Search for gain in Topics


weight gain? Answered

This is just one of those strange things that flashed through my mind when I read the other question on Deuterium. Since its just water, and I don't remember ever reading that it is harmful to drink it, I was made to wonder: If a person were to drink enough deuterium over a period of time to replace all the regular water in their body with heavy water, just how much weight would they gain?

Question by Vyger    |  last reply


how to gain weight?

I am pretty darn skinney, its just that i have a excessively fast metabolism i eat a ton, all the time im always eating at 6 foot 130lbs im not that big but i do eat alot huge meals and i do get exercise its not like i stay inside and play video games i dont even like video games i dont see why people like them so much but i do get exercise so how would i gain weight

Question by BIGHAIRYDUDE    |  last reply


Need help with caculate non inverting op amp gain? Answered

Hello .I need help with caculate gain of this non-inverting opamp .Can you tell me how to caculate the gain of it when the pot at 100% please ! Thanks ! Sorry for my bad English!

Question by login721    |  last reply


Need explain of this jfet schematic please?

Hello . i need help with this jfet shcematic .How to caculation thi gain of the jfet , and how to reduce the gain ?? Thanks in advance! sorry for my bad English!

Question by login721    |  last reply


TDA2003 opamp question? Answered

Hello i have some questions about the opamp TDA2003. 1.In the picture bellow the R1 and R2 make the gain for opamp .Gain=R2/R3=220/2.2=100. It's of if i replace the R2 with 2k resistor and R3 with 200 Ohms resistor ??? The gain still the same but i dont know if it still ok ?? 2.What the  C2(470uF) do in this schematic, what will happend if i replace it with a 100uF capacitor ? Thanks for advance! sorry for my bad English !

Question by login721    |  last reply


npn transistor and impedance question? Answered

Hello , i have question about transistor .The picture below is a simple npn transistor booster .Can you give me the formula of gain and output impedance of this schematic please. Thanks! sorry for my bad English!

Question by login721    |  last reply


Total Views Count - 19/01/2012

Here's this weeks. Third week in a row! Go me! This forum topic is a printout of the results of a Perl script I run weekly. To be included in it, join this  group. The Perl script visits the profile page of each member of the group and extracts their Total Views then saves them to a file that can be opened by me in Excel. I then post the last 3 columns so everyone can compare their weekly gain with their friends. While you can easily see this data for you on the You page, this script allows people to compare their success/gain with their friends. I hand out patches as achievements when members of the group reach 50k, 100k, 250k, 500k and 1m views. Member Last Week This Week Gain scoochmaroo 7,474,809 7,513,289 38,480 canida 5,859,849 5,879,952 20,103 fungus amungus 5,101,997 5,114,503 12,506 randofo 4,394,744 4,406,387 11,643 Honus 3,199,650 3,205,661 6,011 jessyratfink 2,889,301 2,909,081 19,780 Kiteman 2,332,488 2,340,163 7,675 Plasmana 2,291,940 2,297,362 5,422 Tool Using Animal 1,937,763 1,941,677 3,914 ChrysN 1,581,994 1,591,465 9,471 Creativeman 1,370,764 1,378,268 7,504 drinkmorecoffee 1,370,519 1,376,865 6,346 T3h_Muffinator 1,323,548 1,325,551 2,003 killerjackalope 1,317,866 1,320,488 2,622 zieak 1,304,568 1,306,984 2,416 chr 1,291,083 1,299,442 8,359 mikeasaurus 1,227,715 1,237,062 9,347 gmjhowe 1,200,235 1,201,955 1,720 lemonie 1,156,721 1,161,574 4,853 Weissensteinburg 1,150,130 1,153,573 3,443 frenzy 1,132,528 1,137,264 4,736 seamster 1,080,402 1,088,329 7,927 Frivolous Engineering 1,063,878 1,065,219 1,341 shesparticular 848,397 851,432 3,035 Brennn10 834,169 836,351 2,182 mikey77 831,442 833,985 2,543 jeff-o 771,666 773,134 1,468 CameronSS 744,894 745,737 843 scraptopower 717,688 721,189 3,501 aeray 707,375 710,840 3,465 PKM 706,689 708,233 1,544 laxap 684,745 686,926 2,181 ModMischief 673,969 676,897 2,928 depotdevoid 640,311 642,233 1,922 Mrballeng 609,197 613,934 4,737 belsey 591,313 593,445 2,132 starshipminivan 588,568 591,405 2,837 Jayefuu 550,192 551,469 1,277 Gadget Gangster 430,162 433,328 3,166 AngryRedhead 421,677 423,976 2,299 BrittLiv 379,312 381,842 2,530 rimar2000 363,225 364,744 1,519 Spl1nt3rC3ll 336,296 336,843 547 Vyger 310,137 310,619 482 mary candy 306,061 306,744 683 KentsOkay 305,348 305,838 490 scooter76 303,270 303,749 479 rickharris 295,557 296,790 1,233 vishalapar 283,867 289,395 5,528 Ninzerbean 279,732 280,440 708 Greasetattoo 267,559 269,067 1,508 Xellers 248,217 249,417 1,200 Lithium Rain 247,940 248,815 875 Technochicken 242,925 243,908 983 dark sponge 221,904 222,234 330 bongodrummer 210,878 211,643 765 bertus52x11 208,583 209,418 835 Hiyadudez 208,336 209,101 765 uniqueutopia 207,671 208,622 951 sunshiine 201,608 204,625 3,017 knife141 200,357 201,627 1,270 comodore 198,192 198,684 492 janw 193,521 194,347 826 JamesRPatrick 191,039 191,844 805 Kaelessin 189,857 190,362 505 iminthebathroom 186,005 187,241 1,236 yokozuna 185,911 186,269 358 Lynne Bruning 184,240 184,815 575 annahowardshaw 176,562 178,494 1,932 Dr.Paj 178,129 178,482 353 bajablue 169,065 170,872 1,807 thermoelectric 168,653 169,421 768 RavingMadStudios 168,397 169,264 867 Nelson_Yepez 167,374 168,177 803 jen7714 158,469 159,889 1,420 ynze 146,329 146,784 455 The Jamalam 142,336 142,523 187 I_am_Canadian 139,089 139,522 433 DJ Radio 128,651 129,034 383 Goodhart 125,397 125,696 299 Jimmy Proton 118,585 119,761 1,176 wizgirl 116,009 116,632 623 marc.cryan 113,257 114,017 760 The Papier Boy 110,151 110,546 395 Mr.Sanchez 109,574 110,195 621 lw119 108,883 109,690 807 Killer%7ESafeCracker 100,220 100,497 277 HHarry 98,358 100,092 1,734 MichelMoermans 99,343 99,693 350 dombeef 88,818 89,424 606 susanrm 85,675 87,144 1,469 Biggsy 86,419 86,855 436 mman1506 81,945 82,335 390 Shadowman39 75,336 75,712 376 Re-design 72,819 73,044 225 agis68 72,668 72,863 195 fjordcarver 71,680 72,758 1,078 ajleece 68,857 69,005 148 KoffeeKommando 68,070 69,002 932 The Ideanator 66,649 66,936 287 cammers 62,653 63,167 514 arthurb 62,609 62,743 134 beanieostrich 61,280 62,077 797 kelseymh 61,266 61,495 229 TNEN 61,004 61,208 204 LargeMouthBass 59,423 59,942 519 Sunkicked 58,673 58,824 151 EmmettO 57,569 57,799 230 TitanTechRobotics 56,637 56,985 348 coolpizzadude 56,118 56,281 163 cdawisconsin 54,664 55,228 564 mkanoap 53,558 53,751 193 jwystup 52,272 52,546 274 TSC 52,126 52,439 313 TabbyDeAnne 50,895 51,689 794 Berkin 51,182 51,402 220 knuckel 49,637 49,831 194 Win Guy 48,956 49,374 418 diyoutdoorsman 48,442 48,977 535 nickodemus 46,961 47,199 238 blinkyblinky 45,057 46,484 1,427 iceng 45,118 45,413 295 Z.Backas 43,811 43,952 141 ahrshin 43,180 43,346 166 lilyfrancis 42,985 43,115 130 lizzyastro 41,960 42,224 264 kcls 41,712 41,971 259 MotaBoi 40,433 40,562 129 krysteanuh 37,990 38,249 259 cbm104 37,817 37,923 106 patriots8888 37,758 37,920 162 steveastrouk 36,895 37,062 167 possum888 36,555 36,699 144 Data643 35,320 35,450 130 Rob O 34,969 35,143 174 tqwerty 34,840 35,120 280 Mimikry 34,767 35,050 283 Winged Fist 33,871 34,622 751 shadowninja31 33,482 33,586 104 Tornado96 32,405 32,618 213 peguiono 32,374 32,440 66 splazem 31,129 31,439 310 Derin 30,442 30,555 113 zack247 29,935 30,159 224 plane phanatic 29,858 29,933 75 drknotter 29,209 29,688 479 qazwsx755 28,820 29,024 204 CrayfishYAY 28,811 28,901 90 lil larry 27,967 28,157 190 m6233555m 27,819 27,842 23 monsterlego 26,597 27,390 793 Knex_Gun_Builder 27,075 27,142 67 Dr. Pepper 25,246 25,362 116 zurichko 24,773 24,933 160 fdmjh 24,398 24,539 141 aeronut01 23,165 23,272 107 Tom Buckey 23,202 23,244 42 floris2burn 23,031 23,125 94 Legofanatic 22,893 23,014 121 Twinmum 21,482 22,044 562 ilpug 21,525 22,036 511 nutsandbolts_64 21,593 21,711 118 Sorunome 20,795 21,156 361 zascecs 20,787 20,804 17 Nostalgic Guy 20,056 20,208 152 mJusticz 19,498 19,585 87 knexsuperbuilderfreak 18,042 18,074 32 colorex 17,624 17,851 227 acidbass 17,539 17,618 79 knexinventer 16,556 16,699 143 A-Nony-Mus 15,368 15,490 122 username252 14,560 14,674 114 masterochicken 14,236 14,287 51 robot1398 13,989 14,205 216 NachoMahma 12,395 12,402 7 Kryptonite 12,018 12,075 57 king1000 11,893 11,926 33 Football viking boy 11,798 11,922 124 RollerScrapper 9,361 11,908 2,547 FrozenStar 11,469 11,522 53 NatNoBrains 11,296 11,369 73 LoneWolf 11,148 11,263 115 RNB 10,464 10,751 287 moocowdog 10,602 10,643 41 cherishcherub 10,507 10,551 44 canucksgirl 9,669 10,104 435 slithien 9,613 9,670 57 Super_Nerd 8,518 8,676 158 Kaptain Kool 6,939 7,034 95 wareneutron 6,774 6,823 49 tbcross 6,397 6,434 37 furrysalamander 5,911 6,215 304 Randomguy65 5,882 5,949 67 MegaMetal8%28Left Ibles%29 5,765 5,792 27 jamesdude 5,664 5,676 12 happyjo 5,460 5,510 50 35Timmy 5,378 5,468 90 ElvenChild 5,331 5,418 87 BladeFyre Studios 5,166 5,191 25 solarblade90 5,002 5,026 24 9400dk 4,842 4,845 3 nfk11 4,434 4,476 42 mg0930mg 4,347 4,364 17 Jag56 4,328 4,344 16 AwesomeSwordGuy 3,407 3,421 14 TheAwesomestDude 3,328 3,395 67 neuropol 3,307 3,335 28 cj81499 2,957 2,958 1 shadon 2,930 2,941 11 gmxx 2,516 2,519 3 LivStoleYourPie 2,290 2,314 24 blueblobbs 2,190 2,240 50 cyanyears 2,167 2,188 21 White Shadow 2,059 2,102 43 Mutantflame 1,967 1,973 6 iproberry1 1,385 1,640 255 vicvelcro 1,348 1,372 24 FastLearner 1,195 1,201 6 PotatoCoffee 956 1,020 64 Karma Charger18 885 922 37 kyleslab 721 727 6 daredevil499 655 681 26 Alexvolos1 432 442 10 CeruleanPhoenix 421 434 13 Fr-Pa-Co 403 404 1 heratio 223 225 2 %28YOUR N 221 222 1 lightingever 5 7 2

Topic by Jayefuu    |  last reply


non-inverting opamp gain question?

Hello. i have a question about non-inverting opamp gain .In the image bellow ,the resistors make gain =1k/220=4.5.4 Now i need to turn the gain down ,but i only can change the value of 1k resistor.It's ok to lower the value of 1k resistor ,or even remove it ? http://i247.photobucket.com/albums/gg132/chipmapple/opampgain.png Thanks in advance!

Question by login721  


Maker Movement Gaining Recognition

Tim O'Reilly has some really nice things to say about Instructables and our community of people building things and doing it themselves over on the O'Reilly Radar post Maker Movement Gaining Recognition.In addition, what today is "do it yourself" is tomorrow's big business. The hacker building homebrew robots shows us something about the future of robotics. The crafter incorporating technology into traditional crafts shows us something about how computing is becoming pervasive. The folks playing with laser cutters and 3D printers are telling us something about the future of manufacturing. The folks hooking up sensors to tie physical buildings to their analogues in Second Life are telling us that the future may not be in virtual reality but a new kind of augmented reality.For a long time, Tim has had success identifying trends by looking to hackers to see what they're up to and how the problems they're solving will soon become mainstream. So, what problems are you working on right now? What's you're next Instructable that's poised to go mainstream?(The image is from our July Show and Tell.)

Topic by ewilhelm  


Question about op amp frequency response? Answered

Hello , i have some question about op amp frequency response. i use non inverting like the scematic below.If i set  R1=10kΩ  , C1=220nF  ,  R2=100Ω  , C2=1uF . R1 and C1 will set low frequency response of opamp at 72Hz . R2 and C2 will set high frequency response of opamp at 1592Hz.  But how much it affect the signal in dB ? and how its affect the signal if i set R2=100k ,C2=1n (gain~11)? Can you give me the formula please ? Thanks very much! Sorry for my bad English!

Question by login721    |  last reply


Smart amplifier design building blocks help? (making an amp w/ auto-volume adjust by controlling gain with running avg)

I am currently working on a simple headphone audio amp that automatically adjusts volume to my preference, regardless of what video I click on when it is plugged into a computer. I am tired of some video's being so quiet that I have to crank up the volume to overdrive to hear it, while other video's blast out sound and burst my eardrums. And of course when watching photonicinduction videos, he often can be hard to hear his voice at really low volume at like 12 at night when everyone is asleep, but then the sparks and hammers come into the picture, it is often too late to crank the volume back down, and thus makes your ears bleed or waking everyone up in the neighborhood! X-(. (Luckily he has included sound warnings, but I am lazy, and will engineer things that do the hard work of adjusting volume for me! :)   ) In a way, I understand that this will minimize the dynamic range, which I suppose hardcore "audiophiles" will go NUTS over me actually WANTING to do that, but none the less, That is what I want. My design currently is just a simple emitter follower with a NPN and PNP transistor is the class AB operation, and to minimize crossover distortion and give a definite gain, I have negative feedback op amp from the output of the totem pole transistor arrangement back to the inputs that feed the base of the low and high side transistor. (obviously, the transistors by themselves are low impedance output, (CV mode) and high impedance input, and have a gain of like 1.) Sorry, no schematics, but you capable of googling it if you want to see what I am describing. As it is, it works fine. HOWEVER, it does not do the automatic volume, or gain control. That is set in stone by a resistor divider network between the feedback and ground (the basic non inverting amp feedback config.) I do not want a fixed gain. I want a electrically adjustable gain. The thing I plan to use to do the automatic adjustment would be a peak detector on the input, which is probably going to be a simple diode and capacitor with a buffer, and a discharge resistor (or constant current drain) across the capacitor to gradually lower the max output, or possibly an integrating op amp that effectively takes a running average. The output of that needs to control GAIN of the primary amplifier, and I want to be able to control the PID of that thing, maybe by tuning the a LCR circuit, or what have you. It is all nice and analog, just the way I like it! :) If ONLY there was some magical (and common) component that I could control the resistance anywhere in the feedback loop, of with a given voltage w/ respect to ground... I was thinking of like a MOSFET, but I would have to deal with the non linearity of the input vs output impedance, which probably changes with respect to everything from the current flowing through the channel, the voltage relative to ground at the source, the temperature, the alignment of the planet's, what mood god is in, etc etc etc. That is too many factors for an open loop control on to model in discrete stuff! And digital potentiometers are out of the question since, well they are digital, I want an elegant simple solution, and the are $$ and difficult to deal with. They have so many requirements that need to be addressed.  I prefer a elegant discrete transistor circuit, but op amps and other basic building blocks are acceptable, (this thing I want to be built over a weekend with with jellybean parts from by junk bin.) if you happen to know of a specific audio chip that does this for me, please mention it, but I will probably not use it, but maybe analyze the internal circuitry and learn how it works.

Question by -max-    |  last reply


Is it possible to make a range extension antenna for my cell phone? Answered

So my job has me out in BFE a lot where I am lucky to get 1/16th of a bar of service. I was wondering if it is possible to increase my signal gain by building an antenna for my cell phone that plugs into the port under the cover? 

Question by atrumblood    |  last reply


UHF CB radio antennas or scanner antennas anyone?

For a while now I am back to experimenting with various antenna designs for my UHF radio.Started as something entirely different but who cares LOLAnyways, we usually have either a standard whip antenna or a vertical dipole design for mobile use, like on your car.This is a very good design for both types of antennas, mostly due to the short wavelenght compared to the "old" 2m or 27mHz CB radios.Fun fact for at least AU in this regard is that back in the day everyone jumped onto UHF to get away from the overfilled chatter on 27MHz, now the old 2m band is basically dead except for marine use.One thing I really miss on UHF though is distance!Line of sight communication sounds fine at first but then you really have to realise the limits once out and about.As a result we often have to choose between a high gain antenna or a stubby for going into the mountains or being in a convoy.Only way out seems to be the golden middle by opting for one of the 4.5 - 6-5DBI antennas.Neither solution really satisfies me though :(To get around the limitations and have some fun again when sitting high on a mountain I compared various commercial antennas I had.You know, pick someone with a weak signal coming in and hope he hears you and has some time for a chat.Turned out there is not really that much difference in terms of receiving a signal.Quite huge differences though when it comes to the other side being able to hear you!So I jumped onto a basic SWR meter and actually checked my so called factory tuned antennas - all but one were way off the charts here.At least if you are like me and like optimised instead of compromised antenna systems.A Standing Wave Reflection ratio of 1:2 or even 1:2.5 is seen as very acceptable thing on UHF for some weird reason.Back in my glory days no one I knew would have accepted anything above 1:1.3 for his 27MHz system, be it mobil or a station at home.Sure enough, repeating my long distance tests a few days later with tuned antennas resulted in far better results.An antenna for long distance calls or emergencies?!The easiest way to get more distance on UHF is obviously getting the antenna as high as possible.From a nice mountain top you have it way easier than in any urban areas for example.Explains why so many of the long and sturdy antennas are just simple dipoles on a long pole.If you ever checked the feedback for these double quad TV antennas you realise they are literally in the same frequency range.Similar story for all the Yagi antennas for our TV sets that you find on so many roofs these days.Only problem with them is that they usually don't give a damn about transmitting qualities.And of course that they are usually providing around 300Ohm instead of the 50Ohm our radio expects.A TV needs 75Ohm and a balun is used to provide a isolation as well as a matching for the TV.Needless to say I could not accept this ;)My first design was made from aluminium foil glued onto some printed and stiched pages for a double quad.1MHz bandwidth is quite narrow, so the basic square design with about 13.8cm for the sides of the squares was easy.To my surprise by just adding standard RG58 cable this design was very close to 50Ohm already, I had around 60.A few glue sessions later I was able to match it to 52Ohm - close enough for test.Did not want to risk anything with my expensive Icom so I used my cheap Baofeng handheld for the initial tests.Indoor mind you...To me disappointment I seemed to be unable to pick up anything.So let the sanner run and waited...After being bored enough I decided to pick, starting with the antenna and when I moved it the handheld suddenly had a clear signal.Desperate as I was I grabbed the radio and waited for the chat to continue - nothing again...Then it finally hit me: The double quad is quite directional....Sure enough by just turning it slowly I was able to pick up chatter on various channels.Once brave enough to risk it I even got confirmation that people about 10km away could hear me just fine.Time to scale it up a notch...Next design already had the directional problem included as a design feature.I added a director in the front and a reflector in the back.The endless hours of glueing and cutting were replaced by using 12mm wide copper tape and sturdier cardboard.A test with my car on a little "mountain" and the antenna on 2m pole mounted to roof rack gave me, for the first time ever, conversations with people that were over 30km away.I am currently trying to make the entire thing omnidirectional.The omni quad....If you take two double quad antennas and mount them at a 90° angle you end up with very nice 2-lobe pattern, 4 lobes if you don't use a reflector.Problem here though is that these designs really mess with your antenna matching.Not to mention that using it while driving only works at quite low speeds.One day I will do the final design in stainless steel wire though...Anyways, using the directional properties to get an omnidirection radiation pattern meant using 4 seperate antennas with a reflector for each of them.Still left a few dark spots at short range but otherwise really nice for long distance if you don't want to constantly turn your antenna.Getting 4 antennas down to 50Ohm on the connection to the cable was painful to say the least.The problem of taking care of distances to be in the sweet spot for the 477MHz range also meant the design ended up to be quite bulky.One of my lightbulb moments providing good ideas caused me to use one reflector with a double quad either side.Worked almost fine but again provided totally different values to somehow match if it ever should transmit a signal without damaging the transmitter.Obvious conclusion was to buy a new roll of copper tape and to try to get four single antennas into one "housing" without stacking them.Bad idea here was to cross the antennas :(Better idea was to make 4 pyramids out of carboard and aluminium foil.Sadly this resulted in a failure because the 4 sides of the pyramid reflect the signal not flat bt at their corresponding angles.Had to make it really big and use 90° angles, resulting in the signal being reflected like light in these cat-eye reflectors on your bike.After wasting a few days to create the real thing it turned out to not really work properly for the reception already.Even close range signals came in really distorted.I guess the double reflection meant the phase is shifting and cancelling out what the antenna gets.My last desing idea for testing will be with a different approach.Instead of 1/4 Lambda elements I will use small 1/64 Lambda elements.Only about 2cm long means that matching is pain in the behind but if the purpose is just receiving it should be fine.The reflector will be four flat sides like a box with antennas in front of the sides and the cables joined in the center.If you like to fiddle with antennas and don't mind trying a weird looking base antenna on your roof I might be willing to write up a short Instructable based on my designs - let me know in the comments....By the way: it is quite easy to desing this for the common 2.4GHz Wifi bands ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


What are the specific food to gain some weigh?

I would like to know what kind of food and how often to eat in order to gain some weigh (5 Kg) in 2 or 3 months.

Question by sokhavong2002    |  last reply


Right to Information-still a right to gain in Bangladesh

Bangladesh gained independence twice. From the British for the first time and second time from Pakistan. Unfortunately Bangladesh inherited the black laws made both by the British and the PAKISTANI. It is more unfortunate the politician like to those black laws when they are in power. Bangladeshi citizens could asked for infprmation from a government office.  But there is also the light of hope. The government passed RTI-Act 2009 in 2009 to ensure people's right to information. Though the government officer are not interested to supply information as per the law, it is at leat a start. To know more you can see the news http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=211710

Topic by sunil_123  


How to build a portable solar gain heater?

What I have in mind would be....a frame with wheels, with plexiglas on the front, black on the back, air intake on the bottom, black stacks of aluminum cans inside to funnel heat upward....and a flexible hose at the top to carry heated air into the house....not quite sure how to rig that up. See, I've noticed that the outside of my dark green garage door will be hot to the touch even on a winter day, if it's sunny. But, the garage door is insulated and of course, the heat stays outside. This would have to be portable though, to roll away during non-winter, and in the rain...which since I lve in the Pacific Northwest, would be more often than not.

Question by chotii    |  last reply


How to measure open loop H(s)? Answered

When designing constant current linear dummy loads, and when I was (attempting) to design a really nice linear power supply with op amps and pass transistors, I consistently run into the devil of the circuits that incorporate feedback. INSTABILITY! Especially if I use fast op amps, or MOSFETs, etc. My understanding as to why this happens is because I still have some positive gain at the point at the frequencies where signal the total loop has that dreaded -180 degree phase (gain margin) and then where the gain is unity and phase is at -180, again allowing that frequency component to be successively amplified (or never attenuated) as that wave whirls around the loop. However, with op amp circuits, how am I supposed to get an accurate open loop measurement, when the DC gain is so stupidly high the input to an op amp is essentially a comparator? http://www.ti.com/lit/an/snva364a/snva364a.pdf This article suggests whacking in a 20 ohm resistor and injecting a signal into it, and measuring the voltage on either side of it (?) How is this supposed to work? Is there a better method in something like LTspice?

Question by -max-    |  last reply


TV antennas and what is possible indoors

Back in my young years a TV antenna was on the roof, quite big and only required to get 3 or 4 channels at best.The basic design of these Yagi antennas has not really changed since then.Same for the antennas required to get UHF and VHF channels at the same time.They either comes as two seperate antennas with a mixer or as a UHF antenna with some added loops for UHF.To talk some basics:For UHF you can get away with quite small dimensions for your antenna bits.After all a quarter wavelengths here is only around 15cm long.With VHF though we get already 30 to 40cm here depending on the channels.So called bradband antennas claim to be able to get a wide range of frequencies.That however is only true for their dedicated frequency band.If you take a normal whip style antenna then this becomes obvious - just compare the lenghts required and you realise "going the middle way" will mean neither UHF nor VHF would get any usable reception.For a long time now there is the option of so called "fractal antennas" to get better TV reception....Fractal antenna? What the heck is that?The theories behind them are about as old as fractal antenna designs that were not even considered to be fractals.Let me explain with the example of a standard FM radio antenna.For them we use frequencies from about 88 to 108MHz.And of course, for our cars they are always on the roof or mounted somewhere around the wheel arches.Some cars however does not seem to have any antenna depsite having a working radio.In this special case rest ensured they do have one, usually behind the plastic bumper bar ;)I like to go off road every now and then and lost count how many times I had to replace my antenna after getting to close to some bushes and trees.As a solution I used some thin wire to create a L-style anteanna on the inside of my windscreen.And funny enough it picks up more stations than a "proper" antenna outside.Really old design and if you think about it then an antenna with a kink that looks like L is ""self similar" - the definition of a fractal ;)More complex shapes like the Sierpinski models do exactly the same just in one more dimension.Cell phones use them as well as you WiFi router that has no external antenna anymore.Their designs and looks are so different that it is next to impossible to list the currently used shapes here.What it comes down to, when you just take a very basic flat or wire shape is that the straight single segment of the active antenna is split into one or many shorter segments that change the angle.They all have similar relations to the wavelenght still.Means really long segments might be half of a wavelength while the shortest bits are just 1/64 of a wavelength.Think of it (far too simple of course) like amny matched antennas combined into a single one.With that often comes a destinct radiation pattern, usually with a quite narrow beam angle that provides a quite high gain.Are fractal antennas any better than for example a proper Yagi antenna?You can ask 100 people and you get 100 different opinions for this one.This is mostly due to some simple facts like:Not caring about actual comparisons.Not being accurate enough when building the fractal antenna.Using just very basic equippment to compare results.For example when you have a 30 year old and quite small TV antenna on your roof and struggle with digital TV reception than you might want to just replace it all.In some case even the old rabbit ears on your TV set will work better.But take modern Yagi antenna with 12 or more segments and even station that are 100 miles away have a good chance.Comes down to possible gain, frequency match and of course how well the antenna is aimed at the transmitter.Then why is it that some fractal antennas still seem to perform so much better?The big antenna scam....If you paid attention during the intial DVB-T rollout in your country then noticed two things.a) You were told you need a TV or set top box capable of receiving DVB-T signals.b) You need a suitable antenna.Well, A is obvious but for B a lot of people got scammed badly.You see, in almost all cases the frequencies allocated for TV signal did not change at all.And an antenna really does not care if the incoming signal is analog or digital - it only cares about the frequency.But more and more local stations often meant that the trnsmit power is limited.After all it makes no sense to have a 500kW transmitter if the area to cover is only about 20 square km big.So people were told they need new antennas once the noticed digital TV is more like playing Tetris, blocks everywhere....You analog TV had no problem with a slightly weak signal, you did not really notice it unless the weather was really bad as well.All the benefits of digital TV however only work with a proper signal strength.If your areas still has both analog and digital TV channels then have a look on how your local transmitter provides the signals ;)Part of the big scam was hiding a very simple fact:All analog TV is transmitted in a horizontal orientation while almost all digital TV is transmitted in a VERTICAL orientation.Ok, we already gain and ignored it but why would the orientation be important?Your radio antenna is vertical because the FM signal is transmitted the same way - the "waves" if you like go up and down like a sine wave.You still get reception if you turn the antenna 90° to make it a horizontal one but you will realise that weak station are no longer available.The same happened with digital TV.And if there is only digital TV left in your area then simple turning your antenna 90 on the mast to have the single elements vertical instead of horizontal gives you top reception again ;)If you struggle to get all station then just try it out before buying a new antenna ;)Modern fractal TV antennas come paper thin and often with rediculous claims in terms of gain and range.On Fleabuy you can even find models claiming to get stations from over 2000 miles away LOLSome even come with the fake claim of being omnidirectional, meaning it does not matter where you place them or how you orient them.A fractal antenna can't change basic phsyics though...High gain mean highly directional or at least with a very flat radiation pattern instead of being more like a sphere.A high bandwidth means you compromise on the gain and/or the phsical dimensions.For example a thin whip antenna is quite limited in the optimum bandwidth while a piece of tubing provides amuch higher bandwidth but at the expense of gain (and some other problems).A fractal antenna can compromise between the two worlds much better than anything straight.And you would even need to make the traces on the plastic extremely wide because you can simply add different lengths for different frequencies.Means a wideband fractal antenna for FM, VHF and UHF basically is three different antennas combined into a single one.It also means that there is usually always more than just one single element of the antenna that is receiving a signal.If you experimented with WiFi antennas for your router or modem than you certainly found the famous Pringles can antenna - highly directional and with an insane amount of gain.Works exactly like a simple directional microphone.And you could, at least in theory do the same with a TV antenna - if there wouldn't be the problem of the wavelenght.A pringles can works for WiFi because the wavelenght only requires an antenna of about 3cm in lenght.You might not want a row of steel drums with a diameter of around 80cm on your roof just to watch the news though...Ok, if I need a new antenna anyway then should I get a fractal antenna or not?I try to make it simple:Roof option not possible or too costly AND your transmitter is not too far away then try one of the cheap paper thin antennas you find online.If you already have an antenna on the roof that is suitable for the frequencies you need then check it to know if it is still any good.With age and weather comes corrosion and some antennas are connected badly in this regard.Sometimes you are lucky and all it takes is to cut off a few cm of cable to get back to clean copper and to give the terminals on the antenna a good fine sanding or a wire brush treatment.In other cases you might find an amplifier under the roof that has faulty power supply ;)And well, certain animals love to chew through your cable...If all is goo from antenna to TV then as said try to flip the antenna 90° to get it vertical.No, I did not mean to point it up to the sky..... ;)I mean rotate it around the x-axis if X is pointing in the direction of the transmitter...

Topic by Downunder35m  


Home-Trainer-Bike "no pain no gain" video system

Hi everybody, i want to build a home trainer which connects to my computer in that way, that video will only be played when i do some exercise. my idea: - attach bike dynamo to home trainer bike - make connection to old external computer keyboard - fiddle with the software so video is played when a button is "pressed" (or activated by exercise), if the button is not pressed, the video will pause. the last point seems to be really tricky - any ideas? any alternative ideas from anyone? i do not want some on/off switch because then you could simply do two strokes on the bike and sit back and relax to watch the movie. i want a solution where only when straddling the video will play. cheers, stefan

Topic by spot-x-berg    |  last reply


Low Gain in RF filter after the signal goes through the switch 2-18GHZ

Having trouble with an RF switch, getting low gain as it passes through the switch, I have x-ray the component, and all links are intact, no ESD damage that i can see, Does any one know what could be causing it to have low gain? possibly the RF track in the Switch? HEEELP?!?!!

Topic by SamuelG122  


How do I turn AGC (auto gain control) off on a webcam?

I want to make a DIY 35mm style digital camera from scratch out of a webcam, a Depth of Field adaptor, and a micro-pc. The only problem is that DOF adapters are very dark, and they cause a webcam to use it's auto gain control (this causes little multi-coloured patches in the dark areas known as "noise"). It's a great idea for a video chat in the dark but nothing professional. I know that all the webcams I've researched can't have gain turned off via a PC, so surely I can detach something from the PCB of the webcam (I assume there is some sort of gain module inside it). Please Obi-wan Kenobi, you're my only hope. What can I do to turn the gain off?

Question by tyldob    |  last reply



Eco-Tax in SADC and the economic gain of Bio-diesel engines

I am assuming we are all aware of what is ongoing with the whether. I propose we put our minds and resources together to switch every car and auto-mechanic in SADC into renewable energy. I have not yet worked out what would happen to all the fossil fuels that may be left untouched because of this probably send everything into orbit or outer-space with all of the Landfills. Then terra-forming it into a Tropical Jungle.

Topic by DomingoD6    |  last reply


Amplifying load cell signal with AD623 problem!

Hello folk! I am having some trouble with this. I have set up the circuit. Thing is, when i put a 1K resistor between pins 1 and 8, i am supposed to get a gain of 100, instead i am getting a gain of 50. If i put 500ohm resistor, instead of getting a gain of 200, i am getting a gain of 100. What is going on here? My load cell is a bridge type. im getting an output in the mVs so i know my load cell is working. Just the amplification part. Note that the load cell and ad623 have the same ground and the reference is grounded too[0V]. Whats happening? any help appreciated. Diagram is attached.

Question by Chris414    |  last reply


Join the Internet Memes group! Gain a free subscription from yours truly!

The epicest group in the history of Instructables. Come join. You know you want to. We have cookies. And Megan Fox. Mmmm.... Megan Fox.... You may also discuss memes in this topic. Discuss! NOW!

Topic by Camisado    |  last reply


Join the Borat group! Gain a free subscription from yours truly!

The group "Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan" is for those who appreciate, enjoy and admire the cunning brilliance of Borat Sagdiyev. Borat fans unite! If you're a mere passerby and haven't watched the movie yet, watch it! WATCH IT NOW!Very nice, sexy time, jagsemash, wa wa wi wa, great success, etc.Kazakhstan is the greatest country in the world, all the other countries are run by little girls.BORAT FANS UNITE!!!!P.S. As always, join my group and you get a free subscription from yours truly.

Topic by Camisado    |  last reply


How do I build a Solid State guitar amplifier with 15-30 or more watts?

I've heard about the popular gainclone amps and seen a few, but none of them were for guitar it seemed. I'm looking for anything- guides, schematics, etc.- to help me build a solid state guitar amplifier. I would like for it to have at least 15 watts. Anything goes. Thanks in advance!

Question by snowpenguin    |  last reply


Heavy duty UHF CB radio antennas and why cheap can be much better....

If you not a fan of normal road cars then you might get some 4WD and go off road every now and then.There are even those doing trips to remote locations that take a few weeks.An essential piece of equippment these days is a UHF radio.In a convoy you might get away with a handheld one if the cars are not too far apart and the terrain suitable.Most peole however opt for a permanent installation in the dash or roof console.After that decision comes the hardest and often costly part: What antenna to use....If you trust certain online reviews and manufacturer claims then one thing becomes quickly obvious.If you need a sturdy and powerful antenna then you have to pay top dollar.Some come with heavy spring bases claiming to protect the heavy fibreglass rod if you hit a bush or trees branch.There is always a compromise between weight and stability.And trust me, on the right corrugations you prefer not to look at your antenna....So how are these expensive antennas made?As I don't have any own pictures and don't want to steal them from the net: Please search for the terms used if you don't know them already.To answer this let me go to the other types of antennas you can get for your UHF radio.There is the famous rubber ducky - a stubby antenna best suited for short range on difficult terrian.Then we have the fibreglass whip antennas that have more or less coils integrated or even consist of one single coil with different spacings in sections.Good for normal road use, not so much off road as they won't tolerate too much vibration, they often snap off the base screw.Most people now just ignore the short whip antennas of 15 to 30cm length as they usually only come with a gain of around 4.5-6db.I will explain later why that might be a misconception.The last ones are those steel whips with one or two "loading" coils.These coils electrically shorten the antenna.They also provide a matching to the 50 Ohm required for most transmitters and antenna cables.Usually they are designed to be 5/8 Lambda antennas.A good antenna for just receiving, like when using a scanner is not critical in length.Transmitting however means you need a proper Standing Wave Reflection or SWR ratio.For this the antenna needs to be tuned.To be of any good use your antenna needs to match the transmitting frequency.This works best if the antenna length is at 1/2, 1/4 or 5/8 of the corresponging frequencies wavelength.Also called Lambda if you look for antennas.In the good old 27-MHz days we were used to quite long antennas in our backyard, for the car we then opted for 1/4 of this - usually around 2m in length.For UHF however 1/4 wavelength already means you are down to about 16cm...Going for 1/2 is a good thing here as it is still quite short at about 34cm.Real difference when it comes to these Lambda factors is the radion angle produced.You can imagine a 1/4 to look like a huge donut with no hole, about 25° for the radiation angle.At 1/2 this will be flattened out to around 20°.A 5/8 Lambda ntenna can get as low as 16°.Imagine it like a flashligh that has adjustable focus.The light source is of fixed output as your transmitter.The lens does the job of the antenna.If you make the beam more narrow then the light intensity of a certain areas at a certain distance will increase.Means for the radio you get a longer distance your signal can travel with enough energy.This however comes at a price!Imagine you are at the bottom of quite stepp mountain and your mate is up on the top about 2km above you.A high gain antenna with a narrow radion pattern might not even reach up there, while a short stubbie with just 3db still has a chance due to the more spherical radiation.Also explain why low gain and with that short antennas work best in hilly terrain...Back to the thick ones...As you can see you can basically hide any type of whip antenna into a fibreglass rod.But most of the are as said "ground independent", means unlike your normal whip they don't need the spring or foot to be of low resistance to your car's body.How does that work?Well, exactly like these ground independent whip antennas with a spring base or metal pole base work.You know the earliest antenna was a dipol - look it up on Wiki ;)For our CB radios that means you have a metal rod or spring that is about 1/4 or in some cases 1/4 of the wavelenght long.This is connected to the shielding of the coax cable and provides the required ground for the mounted antenna.The big difference is that only too often a dirt cheap dipol is hiding in your expensive fibreglass rod ;)The complete antenna might bring over 2kg on a scale, but the actual thing allowing you to receive and transmit is a few grams of coax cable...HOLD ON A MINUTE!! Some will say now...My whip is 70cm long and my expensive heavy duty one with 9db is 2m long - how does that work with your wavelength theory??Well, it is not my theory, just a fact ;)Imagine a 1/4 Lambda dipol, then it would be all up around 35cm long.And funny enough, that is about the length of a $180 heavy duty stubby if you just tak the rod itself.Go 1/2 of Lambda and you get an overall length of the dipol of around 65cm - add the metal rod making the crew that holds the fibreglass rod and you have the common 70-75cm heavy duty antenna...Anything above this length usually is either just a long rod with noting above the 75cm mark or simple has the 75cm long dipol made from the coax cable at the top with the antenna cable going down the otherwise empty rod.Ok, I got it, either 1/2 of the wavelength or 1/4, so about 35 or 16cm long.Ground independent we add either 1/4 for the spring base and rod or 1/2 for the longer ones.And how again does it work with the gain of an antenna?If you trust Wiki then it comes down to the radiation pattern.These heavy duty antennas usually come with around 6 or 9db, the short ones with 3-4.5db.These values might give you an indication about the theoretically possible distance you can transmit but nothing about the terrain it is suited for.Common rules of thumb created by those selling antennas and radios is that you a high gain antenna on flat terrain and a low gain antenna in a hilly area.Around 4.5-6db seems to be the golden ratio here as these anteannas are equally bad for both extremes in terms of terrain options.What you really would need to know is the actual radiation patterns in a three dimensional plane.A straight whip or dipol as a more or less donut shapead radiation pattern.However, location affects this!Mounted in the middle of the roof it is closest to perfect, while at the corner of your bumper bar you will distord the donut and also block parts out with the body of your car.This is why for this type of mounting elevated antennas are prefered.Makes no sense to have a 16cm long stubbie mounted so the top is still lower than your bonnet...Any antenna with a loading coil (or several) or top load will have a distinctively different pattern.We speak of so called "lobes".If you see it in 2D then for example a 1/2 lambda straight whip will look a bit like the infinity symbol.A 1/4 Lambda of the same style looks more like two ping pong bats joined without the handles.Those with loading coils or linear arrays made from coax cable however can produce multiple, prefered lobes.Usually they are in the 4-6db range and claim to be "universal" or as "allrounder".Here you get a quite narrow main lobe of 12-16° with one or more but much shorter lobes going upwards at about 10-30° depending on the configuration.At short range, like in hilly terrain both lobes overlap while you get a dead area at greater distances.You can sometimes notice that when you are on a low level talking to someone up high.There are cases when with a bit more difference in angle to each other (in terms of height and distance) the signal jumps up a few numbers.You just went from the dead zone into the lobe ;)With just a db value for the anteanna but no details about the actual design, heavy duty antennas can fool you badly.In mayn cases a 1/2 Lambda straight whip on the roof will outperform a costly, heavy duty antenna mounted to your bullbar.This is the reason why the expensive ones are the biggest cheat - they just elevate a quite small antenna above your roof line.And since it is heavy it needs a big spring and you hope it will not break if you hit something on a narrow track.All while the thin stainless stell whip with the cheap magnetic base just flexes under all obstacles with no damage at all.Plus, if you really get into the thick jungle you can just take the magnet off until you are through LOLWhy is a SWR and power meter still an important tool to invest into?Those remembering or still using 27-MHz radios only know too well why you need a proper SWR and power meter.With the lenght of the antenna at these low frequencies and affecting factors new the antenna proper tuning is a must.The bandwidth of the channels also means you have to tune the lowest and highest channel so the are basically even, anything else and the old guys would scream "UNACCEPTABLE!" ;)Especially it you want to get the last out of your system without going illegal.For some reason we accepted the claims that an SWR reading of around 1:2 is fine and acceptable.Most of the radios lower the power output to protect the transmitter if the SWR goes to far out.Allows for simple mass production of antennas with fixed cable lengths that are usually well overpriced.The most expensive bit is the cable itself here...I had no time to build an analog SWR and pwoer meter that works properly on 27 and 470MHz, so I ordered cheap SW30 from China.With that I first checked my little collection of antennas then those of some of my friends.This includes everything from short rubber duckies over loaded and straight whips to heavy duty models.One thing that was obvious right away: most are far away from an SWR readin anyone with a 27MHz groundplane antenna on a long mast would accept.And only one heavy duty antenna had a SWR readin of below 1:1.6 for channel 1 AND channel 40!That one was relatively cheap noname brand.With that sorted I decided to tune at least my steel whip antennas.To my utter disappointment they were all just a tiny bit too short - a thing that would have caused a proper 27MHz antenna manufacturer to to keep a large stockpile of his antennas...I had one though that was longer than needed.And before you ask: Yes, I tested them on both my elevated bullbar mount AND a direct mount on the roof rack.Did not change much for the bad ones so I ignored the mounting position for the tuning.I checked the power once for both channels on my prefered antenna and got 4.4W.Mind you that one has a SWR reading of 1:2.2 and will no longer be used as I can't be bothered to make it longer.For some reason I thought I check the SWR and power everytime I cut a bit off the antenna instead of just watching the SWR reading.At original length I had a SWR of 1:1.9 on ch40 and 1:1.75 on ch1 with 4.6W.I kept trimming down by about 2mm increments until I got an even readin of 1:1.07 on both channels.And with every trim the power went up a little bit.I have a friend that is or better, was just at the brink of being unable to reach from my driveway when he is parked in front of his house.A radio check after the tuning revealed that instead of coming with a lot of static noise and sometimes cut out I got a solid reading of 2 on his end with a much more acceptable level of noise.However, I still struggles as badly to hear him...Funny thing is that test was with just a plain and straight whip of 1/2 Lambda, in my case the tuning resulted in a length of 38cm from the base of antenna screw to the tip.My fancy 9db high gain antenna that is just over 70cm long did not even reach him while I could hear him slightly better than on my tuned one.Changing the mounting to the roof rack gave me a clear reception and a signal strength of 4 at my friends end with no noise.Elevation and nothing around the antenna does matter...After all this, would I still bother to buy a ready to go antenna for 470MHz?Only if I had to.Getting some RG58 cable or re-using it from on old antenna is cheap enough.A standard screw mount with a grub screw to hold a steel whip sets you back less than 10 bucks, from China even cheaper.And most will find a soldered on connector on the other end of an old antenna to be salvaged if required.If you don't have any sring steel wire of about 40cm length then think out of the box ;)The packing of pillows and such often come with a sring steel wire to make the plasitc floil keep its shape, some old suitaces have thicker wire doing the same.And if you ask nicely you might get a bristle or two for free from a street sweeping machine at your councils depot ;)After all we only need a maximum of 40cm to have enough left to trim and tune down.What is left to do?Of course some distance tests to check how well such a simple antenna really really works in comparison to commercial models.I only have one 9db antenna and will check it first to see if on flat terrain there is much difference in distance for transmitting.Unless this difference is well above one kilometer I will not bother with a high gain antenna like this anymore and instead opt for a longer mast and 1/2 Lambda.Another thing on the to do list to try a ground plane antenna with topload to squeeze the radion lobe down to under 15°.The resulting antenna would be quite short here and using an elevated mast is a must have to get over roof level with at leat a few wavelengths of distance to the roof.I guesstimate that an optimised antenna of this style should result in a distance increase of about 10-15km of flat terrain while being utterly useless in a hilly areas.Plus, such a design is not really suited for a vehicle going fast on a freeway, so it will go on my house instead.

Topic by Downunder35m  


Cfmoto 650 - possible options to derestrict the Australian model

When it comes to motorcycles with restrictions then Australia seems to be pretty much alone in the world.Despite an abundance of bike to choose from that would fit weight/power limitations it seems to be common to go overboard here.As a result basically all popular motorbikes up the 650ccm hit the AU market in a restricted form if they don't match the limitations by default.For someone in the US just reading this might sounds like a useless concept to get people to learn how to ride a motorcycle.As a fully licensed rider and being on a budget a bike for just over half the price of a Japanase model is still tempting.And for general touring use the MT is actually quite a comfortable bike.Big downside is the impossiblity to get certain bikes in an unrestricted form.For the Cfmoto's of the older type, running the Ducati ECU it is as simple as adding a suitable fuel/ignition tuner module and removing the physical restrictions.The newer models from 2017 onwards use a more reliable Bosch ECU though.With them it is appearently possible to use BWM tuning module but with the requirement to do a full remap on a Dyno.The 2018 MT is my bike, so I will focus on this, but the gerneral things are identical on all the Cfmoto 650 models.A word on the legal things first....Outside AU none of this concerns you as your Cfmoto will come unrestricted anyways.Within AU however we are subject to several laws that make the legal modification of a so called LAMS motorcycle virtually impossible.You can even put a different exhaust or airfilter on them without risking to loose your license and get some hefty fines.As a fully licensed rider however the law often turns a blind eye on these things as they don't really matter as long as they won't affect the safety of the bike, rider or other road users.With the plated riders out for now, let's focus on the options for a fully licensed rider, shall we?There is no need for a RWC or anything if you already owned the bike in the LAMS version.But if you try, for example, to go to Vicroads and have the registration details changed to reflect that the bike is now running with it's full factory default power, or a bit more you are lost.Two reasons for this.Firstly Cfmoto did not bother to import and register for road use any unrestricted version of the 650's.Secondly the VIN number and engine number are fixed in a database for LAMS only bikes.You would need a full engeneering certificate to register the bike in any modified version that affects the power output or reduces the weight of the bike.Sets you back about 10.000 dollars and still won't garantee that Vicroads actually transform it into a legal, unrestricted bike.The police has little to no interest in what a fully licensed rider does to a bike - within the usual limits of course.And since you would not sell the bike without fully reverting it back to the LAMS state the risk of prosecution can be fully minimised:If your insurer agrees to provide full comprehensive cover once the bike is (properly) reverted to what the international models are it is down to serious accidents that might still cause trouble.For example when you cause severe injuries to someone else the bike would be checked for modifications that could have had an influence on the accident.My insurer explained it like this:If the bike is checked roadworthyness after an accident it would fail because it is no longer LAMS compliant.That would automatically default the rider to be responsible for the accident even if not at fault at all.With that it is mandatory to have all the details about the modifications listed and validated in the insurance policy!Adding a tuning module for example would mean providing a fully Dyno chart with a safety confirmation from a licensed vehicle tester.For example the confirmation would state that a power Commander with Auto Tune module was installed together with a slip on exhaust system.Bike specifications allow for the save use with said modifications based on the results of the Dyno runs.With that the rider is put back into legal territory as the insurer stands for the roadworthyness of the modifications.It certainly helps to just stick with the default options and to provide the Cfmoto cert copy from the same international version of the bike.A plated rider should never attempt any of this as it still means there is no way to get away - legally and financially!Possible tuning options for the LAMS versions:Adding one the usualy tuning modules is not only pain but also costly if done properly.Being a LAMS bike you will have a hard finding a reputable shop to install a tuning module for you.Doing it yourself can be tricky, especially if you consider that the default wire colors are often different on the bike.Takes a few hours to check the wiring diagram, follow and measure connections and then to finally risk starting the bike....It works though if you know what you doing.Biggest downside is that you won't find any ready to go maps that you can use.And trust me trying to modify fuel or ignition maps yourself is not for the faint of heart and only an option if you a) know what you are doing and b) have the tools for it.There is a good chance the bike actually runs worse than without the module.Now the obvious solution would be to go for some Dyno runs and to have it all setup properly.Again, with a LAMS bike you will have a hard time finding a licensed and reputable shop to take your bike in.If you find one that does it anyway than it really is best to go for the full package and to suck the costs up.Let them supply the required modules, sensors and all, deal with the airbox and throttle limiter.Then have the usual 3-4 Dyno runs to get the mapping done properly.This approached worked perfectly fine for the older bikes using the Ducati ECU.The new models with the Bosch ECU might still struggle to accept the tuning changes.Reason for this is the checking of literally all sensor informations.Means the tuning module must cater for this and not just fool the O2 and TPS sensor readings.Just removing the throttle limiter and airbox restrictions will cause the bike to run too hot very quickly and also puts your ECU into a lean default mode once you see ECU errors flashing on the dash.Real tuning options that won't have a chance to harm the engine:With all models available internationally and without any restrictions it is relatively easy to find a wrecker in the US, EU or even Asia to supply parts from crashed bikes or those confiscated for destruction by dismantling them.If you are a fully licensed rider and after a bargain or love your first bike so much that you want to keep it once the plates are gone:Organise the ECU, airbox and throttle body from any part of the world except Australia.Sometimes you even find them on Ebay so pay attention to the sellers home country (some AU sellers go international and would then just get the same what is already in your bike ;) )!!Why not just the ECU you ask?Our airbox has added restrictors, just removing is not the best option as they are also responsible for causing required turbulences in the airflow.A straight through or even pot filter option would again require ECU tuning.As said, talking stock here...The throttle body might not be required to get the full power the bike is intended for but you never know for sure.If in doubt pay a few bucks more and have the injectors and sensors included as well ;)But why would I want to pay for a throttle body if it is not 100% certain I would require it?It would'n t have the screw hole for the throttle limiter ;)This tiny detail can be of importance if you go the full lenght, more on that later.With those three components (or two if you want to go without the throttle body) you have a stock international version of the 650.Makes it relatively easy to convince your insurer that the bike is safe to use in this configuration.Adding just a slip on is no problem either as the normal ECU runs quite rich in the higher RPM's anyway and the new exhaust would not make too much mess here.But adding a less restrictive airfilter will need Dyno tuning.Going the full length, especially interesting if you buy a second hand Cfmoto.It will take you a lot of Emails and some overseas phone calls but it is possible to find a wrecker that can sell you the registration plates for the frame of the bike - legally if said wrecker is allowed to sell frame number for rebuilds.Adding this plate to your order means your second hand bike can be deregistered, sadly this means unless you pay extra you need to hand in the numberplates as well.No big deal however if the bike comes without numberplates anyway.Once you installed all parts and replaced the frame ID plate you take the bike for normal RWC check and get your green slip.With that you go and ask to register your bike with new (or your old) numberplates.The Vin will not show up in their database and a red flag comes up, prompting some questions from the offcial behind the counter.The bike you know have is an imported model you got for cheap when you saw it for sale in some carpark with a blown engine.As the actual engines are identical you replaced the blown engine with one from an AU bike that crashed and was written off.In return you now pay a slightly higher than usual transfer fee but get the bike registered as he international model without LAMS restrictions.Even the engine showing up as a LAMS engine is of no concers here as there is no legal reason to not allow the use of a lower powered engine in a motorcycle.You insurance polcy will also go up a few bucks but that is not really worth crying about now anymore.Once you go out with your numberplates you can enjoy a legally derestricted (imported) Cfmoto.Ok, I got it an I say I am a fully licences rider that does not care too much and wants to go as cheap as possible...A brand new ECU from China sets you back about $400AU.Downside is that you are never 100% certain the mapping will fit what is installed on your bike.There might be differences for the US or EU market, not so much though for Asia - so ask for what market region the ECU is intendet and prefer the Asia market here.The airbox limiters should be safe to remove but you might have to make simple plates up to install so the air turbulences are within specs - you will notice if the bike runs really crappy in the high revs and struggles to provide power to the wheel...Unless Cfmoto actually include more limitations in or around the throttle body going with stock should be fine - flashing ECU error will tell you if not.Postage from China can be a pain, not so much for time it takes but for the money charged to use proper and trusted courier services.Up to $100 just for postage is not uncommon but also means the parts are your within a week or 10 days most.Some provide cheap flat rates but both have the risk of being asked to pay import duties if held by AU costoms.Going second hand from some wrecker outside AU can be slightly cheaper for the ECU but again postage can a pain on the pocket.The obvious downside is that the bike with such a simple and direct mod would be still a LAMS bike and if checked make it illegal to use with all the corresponding consequences for the rider - even if fully licensed, please check the above insurance part again if you must.If done properly and maybe even with a slip on: what gains are we talking about in actual figures on the wheel?To be honest not really that much at all, the bike is just too heavy.But the response will improve noticable!The bike pulls out of corners with ease now and no longer requires you shift through the gears with a screaming engine.Imagine you have a small, 4-cylinder car and went on a long holiday trip with your heavy camping trailer always attached.Holidays are over, you unhook the camper and go for a quick run to the shops for supplies.It is that wow feeling that you get when you take off with the weight gone...The gears run higher with a more evenly distributed power instead of just a narrow window of RPM's with enough power to pull away.The KW and RPM values are available on the Cfmoto homepages.What about top speed?I managed to get to a full 110km/h !! ;)For anything above that ask your local Dyno please or pay for a day on the track.What if the police gets me and makes trouble because of the modifications?A well trained officer in a bad mood will always be your nightmare.So I won't go into the troubles if you still need plates or just got your full license a few days ago...You are allowed to ride any road legal motorcycle, no matter the power ratings.However, a really pesky cop wanting to go by the full book on you will use the computer to check your bike and registration details.And if he knows the most obvious non-legal mods to LAMS bikes, like the shiny exhaust you will need a lift home.Chances are though that a clean driving record and having your full license for a few years indicates that you actually know how to handle your bike properly.That is the point where your honesty and details with the insurance company matter.Preferably with you having a copy of your policy with you when riding the bike.With that you can always argue the modifications are documented and approved by your insurer and corresponding vehicle tester.Makes it then only a minor offence for not being LAMS conform.The paperwork to fight you on what your insurer singed off for is just not worth it with a possible drunk driver getting past while you argue....Legally they can still book you or even take the bike but do they ever bother to take those Harleys or street racers with screaming exhausts you hear from miles away before you even see the bike? ;)As said, it comes down to a LAMS offense that is fully covered by your insurer and with that not really worth making a big fuzz about.If you got pulled over for speeding or other offenses the story will be different though as it then could be argued you made these modifications with the INTENT of illegal activities - like speeding or pulling stunts that are not allowed on public roads.Here you insurer can refuse the cover the same way they would for the same offences on a fully legally unrestricted bike.Is it worth taking the risk?No, it is not!If you are after a bike with good handling and power you would not ride a Cfmoto...As a true LAMS bike the resale value is actually quite good if the bike is kept in good condition.Modified you will have a hard time selling it as no learner would take the risk - a working brain assumed here.For a keeper once fully licensed or someone on a budget it can be quite tempting.After all, it leaves a nagging feeling if have a full license and sit on a restricted bike....You always have to explain what you ride and why anyway every time you pull over where chatty bikers are around.Selling the bike in good condition and maybe together with the extras you got over the years might be enough to justify the extra for a second hand bike from Asia, Italy or Austria and give you more leasure and pleasure in the long run.Doing it properly and in the most legal way costs quite a few bucks.If you add this to the current asking price of around 7500 ride away will add at least another $1500.Depending on the exhaust system even more.If you require proper identification and tracing of things like VIN plates it can be clse to $2000.At this point you already see really only makes sense it is a cheap second hand bike, whicj makes the entire approach a bit questionable anyway.With now close to $10.000 for a new bike the difference to a well known brand with maybe a better reputation is not that big anymore.The bike would already be unrestricted and making road legal modification wouldn't interest anyone.Not to mention of course the warranty issues as Cfmoto won't honor any of it if you modify new LAMS bike!Now add the possible costs for repairs or parts that would otherwise be free and free of labour costs and the bargain becomes very expensive before the warranty period is over.There will be the point where you ask yourself why did you bother in the first place....Warranty....Once modded the factory warranty is void so to say.Problem here is that the law is intentionally unclear on the reasons and options applicable here.As the bike would (without exhaust mod) be just like any international model the law states the warranty must be granted.However, Cfmoto has the right to refuse it anyway based on the exclusions required by law to prevent non-LAMS conform bikes from getting back on the road.A blown engine with a proper service history would be no big deal without this.The right to refuse a free warranty replacement for covered parts if the bike was not serviced by a licensed dealer is something car manufacturers already failed with.Cfmoto however will argue that their terms and conditions always superseed any Australian laws or regulations unless it was legally shown that one or more sections are actually invalid in Australia.This includes any evident or suspected tampering with the LAMS restrictions.If in doubt an ECU reading would indicate the impossible throttle positions used and the different ECU.Means even once the warranty is over you can't really take your bike to your dealer for a service or just a check without risking troubles.Some say this is still not enough to deter restricted drivers, I say that any fully licensed rider should have the right to enjoy his bike without LAMS restrictions.But if in doubt Cfmoto is always right, no matter how they argue.Last words from the wise camel....If you are fully licensed it is entirely your choice what you do with your bike and how you deal with - or interprete possible legal issues.Anyone required to display plates should just not think about modding the bike, it is not worth the risk.Although not really a big deal for an experienced rider, the added power and better response can cause a bad judgement.You might have been happy to open her up fully around your favourite hiarpin bend but now it could mean you loose traction even if don't try to break your LAMS approved speed record.Especially when things get a bit slippery and unexpected it can be difficult to prevent the heavy beast from going down.Never underestimate what you can't see and react to in time!Never overestimate your skills or the bikes real capabilities in terms of handling and grip!Once you are fully used to the different response you are fine, until then it is better to play it safe instead of ending up to be very, very sorry....

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Gaining free game credits with Jackpot Credit Device?!? (Hack or Smokin Crack?)

I was surfing the web and came across these cheating 'devices.' The claim is that somehow these black boxes manipulate the system into giving additional free credits as you're feeding the machine and/or causing the machine to more likely pay out. I am 99.5% sure this is total BS. Still the chance to play TimeCrisis 3 for hours and hours at a deep discount sounds awesome. ;-)Here is the descriptions on the website: Third and Fourth Items downThis device was developed through years of research on machines and by beta testers. It has potential to jackpot or give credits in gambling machines and fruit machines. When put in a small box and powered by 1 or 2 (9VDC) batteries, it will fit in your pocket or up your sleeve. This unit can be used as a contact induction device (soundless arc system) or EMP induction device via magnetic induction pulses which are also soundless. This device uses in excess of 1000volts so use caution. There are two ways to use this device in either mode: as you are inserting coins, adding credits or adding money to the machine you activate the device and it will cause the credits to jump higher. The other way to use the device is to use it while you are playing and you have great odds of hitting a jackpot or winning. Kit includes all parts to build a complete unit to operate in either mode.The completed kit can be used in two modes: vacuum arc induction or magnetic induction coil mode. The device is so small you will need to coat it with epoxy and electrical tape, as a box would take up too much space. It is powered by one 9v battery, it will fit in your pocket, up your sleeve or in the palm of your hand. This unit is a contact induction device (soundless arc system) or can be converted into an EMP induction device via magnetic induction pulses which are also soundless and generated by connecting a small pinwheel coil to the output probes. This device generates around 500volts so use caution. There are two ways to use this device: as you are inserting coins, adding credits or adding money to the machine, you activate the device and it will cause the credits to jump. The other way to use the device is to activate it while you are playing and you have great odds of hitting a jackpot or winning. Kit includes all parts to build one complete unit, epoxy and tape not included.

Topic by GrumpySteelMan    |  last reply


Hypnotic ...

You're loading up a bunch of images into your library ... that waiting thing appears ... you stare at the middle of the gif thing ... it goes round ... and round ... and suddenly it gains a lit-up section!

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply


Hello everyone!

Hi there, I’m Frances P. Frazier, a newbie in this forum site. I’m looking forward to gain new friends here.

Topic by dormgrow08    |  last reply


simple amp?

I am on a budget of $80 and i want to make a guitar amp with volume control, gain control, and a speaker. can someone help me do this? please?

Question by boedogs    |  last reply


Where is the static comming from? Answered

I recently began experimenting with recording my guitar. I've tried plugging my guitar straight into the line in port of my laptop via a 1/4" cable and 1/4-1/8 adapter. I then record it in audacity with no added effects or gain or whatever. I liked it but it did not seem as good as it should have been. I tried connecting my guitar to my amplifier and connecting my amplifier via the headphone port and a 1/8" cable to the line in port. It sounded PERFECT except that there was a constant anoying string of static being recorded. I turned down the gain on my amp but then my laptop would not get a signal. I experimented with a bunch of different combonations of gain and volume but i cannot get rid of the static. I expect it's because my amp does not have any output other than the speakers or headphones. I'm just wondering if there is anything i can do other than get or borrow an amp with lower noise.

Question by aar0nc0le    |  last reply


audio amplifier don't understand wire schematic :/

Www.national.com/ds/LM/LM386.pdf   the one i am having trouble understanding is the 20 gain amplifier

Topic by pattyshaw    |  last reply


How can I adust my tv aerial to detect signals from the rear?

I have a Yagi style tv aerial in the loft. I get very good reception from the forward direction, however there are a few stations that I would like to receive from another transmitter to the rear of the forward direction. I do not want to lose much gain from the front, but would like to increase gain from the rear. Any suggestions - short of fitting a second aerial? Thanks

Question by anon_private    |  last reply


What is the point of the DTV transition? Answered

Why Do all the Televisions need to be changed to DTV? is it for monetary gain or just to further ourselves in technology?

Question by Fizzxwizz    |  last reply



How can you hack into a car's GPS or onboard computer system?

Once in, can you actually gain admin access/control any of the functions, or only watch what's going on?

Question    |  last reply


collar expander?

Has anyone made a good collar expander?  My husband gains and loses a 1/2 inch in the neck area "from time to time" and I can't always locate his purchased expander.  Cordially, nehmah

Question by nehmah    |  last reply


Super-fast kite-surfing

A new kite-board patent was published in August: a hyrofoil board.A curved hydrofoil lifts the whole board out of the water, cuts friction dramatically and gaining massive amounts of speed.Apparently.

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply


Plans for 2008?

Got anything Instructable-related plans for the coming year?I plan to:Make at least 1,000 comments (<-- good useful comments)Double my number of published InstructablesGain (or reinforce if existent) a "Kiteman" reputation (<--sorry! =)

Topic by KentsOkay    |  last reply


how do you gain back respect when you've made an asshole of yourself in the past? Answered

I have made some pretty bad decisions in the past and am desperately looking to clean my act up. I've made decision in the past that are holding me back from getting to where I need to go... I've ignored common sense and now it's costing me.... I am relatively young and looking to just start out a career but am finding it quite impossible due to my failure to seize past opportunities... I fell like I've missed the boat so to speak and I fear that this realization has come to me on the last minute and I'm caught feverishly looking for answers anybody have any advise for me???

Question    |  last reply


What will be the next Steampunk?

Steampunk has been with us since the late 80s, gaining more widespread attention in the last decade.   So what will be the next movement to move in and replace steampunk?  My guess is that it's already in the works in someone's workshop somewhere.  What do you think it will be?

Topic by scoochmaroo  


vexnet upgrade kit?

I have a oldstyle vex controll kit (bulky controller and pic 0.5 cortex) and i am running out of controlls on my joystick so i was wondering if i could use a new joystick and the vexnet upgrade kit to gain more controlls

Question by FarmerKJS  


What is a quick way to level, up in call of duty 5 online for PS3?

I'm lvl 34 and i just want a good way to gain xp in short amounts of time.

Question by flashanimator    |  last reply


Minimal Boat? Does anyone have plans or access to plans for a rowing boat around the six foot - two metre mark?

I want to build something that can be picked up by one man and carried to the water, but with as much stability as can be gained from such a short length?

Question by Otwaymist    |  last reply


Building with Fractions: Kitchen Dilemma - File Downloads problem

When clicking on downloads, taken to site that says "403 Forbidden - Request forbidden by administrative rules."  Bummer since gaining access to these downloads is why I purchased a membership at Instructables.  Can anyone help?

Topic by cahota    |  last reply


What interest does Autodesk have in Instructables? Answered

Hi, I was wandering why is the Autodesk company interested in Instructables? I know they bought Instructables, I know they sponsor contests that cost thousands of $ per month, so what do they gain from it? Just curious, thanks!

Question by Eunix    |  last reply


&quot;Hello world&quot;

I appear to be tweeting. Unfortunately, I was beaten to plain old "Kiteman" by some Batman geek, so I am tweeting as KitemanX. Don't expect a constant stream of information, though, since I don't own a smartphone. Later... Dang, I've gained some strange followers - sexy Hallowe'en costumes, protein drinks for golfers, storage in Long Island, and what appears to be a conservative Floridian lobbying group (I don't dress sexy, I hate golf, I live in the UK and I'm randomly liberal). Update: I now have a number of cool followers, including some Instructablers, but I've also gained a random dentist and a Thai tourism company (not to mention the large number of NSFW spammers I've had to block...). Who's *your* weirdest follower?  Or your coolest?

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply