How would I circulate hot water through the heat sink?4. What are methods to reduce daily management of the project?5. Types of hinges to use?6. What type of material should I place the greenhouse on?- it will be sited on the concrete area around our swimming pool and I don’t know what sort of insulation is necessary after that. I had the idea of wood pallets with insulation inside them but that may not be enough at all.7. Any ideas of ways to re-use materials to do this cheaply and reduce waste?8. Any suggestions on the optimal shape of the greenhouse roof/sides to increase heat retention and circulation of warmer air.9. Any suggestions of retailers that might have the materials that I am looking for.Some links that have been useful so far:http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/solar-gh.html#storagehttp://growerssupply.com/farm/supplies/cat1;gs1_greenhouse_building_materials;gs1_corrugated_sheets_panels.html

Topic by ocea46   |  last reply


building winter greenhouse.... need ideas

Hi there,I live in Boston, MA and I am looking for some advice on Greenhouse construction for winter gardening only (and vegetables that are appropriate for that as well). I am looking to build a greenhouse that I can put up in the fall and take down in the spring for growing a winter garden. It will have to be able to be taken apart into its components and stored in a shed in summer months since my family has no need for it then. Due to the fact that it will be used in the winter, it will have to be highly insulated and have a heat sink that will be able to help maintain a constant growing temperature for the plants inside. Ideally I would like to avoid expending much energy heating the greenhouse. I am, of course, also doing this on a budget. Here is what I have come up with so far. 1. I will use triple-wall or 5 wall polycarbonate panels for the walls of the greenhouse2. I have found a few insulating products that look like they could be useful3. I am thinking of using a solar collector water heater as part of the heat sink- easy to construct on my own : https://www.instructables.com/id/Solar-Thermal-Water-Heater-For-Less-Than-Five-Doll/ that could circulate hot water into the heat sink4. I am learning about heat sinks and thinking that I want to use the simplest design and organic materials (mud, rocks, or water) to hold the heat during the day and release it at night.5. The greenhouse footprint can’t be larger than 8’ x 10’ 6. I prefer the simplest construction that meets my needs (and the easiest to put up and take down)Questions that I have:1. What are the possibilities for using compost as a source of heat?2. What about a PVC frame?3. How would I circulate hot water through the heat sink?4. What are methods to reduce daily management of the project?5. Types of hinges to use?6. What type of material should I place the greenhouse on?- it will be sited on the concrete area around our swimming pool and I don’t know what sort of insulation is necessary after that. I had the idea of wood pallets with insulation inside them but that may not be enough at all.7. Any ideas of ways to re-use materials to do this cheaply and reduce waste?8. Any suggestions on the optimal shape of the greenhouse roof/sides to increase heat retention and circulation of warmer air.9. Any suggestions of retailers that might have the materials that I am looking for.Some links that have been useful so far:http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/solar-gh.html#storagehttp://growerssupply.com/farm/supplies/cat1;gs1_greenhouse_building_materials;gs1_corrugated_sheets_panels.html

Topic by ocea46   |  last reply


Distribution of Solar Heated Water and Any Other Heated or Cooled Water

I started this project about a week ago after seeing the Instructable – https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-build-a-strikeheliostatstrike-paraboliI made mine out of cardboard and then coated the cardboard – front and back – with fiberglass resin for stiffness. I covered the inside with tinfoil to test it out and find the focal point. It worked great with the focal point at the center of the dish even with the lip of the curve. I then removed the tinfoil and replaced the tinfoil with mirrored Plexiglas. Now it works awesome. I have a 30� parabolic mirror that can ignite wood almost instantaneously at the focal point of the light.Next I constructed the heating coil to run water through. This is made from a large 1 Kg coffee can, 16’ of ¼� copper tubing with end fittings, and the glass lid of a small sauce pan (handle removed). The outside of the coffee can is painted flat black as is the copper pipe. The copper pipe is coiled to a coil 4� in diameter and 6� in length and inserted inside the can with the ends extending from the side of the can through two drilled holes. The inside of the can is not painted, but left shiny. The glass lid is then taped over the hole with aluminum metal tape covering a minimum amount of the glass – about 1/4� around the edge.The coffee can is then suspended over the mouth of the parabolic mirror by a three point 6� chimney pipe stand-off. The can’s mouth is centered at the focal point of the mirror so all of the light being reflected by the mirror must enter the coffee can. Hoses are hooked up to the copper pipe fittings and these lines go to the feed/storage tank.The problem with the conventional set up from here is that the speed the water moves at (slow) to be heated to a great degree causes such great loses through convection, this system is not really feasible. I propose a new idea – or a new twist on an old idea.I noticed that the solar heat generating station use a black water pipe inside a glass vacuum tube to generate heat from the sun for heating water. I said to myself that this is a great idea and plan on building the next heating coil in a vacuum chamber. But, I also came up with the idea that the if the water is heated in this manner, why can’t it be transferred to the storage tank in a similar manner.If the feed lines were suspended inside a larger outer line and the outer line sealed tight and vacuumed the heat transfer due to convection would be almost nil. I estimated that with a total convective area at 100% the use of plastic stand-offs (8 @1/8� thick over 12’) the convective area would be reduced to 0.6%. Unbelievable! Even if this rose to 5% it is far beyond anything in use today by the home owner. Stretches of pipe going 100s of meters would no longer be un-heard of. You could place the dish in a close by field away from the trees and house and pump the heat back without losing it to the ground.This would also work for outdoor wood furnaces if use today. An outer pipe could be added over the existing pipe work, sealed, and vacuumed – almost all heat lose would be gone. And much larger stretches of pipe could be used here also. They would no longer need one furnace for the barn and another for the house. With this system, the pipes could even be run above ground, if desired, in some cases.This could also be used to replace insulation on cooling lines also.The key to the system is minimal contact between the inside and outside lines, and the vacuum between the two lines. Remember, there is no transfer of heat through convention within a vacuum, because there is no air for the heat to transfer through.As with all the new ideas this could get costly depending on the scale of piping you are dealing with – but the savings from reduced heat lose will far out way these cost in the near future.I may get an Instructable out for the Energy efficiency contest, but will be hard pressed.

Topic by strmrnnr   |  last reply


Record Solar Powered Flight

UK-built solar-powered plane has set an unofficial world endurance record for a flight by an unmanned aircraft.The Zephyr-6, as it is known, stayed aloft for more than three days, running through the night on batteries it had recharged in sunlight.The flight was a demonstration for the US military, which is looking for new types of technology to support its troops on the ground.Craft like Zephyr might make ideal platforms for reconnaissance.They could also be used to relay battlefield communications.Chris Kelleher, from UK defence and research firm QinetiQ, said Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer advantages over traditional aircraft and even satellites."The principal advantage is persistence - that you would be there all the time," he told BBC News. "A satellite goes over the same part of the Earth twice a day - and one of those is at night - so it's only really getting a snapshot of activity. Zephyr would be watching all day." The latest flight was conducted at the US Army's Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona.The Zephyr flew non-stop for 82 hours, 37 minutes.That time beats the current official world record for unmanned flight set by the US robot plane Global Hawk - of 30 hours, 24 minutes - and even Zephyr's own previous best of 54 hours achieved last year.However, the Yuma mark remains "unofficial" because QinetiQ did not involve the FAI (Federation Aeronautique Internationale), the world air sports federation, which sanctions all record attempts.The US Department of Defense funded the demonstration flight under its Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) programme. The 30kg Zephyr was guided by remote control to an operating altitude in excess of 18km (60,000ft), and then flown on autopilot and via satellite communication.It tested a communications payload weighing approximately 2kg.At first sight, the propeller-driven Zephyr looks to be just another model aircraft, and it is even launched by hand. But this "pilotless" vehicle with its 18-metre wingspan incorporates world-leading technologies.Its structure uses ultra-lightweight carbon-fibre material; and the plane flies on solar power generated by amorphous silicon solar arrays no thicker than sheets of paper. These are glued over the aircraft's wings.To get through the night, the propellers are powered from lithium-sulphur batteries which are topped up during the day."A lot of effort has gone into power storage and light-weighting the systems," explained Mr Kelleher. "Lithium sulphur is more than double the energy density of the best alternative technology which is lithium polymer batteries. The engineers from the Farnborough-based company are now collaborating with the American aerospace giant Boeing on a defence project codenamed Vulture.This would see the biggest plane in history take to the sky, powered by the sun and capable of carrying a 450-kilo (1,000lb) payload.US commanders say the design must be able to maintain its position over a particular spot on the Earth's surface uninterrupted for five years. QinetiQ is the public company that used to be the British Government's military research department, before they privatised it.BBC articleQinetiQ's page on Zephyr

Topic by Kiteman   |  last reply


Repulsine - the great mystery...

Even before the repulsine saw some attention during WW2 there were sightings of what we know call the classic UFO shape.Be it in Austria, Poland or other places in Europe, people reported weird disk like thing with a dome flying around.What leaked in images and documents after the war shoed that the repulsine looked basically identical to what people saw as a UFO in the sky over big parts of Europe.Then again, the repulsine appearently never made it a usable stage, same for most jet fighters at the time and still they flew around...If we now just take it for granted that actual test flights really happened back then you might wonder why we did not see any after the war anymore.For most critics it is a simple sign of facts and "confirms" that the replusine might have been a nice idea but never anything that really left the ground.As said, I often like to dig deeper and in this case the digging took far more years than what I planned on.I can not provide any solid proof for the following but I am sure even a sceptic will come to similar conclusions after reading it.Try to find some "eye witness" reports from people who saw the so called "Roswell UFO".Yes the one that made Area51 so secret and famous...Reports can be boiled down to some essential features of the hull, for those who saw it proof that it is alien.Three distinct round shpes on the underside, like you add the bottom of an egg to a round disk.Said disc of the bottom was also shaped like a wing, or the flying disk toys our kids like to play with.On the other side the shape grew up like a half shphere with an added cone or round top on it.On these area they claimed to have see engine outlets or similar and appearently the top cone was spinning in another direction than the rest of the UFO.Now I am no expert for Roswell but if I leave area and time out then I could have been fooled to think these people discribed exactly the same thing people saw a few year eariel flying over Europe.The Roswell UFO was not from another world, just stolen from the looser of a really bad war.What was seen was a working Repulsine, be it an original or something the US created from the 5 prototypes that disappeared after the war.Ha, ha, good one, then why don't we saw them flying after this anymore?Well, for starters it was a testflight gone wrong.Presumable it was planned to be limited to Area51 but the pilot lost control.Considering the Nazies appearently did their best to kill everyone involved in the project before the aliies arrived it is no big surprise.What that test flight would have shown is the impossible manouvers people already witnessed over Europe.90° or more turns at full speed instead of making a turn like a plane, sudden changes in alitude as well as accelleration on a level that makes even modern rockets blush.And if it really was the first bigger testflight they did it explains the big secrecy about the Roswell incident and what followed and created Area51 as we knew it.A "weapon" capable of these things would mean total dominance and options to impove planes and more.So why did they not even do that - or did they?The repulsine was created based on what we call today fringe- or pseudo- sience.If there is only one peroson, or a few that can even understand the claimed working principles that it can't be science as we know it.So, lets take a look what things were already heavily used in the repulsine that "we" claim to have developed or discovered decades later.Coanda effect.When air travels over a surface then it will follow the surface.You can try this with paper strips and blowing on them as well as a stream of water and some shaped objects.Long known but never found any real use until the military picked it up.For example air inlets were then developed to utilise the coanda effect.Remember how a lot of them these days look like a ducted fan housing?The round and slightly conical shape of the inlet will actually act like an airfoil and provide lift - of pulls forward in the direction of the air flow direction of the engine.I supercars we use it to create more downforce and better aerodynamics.Venturi effect.Again a very old one but funny enough also a major factor to make a jet engine work.Tesla turbine.In the Repulsine the rotating copper disks acted like a huge Tesla turbine by using a similar effect.The space between the disks got smaller and smaller towards the outer perimiter.Due to the fast rotation the molecules were accelerated and this created a partial vacuum.We use these principles today for specail vacuum pumps but also in military applications.Harmonics.Without harmonics and resonance the Repulsine would have been impossible.And at a first glance it seems we never made any use from that bit of the machine.Then why do we design exhaust systems in such a way than already the extractors ensure a pump like action and controlled backflow?The sound a good exhaust makes is also based on using the harmonics created by the explosions in the cylinders and expanding gasses.We learned that it is far more efficient to use harmonics and resonance in an exhaust system from somehwere ;)Plasma.The repulsine was said to have emitted a bright glow during certain movements or speeds.To create plasma we need a lot of energy, not so much however if the plasma is a by-product anyways.We learned that a high enough voltage differencial in a vacuum can create a nice plasma arc.From there things like analog TV monitors were created.But we never made anything that creates plasma for any use in an atmosphere.Well, unless you start to check supersonic rocket engines and other things.The working principle is very, very close here in some applications like the ramjet.Vortex energy.Today we see all vortex energy stuff as a free energy scam or at best a waste of time.But from the inlet to the outlet the entire Repulsine utilised what we now know as vortex energy, vortex math and so on.The air is twisted and spun around so many times that it is hard to keep track - but it always happened in a harmonic and resonant fashion.In some way this is implepemented in very expensive cars to keep the ventilation system almost silent even at full power.If you ever take an expensive car apart you might wonder why the air system is not as smooth and straight as you would have expected to get this silence ;)There is more but the list would become too long ;)So, if the repulsine was really that great then why was it taken apart to only utilise fractions of it in other things?If you have something really great that combines a lot of things then no one would suspect if you "developed or discovered" some of it in other projects.And to give you a very bad comparison for the other way around:If you know how to combine a petrol engine with some long blades then you could fly!I know, we did that already but you get the point.I can give you a motor and blades but that would not mean you could build a plane or even helicopter!At that time and still today something like a Repulsine would upset the "balance of power".If claims are correct then the engines of the repulsine were only required to provide the enrgy for directional changes or speed but it flew on "free energy" as the main engine system.In lame words like a jumbo jet that only needs a small engine for the hydraulics and electricity...Another big problem is the replication even if you would have a complete and working model to disect.You see most parts were brazed or welded as screw or rivets would have been problematic in certain areas.Other parts like the Kudo horn like intake systems would even today pose a challenge if you want to replicate them 100% correct.And if your understanding of science and physics greatly differs from those who originally created the thing...If your understanding tells you a dice has 6 sides (we all know that) but in my understanding it would have 16 then you would never understand how my dice rolls ;)Bringing true free energy of any form into this world is only allowed if someone can still make good money from it.Just check solar cells and wind generators - we all can have them but our providers make sure they have enough of them as well ;)Will we ever see a fully working Repulsine again?Of course !Some people like old cars, some collect old planes or old machines and tools.A great project for people in the right trades is always to build thier own little steam engine.So to say as a reminder of how it all started.Same will happen with the Repulsine as the first really utilised free energy machine the world had.The war and killings were not what really scared the world.This happened and will happen over and over again to various extends.Really scary was once certain people realised what might happen if over there the war would end with a victory and people would have time to develop for peaceful things instead.Without the war or this idiot Hitler a peaceful war would have taken over the world by storm.Those making sure we know nothing else but paying for our fuel and energy would have lost their monoply.Times change though...We destroyed our world with our needs for fossil fuels and electricity.What is left we destroy by chopping it down, digging it out or just by building new estates on prime farm land.People are now more desperate then ever to find ways to reduce their energy bills or enviromental impact.Otherwise Google wouldn't make billions on all the fake free energy videos out there.But what would it take to recreate the Repulsine?The person able to come up with the understanding of at least attempting to build one again would need to have certain qualifications and titles.He or she would hold a Nodel price for completing some of our known laws of physics or for finding some of the still missing ones.It would be a quite hard to understand and like person too, maybe even highly autistic.The person would also have an addiction like need to complete things, add the missing bits.And of course a totallydifferent understanding on how nature and the universe work.David T. from England is such a person, or at least the closest mankind can offer so far.He can see math in his head as shapes and images.Complex math problems appear to him like developing landscapes in high detail.He even learned to speak icelandic fluently within 7 days!!Imagine such a person would develop an interest in the old pioneers like Schuberger, Newman, Tesla and so on?Where we normal people fail to see any relevance or connection a guy like David would be able to literally see how all these inventions and ideas connect.He would be able to SEE the math behind it!Knowing how something was supposed to work and combining what is known through patents, drawing, videos or reports would enable such a person to make conclusions.For example where we might just see a nice pattern when we throw a stone into an undsturbed lake such a person would also already know and see the corresponding math the created the waves and why they were created exactly like this.Assuming David has no real interest in such things, then is it possible others already try?Sadly yes and even worse they do it with kids.Learning methods that are different can bring great results.For example while we use a calculator for big numbers some kids attend really strict and performance based classes to do this with an ancient abacus!After years of hard and often painful training they are able to it with a small abacus that only has a single row of discs.Shortly after they graduate to a virtual abacus - they only twitch their fingers in the same motions they would use on the real thing, but the disks and rods are all just visualised in their heads.That however is all meant as an improvement and the kids do it because they want to and not because they are forced to.Like learning to be a chess champion before even being old enough to work...In china however we have a very selective education program.Kids are not just trained slightly different to our kids but also closely monitored on their progress.As soon as one stands out for some skill it is subject to examination.Being well above average here means it is an opportunity for the kid and the parents - on paper at least.We in the western world would see it as a viscious circle though.Over the years china developed not only a better understanding of how these special kids brains actuall do their things but also how to create tests for this purpose.What looks like impossible or nonsense to most kids will trigger a scecific response and understand in those that are special.We would create something that allows parents to know early on where the kid has really good skills and what activities should be promoted.In china though the parents receive a nicer flat or some additional income while kids are send to a far away school.Again we would refer to such a school more as a boot camp.Discipline is at least on military levels, same is the punishment system.In most cases families are not reunited for many years, phone or even video calls only happen in the rare times when western TV crews are allowed a sneak peak.I just say: If a kid would see the parents often enough then it would not only know what to talk about but also be happy to talk to them - this however you won't see.It is like they talk to some distant uncle or such.What is really scary though is how these kids are trained to see their purpose and how important it is to be the best in what they do.Imagine you lost your kid at an early age and the only thing you got over the year was letters from the government saying how well it is doing and that you can be proud of it.Then it graduates and you are not even allowed to be there on that day...After that the kid is gone for good, you get a new flat and your proud kid supports you with some nice extra income.You don't get to know where it is working, what it is doing or if it might just be attending some university.By any standards these graduated kids can be seen as a great number of genius young people.Math, music, languages, science, you name it and they will have the experts aged below 20 for it.But what do they do once school is finnished and life starts?So far no reporter or family was able to figure it out.Means they don't appear in some high profile company, they don't start a successful business or teach at any public or private school.I leave it up to your imagination where thausands of kids find secret employment once they graduated....If, at least in theory we could be able to understand all these old technologies then why don't we at least try?Everyone has a goal, some desire a happy family and nice house, other need fame or just money to be happy.With that comes greed.You might have a really nice car but that does not mean you would give to some neighbour for a trip.Even if it just a nice rose garden, you might not want to share the views with anyone.This is true on all levels and we created a term for it "Need to know basis".If you just operate a press in a factory then you don't need to know when or what the next job is that comes for your press.You will know when it arrives and can check the documents attached.You don't need to know that your council is expanding and it is only seen as a courtesy to let you know on some notice board or in the local newspaper.And even our government does the same.What we do from the first days of our new baby we do on all other levels in the same way.What the baby does not need to know we won't tell or show.But we provide all the littly anklebiter needs to develop and be happy.Changing nappies, feeding, proving comfort when sick or having a nightmare.Later we teach language and other skills like walking.It goes on as you know...Humanity as a whole is like a little kid as well.If we would know all the little, dirty secrets then we would riot and go mad.Things that are of no concern are nothing we need to worry about, so we don't get to know them either.Knowing how build the latest fighter jets is seen as a thing that would give a possible enemy an advantage.Makes a lot of sense to everyone as these things might have to protect us one day.The questions that remain are:If humainty is a child, then how old are we now or when do we graduate?If there is a collection of secret and old knowledge then who owns and controls it?What would it take to force the release of all the things people actually created for a better world and not to be locked away?As funny as it might sound but one answer to all these questions would be to do nice orund trip in your Repulsine.Fly over ever single country in this world.Let their guided missle and what not chase you and once enough show then how quickly you can make a 180° turn to get behind them.So called unimportant countries might ignore you and the people only enjoy a nice show.Those powerful enough will fear you and think it was "the other side" showing their superiority.Once done with your round they all will have to realise there is a new power that is at the helm now: Knowledge and understanding.No more secrets, a repulsine for everyone who wants the plans to build one.A new world would start.Ever thought about that when wondering why all these "Aliens" we see in their ships in our skies never land to say hello ? ;)Even if they would be Aliens and not just some human pilot in some experimental craft:Shouldn't this demonstration of absolute power and control without any violence tell us something?The Repulsine need to come back to life to end all this UFO nonsense and Alien theories out there.You hear the sounds, see the ligh show and impossible abilities.And suddenly most if not all UFO sightings would have a common factor again.Just because the Repulsine is claimed to be lost and that it never actually worked despite film evidence showing the opposite does not mean there is no one using the technology.A working Repulsine available to everyone would also kill the doubt on so many other old inventors and "fringe" scientists.Science and physics would need to be redifined as would be able to find a lot of missing links.I know there is not only a lot of people out there trying to get what they can about the Repulsine but also that there are others who try to prevent this.You have a really easy time getting permission examine some old and histrically important artefact from a museum than getting just a hands on approch for what remains of the Repulsine in various places.Not even decent 3D scans will be allowed.Anything like just getting a tiny pipe cam inside is rejected with the excuse it could cause damage.If the thing is a hoax and never worked then why would it be so important to never touch or move it? ;)I recently got word that two of the remaining Repulsine "artefacts" were examined by the same group of "scientists".This happened in the late 80's and said scientists were claimed to have had acces to a collection of spare parts for the original Repulsine that was lost after the war.A private collector was also mentioned who denied all access but what he had in a secure storage facility appearently disappeared shortly after his refusal.Putting all the dots and hints together it would mean that someone in the late 80's was able to get literally everything that is left of the project in his hands.Those who claimed to have seen these scientists working on the Repulsine leftovers claim they used top notch technology to do so, including 3D scanners - and those were basically imossible to get back then for any uni out there...The laptops used were said to use touchscreens and were connected to all sorts of equippment.And they did it in almost total silence, like a group who studied a performance many times and knew exactly what do when and where without the need of many words.Professional in examining something unknown all all possible levels.I was unable to get any information on these scientist or who they worked for.But if you are one of them and readin this then I would love to hear from you!

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


Fighting with Nylon ;)

As some might know I still use an old Gen1 Prusa but love the challenge of basically getting everything done with that oldie. One of my latest challenges of "always" printing on a cold bed includes Nylon. If you ever had troubles because you ABS or PLA filament got too moist you will already know what happens to your print... Nylon is even worse when it comes to moisture as you can't see or really feel it. I was thinking of making a complete Nylon guide as an Instructable but think I will start here to kick off some discussion first. So, we know the Nylon must be really dry for a god print as otherwise we get bubbles, bad adhesion and of course a foamy looking print. Well, not really... Let me explain: A perfectly smooth and shiny finnish is not always required, and with the right settings Nylon still forms strong bonds even with a foamy look. However, the dimensions of parts are affected as well - outside dimensions go bigger and hole diameters smaller. If that is no issue for your print then there is no real need to perfectly dry your filament ;) Speaking of drying: People use all sorts of methods to dry their filament, not just Nylon. One of the most common and most expensive seems to be the use of your oven for several hours to dry it. Another way involves food dyhydrators, bit less on the energy bill but still... Then we have the smart guys using the sun and silaca gel for the drying - good and great but so useless in cold and wet climates... My advise here: Take your time! I mean, sure you want to print right after the filament arrived in your letter box but a bit of preperation will save you filament and frustration. Usually filament comes in a sealed bag with a pack of silica gel and it should be dry and ready to use. But Nylon can become too moist within the time it takes to finnish a long print if you are in a wet climate. This means you start printing and all is good but the next day your new print looks ugly as for no real reason. Make use of these sealed storage containers. Put the filament in there with a good amount of indicating silica gel and only have a hole to feed the filament through - if in doubt use a bowden fitting and a short lenght of teflon tube to prevent friction. A piece of sticky tape over the hole when you don't use the filament and the filament is always ready to use. Reminds me to make an Ible for a suitable storage solution with spool holder... Anyway... When it finally comes to print Nylon you should know cardboard works best as a bed as Nylon sticks really well to it. I glue mine onto a layer of masking tape, this way it won't lift from the bed and I can still replace it very easy. But the most common mistake with Nylon is to print it too fast. The stuff really expands and shrinks a lot from filament to print and high speeds only too often cause the layers to seperate later on. Some people compensate with higher temperatures but I don't like the idea of fitting a filter system with activated carbon filters... Also keep in mind the intense shrinkage when setting the extrusion multiplier! If your ABS prints fine with 0.85 you can expect that the same sized Nylon prints fine somewhere in the range of 55-60! Now you also know why printing with thick layers is not such a great idea if you require all dimensions to fit. Although only outside accuracy can be done by cheating in the settings, getting outside, inside and extrusion widths settings accurate is almost rocket sience ;) Nylon is expensive or not available here in the diameter I require.... I had the same trouble and reverted to trimmer line and a modified, dedicated hotend instead. Why dedicated you wonder? Nylon can be real pain to clean as nothing dissolves and if you heat the parts hot enough to melt it you can not work easy with them. Having a decicated hotend means you won't run into the problem of burnt ABS or PLA clogging the nozzle ;) It also means you can match the hotend to the trimmer line you choice (more on that in a minute). For example, in some areas trimmer line of 2mm or 3.3mm diameter is the most popular and cheapest. Just drill out the hotend to cater for the new diameter, which I did after noticing the filament got stuck in the neck of the cold end ;) Trimmer line - does it matter which one? It does these days! Avoid everything that is not round or labeled with terms like "duracore", "dual core", "multi layer"  -basically all that indicates it is not just a single, solid stand of Nylon. Long lasting, special core line is great for your lawn trimmer but really bad for your hotend! PET, High temp nylon or even fibre re-inforced cores are in use, so in the best case you mix the nylon with overheating PET, in the worst you block your nozzle permanently. If it looks like it has a core or some sort of "mantle" around it, it means not usable.

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


The dirty little secrets about switching to LED lights

Some years ago we were told to invest in more energy efficient lights for our homes.Incandescent was using too much power, so CFL's, Compact Flouroscent Lights were the ting to buy.Much higher price than the normal lightbulb but hey we save a lot of money in the long run.No one liked the long warm up time to get full brightness...And even less people actually got the claimed lifespan out of them.Add the recycling costs and hazardous waste created and the costs of using CFL's is actually much higher than standard light bulbs.The only savings were for the power companies.LED lights had a slow start but once mass production started price went downhill fast.What started in the EU was made compulsory in other countries soon after: A ban on incandescent light bulbs.Thee are only a few exceptions left like bulbs for your oven as LED's won't cope with the temps here.So why was the ban necessary?An incandescent light bulb was available for often under a buck, so having some spares at home was no issue at all.Making people switch to LED lights that often cost 20 times the amount of an old standard light is impossible.Biggest incentive of course was the short boom to the local economy as the initial batches were all sold as high quality items.The scam started to evolve when it became clear that even with LED lights the overall savings hugely depends on how you use your lights.As a factor on your electricity bill the lights are usually at the bottom of the list.Things like heaters, airconditioners, fridges, freezers and of course TV's are the main users of electricity in many houses.During the winter times this changes as we need more light but still the impact is not as high as you might think.What did change though was the behaviour.Since we now save so much energy we don't really worry as much if the light is kept on for no good reasons.Again, the main savings are with the electricity providers.I won't deny though that a house with 100 60W incandescent lighs will have some benfit on the electricity when switching to 8 or 10W LED lights....Lifespan...Like so many others I have some stories about incandescent lights...For example the one had in the basement when I was a kid.Often on for several hours, sometimes just for a few seconds to quickly grab something.But it still worked fine when I was an adut and never had to be replaced.Or the house that destroyed lights on a regular base thanks to power surges from the nearby industrial areas.LED light were meant to make the difference here.Put them in and never worry about replacing.10.000 or more hours before the LED's fail...Nice claims but never fully true.10.000 is a bit over a year of constant use.Most people won't just leave the lights on for the entire year.So you would expect that a good LED light will work just fine for at least 5 years, under normal conditions close to 10 maybe.There is several problems with this claim - none of them are explained in the warranty leaflet and nothing was explained by your government when you were forced onto LED light.Electronics even as simple as a resistor come with a limited warranty.Some will remember the disaster when bad capacitors turned thausands of flat screen TV's into flashing lightbulbs.The parts used to make the lights can be a year old already before they are soldered together.Then there is time for shipping, storage, distribution.Sadly not all countries require to print the manufacturing date on the packing or LED light.Means that by the time you put a new LED light bulb into use it might be two years old already.Similar for the claim that the light won't emit heat.Sure the LED light itself is cold but the heatsink the LED's are mounted on is far from it, same for the often underrated electronics inside.In return the electronics suffer from the excessive heat, espcially if mounted in lamps not designed for them.Which makes the entire replacement a scam for most people.It is not uncommon that a LED light fails within a few months.If you are lucky to have kept the invoice for it you might be able to get a new one from your store.Now I replaced 20 lights when I moved in here.Only the first three that failed got replaced, after that the shop claimed I would misuse the warranty.I inspected them and it was not easy to get inside.The switching IC used should have had a heatsink according to the datasheet, without it the circuit board got toasted until the IC finally cracked.Without a sufficient heatsink the IC was only rated for a max of 5W while the light had a LED assembly of 15W...I kept doing these destructive examinations whenever a LED light fails.So far they ALL had sure signs of overheating, either for the switching IC or the tiny transformer.No one really bothers though to keep track of the hours a light was actually used and with that we just keep buying new ones with no worries in the world.Recycling....An incandescent light was never really worth much to begin with, so the final grave was the normal rubbish bin.CFL's required proper disposal due to the hazardous materials in the tubes.A comparison between the amount of sold lights and what ended up in recycling centers reveiled that the ,ajority of them ended in landfill because people tossed them in the normal rubbish.The long term impact of those chemicals on the enviroment will be hidden under fresh grass by then.LED's claimed to be the way out as they were meant to be fully recycleable.What really happend with our collected recycling bins was clear when China stopped taking it.....Means all the still usefull materials in those expensice lights again just go into landfill.A total waste on so many levels.So what is the real cost then?Electricity prices are only going up, so saving Watts wherever possible is a good thing.But ask yourself:How much energy and ressources were required to produce an incandescent light bulb?How much more is required to produce a LED light?We are told to focus on our electricity bill alone without considering the overall costs.Since we already pay the extra of making them we tend to forget what happens once they fail.More waste, more landfill, no recycling of the lights at all.But does it prevent your next blackout when the grid is at max capacity? Nope...Keeping your big airconditioner off for a hot day or two would save more electricity for the year than changing from incandescent lights to LED's ;) Does that mean we get way more efficient airconditioners? Nope...Where in developing countries cheap and highly efficient compressors are used we invented inverter technology ROFLMakes no difference at all on max power to have an inverter.The only real difference is that it runs slower at lower capacity while a normal airconditioner turns the compressor on and off.Forcing the use of highly efficient compressor technologies and replacing our old style systems would have made a real difference on the overall electricity use.We "save" electricity with LED lights and only turn them on if we really need them.Still the 5 or 7kW airconditioner runs all summer long and in the winter it heats the house and uses even more electricity.Makes you wonder, doesn't it? ;)

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


Top 50 2008: Instructables

Yesterday we looked at the Top 50 commenters for 2008 and today we'll be looking at the numbers for the top 50 Instructables of 2008. Since there's no one way of declaring a list of Instructables, we created three top 50 lists. These cover Instructables in order of rating, pageviews, and comments. Instructables on these lists were all published in 2008.Let's go to the graphs and charts!Top 50 Instructables: Pageviews   Instructable Views 1   Body-Mod: Elf Ears 347738 2   Use your laptop as an Xbox/Xbox 360 "Wireless Adapter" on Windows XP/Vista, and Mac OSX 220780 3   Fix the Red Ring of Death! (without towels!) 177285 4   Laser cutter, start slicing stuff for under 50 dollars 159647 5   Run Backups on any Wii Without a Modchip 159408 6   How to build a 72Volt electric motorcycle 159261 7   How to make out 145713 8   Inverted Bookshelf 137198 9   Munny Speakers 124736 10   Awesome led cube 118293 11   Firefox Pranks! 117449 12   How to make an Iron Man Arc Reactor 116481 13   How to French Kiss 115958 14   How To: Make Bath Bombs 108287 15   Gift Ideas 107914 16   DIY USB "Hard Drive" 96588 17   Safely Shaving Your Pubic Hair 96144 18   WinXP Overhaul Guide: How to make it look like Vista, run like lightning, and stay productive, fast & smooth 94980 19   Laser Tattoo 94705 20   DIY Vinyl Wall Art 92752 21   How to refill a "disposable" Brita brand water pitcher filter with activated carbon. 89724 22   Make your own Roll-Up Keyboard 89558 23   Hidden USB Storage 86430 24   how to add EL wire to a coat or other garment 84340 25   Build a 60 Watt Solar Panel 82286 26   Grow a square watermelon 82275 27   LeGummies brick shaped gummy candies 81368 28   USB 80875 29   How to remove most of the seeds when cutting up a watermelon 80822 30   How to Make a TRON Style Lamp: The MADYLIGHT 80281 31   LED Cube 4x4x4 78936 32   Covert Spy Sunglasses 78633 33   Build a water mortar 77090 34   Super Nightvision Headset Hack! 76634 35   A better laptop stand for bed 76101 36   Amazing plasma globe tricks that you never knew before!!! 74842 37   How to get a Free Itunes Account (No Credit Card Needed) 74490 38   Make an iPod Video Projector 74026 39   Homemade Gifts 73478 40   Lasers 73242 41   Remote shutter trigger for Digital Cameras 72911 42   Ergonomic Laptop Stand Made From a Coat Hanger 72321 43   MAKE A HIGH VOLTAGE SUPPLY IN 5 MINUTES 71744 44   Protect Your Home with Laserbeams! 71387 45   Iron Man Helmet 71358 46   Get Big Money for Dead Batteries 70261 47   How to Put on a Condom 69805 48   How to make an Iron Man Mask 69617 49   How to build a 96-Volt Electric Motorcycle 68924 50   Nintendo Lunchbox 68164 Top 50 Instructables: Ratings   Instructable Rating 1   Build A Plasma Speaker 4.64 2   Build A Net Gun 4.62 3   Wall-E Robot 4.60 4   Sew your own Instructables Robot Plushie! 4.60 5   How to Make a Portable Game System 4.54 6   Build Your Own Butler Robot!!! - Tutorial,Photos, and Video 4.54 7   Electromagnetic Floater 4.52 8   LED Cube 4x4x4 4.50 9   LeGummies brick shaped gummy candies 4.49 10   DIY Vinyl Wall Art 4.49 11   5-minute Chocolate Cake 4.48 12   When a Phillips is not a Phillips! 4.48 13   Airgun with eXplosive air-Release Valve 4.47 14   How to Build a Robot - The BeetleBot v2 ( Revisited ) 4.45 15   How to Start a Business 4.45 16   Gandhi: 17' Tall Cardboard Avatar 4.44 17   turn signal biking jacket 4.44 18   Hidden USB Storage 4.44 19   Cyber/Steampunk Futuresque Sci-Fi Hand Gun 4.43 20   LED Chess Set 4.41 21   Build your own Electric Car! 4.41 22   LCS-1M - A Full-Featured, Low-Cost Hobby Oscilloscope 4.40 23   Build a World's Smallest Electronic Shocker! 4.39 24   Lego USB Stick 4.38 25   MAKE A PILLAR WITH A DECORATIVE CAPITOL AND BASE 4.38 26   EGG FLOWER VASE 4.38 27   Aliens Powerloader Halloween Costume 4.38 28   Munny Speakers 4.37 29   Giant 100mm LED 4.37 30   Coilgun Handgun 4.37 31   How to Thank Instructables 4.36 32   Guitar Tube Amp 4.36 33   How to get a Tshirt for GoodHart 4.34 34   Creepy Cobweb Shooter! 4.34 35   Grow Your Own Bioluminescent Algae 4.32 36   How to make a Portal Gun 4.31 37   how to add EL wire to a coat or other garment 4.30 38   Duct Tape Messenger Bag + Hardware 4.30 39   Firearm Safety: The "do's" and "don'ts" of enjoying guns safely. 4.29 40   The Stirling Engine, absorb energy from candles, coffee, and more! 4.29 41   Recycle Old Light Bulb 4.28 42   USB Batman Spotlight 4.28 43   Coffee table upgrade! 4.27 44   Steampunk Dystopian Sniper Rifle (Mercury Bow) 4.27 45   Building Small Robots: Making One Cubic Inch Micro-Sumo Robots and Smaller 4.27 46   How to grow flowers on a military base in Iraq 4.26 47   How to make your own LED lightbulbs 4.26 48   Iron Man Helmet 4.25 49   Cardboard/Fiberglass Halo 3 inspired Master Chief Costume 4.25 50   Build Halo Armor 4.25 Top 50 Instructables: Comments   Instructable Comments 1   Build a World's Smallest Electronic Shocker! 812 2   Knex Heavy Cannon 645 3   Awesome led cube 637 4   Simple Xbox 360 Rapid Fire Mod 591 5   Build A Plasma Speaker 494 6   DD-27 V2.75 compact AST rifle 454 7   WinXP Overhaul Guide: How to make it look like Vista, run like lightning, and stay productive, fast & smooth 453 8   The accidental pocket jet engine... 427 9   Scavenge free electronics, food, and help the environment 400 10   How to make your PSP "Better" or how to have more fun on a Sony PSP 379 11   Laser Tattoo 376 12   Amazing plasma globe tricks that you never knew before!!! 376 13   DSman195276's sidearm --updated-- v1.5 is here! 371 14   MAKE A HIGH VOLTAGE SUPPLY IN 5 MINUTES 363 15   Wall-E Robot 352 16   Knex Heavy Cannon v5 - Handheld 342 17   Fix the Red Ring of Death! (without towels!) 341 18   How to Build a Time Machine (Vortex Distortion Space and Time Dilating Device) 340 19   Knex Heavy Cannon v2 - Mini 339 20   How to get a Tshirt for GoodHart 338 21   Run Backups on any Wii Without a Modchip 336 22   Make A Water Leyden Jar 331 23   Park 52 knex sniper 327 24   Build a simple Marx Generator 323 25   Knex Guinea Pig Trap 318 26   TRUELY semi-auto knex gun 315 27   L96 308 28   How to Build a Knife 307 29   Pineapplebob's Sniper Rifle 306 30   True Trigger, 10 Round, Auto-Loading, Knex Concept Rifle 299 31   Fire Shaving 290 32   DJ Radio's knex SPEC-9 sniper rifle 285 33   How to UPGRADE from Vista to Windows XP on an Acer laptop 283 34   How to dodge a draft 279 35   Protect Your Home with Laserbeams! 279 36   Hidden USB Storage 277 37   Knex Compact AST Pistol 276 38   Cyber/Steampunk Futuresque Sci-Fi Hand Gun 276 39   Steampunk Dystopian Sniper Rifle (Mercury Bow) 275 40   Pocket sized survival kit 274 41   Knex Pistol "TDS" With Simple Slide Action *Updated as of 8/26/08* 271 42   Use your laptop as an Xbox/Xbox 360 "Wireless Adapter" on Windows XP/Vista, and Mac OSX 269 43   Body-Mod: Elf Ears 266 44   Knex M4 Carbine (True Trigger) 257 45   How to make a Portal Gun 255 46   DSman195276's sniper rifle 254 47   Reaper Crossbow 254 48   fully automatic knex gun (UPDATED) 252 49   Build your own computer 252 50   LeGummies brick shaped gummy candies 252

Topic by fungus amungus   |  last reply