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Grey Goo and Google

Grey goo is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all matter on Earth while building more of themselves-a scenario known as ecophagy (eating the environment).This just happens to be the Wikipedia entry for Grey goo, which has earned a very rare position on the internet.If you haven't already noticed, if a browsers default search engine is Google, when you type something in the URL field that isn't a URL, it will either turn up a Google search for it, or go to the I'm Feeling Lucky page. I'm Feeling Lucky is just the first page a Google search returns.The Wikipedia page on Grey goo happens to be the first one up on a search for "goo." This is very standard, except for the fact that the first three letters in Google are goo. This is how I discovered this. While attempting to access google.com, a very angry-intentioned yogurt cup interrupted me using the great power of the enter key while I was typing. I was cut half way through, and it returned "goo," and I was shown the info on a wretched nano-sized robot that was about to eat me, rather than the friendly interface of Google, although it was Google itself that brought me there. Oh well, my largest problem was the yogurt cup exploding all over the floor of the hotel we were in. This means that the page on Grey goo must be a very popular page, not because of its content (although the content is rather interesting), but because of typing errors. It seems like more of an Easter egg than a coincidence.The Molecular Nanotechnology series is a little odd too.Just a sudden surprise I thought I might share with a few people...p.s. this seems to be similar to what happens in Micheal Crichton's Prey...

Topic by puffyfluff    |  last reply


If shoo goo/goop soaks all the way through layers of cloth, when it dries is it hard?

This is for a project need to make sure it works before buying the materials

Question by GEEK1    |  last reply


Other uses for a Caramel Wheel....

I had to clean up large sized decals that used a 3M adhesive.Instead of filtering the solvent fumes with my lungs I decided to listen to the guy in the hardware store that suggested to use a Caramel Wheel instead.Have to say I was very sceptical...Ever had this extra heavy duty 3M tape to get off again??No matter what you try it is a battle of will and endurance...To my surprise using the Caramel Wheel was like using a big eraser on paper.The things rubs over the surface, takes the goo off and leaves a totally clean and stick free surface.What otherwise took me at least a full hour was done in under 10 minutes - great...Once done with the hard work I examined the now well used up wheel.Does not really work as a proper eraser for a pencil as the rubber is much harder.Does not even scratch galvanised surfaces.Does not like it at all to be used on wet surfaces :(It is not just rubber in a fully solid form, more like flaky bits stuck together.First misuse I tried was polishing a piece of acrylic plastic.A cloth or similar always soaks up a lot of the polishing compound, which makes the process costly.Friction was a real issue at first because the wheel just had no grip at all.But on hindsight it helped to spread the compound fine and evenly.When it started to grab I noticed two things.a) The plastic warms up quickly.b) It polishes really good.Downside is that you need a low speed and very little pressure, too much of either and you risk stripping off the surface.Second misuse was on my knife.It is old, it is abused, it is loved tool I prefer, so it does not need to be razor sharp.The burr on the knife edge after sharpening should be removed.Usually I work my way up to 1000 grid, then use a leather strop.Not for this old knife though.In most cases the burr comes off with use.The Caramel Wheel had no problems removing the burr while leaving the edge sharp.And with a tiny bit of polishing paste applied it even managed to produce a extra sharp edge.Last misuse so far was to clean off old silicone from my bathroom tiles.Silicone does not like to stick to silicone!Means when you refurbish for example the silicone around your bathtub it never last long.Chemicals to remove the fine layer of silicone are harmful to say the least.I did not bother with the entire groove, just the outer parts where the new silicone needs to grab.First the wheel slips and slides off a lot but you see how it cleans the surface of the tiles.Then it starts to grab, indicating the tile is clean in this area.Won't do much in the grooves with the grouting though...What I really liked is that the wheel took off what you can't really see.The oily feeling when going over removed silicone was gone, just nice grippy tiles.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


What is this green globby goo in my driveway? Answered

What is this stuff?? I noticed this green slime in my driveway one day. It's sorta gel-like, has some air bubbles, and is centered around greenery. I can sorta pick it up with a stick and it jiggles and doesn't really come apart. It reminds me of seaweed kinda. It was mainly located in the center of my driveway where we have weed growth. The appearance happened to coincide with a long bought of rain (nearly several weeks). I also noticed some in areas of our lawn and near the edges of our gardens. This is in Northeastern Vermont, photo taken this summer, '09. PS--I apologize if this is too picture heavy. Please let me know if it is. I just like sharing all the neat photos of this strange substance that looks like Slimer from Ghostbusters!

Question by Pompom    |  last reply


Reverse Engineering, how do you get to the chip behind the black goo? Answered

There's a circuit I'm wanting to duplicate, and slightly alter; however that blasted black goo is covering the ic chip so that I can't find out what it is.  (1) what is that black goo? and (2) How do I get past it? Is it for heat management, patent protection (for all those modern day Edison's), or both?  Either way, I just want to find out what chip is behind that confounded whatever-you-call-it.

Question by Spaceman Spiff    |  last reply


Physics puzzle games- Auditorium, World of Goo and Crayon Physics

I really like puzzle games. I've played two that are really addictive and beautifully made, and found another that looks great.AuditoriumAuditorium has a free on line demo. I've played through the levels a few times. The full game hasn't been published yet.The screen has a stream of light particles flowing into it. You have one, or more, buttons that will affect the path of the particles: like one that bends the light stream to the right, or one that pulls it into a vortex. You move the buttons around to steer the stream into boxes that are scattered around the screen. There are many particles in the stream, and by careful placement of the buttons, you can split them into different paths. When you hit the boxes with light particles a new group of instruments join a symphony you hear. The goal is to get all of the instruments playing.Some levels have areas that will change the color of the light particles as they pass. Some of the music boxes are different colors, and you will have to route the light particles through the color changer before you send them it into the box. Try it out, the free online demo will make it very clear. I didn't even look at the directions. It's easy to find your way as you go. I love a game like that.PlayAuditorium.comWorld of GooIn World of Goo, you have to stick living gooey balls together to make lattice and build some kind of structure (tower, bridge, rope, ...) that allows the gooey balls to reach the end of a pipe that sucks them up. The Gooey structures are not stiff. If you don't build your structure carefully it will bend and can collapse under its own weight. It is a 2D game with a comic book style to the graphics. There is also a level designer and an online community where you can share new levels. I haven't experimented with these yet - I'm still working through the levels that came with the game.There is a downloadable demo for both PC and Mac. There is also a WII version for sale.It is drawn and designed beautifully. Totally addictive.2dboy.comCrayon PhysicsI haven't played this yet but it looks really great.The graphics look like they were drawn by a 5 year old with a box of crayons. When you get to a level, it presents a drawn scene with a star and a ball (it's actually an apple. Must be a tribute to Newton) somewhere in it. You have to draw some kind of mechanism, or ramp, or some objects, or... As you are drawing, the objects develop mass.Everything you draw then reacts with gravity. You have to harness the momentum you get from everything dropping to the ground in order to push, throw, drop or guide the ball so it hits the star.Look at the video it is self explanatory. CrayonPhysics.com

Topic by SFHandyman    |  last reply



old candles un used or half used bad condition good condition

Im looking for old candles un used or half used bad condition good condition as they are items of not much value i would like them for free

Topic by JACKBARRY    |  last reply


what does a bot do?

I want someone to make a bot for me on getacoder.com but iu want to know what this person i puick for the job is gooing to make it do? the only kind of bot i know of is the kind that is for crawling search engines and webpages to collect info.

Question by rich4124    |  last reply


Why is it so hard to create Instructables with Google Chrome?

It used to be easy to create Instructables in Chrome. You used to be able to import Word documents complete with formatting and links.  Exactly like the editor I see on this page. I tried it today and it wouldn't import any formatting or hyperlinks. What happened?? Lazy Old Geek

Question by msuzuki777    |  last reply


physical and electrical engineering. what is a good thing to start with?

I am thinking about getting into amateur physical and electrical engineering. is there anything i can build, read, see or explore that would either spark an idea or get me some experience? (robotics, model-making, circuit boards) or even kits that you could suggest, involving that sort of thing. thanks

Question by shiboohi    |  last reply


How do I remove the factory stickers from my OCC Chopper bike?

Hello, I'm Looking for the best method of removing the factory stickers from an OCC Chopper bike without damaging the paint. I've tried Goo-Gone, the Hairdryer technique. Please tell me what the best method is. Thank you everyone!

Question by stingray_chopper    |  last reply


Does anyone know an adequate way to melt plastic for pouring into molds?

I've tried in a pot with some oil as a quasi-solvent/medium and also a double boiler; both end up with a "goo" that is almost impossible to work with. The type of plastic is #2HDPE and #4LDPE. I have also tried a hot plate and a propane burner; both ways also yeild the same results.

Question by samboy3    |  last reply


Perfecting DIY dog boot? (Any cobbler gurus out there?)

Hi, I have a dog who I adopted off the street who has a stub for a paw. The padding on his stub is deformed and since he has not toes/claw he is always getting this stub cut up when he runs around (just barely more than a year old and runs around like a nut). He is a real sweetheart and a big lug at the same time (100lbs) which has made it a bit more of a challenge. (I tried to put the photos inline with the post but when i tried to publish the whole post was blank so I just attached them). Design Issues Sleeve/leg durability To resolve this problem I have been trying to make a shoe that will #1 Actually stay on snugly and #2 Last more than a few weeks. It has been an evolution starting off with bought doggie “booties” which were pretty much worthless, to a old indestructible (until now) hiking sock + “shoe goo” to a sewn nylon sleeve thingy + shoe goo. This is the best we have been able to come up with as he destroys (since he is so active), I was going to go to the dump to see if I could get some used airbag material as I had made a dog bed cover from the stuff before (previous dog who was hell bent on digging through her rubber foam bed) and it was friggin bullet proof. Keeping it on So the shoe goo + nylon sock is the closes we have come so far, the sock/sleeve part kind of works because it allows us to “strap it on” above his hock so it doesn’t slip down/off, that worked great when we were using a softer material but this more durable nylon stuff (from an old suit travel bag) seriously rubs around his hock, I am guess I will try some sort of padding (shoe insole?) around the inside where we strap it on, bulky but just using a thick sock to provide a protection wasn’t enough. I’m not in the US (or a western country) at the moment so I haven’t been able to get my hands on proper Velcro and the Velcro I managed to get he has decimated (I think mostly due to crappy Velcro but also again his just scraping up against just about everything) so I was going to try a belt of sorts but am hoping someone has a better idea. Durable Sole that Stays on Shoe goo is the best we have come up with so far for a sole as everything else I tried just didn’t work (tried rubber pipe stopper thingy, Ear Bulb Syringe, modified mini-plunger) either because they didn’t fit how he walks on that foot (can’t describe it but a ball type shape is needed) or they were too hard to affix to a sleeve in a way that they would stay. The best version we have come up with so far has involved the afore mentioned nylon sleeve (durability) with shoe goo smeared in layers on the end. This has been workable but the shoe goo doesn’t stick to the material as well as I would like and is starting to come off after about 2 months. As with the other issues, any suggestions would be appreciated!

Topic by gaikokujinkyofusho    |  last reply


Removing car vinyl decal glue

I got a used car from the local electric company's auction and for a long time I didn't care about the glue left on the door.  But I have an idea for a custom paintjob that I would like to do but the residue from the very poorly removed company vinyls is in the way.  I tried to use goo-b-gone but it barely worked at all, even when I was using a buffer to simulate extra elbow grease.  Are there any other ways to get the stuff off short of removing the paint?

Topic by finfan7    |  last reply


How can I remove sun deteriorated plastic decals from a painted bicycle frame without damaging the paint?

Peeling off is not an option, I have tried scraping off with a plastic scraper to no avail. Have also tried Goo Gone (citrus based solvent) and Oops! (a stronger solvent) with a non scratch scrubbing pad. I was able to peel the decals that werent' cracked from the sun but the others are basically baked on from the Arizona heat. Would a heat gun work? How careful do I have to be not to damage the paint? What about something like 2000 grit wet/dry sandpaper?

Question by goodgnus    |  last reply


Is it possible to extract alcohol from hand sanitizer? Answered

OK, so the main ingredient in instant hand sanitizer is ethyl alcohol, which is a perfect fuel for a soda can stove.  I have tried using the sanitizer straight but it leaves to much goo behind.  When stalt is added to the hand sanitizer it turns it to liquid and leaves white floaty things in the liquid(glycerol?).  These can be filtered out with a coffee filter.  This leaves a more concentrated solution (which still dosnt burn well)  and it has salt in it. What I want to know is how I can extract the alcohol to at least 80% concentration.  I don't have a still (and dont want to make one).  Any ideas?      

Question by junits15    |  last reply


Instructables 1st Ever Live Halloween Workshop by Logitech Oct 21st!

UPDATE: Thanks to everyone who came out, i'll be posting videos as we have them, but for now here is some photos from the event. http://www.flickr.com/photos/khelvan/sets/72157625216273052/with/5104071467/ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hey Instructablers! This Thursday October 21st we are having a special event with nixie (from nixiepixel.com) and logitech. it will be the first ever live streaming project building! It will be from 7:30-9:30 PST The projects we will be doing are the following: https://www.instructables.com/id/Glowing-Goo-using-cheap-easy-to-get-ingredients/ https://www.instructables.com/id/Halloween-Lamps-You-Can-Make/ So go grab those supplies! To find the show Thursday night go here: http://www.ustream.tv/channel/talk-nerdy-to-me See you all there! Greggawatt

Topic by frenzy    |  last reply


What are all the flaming-hoops?

Say if I was to sell electronic objects invented by me or friends, that may or may to be functional or may or may not be artistic what are the laws/certification/inspections/flaming-hoops that I would have to clear first and what is that entire process like? Does anyone know? The FCC is one of them, and it pertains to whether your object will make planes fall out of the sky or turn off pacemakers dues to magnetic waves or unauthorized frequencies, correct? Who ensures that the objects won't catch on fire or melt into a caustic China Crisis goo? How you convince them of this? Who else do you want or need a rubber stamp from before you can sell your radio wave emitting blinky bug at the garage sale? Or your robo-fridge ("Is your fridge running? Better go catch it!") in your Etsy shop? What if it had a sim card? Any illumination on this would be invaluable!

Topic by watchingmachine    |  last reply


Small Solar panel(s) with output equivalent to a good USP port

Hello all, Seems like this should be a good competition type project.  Being a hiker and bicycle traveler, I would love to have a small, (read lite), solar panel that would keep my electronics powered up.  The electronics would be, a phone, front and rear light or headlamp, a small 7" tablet, and maybe a small mp3 player.  Ideally the output would equal that of a good USB port, 5volt and ~2amps.  The charger for tablet states 2.1amps.  Sorry I'm not dialed in what ideal amperage would be, but I do know that not less than 2amps, right? Anyways would love to see a competition among the peeps all dialed into this with the parameters stated above.  I'm sure other parameters would be worked out too.  If there's something out there in the real world that maybe you think would suit my needs, lets see what there is out there!  Feel free to post up.

Topic by User1    |  last reply


DVD player: Burned circuit repair

My old-ish dvd player (with surround amp) suddenly broke as I turned it on. The speakers began to hum, and as I immediately switched it off, a column of smoke actually rose from underneath it's hood, stinking off fried component... I've opened the player/amp, and immediately located 2 user-accessible fuses that are definitely bust. However, something elsewhere must have broken/shorted, thus causing these fuses to blow (obviously). Is it possible to locate the source of the problems, and perhaps replace the components? I was hoping to find some unmistakable signs of fire, or some exploded caps. Some components do seem to be fried, but how can I be sure I've found the damaged ones? Also, from my intermediate engineer's point of view, my diagnosis is that someone has, at some time, spilled something into the player (note the pools of goo highlighted in the photos attached to this post), which may have shorted out some components. If anyone has some tips to help me along, it would be great! Please have a look at the photo :) - JK

Topic by joakimk    |  last reply


What NOT to do.

Not sure whether this is a contest idea, or just a philosophy, but the idea that we learn more from our mistakes rings true.  Although it might be tediously long at times, I'd kinda like to see some -ibles that include the messy details of attempts that didn't quite work, what was learned, and how. Sometimes tangents xyz come out of an attempt to acheive abc. y'know- the happy accident.  Examples?: I was annoyed with Apple for making a keyboard with light grey lettering on white keys. I like to dim the lights, and am not really a touch typist. So, I photocopied the keyboard, increased contrast, and printed this onto transparent sheet with adhesive backing (available at a photocopy place. Fed-ex, kinkos, i don't recall)  Turns out that the ink on those copies is on the top surface of the plastic. After cutting out my qwerty stickers, I found that the ink wears off the surface.  Not only that, but after peeling the stickers off, the goo remains. (sigh)   So, if u use this technique, put clear tape over the clear photocopy. I just bought a microwave with grey on black keys. I may havta explain to the copyshop why I'm photocopying my microwave. ;) Any other examples?

Topic by Toga_Dan    |  last reply


Picture Quiz - CLOSED

Free picture-quiz! (Isn't this site great...?) Some of you will know this format, others will not. The pictures "spell-out" Instructables user names, either literally or with a bit of thinking. The first is me as an example, the other 10 are the ones I'd like to see a full set of answers for. While this is just for fun I'll patch whoever gets them any of them. While I don't expect people to do this, it would be preferable only to post answers to all10. So far: 1 Red KITE MAN tractor unit 2 ANGRY RED (Fraggle) HEAD (from Full Metal Jacket, where as Marines the toilets were referred to as "Heads" in line with marine terminology) 3 CAN IDA (an asteroid) 4 JAY (E) and Silent-Bob FU (U) Manchu as played by Boris Karloff 5 JESS (Postman Pat's cat) (Y) RAT Barton FINK 6 KENT (county) (S) OK (magazine) 7 (=) S & M ART Garfunkel (=) 8 GOO Tenacious D Tony HART 9 (THE) (Breakfast) BURRITO The MASTER (from Dr Who?, as played by Roger Delgado) 10 Mr BUMP US flag The winners being NachoMahma, Kiteman, n8man & Jayefuu L

Topic by lemonie    |  last reply


Knexer quiz- CLOSED! ALL ANSWERS FOUND!

Knexer quiz. You may have seen a few of these before, done by Lemonie and Jayefuu, but I just couldnt resist making one for the knexers! I do ask one thing of you though, if you know more than one of them, please only answer one, to give others a chance, thanks :-) Every picture represents a well-known knexer, can you guess them right? :-) Sorry guys, but there are no prizes :-( The first picture is an example on how to solve these, it says hiyadudez, and the answer would look like this: Hill + Yard sale + Dudel + (ez) Now some may be quite difficult, but some may be very easy. I will say it again to be clear, I ask one thing of you, if you know more than one of them, please only answer one, to give others a chance, thanks :-) 1. Hill + Yard sale + Dudel + (z) 2. Where Dutch people live + World War 1 + Lord of the rigs (Congrats Knex mad) 3. Shad + Mow  + Man + (39) (Congrats Shadowman39! 4. Oblivion rollercoaster + iTunes (Congrats LaserJunkie) 5. Goo + Train (Quite easy but congrats Motaboi) 6. Iron + Man (Congrats Knexfan9182) 7. Killer whale + Safety hat + Nutcracker (Congrats Knex gun builder) 8. Knee + Exilim + Free to dance + (K) (Congrats Perkinator) 9. Chocolate log + Ice cubes + Buoy (Congrats Dsman195276) 10. Love + Down + Eye (Congrats Killer~safecracker 11. Good luck!

Topic by Hiyadudez    |  last reply


Da-lite Silver-lite manual projector screen: Repair help!

So today I totally scored at Goodwill with not one but TWO projector screens!  One is your typical matte white but the other is a silver screen by Da-lite!  (well, both are da-lite) And I was DALITEd (see what I did there?) to find them so cheaply!  So purchased them I did.  But getting home I discovered the silver screen projector (the case a beautiful teal color!) had some rips.  Luckily not across the main viewing portion but along the rails that A-roll it up and B-keep it from going into the case.  I managed to fix the tears along B but A I'm aware has some sort of tension spring dohickey that is only kept wound by the end caps!  And to fix that tear I'll definitely have to completely disassemble the thing.  (to fix the tears I've used a combination of hand sewing and shoe-goo on the underside, since it repairs vinyl.) I can't quite find a repair/replace/fix guide that even comes close.  I was hoping to come across a guide replacing the material at least but that was a no-go.  Closest thing I found was to carefully take off the ends and with the screen rolled up screw back one end (left) and wind the rod back with the other (right) before screwing it back in.  Guide didn't really specify my model though or even go into detail about the specific tension mechanism, so I'm doubtful at best on wanting to try it out. (and heaven forbid lose a finger!)  Not to mention mine pulls up instead of pulls down, so orientation seems like a toss up. Anyone have any suggestions for a DIY approach to this?

Topic by stalledaction    |  last reply


Religion/Theology Topic (I couldn't think of a good name)

I've had this idea for a couple months now, and I thought I should share it with you guys. I have been interested in science for as long as I can remember (at the expense of my social life), and have always been an atheist. It has always made sense to me, and theism (opposite of atheism, the a is important!) never really has, other than the basic human will to believe in something that keeps order in the universe.But this forum post is not about debating between atheism and theism. Many of us on Instructables excercise our knowledge of the world, and our will to spread it to others. I have partaken in this as well, posting my fill of comments trying to explain why atheism makes sense. But I have recently ceased to do this, and not just because arguing becomes very tiresome, very quickly.Probably the greatest reason why most people believe in a god (or gods) is because it gives them hope; someone to look up to for wisdom and strength in times of need, and a justification for being humble and small in the big wide world. Everyone knows hope is important. I'm not the most hopeful person. Being an atheist does not help this. This is why I have stopped my "atheist trolling". If everyone were like me, spending endless hours of my life just thinking, and coming to conclusions that I should not have come to until I am old. and going insane, and disconnecting from society, the world would not be a very pleasant place. It probably would not be very good if everyone were theists either.I guess I should just say what I've meant to say throughout this whole thing: ignorance is bliss. Many theists are very happy and content with life because of religion. So after this whole post, here is my thesis which I wrote down after going (obviously) off track about halfway through writing this post. God dammit, I need a word limit.I do not bother people about atheism any more because it gives people hope and keeps people sane, which keeps the world in order.

Topic by Aeshir    |  last reply


Needle valve on the cheap?

I need a needle valve or similar to adjust some pressure with more or less precision. Problems I am facing with commercial solutions at the moment: Needs to withstand about 300psi max pressure, must survive contionous exposure to concentrated ammonia vapour. I already wasted too much money on stainless steel valves claiming to be chemical proof and capable of 6000psi only to find out they use seals that turn to goo in the ammonia vapour and fail. And since the stuff is not really healthy, not easy to get, I would prefer something safer. Real problem is also that the thing should be able to allow for good flow rates when opened fully. Modes of operation: During the active cycle ammonia vapour needs to pass through an opening as big as possible while after that the flow must be shut off. The reverse cycle needs to be adjustable from closed to fully open with great detail to control the flow rate. Current ways to compensate: With a ball valves and extra piping I could seperate the two cycles so I won't have to bother with tiny openings but I would prefer to use only a single connection. With a bypass around the needle valve this could be accomplished better but still looks ugly. Materials out of the question: Copper, brass, normal seals based on rubber, nitrile or similar. Questions: I know fully sealed in.line valves exist for LPG system and similar. Are any of these magnetic valves available for the use with ammonia? And if so: Can they be operated with a neodymium magnet instead of the coil? Even stainless steel valves rated for chemical use and high pressure fail quickly on the seals. Is there anything available that does not use soft seals but for example aluminium instead? Thinking spray pump here... One way ball valve systems like used in simple spray pumps are a great thing. With some aluminium tubing I was able to make a simple valve that with some more attention to detail might even work. But of course there no other way of moving the ball then to use a magnet and with sufficient back pressure even neodymium ones fail to get the ball in the open position and keep it there. Now getting this combine with a needle... If, instead of the ball, a magnet in a teflon shell is used on a spindle I could spin a magnet around the outside to turn the valve with great precision. Has anyone already designed such a thing or would I have to start from scratch here?

Question by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Halloween = Success at Instructables HQ

Welcome to Letters from the Editor, a new feature we're trying out!  This week I'd like to share some highlights from our recent Halloween Show & Tell party. It's been a busy week here at Instructables HQ.  Halloween is a favorite holiday around here, and when we do it, we do it up right.  This year we did a series of in-house projects and guides to bring you the best of Instructables Halloween, and we went all out. Our ramp-up to Halloween culminated in a community-wide Show & Tell last Friday night.  HQ was transformed into a proper party hub as we socialized, snacked, and shared our latest projects with the crowd.  The night kicked off with an impressive costume by Peter and Nick Matsakis (winners of our costume contest!) inspired by the game Plants vs. Zombies.  Peter dressed as a Threepeater with working pea shooters, and Nick was Crazy Dave.  Why?  Because he's CRAAAAAAZY! Other highlights from the Show & Tell included Grathio Labs' Secret Knock Detecting Gumball Machine (you have to know the secret knock to get the gum!), and Robert Hermes' impressive Covert Public Messages, which you can only see when looking through polarized lenses. Very cool stuff. And let's not forget the food!  Drawing from our library of creepy Halloween treats, we recreated Edible Zombie Eyeballs omitting the goo to make it vegan-friendly, Pumpkin Bread in mini muffin form, Extra Satanic Deviled Eggs with a wasabi twist, and Halloween Candy Bark in various creepy colors.  Additionally, you can look forward to new Instructables detailing the making of peanut butter and chocolate Buckeyes and my Towering Pumpkin Cheesecake! All in all, it's been a very successful Halloween season.  Next we look to all of the great contests we have running.  Did you know that Humana's giving away a Dream Vacation to one very lucky innovative user!  Enter now! And don't forget to check back next week to cast your votes for our Halloween Contest finalists.  We weren't the only ones to go all out - you impressed us with almost 400 entries already! Until next time, all the best. Sarah P.S. for even more pictures, look here and here!

Topic by scoochmaroo    |  last reply


The Rock 1000

Well the biggest rock countdown finished on friday the countdown takes 100 hours over 10 days see if you can find your favourite songs sorry Dj rock only so you wont find your songs here# Artist Song 1 Metallica One 2 AC/DC Thunderstruck 3 Led Zeppelin Stairway to Heaven 4 Metallica Enter Sandman 5 AC/DC Back 'n Black 6 Foo Fighters Everlong 7 Nirvana Smells Like Teen Spirit 8 Metallica Nothing Else Matters 9 Guns 'N' Roses November Rain 10 Rage Against The Machine Killing In The Name 11 Guns 'N' Roses Sweet Child 'O Mine 12 Foo Fighters All My Life 13 Shihad Home Again 14 Motorhead Ace Of Spades 15 Pearl Jam Betterman 16 Guns 'N' Roses Paradise City 17 Pearl Jam Alive 18 Pink Floyd Comfortably Numb 19 Pearl Jam Black 20 Tool Sober 21 Metallica Fade to Black 22 Queen Bohemian Rhapsody 23 Kings of Leon Sex on Fire 24 Metallica The Unforgiven 25 Green Day 21 Guns 26 Pink Floyd Another Brick In The Wall 27 Blindspott Nil By Mouth 28 Pearl Jam Daughter 29 Tool Stinkfist 30 Pink Floyd Wish You Were Here 31 Metallica Master of Puppets 32 Shihad Pacifier 33 AC/DC Highway To Hell 34 Metallica Whiskey In The Jar 35 Bon Jovi Living on A Prayer 36 System of a Down Chop Suey 37 Eagles, The Hotel California 38 Live Lightning Crashes 39 Black Sabbath War Pigs 40 Smashing Pumpkins 1979 41 AC/DC Hells Bells 42 Foo Fighters Best of You 43 Jimi Hendrix All Along The Watchtower 44 Guns 'N' Roses Welcome to the Jungle 45 AC/DC You Shook Me All Night Long 46 System of a Down Aerials 47 Metallica The Unforgiven II 48 Foo Fighters Monkey Wrench 49 Foo Fighters My Hero 50 Meatloaf Bat Outta Hell 51 Rage Against The Machine Bomb Track 52 AC/DC T.N.T 53 Pearl Jam The Fixer 54 Iron Maiden Number of the Beast 55 Red Hot Chili Peppers Under The Bridge 56 Black Sabbath Paranoid 57 Green Day American Idiot 58 Guns 'N' Roses Civil War 59 Rage Against The Machine Know Your Enemy 60 Ozzy Osbourne Mama I'm Coming Home 61 Blindspott Phlex 62 Nirvana Lithium 63 Audioslave Like A Stone 64 Pink Floyd Shine On You Crazy Diamond 65 Sublime Santeria 66 Led Zeppelin Kashmir 67 Bush Glycerine 68 Metallica Sad But True 69 Rolling Stones Paint It Black 70 Soundgarden Blackhole Sun 71 Audioslave Cochise 72 Beatles, The Come Together 73 Smashing Pumpkins Bullet With Butterfly Wings 74 Radiohead Creep 75 Led Zeppelin Black Dog 76 Nirvana Come As You Are 77 Alice Cooper Poison 78 Red Hot Chili Peppers Californication 79 Pearl Jam Jeremy 80 Foo Fighters Learn To Fly 81 Dire Straits Money For Nothing 82 Metallica Sanitarium 83 Rise Against Hero Of War 84 Pearl Jam Black 85 Foo Fighters Let It Die 86 Iron Maiden Run To The Hills 87 Alice In Chains Would? 88 Guns 'N' Roses Patience 89 Linkin Park New Divide 90 AC/DC Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap 91 Shihad Run 92 Lynard Skynard Free Bird 93 System of a Down B.Y.O.B 94 Skid Row 18 and Life 95 AC/DC Rock n Roll Train 96 Def Leppard Pour Some Sugar on Me 97 Shihad My Minds Sedate 98 Who, The Baba O' Reily 99 Faith No More Epic 100 John Lennon Imagine 101 Sublime What I've Got 102 Led Zeppelin Whole Lotta Love 103 Guns 'N' Roses Don't Cry 104 Linkin Park One Step Closer 105 Ozzy Osbourne No More Tears 106 Niravana About a Girl 107 Queen We Will Rock You 108 Poison Every Rose Has It's Thorn 109 Split Enz I Got You 110 Pearl Jam Elderley Woman Behind a Counter in a Samll Town 111 Aerosmith Walk This Way 112 Live I Alone 113 Who, The Won't Get Fooled Again 114 Green Day Good Riddance (Time of Your Life) 115 Th' Dudes Bliss 116 Disturbed Down With The Sickness 117 Cranberries, The Zombie 118 Iron Maiden The Trooper 119 Cult, The Fire Woman 120 Pearl Jam Release Me 121 Pink Floyd Young Lust 122 Guns 'N' Roses You Could Be Mine 123 Violent Femmes Blister In The Sun 124 Pearl Jam Even Flow 125 Def Leppard Armageddon It 126 Spiderbait Black Betty 127 Aerosmith Love in An Elevator 128 Offspring, The Self Esteem 129 Silverchair Tomorrow 130 Supergroove Sitting Inside My Head 131 Linkin Park Crawling 132 U2 With Or Without You 133 Foo Fighters The Pretender 134 Deep Purple Smoke on the Water 135 Linkin Park In The End 136 Aerosmith Dream On 137 Audioslave Original Fire 138 Bon Jovi Wanted Dead Or Alive 139 Kings Of Leon Use Somebody 140 Pink Floyd Run Like Hell 141 Queens of the Stone Age No one Knows 142 Fleetwood Mac Go Your Own Way 143 Opshop Maybe 144 Split Enz I See Red 145 Green Day When I Come Around 146 Metallica Hero of the Day 147 Offspring, The Come Out and Play 148 Rolling Stones Start Me Up 149 Verve, The Bittersweet Symphony 150 Iron Maiden Can I Play With Madness 151 Bob Dylan Hurricane 152 Rammstein Du Hast 153 Ben Harper Ground On Down 154 Shihad The General Electric 155 Nirvana Lake of Fire 156 Filter Hey Man Nice Shot 157 Red Hot Chili Peppers Scar Tissue 158 Eric Clapton I Shot The Sheirff 159 Feelers, The Venus 160 Queen We Are The Champions 161 Collective Soul Shine 162 Disturbed Inside the Fire 163 Bush Comedown 164 Jimi Hendrix Voodoo Chile 165 POD Alive 166 Steppenwolf Born To Be Wild 167 Marcy Playground Sex and Candy 168 Thin Lizzy The Boys Are Back In Town 169 U2 One Tree Hill 170 Stone Temple Pilots Plush 171 Jimi Hendrix Hey Joe 172 Stone Temple Pilots Interstate Love Song 173 Motley Crue Dr. Feelgood 174 Pearl Jam Yellow Ledbetter 175 Mick Jagger Hard Woman 176 Staind Outside 177 Talking Heads Psycho Killer 178 Shihad Everything 179 Midnight Oil Beds Are Burning 180 Red Hot Chili Peppers By The Way 181 Rolling Stones Sympathy for the Devil 182 Linkin Park What I've Done 183 U2 I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For 184 Shihad Comfort Me 185 Everlast/Sanata Put Your Lights On 186 Live Selling The Drama 187 Led Zeppelin Ramble On 188 Radiohead Karma Police 189 Nickelback How You Remind Me 190 Pink Floyd Learning to Fly 191 Elemeno P Verona 192 Cult, The Sweet Soul Sister 193 Metallica Until It Sleeps 194 White Stripes Seven Nation Army 195 Ozzy Osbourne Close My Eyes Forever 196 Drowning Pool Bodies 197 Dave Dobbyn Whaling 198 7 Mary 3 Cumbersome 199 Dragon April Sun In Cuba 200 Disturbed Land Of Confusion 201 Aerosmith Janies Got A Gun 202 Blur Song 2 203 Bruce Springsteen Born In The USA 204 Red Hot Chili Peppers My Friends 205 Rage Against The Machine Bulls on Parade 206 Eric Clapton Cocaine 207 Guns 'N' Roses Mr Brownstone 208 Feelers, The Pressure Man 209 Pink Floyd Hey You 210 Creed My Own Prison 211 Chris Cornell Bill Jean 212 AC/DC Are You Ready 213 Marilyn Manson The Beautiful People 214 Steve Earle Copperhead Road 215 Billy Talent Rusted From The Rain 216 Bon Jovi You Give Love A Bad Name 217 Foo Fighters Times Like These 218 Faith No More From Out Of Nowhere 219 Hello Sailor Gutter Black 220 Green Day Basket Case 221 Def Leppard Animal 222 Pearl Jam Last Kiss 223 Korn Freak On A Leash 224 Billy Idol Rebel Yell 225 Metallica The Memory Remains 226 Doors, The Riders on the Storm 227 Red Hot Chili Peppers Give It Away 228 Beatles, The Get Back 229 Red Hot Chili Peppers Higher Ground 230 George Thorogood One Bourbon, One Scotch, One Beer 231 Faith No More Evidence 232 Iron Maiden Wasted Years 233 Oasis Wonderwall 234 Clash, The London Calling 235 Smashing Pumpkins Today 236 Led Zeppelin Rock n Roll 237 System of a Down Lonely day 238 Living End White Noise 239 Jimi Hendrix Purple Haze 240 Incubus Megalomaniac 241 Collective Soul December 242 Blink 182 All The Small Things 243 Beatles Revolution 244 Airbourne Diamond in the Rough 245 Green Day Jesus of Suburbia 246 Tool Forty Six and Two 247 Jimmy Barnes Working Class Man 248 Puddle of Mudd Blurry 249 Men At Work Down Under 250 Foo Fighters End Over End 251 INXS What You Need 252 Live Lakinis Juice 253 Living Colour Cult of Personality 254 Lynard Skynard Sweet Home Alabama 255 Green Day Welcome To Paradise 256 Ozzy Osbourne Crazy Train 257 Matchbox 20 3am 258 Megadeth Symphony of Destruction 259 Nirvana In Bloom 260 Elemeno P Fast Times In Tahoe 261 Metallica No Leaf Clover 262 Mutton Birds Dominion Road 263 Muse Plug In Baby 264 Motley Crue Girls Girls Girls 265 Live The Dolphins Cry 266 Pink Floyd Time 267 Pearl Jam Worldwide Suicide 268 Ozzy Osbourne Bark At The Moon 269 Doors, The The End 270 POD Boom 271 U2 Elevation 272 Rolling Stones Satisfaction 273 Pearl Jam Animal 274 Everclear Santa Monica 275 Dave Dobbyn Slice of Heaven 276 AC/DC For Those About To Rock 277 Audioslave I Am The Highway 278 Bush Everything Zen 279 Skid Row I Remember You 280 Red Hot Chili Peppers Dani California 281 Faith No More Last Cup of Sorrow 282 Aerosmith Sweet Emotion 283 Kings of Leon Fans 284 U2 Where The Streets Have No Name 285 Eskimo Joe Black Fingernails, Red Wine 286 Exponents Why Does Love Do This To Me 287 Incubus Nice To Know You 288 Guns 'N' Roses Estranged 289 Police Roxanne 290 Feelers, The Larger Than Life 291 Supergroove Can't Get Enough 292 Foo Fighters Long Road To Ruin 293 Led Zeppelin Over the Hills and Far Away 294 Marilyn Manson I Don't Like The Drugs 295 Nirvana The Man Who Sold The World 296 Pink Floyd On The Turning Away 297 Pearl Jam I Got ID 298 Papa Roach Last Resort 299 Led Zeppelin Dazed and Confused 300 Grinspoon Lost Control 301 Cold Chisel Cheap Wine 302 Feelers, The The Fear 303 Pearl Jam Not For You 304 Pink Floyd Money 305 Shihad Bulletproof 306 U2 Pride 307 Guns 'N' Roses Knocking on Heavens Door 308 Puddle of Mudd She Hates Me 309 Soundgarden Blow Up The Outside World 310 Deep Purple Black Knight 311 Alice In Chains Man In The Box 312 David Bowie Space Oddity 313 Killers, The Somebody Told Me 314 Queen Another One Bites The Dust 315 Eve 6 Inside Out 316 Guns 'N' Roses Live and Let Die 317 Nickelback Something In Your Mouth 318 AC/DC It's A Long Way To The Top 319 Kings of Leon On Call 320 Lou Reed Walk on the wild side 321 Nirvana Heart Shaped Box 322 Foo Fighters Big Me 323 Icehouse Great Southern Land 324 Cult, The Edie 325 Stonesour Through Glass 326 Ozzy Osbourne I Just Want You 327 Opshop No Ordinary Thing 328 Don Henley The Boys of Summer 329 Nickelback Figured You Out 330 Jimi Hendrix Foxy Lady 331 Pearl Jam State of Love and Trust 332 Verve, The The Drugs Don't Work 333 Swingers, The Counting The Beat 334 Kid Rock Bawitaba 335 Whitesnake Here I Go Again 336 Soundgarden Fell On Black Days 337 Smashing Pumpkins Disarm 338 Aerosmith What It Takes 339 U2 Angel of Harlem 340 Motley Crue Smokin In The Boys Room 341 Velvet Revolver Fall To Pieces 342 Bob Dylan Jokerman 343 Blindspott Yours Truly 344 Alice Cooper Only Woman Bleed 345 Metallica Fuel 346 Bryan Adams Summer of 69 347 Incubus Are You In 348 Cult, The Wild Flower 349 Supergroove You Gotta Know 350 Linkin Park From the inside 351 Exponents Erotic 352 AC/DC Who Made Who 353 Mutton Birds Anchor Me 354 Green Day Hitchin A Ride 355 Headless Chickens George 356 U2 All I Want Is You 357 Soundgarden Spoonman 358 Twisted Sister We're Not Gonna Take It 359 Rolling Stones Wild Horses 360 Weezer Say It Ain't So 361 Bruce Springsteen The River 362 Candlebox Far Behind 363 Dave Dobbyn Loyal 364 Green Day Know Your Enemy 365 U2 One 366 U2 Desire 367 Pluto Dance Stamina 368 Metallica The Day That Never Comes 369 George Thorogood Bad To The Bone 370 Kid Rock All Summer Long 371 Neil Young My My Hey hey 372 Nickelback Photograph 373 U2 Sunday Bloody Sunday 374 Powderfinger My Happiness 375 Supergroove Scorpio Girls 376 Collective Soul The World I Know 377 Breaking Benjamin Diary of Jane 378 AC/DC Rock n Roll Ain't Noise Pollution 379 Blink 182 Dammit 380 Led Zeppelin All Of My Love 381 Foo Fighters D.O.A. 382 Hello Sailor Blue Lady 383 Faith No More Easy 384 Meatloaf Paradise By The Dash…. 385 Linkin Park Breaking the habit 386 Def Leppard Lets Get Rocked 387 Disturbed Prayer 388 Phil Collins In The Air Tonight 389 Staind It's Been A While 390 Van Halen You Really Got Me 391 Metallica Turn The Page 392 Rolling Stones Angie 393 Soundgarden Burden in My Hand 394 Shihad Wait and See 395 Who, The Who Are You 396 Red Hot Chili Peppers Otherside 397 Doors, The Roadhouse Blues 398 U2 Who's Gonna Ride Your Wild Horses 399 Faith No More Ashes To Ashes 400 3 Doors Down Kryptonite 401 Alice In Chains Rooster 402 Cold Chisel Bow River 403 Grinspoon Chemical Heart 404 Janes Addiction Been Caught Stealing 405 Nickelback Never Again 406 Clash, The Should I Stay 407 Feelers, The Anniversary 408 Zodiac Mindwarp Prime Mover 409 Led Zeppelin Houses of The Holy 410 Powderfinger On My Mind 411 U2 Even Better Than The Real Thing 412 Pearl Jam In Hiding 413 Bon Jovi Bad Medicine 414 Buckcherry Lit Up 415 Red Hot Chili Peppers Soul To Squeeze 416 Midnight Oil Power and The Passion 417 Scars On Broadway They Say 418 U2 Mysterious Ways 419 Foo Fighters Breakout 420 Gary Moore/Phil Lynott Out in the fields 421 Nirvana All Apologies 422 Sublime Wrong Way 423 Split Enz History Never Repeats 424 Shihad Alive 425 Doors, The LA Woman 426 Metallica King Nothing 427 Led Zeppelin The Song Remains The Same 428 Fuel Haemmorhage 429 Jeff Healy Band While My Guitar Gently Weaps 430 Kooks, The Niave 431 Cult, The Wild Hearted Son 432 Rolling Stones You Can't Always get What you want 433 Red Hot Chili Peppers Aeroplane 434 Van Halen Jump 435 Smashing Pumpkins Tonight Tonight 436 Evanescence Bring Me To Life 437 Dragon Rain 438 Breaking Benjamin So Cold 439 Hunters and Collectors Holy Grail 440 Pearl Jam Corduroy 441 Poison Something To Believe In 442 Tom Petty Learning To Fly 443 Velvert Revolver The Last Fight 444 Kenny Wayne Sheppard Blue on Black 445 Iggy Pop Lust For Life 446 Audioslave Show Me How To Live 447 Oasis Champagne Supernova 448 Soundgarden Rusty Cage 449 Clash, The I Fought The Law 450 Shihad You Again 451 Stone Sour Bother 452 Twisted Sister I Wanna Rock 453 Days of the New Touch Peel and Stand 454 Led Zeppelin Dy'er Mak'er 455 Ozzy Ozbourne See You On The Other Side 456 Pearl Jam Nothingman 457 Who, The My Generation 458 Verve, The Lucky Man 459 Rolling Stones It's Only Rock n Roll 460 U2 The Sweetest Thing 461 Black Crowes Hard to Handle 462 Feelers, The Supersystem 463 Urge Overkill Sister Havana 464 Red Hot Chili Peppers Suck My Kiss 465 John Mellencamp Jack and Dianne 466 Sixx AM Life is Beautiful 467 Dire Straits Brothers in Arms 468 Jet She's A Genius 469 Filter Take A Picture 470 Cars, The Just What I Needed 471 Counting Crowes Round Here 472 My Chemical Romance Welcome to the black parade 473 Tom Petty Free Falling 474 Stone Temple Pilots Big Empty 475 Shihad La La Land 476 Ben Harper Please Bleed 477 AC/DC Let There Be Rock 478 Beck Loser 479 Queen Fat Bottomed Girls 480 Smashing Pumpkins Zero 481 Doors, The Light My Fire 482 Radiohead High and Dry 483 Metallica Mama Said 484 Lenny Kravitz Are You Gonna Go My Way 485 Stone Temple Pilots Vasoline 486 U2 Vertigo 487 Incubus Drive 488 Talking Heads Road To Nowhere 489 Angels, The No Secrets 490 Goo Goo Dolls Iris 491 HLAH Hootenanny 492 Pink Floyd Mother 493 Offspring, The Why Don't You Get A Job 494 Doors, The Break On Through 495 Living End Raise The Alarm 496 David Bowie Cat People (Putting Out The Fire) 497 Metallica For Whom The Bell Tolls 498 Cold Chisel Khe Sanh 499 U2 Beautiful Day 500 Dandy Warhols Bohemian Like You 501 Blind Melon No Rain 502 Black Sabbath NIB 503 Black Crows She Talks To Angels 504 A Perfect Circle Judith 505 Def Leppard Love Bites 506 Elemeno P Nirvana 507 Queen Headlong 508 Rob Thomas/Santana Smooth 509 Red Hot Chili Peppers Around the World 510 Split Enz Shark Attack 511 Soundgarden The Day I Tried To Live 512 Quiet Riot Come on Feel The Noise 513 T Rex Get It On 514 Radiohead Fake Plastic Trees 515 Puddle Of Mudd Psycho 516 Van Halen Running With The Devil 517 Offspring, The Pretty Fly 518 INXS Original Sin 519 Marilyn Manson The Dope Show 520 Skid Row Youth gone wild 521 Queen / Bowie Under Pressure 522 Datsuns, The Harmonic Generator 523 Robert Plant Heaven Knows 524 Foo Fighters Stacked Actors 525 AC/DC Ride On 526 Blink 182 What's My Age Again 527 Blue Oyster Cult Don't Fear the Reaper 528 Butthole Surfers Pepper 529 Green Day Wake Me Up When September Ends 530 Eagles Life in the Fast Lane 531 Incubus I Wish You Were Here 532 Cold Chisel Flame Trees 533 Airbourne What's Eatin' You? 534 Goodshirt Sophie 535 Rolling Stones Brown Sugar 536 Green Day Boulevard of Broken Dreams 537 Tom Petty American Girl 538 Soundgarden My Wave 539 Santana Black Magic Woman 540 Silverchair Anthem For The Year 2000 541 R.E.M It's the End of the World As We Know It 542 Pearl Jam I Am Mine 543 Radiohead Just 544 Presidents of the USA Lump 545 Rob Zombie Living dead Girl 546 Simple Minds Waterfront 547 Creed With Arms Wide Open 548 Aerosmith Crazy 549 Collective Soul Where The River Flows 550 Gary Moore Still Got The Blues for you 551 Shihad Rule The World 552 R.E.M Losing My Religion 553 Push Push Trippin' 554 Snow Patrol Chasing Cars 555 Soundgarden Outshined 556 Foo Fighters Baker Street 557 Billy Idol Eyes Without A Face 558 Live All Over You 559 Shihad Debs Night Out 560 Sex Pistols Anarchy In The UK 561 Red Hot Chili Peppers Desecration Smile 562 Iron Maiden The Evil that Men Do 563 INXS Kick 564 Hoobastank The Reason 565 Rage Against The Machine Renegades of Funk 566 Smashing Pumpkins Cherub Rock 567 Linkin Park Shadow of the Day 568 Queensryche Silent Lucidity 569 Elemeno-P 11'57 570 Midnight Oil Forgotten Years 571 Papa Roach Forever 572 Oasis What's The Story Morning Glory 573 Casanovas California 574 Crash Test Dummies Mmm Mmm Mmm 575 Feelers, The Beautiful Feeling 576 Mutton Birds Nature 577 Nirvana Rape Me 578 Our Lady Peace Superman's Dead 579 Tom Petty Refugee 580 Stokes, The Last Nite 581 Jimmy Eat World The Middle 582 Police Message In A Bottle 583 Tonic If You Could Only See 584 T Rex 20th Century Boy 585 Offspring, The Original Prankster 586 Van Halen Hot For Teacher 587 Feelers, The Stand Up 588 Jet Are You Gonna Be My Girl 589 Led Zeppelin Nobody's Fault But Mine 590 Marilyn Manson Personal Jesus 591 Th' Dudes Be Mine Tonight 592 Powderfinger My Kinda Scene 593 Tom Petty Mary Janes Last Dance 594 Fuel Bad Day 595 Dragon Are You Old Enough 596 Franz Ferdinand Take Me Out 597 Europe The Final Countdown 598 Offspring, The Gotta Get Away 599 ZZ Top Legs 600 Nirvana Where Did You Sleep Last Night 601 INXS I Need You Tonight 602 U2/Green Day The Saints Are Coming 603 Talking Heads And She Was 604 Seether Fine Again 605 Pearl Jam Brother 606 Black Sabbath Black Sabbath 607 Arctic Monkeys I Bet that You'd Look Good on the Dancefloor 608 A Perfect Circle 3 Libra's 609 Aerosmith Livin On The Edge 610 Coldplay Yellow 611 Finger Eleven Paralyzer 612 Genesis Home By The Sea 613 Good Charlotte Motavation Proclamation 614 Men at Work Be Good Johnny 615 Ugly Kid Joe Everything About You 616 Killers, The When You Were Young 617 White Stripes Icky Thump 618 Golden Earing Radar Love 619 Evanescence Going Under 620 Talking Heads Burning Down The House 621 Silverchair Pure Massacre 622 Split Enz Six Months In A Leaky Boat 623 Shihad Beautiful Machine 624 Police Can't Stand Losing You 625 Powderfinger Sunsets 626 U2 Bullet The Blue Sky 627 Metallica Die Die Die My Darling 628 Led Zeppelin Misty Mountain Hop 629 Green Day Longview 630 Billy Idol Flesh For Fantasy 631 Candlebox Cover Me 632 U2 When Love Comes To Town 633 Evermore Running 634 Pink Floyd Great Gig In The Sky 635 White Stripes My Doorbell 636 R.E.M Drive 637 Mi-Sex Blue Day 638 Green Day Working Class Hero 639 Boston More Than A Feeling 640 Foo Fighters Generator 641 Pearl Jam Immortality 642 Who, The Pinball Wizard 643 Elemeno P Every Day's A Saturday 644 Choir Boys Run To Paradise 645 Daughtry It's Not Over 646 Exponents Who Loves Who The Most 647 Snow Patrol Take Back The City 648 Bruce Springsteen I'm on fire 649 Faith No More Stripsearch 650 R.E.M What's The Frequency Kenneth 651 Offspring, The I Choose 652 Reef Place Your Hands 653 Queen A Kind of Magic 654 3 Doors Down Loser 655 Alice Cooper No More Mr Nice Guy 656 Manic Street Preachers Your Love Alone 657 Police So Lonely 658 Incubus Dig 659 R.E.M Man On The Moon 660 Tenacious D Tribute 661 Third Eye Blind Semi Charmed Life 662 Van Halen Why Can't This Be Love 663 Fuel Sunburn 664 David Bowie Ziggy Stardust 665 Foo Fighters Resolve 666 Red Hot Chili Peppers Breaking The Girl 667 Semisonic Closing Time 668 Muse Hysteria 669 Dave Dobbyn Love You Like I Should 670 Green Day Warning 671 INXS Good Times 672 Lit My Own Worst Enemy 673 Robert Plant 29 Palms 674 Offspring, The Gone Away 675 New Order Blue Monday 676 AC/DC Money Made 677 Matchbox 20 How Far We've Come 678 R.E.M Pop Song 89 679 Shihad Leo Song 680 Split Enz Dirty Creature 681 Hoobastank Disappear 682 Kiss God Gave Rock n Roll To You 683 Linkin Park Numb 684 Van Halen Panama 685 HLAH Cornbag 686 Bon Jovi Blaze of Glory 687 Black Sabbath Iron man 688 Ben Harper Excuse Me Mr 689 3 Doors Down When I'm Gone 690 AC/DC Heatseeker 691 Linkin Park Bleed it Out 692 4 Non Blondes What's Up 693 Chad Kroeger Hero 694 DD Smash The Outlook For Thursday 695 Luger Boa On My Mind 696 Exponents Victoria 697 Creed What's This Life For 698 Good Charlotte Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous 699 Def Leppard Rockit 700 Incubus Anna Molly 701 Led Zeppelin Good Times Bad Times 702 Living End Wake Up 703 Peter Gabriel Sledgehammer 704 Oasis Don't Look Back in Anger 705 Rolling Stones Love is strong 706 Foo Fighters The One 707 Crowded House Something So Strong 708 Placebo For What It's Worth 709 Billy Idol Sweet Sixteen 710 Audioslave Doesn't Remind Me 711 Motley Crue Home Sweet Home 712 Finger Eleven Falling On 713 Hoodoo Gurus Whats My Scene 714 Dishwalla Counting Blue Cars 715 Kings Of Leon Notion 716 Jimmy Barnes Lay Down Your Guns 717 D4 Sake Bomb 718 Dave Dobbyn Welcome Home 719 Muse Starlight 720 Bleeders She Screamed She Loved Me 721 Crowded House Better Be Home Soon 722 Disturbed Shout 723 Gary Moore Walking By Myself 724 Grinspoon No Reason 725 R.E.M Stand 726 Poison Your Mama Don't Dance 727 Seether Fake It 728 Australian Crawl The Boys Light Up 729 Midnight Youth All On Our Own 730 Icehouse We Can Get Together 731 Matchbox 20 Push 732 Motley Crue Saints Of Los Angeles 733 Kiss Crazy Crazy Nights 734 Living End Roll On 735 Neil Young Like A Hurricane 736 Foo Fighters This is a Call 737 Pearl Jam Rearviewmirror 738 Soul Asylum Misery 739 Saving Abel Addicted 740 Live Freaks 741 INXS Never Tear Us Apart 742 Linkin Park Somewhere I Belong 743 Noiseworks No Lies 744 Pluto Long White Cross 745 Default Wasting My Time 746 Deep Purple Hush 747 Creed Higher 748 Bruce Springsteen Dancing in the dark 749 Athlete Wires 750 AC/DC Whole Lotta Rosie 751 3 Doors Down Here Without You 752 Hunters and Collectors Throw Your Arms Around Me 753 Korn Word Up 754 Pink Floyd Lost for Words 755 Puddle of Mudd Control 756 Primal Scream Rocks 757 Shihad One Will Hear 758 Red Hot Chili Peppers Behind The Sun 759 Powderfinger Lost and Running 760 Church, The Under The Milky Way 761 Oasis Live Forever 762 Guns 'N' Roses Nighttrain 763 Pantera Cemetery Gates 764 Audioslave Be Yourself 765 Deep Purple My Woman From Tokyo 766 Midnight Youth The Letter 767 Monster Magnet Space Lord 768 AC/DC High Voltage 769 Fur Patrol Lydia 770 Jimmy Barnes Sweat it Out 771 Matchbox 20 Disease 772 Fratellies, The Flathead 773 R.E.M Everybody Hurts 774 Everlast Black Jesus 775 Cake The Distance 776 Counting Crowes Rain King 777 Checks, The You And Me 778 David Bowie Changes 779 Guns 'N' Roses Chinese Democracy 780 Exponents I'll Say Goodbye 781 Hole Celebrity Skin 782 Lenny Kravitz American Woman 783 Live Shittown 784 Goo Goo Dolls Name 785 HLAH Comfortably Shagged 786 Spin Doctors Two Princes 787 Muse Knights of Cydonia 788 Billy Idol Cradle of Love 789 Daughtry What I Want 790 INXS Devil Inside 791 Motley Crue Same ol' Situation 792 Nickelback Rockstar 793 Silverchair Greatest View 794 Melissa Etheridge Bring Me Some Water 795 Tool Schism 796 John Mellencamp Paper and Fire 797 Incubus Warning 798 Lenny Kravitz Fly Away 799 Janes Addiction Mountain Song 800 Everclear Heartspark Dollarsign 801 Billy Idol White Wedding 802 Buckcherry Too Drunk 803 Creed My Sacrifice 804 Deep Purple Highway Star 805 Oasis Cigarettes and Alcohol 806 Pink Floyd Have A Cigar 807 Metallica I Disappear 808 Goo Goo Dolls Here Is Gone 809 Led Zeppelin Immigrant Song 810 Opshop Secrets 811 Black Crowes Remedy 812 Iron Maiden Hallowed Be Thy Name 813 Ben Harper Steal My Kisses 814 Cold Chisel You Got Nothing I Want 815 Marilyn Manson Sweet Dreams 816 Midnight Oil King of The Mountain 817 Alice In Chains Heaven Beside You 818 Jimmy Barnes Driving Wheels 819 Rise Against Re-Educate 820 Crowded House Don't Dream It's Over 821 Bloodhound Gang Fire Water Burn 822 Airbourne Running Wild 823 Aerosmith I Don't Want To Miss A Thing 824 Tool The Pot 825 3 Doors Down Behind those Eyes 826 AC/DC The Jack 827 Blue October Hate me 828 Bon Jovi Keep The Faith 829 Live Rattlesnake 830 Eagle Eye Cherry Save tonight 831 Collective Soul Smashing Young Man 832 Aerosmith Dude Looks Like A Lady 833 Foo Fighters Low 834 AC/DC Moneytalks 835 Def Leppard Hysteria 836 Candlebox 10,000 Horses 837 Alice Cooper Schools Out 838 Blacktide Shockwave 839 Bush The Chemicals Between Us 840 David Bowie China Girl 841 Kings of Leon Crawl 842 Pink Floyd Keep Talking 843 Silverchair Ana's Song (Open Fire) 844 Pearl Jam Nothing As It Seems 845 R.E.M The One I Love 846 Raconteurs Steady As She Goes 847 Red Hot Chili Peppers Tell Me Baby 848 Harvey Danger Flagpole Sitta 849 INXS New Sensation 850 Nickelback Too Bad 851 Cure, The Friday I'm in love 852 Velvet Revolver Get Out The Door 853 Ben Harper Diamonds On The Inside 854 Rob Zombie Dragula 855 Semisonic Singing To Me In My Sleep 856 Tadpole Blind 857 Red Hot Chili Peppers Knock Me Down 858 Silverchair Straight Lines 859 Queen Tie Your Mother Down 860 OK Go Here it Goes Again 861 Soul Asylum Runaway Train 862 Th' Dudes Walking In Light 863 Seether/ Amy Lee Broken 864 Whitesnake In the Still Of The Night 865 Grinspoon Better Off Alone 866 Dire Straits Sultans of Swing 867 Jet Cold Hard Bitch 868 Feelers, The One World 869 System of a Down Spiders 870 Simple Minds Sanctify Yourself 871 Soundgarden Pretty Noose 872 Nickelback Saving Me 873 R.E.M Orange Crush 874 Snow Patrol Run 875 Poison Nothing But A Good Time 876 Kaiser Chiefs Ruby 877 Guns 'N' Roses Rocket Queen 878 Shinedown Second Chance 879 Billy Idol Shock To The System 880 Johnny Cash Hurt 881 Atlas Crawl 882 Australian Crawl Downheatred 883 Blindspott Room To Breathe 884 Bon Jovi It's My Life 885 Hinder Lips of an angel 886 Tom Petty Into the Great Wide Open 887 Oasis Roll with it 888 Counting Crows Mr Jones 889 AC/DC Sink The Pink 890 Coldplay Clocks 891 Split Enz My Mistake 892 Steriogram White Trash 893 Green Day Holiday 894 Bruce Springsteen Radio Nowhere 895 Cage The Elephant Ain't No Rest For The Wicked 896 Extreme More Than Words 897 Seether Remedy 898 Simple Minds Promised You A Miracle 899 Feelers, The Astronaut 900 Mutton Birds Giant Friend 901 Living End Second Solution 902 Lenny Kravitz Believe 903 Hunters and Collectors Do You See What I See 904 Motley Crue Kickstart My Heart 905 Live Heaven 906 Icehouse I Can't Help Myself 907 Nirvana You Know You're Right 908 Spacehog In The Meantime 909 Seether Driven Under 910 Robbie robertson Somewhere Down the Crazy River 911 AC/DC Anything Goes 912 J Geils Centrefold 913 Stellar All It Takes 914 Angles, The We Gotta Get Out Of This Place 915 Killers, The Read My Mind 916 U2 New Years Day 917 Supergrass Sun Hits The Sky 918 Ozzy Osbourne Perry Mason 919 Goo Goo Dolls Slide 920 Guns 'N' Roses Yesterdays 921 Opshop One Day 922 Cult, The She Sells Sanctuary 923 Seether The Gift 924 Clash, The Rock The Casbah 925 Feelers, The Communicate 926 Cult, The Love Removal Machine 927 Killers, The Mr Brightside 928 Poison Unskinny Bop 929 Muse Uprising 930 Australian Crawl Reckless 931 Alien Ant Farm Glow 932 Danzig Mother 933 3 Doors Down It's not My Time 934 Bloodhound Gang The Badtouch 935 Matchbox 20 Long Day 936 Mockers, The Forever Tuesday Morning 937 POD Youth of Nation 938 INXS Mystify 939 Nickelback Some Day 940 ZZ Top Gimme All Your Lovin 941 Lifehouse Hanging By A Moment 942 Aerosmith The Otherside 943 Kings Of Leon Revelry 944 Tom Petty Running Down A Dream 945 Datsuns, The Stuck Here For Days 946 Tom Cochrane Life Is A Highway 947 Steriophonics Dakota 948 Angles, The The Dogs Are Talking 949 Keane Somewhere Only We Know 950 Stellar Violent 951 Bon Jovi Have A Nice Day 952 Lost Prophets Rooftops 953 Men at Work Overkill 954 Red Hot Chili Peppers Love Rollercoaster 955 Darkness, The I Believe In A Thing Called Love 956 Barenaked Ladies One Week 957 Mile High Now 958 Airbourne Too Much, Too Young, Too Fast 959 Crowded House Locked Out 960 Dandy Warhols We Used To Be Friends 961 Tom Petty Don't Come Around Here No More 962 Feelers, The Fishing For Lisa 963 Feelers, The As Good As It Gets 964 David Bowie Lets Dance 965 Exies, The Ugly 966 Garbage Only Happy When It Rains 967 Chills, The I Love My Leather Jacket 968 Train Drops of Jupiter 969 Pearl Jam Dissident 970 Steriogram Walkie Talkie Man 971 Verve, The Sonnet 972 Phantom, Rocker and Slick Men Without Shame 973 Weezer Buddy Holly 974 Cars, The Drive 975 Weta Calling On 976 Led Zeppelin Heartbreaker 977 Thirsty Merc In The Summertime 978 Peter Frampton Do You Feel Like We Do 979 Calling, The Wherever You Will Go 980 Talking Heads Once in a Lifetime 981 Weezer Hash Pipe 982 Doors, The Touch Me 983 Killers, The Bones 984 Refreshments, The Banditos 985 Panic Channel, The Teahouse of the Spirits 986 Guns 'N' Roses Better 987 Red Hot Chili Peppers Can't Stop 988 Zed Renegade Fighter 989 Live Turn My Head 990 Wallflowers One Headlight 991 Offspring, The Hammerhead 992 Weta Let It Go 993 U2 Sometimes You Can't Make it on Your Own 994 White Stripes Blue Orchid 995 Travis Why Does It Always Rain On Me 996 Velvet Revolver Slither 997 Hootie and the Blow Fish Let Her Cry 998 Phantom Planet California 999 Pearl Jam Given To Fly 1000 Joan Jett I Love Rock n Roll

Topic by Fred the Penguin    |  last reply


Pure cacsaicin from chilli peppers

I already had a quite long Ible in the making when it downed on me that not too many people should actually create such a dangerous substance at home.So instead I decided to just write a bit about the history, general procedures and what is possible or not.If you already made your own chilli exptract for a special hot sauce or your home made pepper spray then you feel right at home.Those who never done anything like it or at least some essential oil extractions might just find some other interesting stuff to read.I won't go into all details here as those with the basic knowledge will already know the precautions and most things.Capsaicin...The stuff that makes your exes run, clear you nose and makes you sweat like you on fire.At least if it comes within you favourite dish.In the pure form it is a severe irritant and should be handled like explosives or concentrated acids.You just won't make a mistake with this stuff twice - trust me!What really harms you is not the capsaicin itself, it is your bodies reaction to it!It stimulates the same nerves responsible to feel heat and pain, sometimes those for a severe itch as well.And unlike a normal reaction you would get from hot water, it won't stop until it is fully removed.Even after this the body keeps reacting for bit longer.On the skin you can end up with blisters like from a real burn, in your airways it can make breathing impossible!And lets just say that swimming goggles won't look as dumb and funny on your face once you realise you got some fine crystals on your face....If you dare to continue then I assume you are well aware of the risks, dangers and PPE requirements!Pure or extract?I checked tons of so called instructions on how to make pure or 99% pure capsaicin from chilli peppers.They all just produce a really crude mix of goo that happens to have a lot of capsaicin in it.If it is red or even darker it is nowhere near pure.If it has a weird smell that has really nothing in common with chilli than it is even worse.If it is more or less colorless, with a very strong scent that your nose does not like at all then we are getting somewhere.So why is it that we always end up with this color that is impossible to remove?Extracting chilli peppers....A thing most people ignore a bit when in a hurry is that an alcohol extraction requires DRY alcohol.You just won't tolerate water in it, which is why often methanol comes easier and cheaper than ethanol.Some people even think just because the alcohol is either evaporated or distilled off that all is good when using things like methylated spirit.Ever had the problem that you used that stuff and your hot sauce made you vomit after realising that it comes with a bad and extremely bitter after taste?That is the stuff that makes your home depot ethanol unuasable ;)If you use homegrown or otherwise fresh chilli you need to fully dry it first!Don't be fooled by people stating they did it with fresh peppers.What you get this way is some of the worst extractions you can get.Don't be fooled to think you need some Carolina Reaper either.A big bag of chilli powder from your grocery store will do just fine.So what is all in our extract?Alcohol or any other solvent usable for a capsaicin extraction also dissolves a lot of other things.Like the beta carotenes that give the extract the organge to red color.The skin and the entire fruit also contains oils, plus the shiny outside is mostly due to wax...All of this ends in your extract....You not only get what you want and might not mind but also everything else you don't want.Making the difference....The impossible we do right away, for miricles or wonder allow a day or two of processing ;)Assuming you end with a rather large qauntity of alcohol the concentration of everything is relatively low.If you used something like a Soxhlet extraction you already degraded a lot of the capsaicin due to the heat.And even after the best filtering you might have a clear solution but whatever is not a solid is still in there.Imagine you would put it all into a freezer....Surprisingly a lot of stuff won't stay in solution once cooled down enough.Especially if you give it a few days.Depending on what you started with you either get a slimy looking sludge or some crystals showing.Either way it needs to be filtered out and washed.For the washing use the same pure alcohol as before but make sure it is well cooled.If any cacsaicin was already forming crystals then they will be washed into your solution again now to a little extend.But you removed an awful lot of the wax if it was not capsaicin already. ;)Testing the slurry we collected.When using chilli powder from the shops I noticed that there is often no wax to be found at all.While for fresh produce the content is significant.Once dry you make a simple test with water.Capsaicin basically does not dissolve in water, so it would sink to the bottom while wax floats ;)I assume you ended with little to no wax but fine capsaicin instead.From the natural form it is very hard to get crystals bigger than a dust particle.This only happens if the temperature is cold enough and the concentration high enough.As my entire setup is quite small I usually prepare several 500ml plastic bottles that I fill to one quarter by height with chilli powder and then fill up to half with methanol.In the end I use a full 1kg bad of chilli powder but only a may of 5 to ten bottles.Making the most of it.When using alcohol extraction you want to use a little of the solvent as possible.Use means here wasting it instead of recycling it.Once I filtered my white slurry out I destill the remaining solution to reduce it by 50-75%.An almost dark red color is usually when it is time to stop.After this I place it back in the freezer for a day to check if more crystals or slurry forms.If so then I filter it off again.What is left is then mixed with recycled and fresh methanol to soak more chilli powder in my bottles.Means I discard the filtered of chilli poweder once washed, recycle what I can from the methanol and keep whatever the slurry produces that is not wax or dissolves in water.Depending with how much chilli you start you will get to the point where your filtered solution is already dark red.Since the final capsaicin won't dissolve in water you can destill with some added (destilled) water.This way you recover the alcohol without risking to get a sticky goo everyhwere that you need to clean off.It is quite possible to get some more capsaicin this way as with the alcohol leaving it will participate out.Simply filter the solution once the alcohol is recovered.As the beta carotenes won't dissolve well in water either it is best to perfom this destillation while all is mixed.If you can't do this then don't worry to much, it just means a few more minutes of cleaning later ;)Testing the final product....What you have left once the slurry is dried should be almost colorless with maybe a pale yellow in it.Fully dried it should appear as basically white.There should be no smell to it, nothing to tickkle you nose.Colorless and odorless.For whatever reason I still sometimes end up with a very faint smell.Not really chilli though...Depending on the temperature the products is either quite hard to almost britlle (when frozen) to almost wax like at room temp and above.I highly recommend against testing whatever you have on your skin or to ingest it!!!Waste some sauce base like ketchup (you can add it later to your sauce again) or some butter - I prefer the later.Butter become liquid well below the 65°C celsius decomposition temp for capsaicin, so it should dissolve very easy in it.Take a shot glass with just enough butter for a sandwich and dip a toothpick into your product.Make sure there it a tiny bit on it and not that the toothpick has a thick coating!Once cooled down while mixing every now then spread it on some sandwich and take a bite.After a minute or two you should definitately feel a difference to just butter - hopefully not too hot.If nothing happens repeat with a bit more on the toothpick.Still nothing at all usually means you filtered out only by-products and for some reasons managed to make the capsaicin disappear.Hints and tips that might safe your bacon....Methanol boils at about 64°C, ethanol at about 77°C.Capsaicin starts to decompose at 65°C.Not a big deal but if you get to the 80° mark, which is easy which ethanol you might have to use evaporation instead of destillation and waste the alcohol to your surrounding air...Water...For the final product it is not a problem but during the extraction process it is.Despite some people claiming otherwise both the quality and amount of what you end up with are lower.It seems some of the capsaicin binds to the water molecules with the help of some other stuff that the plant material provides.And when you try to destill a solution that was contaminated with water from the chilli it tends to foam up quite badly.While with pure alcohol and fully dried product there is no foaming.What to expect when collecting the end product...At room temperature you can dissolve what you get in product from one kg of dried chilli powder in under 10ml of pure alcohol.However at -20°C next to nothing dissolves in the alcohol.That means as long as you have still over lets say 1000ml alcohol extract then very little will participate out.Just one reason why I prefer to work with small batches - keeps the concentration higher from the start.The more you destill off and re-use the higher the capsaicin concentration in the alcohol will be.So before you start to add any water for the destillation you need to be aware of the consequences.I found out that first destilling most of the alcohol off the single rounds that got too dark in color helps.I just collect this conentrate for the final destillation process.Key is to destill this off to the point where it just starts to thicken up a bit.It should still be liquid but act almost like a thin oil.You don't want it so thick that is crates a coating on the walls when you move the liquid around.In case it did happen just add a tiny amount of alcohol again.Put in the freezer for a few days....Empty into your filter and let as much as possible drip out.Rinse with as little alcohol as possible - have the rinsing alcohol at -20C as well .Do not wash the filter with water but with the frozen cold rinsing alcohol.Cover the filter up and leave in a cool place for the next run - have something under it as it might still let a drip or two off.The remaining liquid leave to evaporate off until it just starts to thick up again a tiny bit - back in the freezer for a day or two.Filter out again then while still a bit wet turn the filter over to remove most what is in it.I prefer to empty onto a teflon sheet and to wear full PPE here....While still wet you try to remove more from the filter with a fine but short brush, knife or whatever you find suitable.Do not continue any action once the stuff starts to dry!Place the filter into a sealed bag and leave in your freezer for when you do anthoer extraction - this way you loose far less product ;)When doing a final destillation with added water to cover all the alcohol you are left with the remains of the original product, minus all solids.Beta carotene is quite beneficial, so it would make sense to include it into your hot sauce.Plus there will always be some leftover capsaicin in it.If you want to use this part of the extract as well to really get what is possible then IMHO slow is better.You can't just destill off or boil off the water to get a nice "sauce" base.The capsaicin that is left would be mostly decomposed and with no effect anymore.A clear sign of too much temperature is bad smell that really turns you off.Hard to define in words but trust me, if you smell it you know what I means as you woul refuse to have this smell coming from your final hotsauce.During the summer it no problem to just leave it out to evaporate in the shade !You can do it in full sun but must make sure no sunlight gets into the liquid.UV decomposes at least a lot of the karotenes....Special equippment at hand? If you happen to have a vacuum pump or at least a salvaged fridge compressor you can safe a lot of time.A buchner filter for 500ml in the top is quite cheap but you can build something similar with a normal funnel.Look it up it you want...A proper buchner filter however already comes with a very fine glass filter built in.Means you don't really need any filter paper - I still add it as it makes the cleaning easier.Instead of waiting several hours for gravity to do its work on a coffe filter you are done in a few minutes.Well worth trying out!For the water destillation of the remaining end product, or by-product if you like, vacuum also helps.CVD or Closed Vacuum Destillation sound complicated but is really simple.One pressure vessel is filled with the solution to be conectrated, the other is kept empty.Connected with a suitable pipe or hose and fully sealed.The extract is heated to about 40°C while the empty vessel is placed into an ice bath.With the pump and the help of a valve create just enough vacuum so create small bubbles in the heated vessel.Close the valve and a few hours later there should be far less water in the hot one while the frozen one builds up ice.Every now and then check the vacuum gauge and if require start the pump again.You can do with just the pump and one vessel....Problem is that the oil in your pump will quickly get far too contaminated with water.You could add a conatainer with something like an absorbent but it would have to be sufficient for all the water you need to remove.Most of all it must be able to absorb it fully before the airstream enters the compressor.The benefit is that the capsaicin can't decompose at all.In a vacuum or close to it anyways, a lot of the things that procude smell also disappear through the compressor.Won't help it was already a stinky mess but will certainly reduce the smell of the concentrate.If you prefer to keep this aroma for your final sauce then do not use a vacuum.Why not a Soxhlet or similar device as used for essential oil extraction?The benefit seems to be clear:You have a relatively large vessel to hold a lot of chille powder and can let the alcohol cycle and wash it out completly...Theory is not always reality.....Firstly the alcohol runs through it many times while it dissolves what it can from the powder.That means each round you actually wash with a higher concentration until there is equal amounts in the alcohol and the powder.You waste about 50% of the end product unless you repeat it all several times with fresh alcohol.Worst of all however is the temperature, even if you use methanol.To make the alcohol evaporate enough to make the process work properly and in a timely fashion it must be heated to above 65°C, in most cases even with a proper heating mantle you won't have the temperature control tight enough.It is quite possible to destroy 70% of the capsaicin this way....The condesers used are also not really suitable for these low temperatures.Means you should use ice water to cool.Either way you will loose a lot of what could otherwise be product.Funny things that might stumble you along the way.In the freezer the solution will participate out a bit.However, when back to room temperature most if it will still be there, only a fraction goes back into solution.I could not figure out why this happens but once heated to about 40°C it all dissolves again.Filter fully blocked by the product?The fine sludge can be a problem even with a proper vacuum filtration unit.Especially if the product is still not really a solid once fully dried.A paper filter can be re-used many times but whatever makes it past and into the glass filter is tricky.You should not get much here if the paper filter was fine enough but if it builds up to the point where it makes the filtration long and slow:Remove the paper filter and add a small amount of luke warm alcohol.If it does not start to trickle through already give it a minute or two before turning the vacuum on.Starts a bit slow but should clear up quickly, if in doub repaet with a large volume of alcohol.I prefer to do this cleaning before I start a new bag of powder or whever I need to restock.Means I can use the same alcohol I had to clean the filter to add to the bottles with powder ;)Nothing gets wasted if you are prepared....If you find any typos in the above then feel free to keep them.However if you decide to use the typos for monetary gain I would kindly ask for 5% of the net profit made from my typos.;)

Topic by Downunder35m  


TV antennas and what is possible indoors

Back in my young years a TV antenna was on the roof, quite big and only required to get 3 or 4 channels at best.The basic design of these Yagi antennas has not really changed since then.Same for the antennas required to get UHF and VHF channels at the same time.They either comes as two seperate antennas with a mixer or as a UHF antenna with some added loops for UHF.To talk some basics:For UHF you can get away with quite small dimensions for your antenna bits.After all a quarter wavelengths here is only around 15cm long.With VHF though we get already 30 to 40cm here depending on the channels.So called bradband antennas claim to be able to get a wide range of frequencies.That however is only true for their dedicated frequency band.If you take a normal whip style antenna then this becomes obvious - just compare the lenghts required and you realise "going the middle way" will mean neither UHF nor VHF would get any usable reception.For a long time now there is the option of so called "fractal antennas" to get better TV reception....Fractal antenna? What the heck is that?The theories behind them are about as old as fractal antenna designs that were not even considered to be fractals.Let me explain with the example of a standard FM radio antenna.For them we use frequencies from about 88 to 108MHz.And of course, for our cars they are always on the roof or mounted somewhere around the wheel arches.Some cars however does not seem to have any antenna depsite having a working radio.In this special case rest ensured they do have one, usually behind the plastic bumper bar ;)I like to go off road every now and then and lost count how many times I had to replace my antenna after getting to close to some bushes and trees.As a solution I used some thin wire to create a L-style anteanna on the inside of my windscreen.And funny enough it picks up more stations than a "proper" antenna outside.Really old design and if you think about it then an antenna with a kink that looks like L is ""self similar" - the definition of a fractal ;)More complex shapes like the Sierpinski models do exactly the same just in one more dimension.Cell phones use them as well as you WiFi router that has no external antenna anymore.Their designs and looks are so different that it is next to impossible to list the currently used shapes here.What it comes down to, when you just take a very basic flat or wire shape is that the straight single segment of the active antenna is split into one or many shorter segments that change the angle.They all have similar relations to the wavelenght still.Means really long segments might be half of a wavelength while the shortest bits are just 1/64 of a wavelength.Think of it (far too simple of course) like amny matched antennas combined into a single one.With that often comes a destinct radiation pattern, usually with a quite narrow beam angle that provides a quite high gain.Are fractal antennas any better than for example a proper Yagi antenna?You can ask 100 people and you get 100 different opinions for this one.This is mostly due to some simple facts like:Not caring about actual comparisons.Not being accurate enough when building the fractal antenna.Using just very basic equippment to compare results.For example when you have a 30 year old and quite small TV antenna on your roof and struggle with digital TV reception than you might want to just replace it all.In some case even the old rabbit ears on your TV set will work better.But take modern Yagi antenna with 12 or more segments and even station that are 100 miles away have a good chance.Comes down to possible gain, frequency match and of course how well the antenna is aimed at the transmitter.Then why is it that some fractal antennas still seem to perform so much better?The big antenna scam....If you paid attention during the intial DVB-T rollout in your country then noticed two things.a) You were told you need a TV or set top box capable of receiving DVB-T signals.b) You need a suitable antenna.Well, A is obvious but for B a lot of people got scammed badly.You see, in almost all cases the frequencies allocated for TV signal did not change at all.And an antenna really does not care if the incoming signal is analog or digital - it only cares about the frequency.But more and more local stations often meant that the trnsmit power is limited.After all it makes no sense to have a 500kW transmitter if the area to cover is only about 20 square km big.So people were told they need new antennas once the noticed digital TV is more like playing Tetris, blocks everywhere....You analog TV had no problem with a slightly weak signal, you did not really notice it unless the weather was really bad as well.All the benefits of digital TV however only work with a proper signal strength.If your areas still has both analog and digital TV channels then have a look on how your local transmitter provides the signals ;)Part of the big scam was hiding a very simple fact:All analog TV is transmitted in a horizontal orientation while almost all digital TV is transmitted in a VERTICAL orientation.Ok, we already gain and ignored it but why would the orientation be important?Your radio antenna is vertical because the FM signal is transmitted the same way - the "waves" if you like go up and down like a sine wave.You still get reception if you turn the antenna 90° to make it a horizontal one but you will realise that weak station are no longer available.The same happened with digital TV.And if there is only digital TV left in your area then simple turning your antenna 90 on the mast to have the single elements vertical instead of horizontal gives you top reception again ;)If you struggle to get all station then just try it out before buying a new antenna ;)Modern fractal TV antennas come paper thin and often with rediculous claims in terms of gain and range.On Fleabuy you can even find models claiming to get stations from over 2000 miles away LOLSome even come with the fake claim of being omnidirectional, meaning it does not matter where you place them or how you orient them.A fractal antenna can't change basic phsyics though...High gain mean highly directional or at least with a very flat radiation pattern instead of being more like a sphere.A high bandwidth means you compromise on the gain and/or the phsical dimensions.For example a thin whip antenna is quite limited in the optimum bandwidth while a piece of tubing provides amuch higher bandwidth but at the expense of gain (and some other problems).A fractal antenna can compromise between the two worlds much better than anything straight.And you would even need to make the traces on the plastic extremely wide because you can simply add different lengths for different frequencies.Means a wideband fractal antenna for FM, VHF and UHF basically is three different antennas combined into a single one.It also means that there is usually always more than just one single element of the antenna that is receiving a signal.If you experimented with WiFi antennas for your router or modem than you certainly found the famous Pringles can antenna - highly directional and with an insane amount of gain.Works exactly like a simple directional microphone.And you could, at least in theory do the same with a TV antenna - if there wouldn't be the problem of the wavelenght.A pringles can works for WiFi because the wavelenght only requires an antenna of about 3cm in lenght.You might not want a row of steel drums with a diameter of around 80cm on your roof just to watch the news though...Ok, if I need a new antenna anyway then should I get a fractal antenna or not?I try to make it simple:Roof option not possible or too costly AND your transmitter is not too far away then try one of the cheap paper thin antennas you find online.If you already have an antenna on the roof that is suitable for the frequencies you need then check it to know if it is still any good.With age and weather comes corrosion and some antennas are connected badly in this regard.Sometimes you are lucky and all it takes is to cut off a few cm of cable to get back to clean copper and to give the terminals on the antenna a good fine sanding or a wire brush treatment.In other cases you might find an amplifier under the roof that has faulty power supply ;)And well, certain animals love to chew through your cable...If all is goo from antenna to TV then as said try to flip the antenna 90° to get it vertical.No, I did not mean to point it up to the sky..... ;)I mean rotate it around the x-axis if X is pointing in the direction of the transmitter...

Topic by Downunder35m  


"Sonic" drilling or cutting

If we look up sonic drills today we usually get some fancy machines driving pipes in the ground, preferably softer ground.But the term includes all types of machines that use sonic vibrations to advance through a media.With the ancient and claimed to have never existed technologies in mind I did some digging...In the food industry vibrating knifes are quite common, same for "air knifes" on softer food.Even in the meat industry they find more and more uses now.Ultrasonic cutting or welding is the same thing and included in "sonic".Same for some experimental sub sonic drilling methods currently being tested.The general idea might be as old as using vibrating equippment to compact stuff, like concrete, bricks and so on.What you can compact by vibration you can also make "fluid" by vibration.Industrial feeder systems utilise this to the extreme by even making light and fine particles like flour move like water without causing any dusting.What all the techniques have in common that a suitable tool or tool head is used and that it is attempted to use the most suitable vibration frequency for the job.Anyone operating an ultrasonic welder knows the pain of finetuning for a new electrode or just new part to be welded.What does that tell us now that makes the understanding easier?Take a bottle of ketchup, preferably one that is still quite full.Turn it upside down and noothing comes out.Shake it a bit and you are either lucky or drowned in red.But hold it at an angle and start tapping it and the red sauce flows out easily.What it true for most newtonian fluids is in some way also true for non-newtonian fluids.Ever mixed corn starch and water to make these funny experiments with it?Hit it hard and it reacts really hard and is not sticky at all.Leave your hand resting on it and in sinks in and sticks to it.Stirring it very slowly is easy, go faster and you get stuck.You can do similar things with by using an external source for vibrations.For example a vibration speaker mounted to a smal cup of the goo.If you place sand on a sloped piece of plastic or sheet metal then at a low angle it will pile up easy and stay.Start vibrating the plate and the sand will start to flow off.Works fine with a vibration source mounted to a piece of steel bar or rod and a bucket of sand too.Trying to press it into the sand requires a lot of force, especially once you are a bit deeper.Let it vibrate properly and it slides rights down.If we can do the simple stuff as well as really complicated stuff in the industry then what about other materials?So far we use vibrations to make things move out of the way, compact things, transport them or to heat them up for welding plus some cutting applications.Considering the variety one might wonder why no one tries it for "difficult" materials.Machined surface can be found throughout ancient history.Finding "machined things" were vibrations was clearly used is a bit harder.The great walls are not a perfect example here as the views differ quite a bit on how they could have been created.But if we leave things melting them or a secret concret like recipe for creating for example granite then vibrations start to make some sense.You find some interesting videos on youtube where people use speakers, wires and rocks to confirm you can actually "machine" them by vibrations.Especially granite has some quite musical properties, big boulders as well as smaller ones produce destinct sounds when you hit them hard.Tests and measurements were made on granite and other hard rocks to check how fast sound travels in them , how it is refeclted and where the sound comes out or affects the surface the most.Lets just say every sample gave different results.Shape, density and dimensions affect not just the resonant frequency but also where and how the sound travels in the rock.What if??We can use a simple speaker, a plate and some rice to see how patterns form under various frequencies.Works with sand or other granules as well.The interesting patterns are the so called harmoncis.Here we see clear and destinct patters, sometimes with extremely fine lines and areas of softly vibrating granules.Some people say these harmonic frequencies have all special meanings and uses.We mainly used them to avoid problems.Imagine your new TV would not have a housing tested to be stable with all frequencies the speakers can produce.All of a sudden your back of the TV might start to rattle ;)Same for car engines.Harmonic vibrations are eliminated wherever possible.Otherwise they could multiply and affect other things in the engine or around it.Simply put it means we have various options to detect and measure vibrations on a surface or in a system.Back in the day every half decent backup generator had a mechanical indicator for the frequency of the supplied electricity.A set of tiny forks with the desired on painted red and several on either side of it.These forks were designed to get into harmonic and therfor quite intense vibrations at their set frequency.If the one for 50Hz looked blurry then all was good ;)The same principle god be applied on a big boulder of granite.Place the "vibration meter" at the desired spot and start moving around the vibration source on the surface until you find a spot that causes maximum response on the meter.Best thing here is that if you then place that surface area onto another peice of fixed in place granite both pieces will start to loose substance if vibrations are applied.The fine sediment forming is then usable as an indicator where to move the vibration source to continue once the effect literally wears off.Is it feasable?Well, if we trust mainstream science then the answer is no.A huge amount of vibration energy would be required for such a hard material, despite ancient proof that says otherwise.Semi industrial test also seemed to confirm the theory as only with very high amplitudes (loudness) and while automatically adjusting for the resonant frequency changes a measurable amount of material was removed.I struggle a bit with that as for the testing tool heads made from hardened steel or carbide were used.And that with little or no regards on how the head and tool itself affects the output.I mean in terms of having the max possible movement happening right t the tool contact surface!There is a huge difference between applying a vibration to a tool and using a system, tool and tool head DESIGNED to work at the desired frequency!Otherwise we wouldn't need a computer to design and test a horn for welding purposes or shade a knife spefically so that the vibration go along the right axis and in the right direction.You not break a hard thing with a very soft thing unless it travels fast enough to become harder as the target!This complicated explanation basically just confirms that if you hit water at a too high speed then it will just break you into pieces instead of offering a soft splashPlease do not jump of bridges or such to confirm this yourself!!If that is really true and science says it is, then how about the other way around?Works fine too, or we wouldn't have pressure washers or water cutters.Now for the part where I hope some really smart people leave helpful comments:If we can cut steel with just a stream of water, then I ask:Isn't for example copper much harder than water?Steel is much harder than copper but water cuts through it.The answer here it simple or complicated, depending on how you want to expain how it works.Comes down to speed and pressure plus the right nozzle shape to prevent a beam expansion.But then water is indeed "harder than steel".Questions:Lets say we would use a copper pipe that in lenght, thickness, hardness and diameter is optimised to transmit a frequency so the pipe end sees the max vibration like a feed horn for ultrasonic welding.Not to hard to calculate these days :)Now imagine said "main frequency" would be optimised for the pipe but also be a harmonic frequency of the rock to be worked on.The pipe end would deform quickly, abrasion does the rest and it fails before even making a decent sratch that is not copper metal on granite.No matter how hard we press nothing good enough will ever happen.BUT: If we would add more hormainc frequencies to feed our pipe we can multiply the amplitude quite easy!Just try with a sound generator from your app store, needs 2 or more channels to be usable.Pick for example 400hZ on one and 800Hz on another, then finetune around these number to hear how the tone changes ;)My theory goes like this:If all "working frequencies" would just harmonics of the resonant frequency of the granite, then they can be tuned so the effect on the pipe end is minimised.The overlaying frequencies however should result in the same effect a water cutter has: The pipe becomes ultra hard.The better the match and the more you have to get it right the harder the pipe will be.Adding now a "drilling frequency" or multiple could be used to drive these harmonics slightly out of phase.Like with the sound generator on your phone we end up with a pulsating sound, or vibration.While the pipe still vibrates at the same "hardening" mix the drilling frequency creates a peak like a jackhammer.Try it by using the heaphone output on a small speaker and placing some light and tiny things into the cone.The will violently jump around during these pulsing tones.For a drilling system the output can be mechanically maximised by utilising a pitchfork design.A head holds the vibration speakers and the tynes are tuned good enough to the frequency of the speakers.Always two would have to operate in sync though as otherwise the pitchfork movement that transfers the sound down the center bar won't work.This head could then be desgined to act as a holder for a quick change of work out pipes that are no longer long enough for tuning.I guesstimate that a well tuned design would result in a copper pipe being able to drill at least 10 to 15cm into solid granite before it wears off too much.And we are talking here about just a few mm to get the thing out of tune!But would dare to desing such a thing just to confirm a theory that no one ever really dared to test? ;)And if friction welding works as good as ultrasonic welding, then what would happen if we try this with the right frequencies and vibrations instead of wasting tons of energy?

Topic by Downunder35m