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Earth Ground?

           Well, it seems about time to add to my list of electrical theory questions with answers far too broad for one question, so:                          I understand that the Earth can act as a giant capacitor, conductor, etc.  What I don't understand is why.  For instance, why would ac power from the hot wire dissipate into the ground?  (and, for that matter, will power from the neutral wire not do so?  If so, why?)   

Question by mad magoo    |  last reply


Grounding an Antenna

I'm thinkin of puttin up a high antenna. Due to my location with a mountain between me and broadcast towers, reception can be sketchy.  One concern is that of lightning strikes.  But if the antenna is grounded, wont that also ground out the microvoltage radio signals? How do I get microvolt signal without risk of megavolts burning the house down? I've done a wee little bit of google research, but haven't seen this question addressed.

Topic by Toga_Dan    |  last reply


grounding + 24vdc ?

Can someone explain the following, I got 24 VDC power supply (or take 1.5V AA battery) which is connected to 110VAC outlet on the input, potential difference out of the power supply is 24VDC node (+) to node (-) and potential difference of either one to ground is 0V (outlet ground). Now I take wire and ground (+) of the 24 VDC to outlet ground. Questions: 1. Why i am still measuring 24 VDC across (+) and (-) nodes ? If ground (call it whatever common) is 0 v and ground is touching (+) which was prior to shorting it to ground raised in potential by 24 V in relation to (-) that means (-) is zero potential? Or is it + 24VDC and - 24VDC but than potential difference is 48V at the output of the power supply. 2. Does that mean that I raised the potential of the ground to 24V? Probably not Thanks

Question by onaumov    |  last reply


Ground connection?

Link: https://www.instructables.com/id/High_Voltage_Power_Supply_For_Marx_Generator/?comments=all#CRLI0D7FV40AZSC

Question by rzigmu    |  last reply


Hand ground mirror? Answered

Any one hand ground a telescope mirror, how long did it take approx cost, UK suppliers of necessary parts, is it worth the effort?

Question by rickharris    |  last reply


tesla coil grounding?

I am building a tesla coil, the first i have ever built. I know that one side of the secondary coil is supposed to be grounded (the other side being the donut). Problem is, i am not clear where to ground it to. The ground socket on the wall outlet? a nail stuck in the ground? the negative terminal on the first transformer? I'd like to have this straightened out.

Question by cenzo188    |  last reply


High Voltage Ground

I'm starting to work with high voltages again, but for real this time. I just built an ignition coil driver, using a 555 (and I got an ignition coil), but my 555 broke (the texas instruments ones can only drive 15mA, oppose to the normal 200mA, oops) so I have to go buy one today. My main question is what to use for ground, whether it be for an old screwdriver for arcing sparks or the secondary of a tesla coil. I was originall just going to use the 3rd prong of an outlet, but somewhere on the internet I heard this could destroy all surge protected power strips and destroy all plugged in electronics at your house. I, of course, do not want this cause... well... I'd be screwed. Is this true or not? Can I use the 3rd prong?

Topic by guyfrom7up    |  last reply


Ground loop question? Answered

Hello , im making a little guitar amp with ROG tonemender as preamp and tda2003 power amp.This is my schematic , can you check it for me please!. Will it get ground loop problem ?? My English is bad so i can't understand clearly some documents about ground loop. i have 2 seperate board (a power amp based tda2003 and a ROG tonemender as preamp).They will use the same power supply .some thing like this picture http://i247.photobucket.com/albums/gg132/chipmapple/noobiedsn.png and this is schematic  http://i247.photobucket.com/albums/gg132/chipmapple/combineta.jpg Thanks!

Question by login721    |  last reply


Audio amplifier grounding

How to make proper grounding in audio amplifier circuit? How to have separate signal and power grounds?

Question by Amit222    |  last reply


"Auto" pin grounding?

Does anyone know how to ground pins automatically using the polygon tool and the auto tool in eagle (e.g. the black ovals in picture)?

Topic by p07gbar    |  last reply


Tesla Coil Grounding? Answered

Hi! I made a tesla coil like this guy! https://www.instructables.com/id/Tesla-Coils-for-Dummies/ But I didn't ground the secondary coil of the tesla coil. It seems to work ok without it, but I'd like to see it preform better. Would it help if I grounded it?  Thanks!

Question by transistorguy    |  last reply


Help with ground wiring?

Ok, I am extremely new to doing anything with electronics. I'm working on a project where I am connecting some LEDs and some toggle switches. On some instructables I was looking at it mentions having a ground wire. What do I use for a ground wire? Is it a special type of wire? Anything specific I need to know? Thanks for your help in advance.

Question by payne.kj    |  last reply


Ground Penetrating Gadget

Hello, out there, I would like to find how to build a ground penetrating gadget. I think there are a lot of 'us' would like to have something that can 'peek' underneath the surface of the ground, not necessary very deep. For example, such a gadget that can help fossil hunting tremandously. And it does NOT have to go all the way to Ground Penetrating Radar. As long as it can detect the differences between the matrix and interested object up to say 50 cm in depth, it will be good enough. And it doesn't matter what physical principle is used: GPR, ultrasound, electrical resistance or capacitance, ... (whatever). What I have in mind in such gadget would be tied to one of the shoes (so, it must be very light weight), using wifi to transmit the signal to iPad/iPhone so that the user can just walk and know the place to dig. Any help or comment will be greatly appreciated.

Topic by DinoDragon    |  last reply


Ground Penetrating Radar

I am looking for any information regarding Ground Penetrating Radar (or GPR). I am a newbie to this type of tech and was hoping the someone may know of a basic reference manual or other sources that could contribute to building one from the ground up at reasonably little cost. Also, I am looking specifically for something in the high frequency range - good resolution at minimal depth. The hardware side is more important although any advice/resources on the software to interprete the data wouldn't hurt. Thanks in advance! By the way, my user name(just created and second guessed) has nothing to do with being dug on digg, or anything to do with digg for that matter - just thought it had a nice ring to it... Thanks!

Topic by diggity    |  last reply


Earworm Dumping Ground

For those not familiar with the term, an earworm is a song that gets stuck in your head and refuses to leave, eventually driving you crazier than a Cthulhu cultist with an itch that's just out of reach. Sometimes it will be a song you actually like (or liked), but usually it's the other kind. A well-known fact about earworms is that the best way to get rid of them is to infect someone else instead. For this purpose, I introduce the Earworm Dumping Ground. Leave your earworms here, and if you're lucky some poor schmuck will stumble across them by accident and take them off your hands. Warning: Earworms are extremely contagious. Sometimes just thinking of the title of the song is enough to produce unwanted results. It's kind of like The Game that way. (You just lost The Game, BTW.) Do not read any posts under this topic unless you are willing to take the risk of infection. You have been warned. BWAHhahahaha!!

Topic by RavingMadStudios    |  last reply


Under Ground Fort

I'd like to build an under ground fort, it must be water proof. I want to have a stove in it if possible, i will have big ventilation so as not to have a build up of carbon monoxide. I have access to a wide rang of tools, I live on a farm so space isn't a problem. I did find a plan in a magazine from 1929, its rather vague and i would like more help. I can take as long on it as it long as it takes to build it right, so time isn't a problem. I don't know if i should pack the wall with stones or planks, Ideas? I want to have a good idea of how to do it before I start. It shouldn't be to expensive but that isn't really a factor. People are saying that I shouldn't build an underground fort because of the danger of it. If i didn't make a fire place in it would it be better? How about I put a trapdoor above the fire place, that way i could open it when i used the fire (Update)

Question by ChuckIorn    |  last reply


How do I place an above ground pool in the ground?

I have bought and "Index" above ground pool (5X10 METERS) and am wondering if there is a way of putting it in the ground. First of all can it be done and if so how it can be done. Thanks

Question    |  last reply


How to make a small ground? Answered

I want to make a lightsaber from a 18w neon tube. I am using a 12v to 1800v inverter. The positive lead is connected at the bottom of the tube but in need a ground on the top without pulling a wire from the inverter.

Question by theVader75    |  last reply


Grounding Issue in DIY Circuit

Hello everyone, I'm having a bit of a problem getting my LM317 soft-start circuit to function properly. If you'll take a look at my schematic, I've built everything on the schematic up until the relays and diodes get involved (specifically where the output forks into two). In order to check that I soldered the board correctly, I hooked an LED up to where the fork would be to make sure the soft-start worked. Here's where things get funny: If the LED is connected to the rectifier's negative, the LED behaves as I expect it to, with a slow turn-on. However, if I keep the LED connected to the same positive point, but hook the led directly to ground, nothing happens. In fact, using a multimeter showed that no voltage would flow to ground from the positive, but that 14 volts were flowing between the same positive point and negative. I need voltage to flow to ground, this is a ground safety interlock for a welder I'm working on... does anyone have any suggestions? Thanks for reading :)

Topic by reakter    |  last reply


What are the "ground" on a electronic circuit? Answered

I have checked many schematics and on all of them I see GND (ground) and nothing going to the VSS of the power supply. Is GND mean that it's connected to the negative (VSS) or is it more complex than that? What I am supposed to do if a schematic have both negative and grounding? Thank you.

Question by sxdemon    |  last reply


Connecting the ground to my enclosure?

I'm building gmoon's Valvelitzer inside a utility box. I've just realized that the entire enclosure is going to be grounded, meaning it's going to be directly connected to the negative pole of the power supply, which seems to run at 14V 2.2A (It'll be regulated at 12v before it gets to the tube). Is this dangerous? If it isn't, should I just solder all the ground points to the enclosure? If I run the power along the enclosure, is that going to cause some extra capacitance? Is that bad?

Question by flagrantfouler    |  last reply


CNC Electronics - Grounding and probe

Hello!Reading about proper grounding of cnc electronics I saw that ground has to be isolated from power supplies negative. So, I have a copper plate with ground cables from 48v, 12v and 5v power supplies with ground cable from the wall. Everything works fine but the machine itself, has no ground cable because if I attach the negative of my probe cable I will be connecting negative to ground... This morning touching the machine structure and the door handle (the door is metalic) I felt a light discharge. Should I connect the maching to ground? Can this affect in any way the electronics with that negative to ground? ( the discharge was lightly, I can live with that lol)The router has no ground cable, maybe that was the reason for the discharge.Thanks!!

Question by ryghar    |  last reply


Ground chip in wireless devices? Answered

Same as subject is there a universal frequency ground chip one wireless devices?

Question by wiccakingkamui    |  last reply


Good points of static grounding? Answered

Can anyone suggest a good place to static ground myself when working with electronics? Next to my bench is a radiator with some bear metal, would that work?  If not can anyone suggest  any other places?

Question by Minifig666    |  last reply


Grounding a magnetic levitation circuit

I need help understanding the circuit attached, from what i understand is that i can power it from a 12V mains adapter. The one i have is 1 amp which i think is enough. But more importantly for the grounds, that i should connect them all up to the ground coming from the 6 pin on the left opamp. As though this ground would act as a central one, with all the other ones connected to it. Is this correct or not, if not then please explain to me how i should ground this circuit. I claim no rights to the content in the link and am using it for my own recreational purposes. http://uzzors2k.4hv.org/projectfiles/magneticlevitator/Magnetic%20Levitator%20circuit.GIF

Topic by o0SLOVAKIA0o    |  last reply


Where's the ground on a computer monitor?

I'm building a lifter. I'm using an old monitor for a power source. I'm hooking a wire from the 25kV output (that plugs into the monitor tube) but I want to know where the best place is on my monitor board to hook up the ground wire. There seems to be a number of grounds on the board, but I want to be certain; I don't want to smack up the monitor if it can be avoided. Thanks in advance.

Question by logiplex    |  last reply


in ground dog fence troubleshooting,

I fixed a break a week ago, now both dog collars are not registering. the fence alarm is not sounding, so I replaced both batteries in the dogs collars, still nothing, got any ideas?

Question by youngerboo    |  last reply


Which is positive, negative and ground? Answered

 i cant figure out which prong is which just by looking and i dont have an expertise in electronics, so if you guys could help that would be wonderful, heres a pic 

Question by gantyman    |  last reply


How do I wire ground circuits?

I'm building this circuit, and it uses ground marks which I'm unfamiliar with these kinds of circuits (this is my first one) can anybody explain to me how it works? 

Question by yonch    |  last reply


why does my psp say corrupted data on game?

Well every time i copy a game onto my psp it says corrupted data 

Question by ruben4567    |  last reply


Can I ground the negative wire from my speaker, or do i have to run it to the reciever?

I am connecting my 5.1 speakers to my receiver to my PC.  The surround (back) speakers are fairly far away and I have limited speaker wire.  Is the negative post on a speaker just a ground wire, or does it contribute to the speakers function?  Can I just solder it to something metal?  Alternatively, could I daisy-chain the negative posts of the speakers and run that to a single negative post on the receiver?

Question by stevepesce879.    |  last reply


What is the difference between Vcc- and ground?

What is the difference between Vcc- and the ground symbol on this schematic? Or are they the same thing? I've just never encountered this before.

Question by mbudde    |  last reply


Wiring stripboard tracks to common ground

I'm planning a stripboard POV kit to solder with learners over about 3 hours or so, and I have a problem designing the wiring for the LEDs. It's straightforward to use the required series resistors to wire the output pins of an ATMEGA like http://www.arduino.cc/en/Hacking/PinMapping to the anodes of 8 5mmx2mm rectangular leds like http://www.rapidonline.com/Electronic-Components/Kingbright-L-383IDT-5x2-5mm-H-i-Red-LED-Rectangular-56-0398 packed side by side onto 0.1 inch stripboard. However, I'm facing a puzzle when trying to wire the LEDs' cathodes together to ground. It's fairly easy for me myself to do this, just by free-soldering a couple of spare legs directly over the cathode tracks, or chaining loads of wires. However, I can't see myself guiding 45 people through this in a workshop without hassle and errors. Does anyone have a simple way to wire 8 'odd' stripboard tracks together to a ground track (the 'even' tracks have the anodes in them). To give a flavour of the solutions I'm considering, I'm looking into 0Ohm bussed resistor networks like http://www.interfacebus.com/resistor-network-schematic-bused-resistors-sip.html to wire theparallel tracks into a single ground track using a standard through-hole component with legs clipped off. However I'm having trouble sourcing anything like this, and I'm sure others have better ideas.

Topic by cefn  


Broken GND button on Stanton turntable

Anyone run into this problem? How to fix please thanks

Topic by hoolia711    |  last reply


psu ground electricity produces voltage? Answered

I sware i was preparing for electrolysis experiment with my psu and i touched metal case of psu with my hands wet, and it was zapping me with electricity but not to high..........why?                          P.S: I used grounded cable everything is okay with ground in house, Before when i used it and touched it with dry hands it didnt zap me. I used it always before. But why isnt ground 0V.

Question by h0meIandsecurity    |  last reply


Should I ground my amplifier? Answered

This needs a bit of background info. I found this amplifier a year ago in the streets, by the trash, and I took it with me cause I like to open up things and see what I could get (it was obviously broken). I opened it up, and started looking at the parts. The connections are old-school, first time seeing those. I noticed that one cable was not connected, so I took care of it, and tried to power it up. For my surprise it worked, and I had to secure the plug, which had only red and black (+ & - I guess). Fast forward to now, I heard or read that anything connected to a plug should have the ground as well, especially if it had something metal. The amplifier is made of metal on the sides. I'm giving it to my uncle, but I don't want to give him in a dangerous state, so, should I change the plug again and put one with the 3 wires? How or where do I connect the ground? (I saw one connected to a screw in the metal part once) And most important, why? Thanks a lot, sorry for length and for possible grammar or vocabulary mistakes. TL;DR: Found an amplifier without plug, should I put one with ground? How? Where? and Why? THANKS!! I've got answers saying that ground on audio systems are complicated and I've been reading but it's so confusing, and I don't understand it pretty well... THANKS IN ADVANCE TO ANYONE GIVING ME SOME INPUT, I REALLY APPRECIATE IT!! :D

Question by SuperPollo    |  last reply


Can usb ports share a ground?

Im converting an old printer (25 pin) switchbox into a switchbox that will be used for my monitor, speakers, keyboard, mouse and two computers. The problem is that the monitor has 15 pins, the speaker has 3 pins, and the two usb ports have 4 pins each meaning that I would need 26 pins rather that 25. I could just solder the left and right speaker pins together and make those two 1 pin, but i would rather not have to do that. My question is can two usb ports share a ground pin, meaning that it would only need 7 pins rather than 8.

Question by danielemur    |  last reply


Regulations on a ground effect vehicle (Australia)? Answered

A while ago, I came across the work of guy in New Zealand who had made a hovercraft that could also fly like a ground effect vehicle. (See it here) And it got me wondering..... What kind of regulations are placed on a vehicle like this? Say I (while in Australia) built a similar craft to his, only smaller, lighter, and a single seater. Well, firstly, I'd like to know if it's legal or not. I'm assuming it would be, but with certain conditions, so; What licensing (if any) would be needed for it/me? And what regulations must it/I follow? Here's what I've taken in so far, although I don't know for sure that it's accurate/true: It's legal, as long as it does not exceed a certain weight, number of occupants, noise level, etc  I'm allowed to fly it as long as it is not able to get over a certain height (a couple of metres) It's a wing in ground vehicle, so it falls under the same category as boats, so the same regulations apply. Does that mean I'm not allowed to use it over land....? It'd be helpful if you could just point me in the direction of answers somewhere else, even Thanks 

Question by .Unknown.    |  last reply


Need help with guitar ground wiring! Answered

 Earlier this year I bought a super cheap Squier Affinity Telecaster. A couple weeks ago I opened it up to change a tone cap. Every thing seemed fine, all the pickups worked the tone control worked the switch worked and the volume control worked but I noticed that there was quite a bit more buzz and it would stop whenever I touched anything metal on the guitar. Ground problem right? Anyway, I thought I had accidentally snapped the bridge ground wire or the main ground wire (the only ground wires that weren't 7 strand). So I ordered some 7 strand luxe cloth wire and replaced both of the ground wires. I tried the guitar again, the buzz was quieter but was still there and it reacted the same way as it had before when I touched it. The buzz stops when I touch the bridge, anything in contact with the bridge (i.e. strings), and the control plate. The buzz is very faint and the reaction to me touching the guitar is even more faint.   My soldering skills are pretty poor. I think it's likely that my solder joints are the problem but I would also like to know if there are any other possible causes because since the first time I have redone the solder joints a number of times.  If my soldering is the problem what is the best solution to the problem other than connecting myself to the guitar via wire every time I play? And what is the best way to improve my soldering skills for future projects or even this project? Thanks, Adam

Question by adamgillies    |  last reply


Failing to ground a light fixture. Help

I asked my husband to turn a brass boat prop into a hanging light fixture. It doesn't seem to be Grounding because the light is very dim. Any ideas?

Topic by Cravinsalt    |  last reply


Mains Ground Safety for Power Supply? Answered

I'm trying to build my first switched mode power supply. I'll be using it to drive two 24v 50W heating elements. I don't want to use a transformer. The design I have so far seems to work well in simulations, but I need some advice regarding mains ground. The control electronics will be operated on power from a small transformer. This provides isolation from mains. I've done this a million times.  However, the mains power connects directly to the loop that produces the 24V signal. This is the loop after the FET, containing a diode, inductor, and capacitor. The wire coming from this loop and going to the comparator is where I'm having trouble. This is a voltage sensing wire and carries very little current, and is used by the comparator to produce negative feedback. This feedback loop is what allows me to get 24V from 120V. The comparator is powered by the 12V isolated supply. In order for it to sense the voltage properly, the comparator's ground must be at the same voltage as the power supply's ground. But the power supply's ground is tied directly to mains ground. Is that safe? Am I allowed to do that? In mains wiring in the US, the left notch is neutral, the bottom hole is ground, and the right notch is hot. Neutral is basically ground, except ground is connected to the actual ground and neutral is this mysterious thing I probably don't completely understand. Is it safe to use it as ground? What if the person using this circuit flips the plug over and suddenly the circuit's "ground" is fluctuating wildly between +/- 120V? The circuit may function just fine, but someone using a switch or knob connecting to ground could get a nasty shock. How do I make sure the ground of my circuit is always connected to actual ground? Do I need to preserve the isolation of the control circuitry? I know how to use Gate Drive Transformers for the FETs, but the sense wire for the comparator still needs to have both halves of the circuit with their grounds at the same voltage. Any advice is greatly appreciated.

Question by laserjocky    |  last reply


wiring and grounding high voltage transformer?

i need to add another power cord to my HV Transformer it does not look like it has any difference in which way it is wired could i just connect the power cord to it and in the second picture is the screw the ground to the case or can i just gound the case itself to a pole in the ground for example

Question by MonstaM    |  last reply


What should i use for ground?? Answered

I am building the typical application circuit of a TDA2006 audio amp. I am connecting Vs+ and Vs- to the battery pack (or supply wall wart), but i dont know where or what to connect ground to. I have limited space, about 4x4x1 inches, i just need to connect things to a ground... any help is appreciated :)

Question by astroboy907    |  last reply


saltwater system for above ground pools

What are the pros and cons of have a saltwater system for my above ground pool. I've been told the salt will corrode the sides and other metal components of the pool. Even had a retailer refuse to sell me a nice Hayward system. Any comments or validations?

Topic by makgdaddy    |  last reply


How do make a ground snapper?

A co-worker of mine had some small saran wrap balls that had something in it. and he would throw them at the ground, and it would make a loud crack or snap sound when it hit. Do anyone know what Im talking about, or what was in it? How do you make it?

Question by 8ballhacker    |  last reply


Bad stereo ground/fried alternator

After reading the instructions I installed an aftermarket stereo in my 1999 Toyota Camry. I'm confident in that I made all the proper connections correctly, but I think my ground wire is bad.a few day after I heard a high pitch whine that got louder when the rpms got higher. Then the power would cut off from the stereo but only for a split second, then my car would do the same thing until ultumitly it was completely DEAD I couldn't even turn on my hazards. I'm pretty sure my alternator is fried. And I think it's the ground wire. Now my question is can I run a direct ground from my stereo to the car or do I have to chase this wire down?

Question by HUFFSTUDLER93    |  last reply


filming the view finder (ground glass)

Hello all, I'm finishing up a project that I've been siting on for a while. I have always been intrigued by the strange dimensional space provided throuhg the old TLR viewfinders. I wanted to be able to film with that quality so I have built my own simple slr with a large view finder and am about to mount my 5d to it with a bellows in-between. I wanted to know if anyone on the message board had seen this done before or seen footage from a set up like this. I'll post pics and a link to vid footage once it the project is complete.

Topic by talentfalcon    |  last reply


Having a peculiar issue with the max6675 and grounds?

So first off, this is an application for use in a car. I have ensured that all of my grounds are good, and the power is clean, so I know these are not the issue, at least not on the car side of things. I am trying to get an electric fan controlled by an atmega328 (through a relay), which I have successfully achieved  on bench tests using an alternative heat source. It works reliably until I apply the circuit in the car. When I install it in the car with my thermocouple on the radiator pipe for the temperature reference I get all sorts of temperatures that are not the correct one. Its either very high, or very low. I have tried multiple thermocouples (of similar style) with no changes. If my thermocouple is not making contact with any grounded portion of the car (for example, the engine) it reads fine, so I know that my issue lies somewhere in there. An easy solution would be to simply mount the sensor in a coupler in the radiator hose (thus isolating it as best as I can) but I would rather fix the issue than apply a bandaid. I've tried searching for other people having a similar issue but haven't had any luck. One peculiar thing to note is that if I have the ground disconnected, and the thermocouple touching a ground, the system receives power, so I am assuming that the junction makes contact with the outer case of the thermocouple. My circuit is nothing too elaborate (I can upload a schematic if need be); I have a DC/DC adjustable converter to get 5v for the micro and 6675 power, which does not have an isolated ground, an atmega328, an OLED display, some tact buttons, and a max6675 development board. There are other passives as well but those should be minor. Does anyone have any idea what may be going on with this? I'm stumped. I should be able to provide any info you may need.  PS: this is the development board and thermocouple that I am using: http://m.ebay.ca/itm/New-MAX6675-Module-K-Type-Thermocouple-Thermocouple-Sensor-For-Arduino-Hot-/151324177617?nav=SEARCH 

Question by zack247    |  last reply


Why are "ground" and "(-)" often referred to as the same thing.

Ok, so, I am very confused with wire colors, ground and (+) and (-). I NEEd someone to answer me. What I have read is that electricity flows from (-) to (+). However red wire is always connected to (+) and referred to as the "hot or "live" wire, and (-) is the ground. This seems backwards to me. Ground wires go to ground because it is highly positively charged, It just seems like there is contradictions. I really need this cleared up. Thanks in advance!

Topic by Ampix0    |  last reply


What's the difference between ground and negative in a schematic? Answered

I want to get started with electronics, however I'm getting really confused schematics, specifically this one. Am I supposed to connect ground to the negative pole of my battery, or is the negative pole not used?

Question by pquadros    |  last reply