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add an external crystal to attiny85?

How can i add a 16mhz crystal to attiny85? i dont know how and cant find it online

Question by fossilshark    |  last reply


adding an external crystal to attiny85?

How can i add an external crystal to run at 16 mhz to my attiny85? can someone please tell me step by step what to do i have searched everywhere and cannot find the answer. thanks.

Question by fossilshark    |  last reply


how to solve external crystal problem in pic16F and its capacitance

I have made a circuit of radio control switch with PIC16F and diplayed the value on LCD16X2, i am having the problem with its crystal frequency. When i set pic18F with its internal crystal of 4Mhz its working fine,but not with 16F using 4MHz  external crystal and 33pF capacitor so how should i solve the problem of external crystal and its capacitance for pic16F.

Question by Alia Bakhsh    |  last reply


Credit card crystal radio

What do you think about the feasibility of a credit card sized crystal radio? (Fits inside a wallet) Some possible i though so far are... A simple pcb with a diode, and a capacitor and a coil wrapped(protected by duct tape) around it. The antenna has to be tied to a hole on a corner. Or it is coiled to the card, ready to be unwrapped. The ear piece can either be external... Or can be glued to the card itself, but you must put the card near you ear... Instead of a winded coil, maybe it can be part of the pcb design itself... and to tune it, you unhook a beady wire and place it in the holes placed in a interval. What do you think? Any more ideas? In fact. a competition can be made for this idea.

Topic by akimbo m    |  last reply


ATTINY As A Clock?

Will using time library with an Attiny/45/85/84 ( http://playground.arduino.cc/Code/Time ) create an accurate clock? I keep on seeing people using these external crystal things. Do I need one? Isn't millis pretty dang accurate? How would I sync the clock with real time?

Topic by HavocRC    |  last reply


PIC Internal Clock -- How accurate?

Can I trust a PIC's 4Mhz internal clock to keep accurate time over days of use? Or will I need an external crystal. I'm vary weary of that, as I'm going for a compact design. Thanks for the help.

Topic by zachninme    |  last reply


2 transistor Crystal radio amplifier kit - shortwave science fair

This kit is 5.00 dollars . To order send email. Then send check.  The amplifier  has the parts soldered on top of homemade circuit board. It is tested . I listen for KCBS, KGO,kSCO and several other stations with only a small ferrite on a crystal radio..  Only the circuit board is included.  The coil and tuning capacitor are not included. Many coil and variable capacitor combinations will work up to about  13 Mhz.  There is a small wire near the output which provides feedback when it is moved towards the input.  Each station is tuned individually as the feedback is different. Wrap several turns around the input coil (not included).  The variable capacitor is in parallel with the coil. The shortwave coil can be a 1 inch diameter with 13 turns of narrow wire. Stations I pick up are Radio Havana Cuba,  Radio New Zealand , Church and amateur. There are some cautions. It could include cutting tape for your circuit design.  The shortwave requires an external antenna. Schematic included. Crystal earphone is not included. Another transistor can be added for speaker  or 8 ohm type earphone.

Topic by halamka  


Ghetto programmer and 16Mhz

First off, Hello everyone. I built the ghetto parallel port programmer, adjusting the pinouts to work with a attiny26 and it works flawlessly.Kudos to the author.My problem is that when I drop in an external crystal rated at 16Mhz I avrdude quits because of a faulty signature; I assume this means the timings are off.At firs I thought I had misconfigured the fuses, but ,thankfully, when I dropped an 8Mhz crystal in it worked again. I know this uC can be clocked this high, so what's the problem? thanks

Topic by hacim  


How to get an ATtiny to run an accurate clock? Answered

I'm making a clock with an ATtiny and I would like to know how to make it tell accurate time. I'm already pretty sure it would require an external crystal or resonator, but I just don't know the frequency or if there are any code requirements. I'll be programming the chip with an Arduino, if that helps with code. Thanks!

Question by GenAap    |  last reply


How to program an AVR barebone atmega328?

HI,ALL Now i want to program an barebone atmega328,I searched the net for methods of doing so,the rock that i bumped my head on was the 'boards'file.I bootloadded the chip with ISP method, then found the 'boards file' stating 'barebone atmega328 with internal 8M crystal'.the case i am using is an external 16M crystal.as the test rerult is not what it turn out to be,so i want to know if the 'internal 8M crysta' is OK?

Question by gada888  


Calling all AVR wizards! (I need some more help!) Updated!

New stuff's in boldI'm trying to build a clock-type-thing for my research project this year, and I need some help.First, I need to know how I can run my ATtiny2313 off of a 12mhz external clock. No, not crystal, external clock. (this holds true)Second, I need to know how to use interrupts (in general) to program a clock. I really just need some bare code or help, and any help is greatly appreciated. So, I figured out how to use interrupts, and it's pretty simple, actually - I'm just having one small problem - why can't I write to global variables in an interrupt service routine (ISR)? Any clues on how I can talk back to the main routine from an interrupt?Thanks!,-MuffinatorPicture courtesy of Oskay!

Topic by T3h_Muffinator    |  last reply


Want to move "tv b gone" project from Arduino(Atmega328P) to Atmega8A

Hello. I found "Tv b gone" project which i can write to my arduino. It worls perfectly. I want to make it smaller but i don't want to waste my arduino board and Atmega328P which sits inside of an arduino. Here is a video on YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfdVdPwPhWU Works on one IR diode (would be glad if can do the same on atmega8a) There is a link to download the code for arduino: http://arcfn.com/files/arduino-tv-b-gone-1.2.zip Project page (guy changed the code to working on arduino) http://www.righto.com/2009/12/tv-b-gone-for-arduino.html Original project page where originally everything is working on ATtiny85. https://learn.adafruit.com/tv-b-gone-kit/design-notes If needed I've got Arduino UNO, USBasp (can burn program with USBasp using Eclipse C/C++ or ArduinoIDE) I want to know if i could make it work on Atmega8 (internal oscilator/external crystal?) (got many of these, don't want to buy new microcontroller) without any effort? I would appreciate if someone help me. Sorry for my English. I'm from Europe.

Topic by DELETED_AndrzejŁ    |  last reply


How to move project to work on Atmega8a?

Hello. I found "Tv b gone" project which i can write to my arduino. It worls perfectly. I want to make it smaller but i don't want to waste my arduino board and Atmega328P which sits inside of an arduino. Here is a video on YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfdVdPwPhWU Works on one IR diode (would be glad if can do the same on atmega8a) There is a link to download the code for arduino: http://arcfn.com/files/arduino-tv-b-gone-1.2.zip Project page (guy changed the code to working on arduino) http://www.righto.com/2009/12/tv-b-gone-for-arduino.html Original project page where originally everything is working on ATtiny85. https://learn.adafruit.com/tv-b-gone-kit/design-notes If needed I've got Arduino UNO, USBasp (can burn program with USBasp using Eclipse C/C++ or ArduinoIDE) I want to know if i could make it work on Atmega8 (internal oscilator/external crystal?) (got many of these, don't want to buy new microcontroller) without any effort? I would appreciate if someone help me. I found also something like this. https://code.google.com/p/mircho-avrcode/source/browse/#hg%2FatmegaCode%2Ftvbgone-atmega8 but I need EU codes Sorry for my English. I'm from Europe.

Question by DELETED_AndrzejŁ  


Acer laptop, what mother board does it use?

 I have a acer aspire 5542, And would like to know the mother broad it uses Thanks for your help Brand Acer Model Aspire 5542 Operating system Windows 7 Home Premium 64 Bit Processor / Graphics AMD Athlon II Dual-Core M300 2.00 GHz ATI Mobility Radeon HD 4200 Series Memory 4 GB Dual-Channel DDR2 SDRAM 667 MHz Hard drive SATA 500 GB HDD 5400 rpm Display / Resolution 15.6-inch HD 1366×76 resolution high brightness Acer CineCrystal TFT LCD, 16:9 aspect ratio, 8 ms response time, 60% color gamut Removable Storage 8X DVD-Super Multi double-layer drive Wireless Support Atheros AR5B93 Wireless Network Adapter 802.11 n, b, g Communications Broadcom NetLink Gigabit Ethernet, HDAUDIO Soft Fax Modem with SmartCP, Acer Video Conferencing with Integrated Acer Crystal Eye Webcamer featuring 640×480 resolution, Bluetooth 2.1 Input Devices Full-size keyboard including number pad, Synaptics touchpad with Multi-Gesture support Power 6-cell Li-ion with up to 3 hours of battery life Accessories Extra battery, external USB floppy, extra AC adapter Security software/features Acer Backup Manager1, Acer Bio-Protection1, Acer eRecovery Management, McAfee® Internet Security Suite 2009 Trial, MyWinLocker®, Nortonâ„¢ Online Backup Other Software Acer Arcadeâ„¢ Deluxe featuring Acer CinemaVisionâ„¢ and Acer ClearVisionâ„¢ technologies, Acer Crystal Eye, Acer GridVistaâ„¢, Acer Launch Manager, Adobe® Flash® Player, Adobe® Reader®, EarthLink®1, eSobiâ„¢, Google Toolbarâ„¢, Microsoft® Works with Office Home and Student 2007 Trial, NetZero®, NTI Media Makerâ„¢, Oberon GameZone, WildTangent® Memory card reader Media Card Reader supporting SD, MMC, RS-MMC, MS, MS Pro, xD Accessible memory slots 2 slots Maximum Memory Expansion Up to 4 GB Ports Headphone/speaker/line-out jack with S/PDIF support, Microphone-in jack, Line-In jack, Ethernet (RJ-45) port, Modem (RJ-11) port, DC-in jack for AC adapter Additional Ports None Audio Dolby®-optimized surround sound system with two built-in stereo speakers, Optimized 3rd Generation Dolby Home Theater® audio enhancement, featuring Dolby® Digital Live, Dolby® Pro Logic® IIx, Dolby® Headphone, Dolby® Natural Bass, Dolby® Sound Space Expander, Dolby® Audio Optimization, Dolby® High Frequency Enhancer technologies10, True 5.1-channel surround sound output High-definition audio support S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interface)11 support for digital speakers, MS-Sound compatible Built-in microphone ENERGY STAR Qualified Energy Star 5.0 Weight 6.16 lbs (2.8 kg) with battery Dimension 15.1 x 9.9 x 1.03 to 1.5 inches, 383 x 250 x 26 to 37 mm Thinness 1.03 to 15 inches, 26 to 37 mm Network Card Broadcom NetLink Gigabit Ethernet, HDAUDIO Soft Fax Modem with SmartCP PC Card Slot None Webcam Acer Crystal Eye Webcamera featuring 640×480 resolution Multimedia and Entertainment Acer Arcadeâ„¢ Deluxe featuring Acer CinemaVisionâ„¢ and Acer ClearVisionâ„¢ technologies, Acer Crystal Eye, Adobe® Flash® Player, NTI Media Makerâ„¢, Oberon GameZone, WildTangent® Warranty Limited 1-year and 90 day warranty options available depending on country, 1-year limited warranty on primary battery. Optional HP Care Pack Services extended warranty

Question by andreblue  


Simple/ and or cheap variable thermostat?

Well I have a friend who is looking into the purchase of a snake, and meanwhile picking out the snake and the heating element isn't the hard part for him (he's looking at a 23 watt 120vac heating pad for it). He was also looking at a thermostat designed for snake tanks, however they want close to $150 for it, and it doesn't even have many features, it's basically a black box with an 3 digit lcd and a programable timer. I know it wouldn't be hard to put something similar together from a pic and a few different parts, however it's been a long few years since I've designed a full schematic of something, let alone look at one. So I was wondering if someone so kind might aid me in making of a schematic so my friend can go order the parts he needs and I can build it for him (don't have a problem assembying circuits from raw schematics, I find it fun). However, there is a couple things he wants out of it. Number one most importantly, he wants it to be able to adjust the output voltage so he doesn't fry his snake (most simple thermostats simply turn on until temperature is reached, then off), no he wants something more dynamic than that. Second, he needs to have an external temperature probe so that he can keep the thermostat outside of the tank whilst keeping a handy eye on the temp and also obviously so that the thermostat knows when to come on (is there a limit to the length of wire you can put on a thermocouple?). Third and last, we need a simple timer circuit that keeps track of the time (what's that involve? a 13mhz crystal and a few other parts?) so that at night the thermostat can change it's "heating schedual", I assume so that it tries to maintain a temperature say 3-4C above the programmed temp. (night mode anyone?) However the thermostat he was looking at buying wanted you to buy a second cord, which connected to an external appliance timer (yes you heard me, a $9 wall timer) so that it knows what time it was. My friend really needs this as he's looking into getting this snake within the month. I appreciate anything anyone has to offer. Thanks guys! -Punkguyta

Topic by Punkguyta    |  last reply


Making a proper fire brick or refractory liner

If you are cheap like me then paying an arm and a leg for commercial grade refractory mixes or ready made bricks is no option.And how wants to make their design only to find there is no matching bricks for it...There is lots of totorials online and here on Instructables that deal with making heat resistent bricks and similar.And this is all well and good for normal melting applications or your pizza oven, not so much if you really need intense heat.I found that commercail mixes tend to be either really brittle once heated up or that they will glace up and even melt.So why not make my own mix...Ingredients:Fine sandCrushed PerliteVermiculiteSodium SilicateThe first three you find in basically every home depot or garden center.The last can be made from crystal cat litter and sodium hydroxide.Use proper PPE please!For a refractory mix I use:100ml of clean water.60g of crystal cat litter.About 35-40g of Sodium Hydroxide.This will provide a very silica rich solution.Use a high jar or similar and fill the water in.If you have use a magnetic stirrer, otherwise be prepared for manual labour.Add some cat litter but not so much that stirring becomes a problem.It will fizz around a bit and when it stops slowly add some sodium hydroxide.The mix will heat up and the cat litter starts to dissolve, once it is gone add some more.If it becomes hard to dissolve them add a bit more sodium hydroide but avoid letting it get too hot and so it boils!!A bit of steam is fine though.Towards the end you should have a quite hot mix with all cat litter inside and a bit of sodium hydroxide left.See what dissolves and only add as much as you really need.40g is enough, if it won't dissolve the cat litter then keep stirring every now and then and add some external heat, like placing it in a water bath on your stove.Once all is dissolved the mix is ready and should keep the jar closed to prevent it turning it a rock hard cement...Make sure your dry ingredients are well mixed and relatively fine in particle size.DO A TEST WITH JUST WATER!Take a defined amount of your mix, like 100g and see how LITTLE water in ml is required to turn in into a plyable mass like green sand.Note down this relation to get the right mix with the waterglass.To keep the mix workable you want to add the same amount of clean water to the amount of waterglass you calculated.If it is quite cold day you can leave it undiluted but give it a test on how long it takes to set on the surface to get your working time.Make sure you really mix it all properly to enuse the waterglass wets the surface of all aggregates in the mix.Press into your prefered form, remove form and let air dry, preferably on some wooden sticks so they won't accidentally fuse with the surface you have put them on.Once you have enough to fill your kitchen oven put them in at a heat of about 80-90°C for 3 to 4 hours.Open the door every now and then to let the moisture escape.After that they can be fired up to become fully fire resistent.Do this slowly as there might still moisture be trapped inside that needs to steam off, not boil off as it might crack the bricks.Once they got a good glacing from being used they might fuse together but should not constantly crack and melt like some commercial products - plus it come dirt cheap in comparison.

Topic by Downunder35m  


UV filtration in your fish tank or small fish pond

Year after year the topic "I have a fish tank" seems to go more out of control. What was once a hobby just to have some fish can now be a design feature both in your home and inside the tank. Realistic looking lasdscapes, optical illusions that make you think the tank is much bigger and the list goes on. But one thing that now always pops up is the must have thing of UV filtration. Or to be precise: UV-C sterilisation! Now, if we trust Wiki and our big water suppliers then UV-C will literally kill anything alive that comes into contact with. So of course it would be a good thing to have for your tank - or not? UV-C is very dangerous for your eyesight and quite harmful for your skin! Looking into a proper UV-C lamp without protection means you can go blind! Even good sunglasses might not have enough protection in the UV-C range, so only use them for additional protection but never without and glass between you and the lamp! Don't be a fool! Treat UV-C seriously! You would not look into the full sun with your sunglasses and would not expose your eyes or skin to a powerful laser, UV-C is to be treated the same way! Let's start by using some boring text to explain the concept a little bit. On a large scale special and quite powerful systems are used to treat our drinking or pool water. Here special UV-C lights with a wavelenghts of 260nm or below are used to shine through the water passing by. There are two key factors here. a) the wavelenght b) the water flow rate and the corresponding time the water is in contact with the UV light To ensure all bacteria, viruses, algae and other harmful organics are dead the water must circulate for long enough so even the last water molecule had a few seconds of exposure. All this only works good with "crystal clear" water for obvious reasons as otherwise the UV has to be even more powerful to pass through. Single cell organisms literally crack into pieces similar to being exposed to gamma rays, more complex cells like algae have their cell membranes damages and the DNA suffers as well causing reproduction loss and early death. Even some chemicals break down, most importantly here chlorine based substances. Differences within the UV-C range! If you bothered to check Wiki about the topic of UV-C you will already know that only certain wavelengths within this spectrum will actuall be powerful enough to do what we want it to do. And here is the first problem for us hobby users. Most cheaply advertised "sterlisation lamps" you find in places like Ebay are actually totally useless. Stating to be selling a UV-C light to sterilze your water in such a case is still not considered to be fraud though. Simply because it still does what it supposed to do, just very slow and with very little effect. Only the so called "short wave" UV-C range is powerful enough! To avoid loosing business during the times of the biggest hype in 20 years no seller will actuall state the available wavelengths. That means without this info anywhere you can be certain the advertised lamp is of little to no use. Even those advertised to be short wave UV-C might not be the real deal. However, if a decent manufacturer is behind the actual lamp used it is possible to check the datasheet for these performance figures - but again most cheap systems come with no-name lamps inside. Check the prices for a reputable UV-C light with the same lamp fitting, e.g. G23 and you will see it might cost more than your entire system. Ok, you have a poper short wave UV-C lamp or consider getting a canister filter with one in it.... Never, ever test your lamp without proper protection!!!!! UV-C will damage your eye within seconds! If you system or lamp does not provide a viewing port or shine through area then you have to place a piece of glass between you and the light! UV-C won't be able to penetrate normal window glass but will pass through quartz glass. Place the lamp in a box and cover with the glass. How make proper use of UV-C sterilisation... The replacement lights are quite expensive, so let's see how to get the most out of them. As said before exposure is the key factor so the flow rate of the UV system must match tank size and flow rate of your filter system. Canister filters with a build in lamp should be designed to match but I will tell you later what to look for ;) Most of us will prefer to have a in-line system if there is already a good canister filter at work, so I will focus on those and rop in solutions. If you compare in-line system you might notice that some quite small and low power units claim to allow for the same flow rates as for example 40W units. Some are fraud and just want to sell while others use simple physics to make the claim true. A good system will utilise an auger like "ramp" that forces the water to circulate around the tube many times - causing up to ten times longer exposure rates. Others create this sprial effect more like a vortex with some diverters and modified inlets. The later seems to be less efficient though with low power lamps. An in-line system should be on the outlet side of your canister filter so the best quality water will pass through it. A drop in solution should be used alone and without the existing normal filter pump you might have in there. Ok, got it, but how do I actually use it now? Despite common thinking a UV-C system should not run 24/7 like your normal filter. You really only need it to solve problems you should not have in a healthy tank! It is not a magical solution to make your underlaying problems go away ;) Let's start with the most common reason someone buys a UV-C system: An algae or bacterial outbreak causing greenish or milky water. If that developed slowly over a period of weeks then you would be better off to do a good clean of the tank and filter plus a decent water exchange. A few drops of meds will do the rest. And if you constantly get algae growing on your glass, ornaments and plants then your nutrient levels and water quality is not right anyway and needs a good check. But of course there is also the problem of light - too much for too long and unwanted gree appears everywhere. If in doubt reduce the light power, shade out natural light or reduce the on time for your lights. Having said that we now face the problem of a sudden outbreak after introducing new fish or plants. If you don't have a quarantaine tank chances are that sooner or later you get unwanted or even harmful guest into your tank. Here the UV-C will be beneficial, which is why a canister filter with build in light should have a seperate switch or power supply for the light. After an outbreak or while introducing new life into your tank the UV-C will remove a lot of the things that we don't want to bring along. For new life I leave the light on non stop for a week, that is for a small 4ft tank with 200 liters. To control an outbreak it depends on how bad it is. I assume here you can still see the back of your tank  but that the water either appears greenish or slightly milky from bacteria. As a personal thing I prefer to to remove and clean my filter material before treating a severe outbreak. Once done I fill the filter with a mix of activate carbon material and fine filter wool. Reason for this quite simple: The outbreak causing stuff is already in your filter material and will be a constant source of re-infection. And since breaking down all this bad stuff causes even more bad stuff to be produced as biological waste we want to discard it properly once done. Using just fine filter wool and activated carbon also reduces the flow rate bit if compacted ;) Now we can turn on the light and pump and forget about it for a while. It is not recommended to run UV lights on a timer as you want them on all time to prevent short lifespan and have ongoing treatment of the water. Good idea to take a picture at the same of a day from now on to compare and check results. After 3 days the water should definately be clearer, if not then either your filter material is packed too losse or the lamp is no good. Once the water appears to be clear do a readin test - take a newspaper behind the tank and check if the text is clear - blurry means the water is still not clean. You will reach a point where the water quality will not further improve as much as in the days before. This is the time where you discard or clean out to dry your filter material and put the original stuff back in. The activated carbon should be discarded of course. You cleaned filter material will now need a certain time to grow enough good bacteria to go back to the old performance. During this time you should still leave the light on. In most cases with enough fish and plants in the tank a week should be sufficient. After that you can leave the light off and keep the tank fit and healthy. Special case: Algae everywhere! Especially after getting a new plant you can end up with quite pesty algae growth. Be it these long ghost hair types or in a bad case the black stuff growing on plants, ornaments and the glass. I have even seen tanks with algae covering the entire bottom of the tank causing the gravel to look like carpet. Here I can only advise to set up a quarantaine tank for your fish. Then remove all infested material for manual removal and cleaning. Infested plants should be cut clean and what can be boiled should be boiled in water for a few minutes. Now start scrubbing in the tank with ongoing water replacements. I prefer to let everything settle over night without any bubbler or pump running. This way I can suck up a lot of sediment the next day. If you can remove all plants and fish you can now use hydrogen peroxide and add it to your tank water. But this is only feasable for small desktop tanks. Before using the UV as above to cure an outbreak you should consider all water one last time. Allow at least 2 weeks with ongoing water checks before adding plants back in and another week before placing your fish back in the tank. The week before adding fish should be used to monitor the plats for any signs of algae you might have missed - if you find any remove it! A week after the fish is back in you can turn off the UV light. Underwater UV-C light!? In most online stores you will find quite cheap UV lights to be advertised as underwater or in tank use. Although it might sound tempting you should be well aware of the dangers of using them. The glass of your tank will block the harmfull UV rays but the water surface won't, so either don't ever look at it or use proper sunglasses with real UV protection. Apart from the dangers to you these lamps are not just cheap in price but also cheaply produced. That means there is no way of telling how much or how little UV-C is produced. If they are good then you still need to know in what type of tank setup you can use them. As plants can tolerate a bit of UV a placement as far away from the nearest plant should do, especially if you can place a bubble wall betwenn light and plants. The fish is another thing as some seem to be unaware of the danger in their tank. This means they can get too close to the light but I have not found any articles explaining how harmful UV-C is to fish or their eyesight. I guess once your fish starts to bounce into everything you know... ;) My advise is to stay away from the idea of hanging a UV-C lamp in your tank, the risk for you and your tank is just not justified. If you need to go cheap then get two or thre of these lamps so you have spares. But use them externally ;) Meaning: Take a UV proof plastic container of small size and place the light in there. To be really safe tape the lid and all holes for the hoses with black tape. Place the container above the water level of your tank and if you only have an internal filter pump push a suitable sized hose into the outlet to feed into you canister. Check how high you pump can make it and place the outlet or overflow slightly below this level. When to change the light? If you made it all the way down here then you might already had the benefit of using light to "cure" your tank. Now we are faced with the high replacement cost for the lamp itself. Ususally only flouroscent tubes are used. It is always good to check after purchase what type of lamp and manufacturer (if there is one) was used. In some cases the system itself is like an inkjet printer: Just a cheap way to make you buy the consumables. Let's say you new in-line filter was priced at $100 to have a nice round number, some are cheaper some much more expensive. The lamp used might be an exotic type and not even be available easy, so before you buy your system check where you can get spares, not just the lamp of course. A replacement lamp can be as ceap as 20 bucks or cost even more than your system if you need to order it elsewhere. The quartz glass sleeve can break too meaning you then need a lamp and cylinder. Going with a reputable brand and paying a bit more certainly helps to get spares in the future. Let's just assume you either got your system in bulk due to the price of replacement lamps or can get them at a reasonable price. UV-C lamps are not like your normal flouroscent light tubes you have around or maybe even on top of your tank. Consider them like the tubes used in the now unhealthy tanning beds. After a certain amount of time they no longer produce enough of the short wave UV light that we need. As you can't see it and most of us won't have the means to specifically measure it we have to trust manufacturers recommendations. For most good brands the numbers are the same: 8000 hours max. Considering the costs it does make sense to keep written track of the usage. Not too hard since we won't use them like normal lights but instead have them on for a week or more without turning them off. I recommend to have a replacement at hand long before you need it. A lamp can fail premature, crack or simply burn out. The 8000 hours are based on 24 hour usage, so one day on, one day off. This could mean for us the lifetime can be slightly longer but I would not go over 9000 hours. As a rule of thumb: If the water does not show good signs of getting clear on day thre the lamp is due.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply