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Musical Instruments

Anyone here play an instrument?

Topic by sardines454    |  last reply


Electric Instrument

So I am a big fan of music, making and listening to. i like to make instrument also because i like the though of making something pleasing to the ear with my bare hands. I also am interested with electronics. So in conclusion i thought i would make a thread were you can post you ideas and answer questions about audio based technology

Topic by g-tech    |  last reply


what instrument is this?

We all know girls just want to have fun, but from 1:00 to 1:50 what is the instrument that has its own solo? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OTtelwOgscM there is a bet on the answer going. but i think its a xylophone but a run through google shows no answer anybody know so they can help me out?

Question by slimguy379    |  last reply


a instrument of my own...

Ive been listening to quite a bit of 8-bit sounding techno and such. And i really wanted to know if there was a way to make a computer keyboard make diferent pitched "beep" and "boops" of sorts. is there anyway to do this? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Twokr090WM

Topic by astrozombies138    |  last reply


Homemade instrument website

Hi there, hope you don't mind me linking to my website full of the weird/cheap homemade instruments i've been tinkering with for the past 2 years or so. I love to make new things from old things, so most of what I do comes from re-cycling, re-purposing and using scraps of materials. the website is here: http://vulpestruments.blogspot.com/  i'm hoping to put up more tips and tutorials on how to do certain things when it comes to amateur lutherierery. If anyone has questions or queries about any of it, i'd love to try and help out!

Topic by Vulpestruments    |  last reply


Homemade Custom Instruments?

Ok, I have a question. If my friend and I began to build unique cigar box, tin, and slide guitars, would people buy them? We would make them with much more craftsmenship than the ones I have previously build. We would take our time and do our best to make them playable guitars. Would anyone out there contemplate buying one for mabe $35-$50? They would be  similar to the links below. https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-an-Electric-Cigar-Box-Guitar-for-25/ https://www.instructables.com/id/Cigar-Box-Guitar/ https://www.instructables.com/id/3-string-slide-guitar/ https://www.instructables.com/id/My-Cigar-Box-Guitar-with-cigar-box-amp/ https://www.instructables.com/id/My-First-Box-Guitar/ Also, we would probably sell through craigslist or ebay, maybe even using youtube or instructables to get the word out. If you are interested, contact me because we will be making these plus other products.

Topic by freeza36    |  last reply


Instrument Topics of All Kinds

Hi all! I'm new here...nice to meet ya'll! I think I get how this site works, and it seems really awesome! Who needs the DIY network when you have a whole online community :D Anyway, this forum seems to be for sharing personal endeavors, correct? Well there's this blog. It's not completely mine....it's a company blog. It has SO MANY how-to posts about mainly reed instruments, reed-making, and all sorts of things. That makes it relevant to a niche community, which may or may not be here on instructables? I just hope there's some oboist or bassoonist out there that I'm helping by posting this :] It's called the Midwest Musical Imports Blog. Yes, there are a couple self-promoty type posts on it (it's a company blog, afterall). But a majority of it is how-tos and instructions and such. Am I right to post this here? Please tell me if I'm in the wrong! Thanks everyone! - J. Doorn

Topic by jdoornink  


Rock Music on Classical Instruments?

For our spring orchestra concert at my school, I convinced my teacher to pick an arrangement of 21 Guns by Green Day as one of our pieces. Why pick 21 Guns over Don't Stop Believing? Because I like it better. THAT's why :P So...I was wondering. Has anyone else played an EPIC rock/punk/alternative or just something totally UN-CLASSICAL on a classical insturment? Perhaps something as awesome as a Green Day song? I play violin btw xD

Topic by CamillaLuvzMusic    |  last reply


new/strange instrument ideas

I am starting a band somewhat ethereal and experimental ( think sigur ros meets nine inch nails). I like interesting instruments and strange sounds. Any ideas?

Topic by youknowwhoiam    |  last reply


Will this experimental musical instrument work?

So I got this brilliant idea to try and make an instrument out of PVC that can play two or maybe three notes at once. Problem is, I don't know if it will work. The sax mouthpiece would produce one note and the two recorders another. Will the recorders even make noise from the air that it gets from the sax mouthpiece? Or should i just ditch the sax mouthpiece and have the two recorders being played? Even if it did work, I would only be able to play a really simple song with only three harmonized notes.

Question by masterbuilder    |  last reply


A Question about music instrumental

Hi I want to make a device that have 1 input of microphone jack and have 2 output,one for headphone and second for microphone again (so i can connect it to computer for recording).Why ? Because when I enable the function on Adobe Audition CC (Program of Computer for recording) that I hear the microphone voice on headphone,It is a kink of disorganized I mean that the voice on headphone has delay about 1 second or less than 1 second but it make Confuse a person.So I think that when the voice come on a device and it mix and shoot on headphone directly it will not delay and it must shoot the voice on 2 outputs, one for headphone and second for PC for recording.I know that it is the Audio Mixer works but Audio Mixer is a little bit expensive and I think that is it possible to make this device at home ???with Best Regards ...

Question by AdeebPopalzai  


Help selling unique instruments?

Ok, I have a question. If my friend and I began to build unique cigar box, tin, and slide guitars, would people buy them? We would make them with much more craftsmenship than the ones I have previously build. We would take our time and do our best to make them playable guitars. Would anyone out there contemplate buying one for mabe $35-$50? They would be similar to the links below. https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Make-an-Electric-Cigar-Box-Guitar-for-25/ https://www.instructables.com/id/Cigar-Box-Guitar/ https://www.instructables.com/id/3-string-slide-guitar/ https://www.instructables.com/id/My-Cigar-Box-Guitar-with-cigar-box-amp/ https://www.instructables.com/id/My-First-Box-Guitar/ Also, we would probably sell through craigslist or ebay, maybe even using youtube or instructables to get the word out. If you are interested, contact me because we will be making these plus other products. We may make guitar hero ukuleles, guitar pedals, and nixie tube clocks.  

Question by freeza36    |  last reply


Hi, where can I find a windows compatible HIB board?

Normally used to connect another pc or other device to it using socket terminals

Question by shanelen    |  last reply


What Instrument do you play? Answered

I play the tenor saxophone.

Question by shadowninja31    |  last reply


What instruments do you play?

What instruments do you all play? i play guitar, piano, and used to do recorder.

Topic by knex gun builder freak    |  last reply


need help creating an instrument. my issue is how to keep the string tight and on the tube. Answered

Im creating a whamola didgeridoo cross,  i was hoping for some ideas and posative flow.  I have an ABS tube and a used bass string  practicly no money and imagination.  i needt to create a hinge and something to hold the bottom of the cord.  simple enough so it can be easy to replace the string when it breaks.  then on the top part where the hinge is i need something to put the string in i can tighten and losen.  P.S. i need the cord touching the tube so the vibration goes inside of it.  Any answers will be muchly thanked!

Question by didgeridoodle    |  last reply


is their any instrument based on radar with robotics?

Is their any instrument based on radar with robotics?

Question by rkbalaji112    |  last reply


Mathematical formulae and wind instrument help.? Answered

Is there a mathematical formula for the arrangement of hole on a flute or better a recorder. In addition has anyone every tried to make a saxophone mouthpiece   ? I am interested in trying to make a DIY version of a Xaphoon http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3Wnx2VYZq8

Question by rickharris    |  last reply


The Reactable - A collaborative electronic music instrument

I was watching current earlier on and found this pod:The reactable is a collaborative electronic music instrument with a tabletop tangible multi-touch interface. Several simultaneous performers share complete control over the instrument by moving and rotating physical objects on a luminous round table surface. By moving and relating these objects, representing components of a classic modular synthesizer, users can create complex and dynamic sonic topologies, with generators, filters and modulators, in a kind of tangible modular synthesizer or graspable flow-controlled programming language.The video won't embed, but it's pretty awesome: Current PodThe project's official website is here.The software is open source, although I can't see many details of the hardware.

Topic by whatsisface    |  last reply


Acoustic instrument with added speaker in the Body?

Hi... :-) I am in a mariachi band and play an acoustic instrument called a guitarron. Sometimes at gigs it is too noisy or too large a venue that it is difficult to hear the acoustic instruments and singer w/out mics and would like to try and make my guitarron into a portable speaker system which has ample space to add hardware. I am looking forward to reading all the fantastic, innovative ideas (even the sarcastic with, if any), but would like to:  *Keep the weight at a minimal level (as I will be carrying my instrument)  *Allow inputs for a mic and 1/4" jack (1/4" my guitarron has thanks to an "instructables user", which works great!)  *Allow for mp3 input  *Battery powered, if possible Also the speaker will have to be small to fit through the sound hole, but if needed for better, louder sound I can make an opening to the body to allow for a larger speaker. And if anyone has any other suggestions or a similar idea to what I want to achieve, please post it... Thanks to all who have taken the time to read my project idea!!! Hopefully it is possible and not too far-fetched...

Topic by Karma213    |  last reply


How can I electrify/modify a harmonica so that I can connect it to effects pedals?

I have a harmonica at home and am curious to find out what kind of crazy sounds I can come up with. Any suggestions on how I could modify my existing harmonica so that I could plug it in to some effects pedals? Thanks!!

Question by steampunk13    |  last reply


What songs Beatles songs can you play on any instruments?

What Beatles songs can you play on any instrument? On guitar, I can play Here comes the sun, octopus's garden, yesterday, something, becuase, let it be, I've got a feeling, for you blue, get back, eleanor rigby, blackbird, and hey jude.

Topic by lil larry    |  last reply


Music made from ONLY Carboard Instruments

What can i say, I love this type of thing.

Topic by laminterious    |  last reply


REQUEST: How to build hardcases for various instruments?

I'd realy like someone to show different types of homemade hardcases, and how to go about making one of your own. Thanks in advance. :)

Question by bored-silly    |  last reply


Any page for DSP(texas instruments) tutorials?

If you can help me find a page or resources for information on dsp programming techniques or projects teaching how to use these DSPs.

Question by betorre    |  last reply


How can I make this kind of instrument?

So when i first saw this video I fell in love with this stuff... so any ideas and schematics? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8GogESHWz6U

Question by Stormrage    |  last reply


What is the best way of making an electric instrument?? Answered

I am making a musical instrument for a school project and i need something to adjust the volume and/or pitch, but i don't know what to use. I am only 13 so i have little resources and no money to spend so i was considering using a single wire and a guitar pickup (not actually a guitar pickup, a speaker backwards) and i want to know what the pros and cons of this method are and whether or not there is a way of making a dimmer switch. Thankyou in advance. P.S. Once i have a good idea i am going to plan it and take lots of photos and if it works i will post an Instructable. P.P.S. Everyone in my form at school is saying there making a rainmaker and guitar with elastic bands so I'm gonna really enjoy seeing there faces if this works!!! P.P.P.S. Should i have written P.S.S. and P.S.S.S etc.?

Question by avwos    |  last reply


Top Homemade Instruments to Form Your Own Band

I just saw an awesome list of homemade instrument Instructables on a music blog called Terrible Love Songs - check it out! I've been in a couple of bands and have always tinkered with the idea of making my own instruments. Unfortunately they have never held together for long enough to take photos of (that's the bands and the instruments).Here are 6 instruments that don't look impossible to make and could start you off on your journey to discover the talent within.A Rule Organ"Hold the rule to the desk as tightly as possible to produce the best audio fidelity (read: twang) possible."Miniature Washtub Bass Made From Office Supplies"This is a great time killer and will probably annoy your co-workers (unless they've already made one themselves!)"Lap Steel Guitar out of a Pool Cue Case"string her up and plug her in! You'll need to play her using a guitar slide, or, to complete that bar room blues look, a shot glass."Cookie Tin Tambourine (Good name for a band)"Just find someone to join you in eating the cookies and emptying the bottles and it will be a very enjoyable evening."Horn From A Drinking Straw"The sounds produced range from a duck call to a flagulent."Cookie Tin Banjo"These banjos are fretless. I was surprised how easy they were to play."How To Write A Song"Even if the world doesn't get to hear it, you'll know that you did good work, and that's fulfilling enough to be well worth the attempt. Right?"How To Rap"like snoop dawg lol so to rap you need little diction and not a lot of pronunciation"Now you have no excuses. If you do manage to become famous (or not), please remember where you came from and post a video in the comments box.

Topic by canida  


What are the instruments used primarily in Medieval-style music and what are modern sound equivalents? Answered

When I say sound equivalents, I mean what instrument sounds most like it, not like "this instrument is closest to another because it is in the same class." I am asking because I want to synthesize the instruments for a movie soundtrack. Also, if someone would suggest a (free?) imitative synthesis generator vst (FL Studio compatible?) plugin, I would be willing to listen!

Question by AlternateLives    |  last reply


I am doing anengineering challenge and need to build an instrument what should i do?

I have to build an instrument out of recycled material and the things i have are limited to 6 things.It has to be able to play all 8 notes of an octav and have to play natrull notes. no flats or sharps.

Question by i knowalot    |  last reply


It is not advisable to copy the activities shown in this video.

The Modified Toy Orchestra have a philosophy of performing everything live with a collection of re-purposed children’s toys.., converting abandoned playthings into exotic new musical instruments, and then exploring the latent potential and surplus value inherent in these liberated circuits. Guided by this hidden world they seek to make a form of music devoid of personal narrative or autobiography, instead they ask bigger questions about our relationship with “the next new gadget” the desire for the constant upgrade, and the possibilities for problem solutions hidden from our gaze by perceptual habit. The result of this on going investigation has been called cinematic, dark, joyful and life affirming. It is rare to hear an electronic live performance that has no midi, no sampling, no synthesizers, no laptops, in fact no conventional instruments of any kind. MTO have live dates coming up: 8th September at Birmingham Town Hall 10th September at Manchester Bridgewater Hall Hey, what about the title of the topic? Oh, that's from the band's appearance on the BBC website.  After all, these AA batteries are dangerous... Freeno & Olaf from Modified Toy Orchestra on Vimeo.  

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply


Arduino Guitar Tuner

Hi everybody, I'm creating a simple guitar tuner for a project at university. The purpose is just to create a step-by-step guide to it's creation to demonstrate some processes in how they work. Obviously it's going to be more expensive to make than to buy one (unless you happen to own a Taiwanese factory) but it's more about demonstrating some basic electronic principles and providing a basic design and seeing if it evolves with user input. So this is just a general enquiry into community interest. Comments and ideas welcomed. Cheers

Topic by Remulos    |  last reply


What kind of stringed instrument should I get next?

I already own 4 guitars and a ukulele, so I'm looking for something different to play. I only have about $100 to spare, so cheap is best. Any suggestions/wisdom is appreciated, and please list a few pros/cons also. Thanks.

Question by nickodemus    |  last reply



What musical instrument(s) do you play?

What instruments do you play? How well? What inspired you? ect.

Topic by ArcticChill    |  last reply


is it possible to turn a morse code sender into a electric instrument...

Is it possible to turn a morse code sender into a electric instrument... by using a 1/4" inch jack and momentary switch? Maybe with a battery pack attached and a few resistors?

Question by Silverpoint    |  last reply


How to wire a guitar pickup to instrument cable/ rheostat?

I have been wanting an acoustic pickup but don't really want to buy one. I had an old tele neck pickup with a white and red wire and an instrument cable that has one jack taken off and the ground and hot contact exposed. I tried different configurations of the red and white wires to the hot and ground of the instrument cable but all it did was stop buzzing and no sound came out. I think I might need a volume and i have a leftover rheostat but I'm not sure how to wire it, If I could avoid wiring a volume completely and just go from pickup to cable that would be great but I'm not sure how. Help please??

Topic by beardedknome    |  last reply


Does anyone know how to sharpen very dull cuticle nippers without making them worse? Answered

I have several pair of very dull cuticle nippers and hair cutting scissors that could use a fresh edge on them. These are small sharp "plier type" instruments the manicurist uses to remove the excess cuticle from around the nail beds of your fingers and toes.  The 2 pieces do not come apart so I need to sharpen them with the jaws wide open, and the use of a very small sharpening instrument. If anyone has a system that works with the use of hand files or a rotary tool I would like to know how this is done.  I don't have a lot of space to work in so I'm limited to the simpler methods. I've tried a whet stone, that was a disaster, I'd be willing to try this again, as long as I know what I'm doing so I don't make them worse than they were when I started. Any and all suggestions will be appreciated and welcome.  Thanks for helping out.

Question by Izziedoesit    |  last reply


500W electric scooter control and instrumentation with Arduino mega

1. Introduction DC 500W motor control with an Arduino mega to limit starting current and to vary the speed of the scooter. The battery is in 24V, 10A.h. The following table summarizes their characteristics: https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a014.jpg https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a111.jpg 2. Bibliography: Link download : sketch_escooter_feed_back_reel_V1.ino https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_fB3GAsM02FSlRTWHdyRkhuUW8/view?usp=sharing escooter_ampli_SIMULINK.mdl https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_fB3GAsM02FOW9OdmlhdDhJZGc/view?usp=sharing escooter feed back ISIS.DSN https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_fB3GAsM02FOXdRWFN5OWRMQkE/view?usp=sharing youtube  :  "study trotinette electric e-scooter 100W et 350W, wiring"  youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QqJ2-YiE8Tg&index;=75&list;=PLfZunVn_gcq7EOurXuWU2sRFmh6CbiUiL Article: «Study of electric scooters 100W and 500W (Arduino), Revue 3EI 2017» Pdf? Book «I realize my electric vehicle» at DUNOD 3. Open loop program To test the programming, we simulate the program in ISIS, as can be seen in the following figure. In addition, we have an LCD display to display data (duty cycle corresponding to the PWM at 32Khz, motor current, motor voltage, action on the pushbuttons, 4 push buttons are used. BP1 to manually increment the duty cycle, BP2 decrement it. BP3 set the duty cycle to 0, corresponding to the brake contact. The speed of the motor is practically proportional to the duty cycle https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a211.jpg We made our own current amplifier called a step-down chopper but it is possible to buy a shield There are many cards for Arduino to control DC motors especially of low powers and also of great powers as can be observed on the following links.http://www.robotpower.com/products/MegaMotoPlus_info.html http://www.robotshop.com/en/dc-motor-driver-2-15a.html https://www.pololu.com/file/0J51/vnh3sp30.pdf https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a310.jpg But all these chopper shields measure the current internally but there is no current limitation. In order to have a current limitation, an analog current loop is required using specialized AOP or IC or a fast digital current loop. But what should be the value of the limitation current? The choice of the current value is normally for the 1-hour operation service in order to be able to carry out relatively long climbs without reaching the critical temperature of the engine. In our case, the limitation current must be Limiting motor = Power / Upper battery = 500W / 24V = 20A In addition, the power transistor of the chopper can only support 50A in our case. But in open loop, it has no current regulation, so as not to exceed the maximum current, a ramp of the duty cycle will be used. A 0.1 second interruption routine will be used to measure the voltage of the current (sample measurement, sample). This sampling time is arbitrary but does not allow to be faster than the rise time of the current because the electric time constant of the motor is L / R = 1.5 ms. Open loop operation with a 25.5s (8bit) ramp and 0.1s interrupt routine provides a good understanding of the operation of a DC motor drive. The display will only be done every 0.2s to have a stability of the digits on the screen. In addition, a digital filtering will be done on the current and the voltage on 4 values therefore on 0.4s. [b] Algo open loop [/b] Interrupt Routine All 0.1S Read voltage and current Loop loop (push button scan) If BP1 = 1 then increment PWM If BP2 = 1 then decrement PWM If BP3 = 1 then PWM = 0 Displaying variables every 0.2s Code: [Select] // include the library code: #include #include #include #define SERIAL_PORT_LOG_ENABLE 1 #define Led     13       // 13 for the yellow led on the map #define BP1     30       // 30 BP1 #define BP2     31       // 31 BP2           #define BP3     32       // 32 BP3 #define LEDV    33       // 33 led #define LEDJ    34       // 34 led #define LEDR    35       // 35 led #define relay   36       // 36 relay #define PWM10    10      //11   timer2    LiquidCrystal lcd(27, 28, 25, 24, 23, 22); // RS=12, Enable=11, D4=5, D5=4, D6= 3, D7=2, BPpoussoir=26 // Configuring variables unsigned   int UmoteurF = 0;  // variable to store the value coming from the sensor unsigned   int Umoteur = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur2 = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur3 = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur4 = 0; unsigned   int ImoteurF = 0;  unsigned   int Imoteur = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur2 = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur3 = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur4 = 0;            byte Rcy=0 ;    // 8bit duty cycle unsigned    int temps; // the setup function runs once when you press reset or power the board void setup() {   pinMode(Led, OUTPUT);   // Arduino card   pinMode(LEDV, OUTPUT);   pinMode(LEDR, OUTPUT);   pinMode(LEDJ, OUTPUT);   pinMode (PWM10,OUTPUT);     // Pin (10) output timer2   //  digitalWrite(LEDV,LOW);   Timer1.initialize(100000);         // initialize timer1, and set a 0,1 second period =>  100 000   Timer1.attachInterrupt(callback);  // attaches callback() as a timer overflow interrupt   lcd.begin(20, 4);    Serial1.begin(9600);   TCCR2B = (TCCR2B & 0b11111000) | 0x01;         //pin 10  32khz    http://playground.arduino.cc/Main/TimerPWMCheatsheet                                                   //http://www.pobot.org/Modifier-la-frequence-d-un-PWM.html   //   analogWriteResolution(bits)      https://www.arduino.cc/en/Reference/AnalogWriteResolution lcd.setCursor(0,1); lcd.print("Rcy"); lcd.setCursor(10,1); lcd.print("Um"); lcd.setCursor(5,1); lcd.print("Im"); lcd.setCursor(10,1); lcd.print("Um"); lcd.setCursor(20,1); // 4 lines display * 20 characters lcd.print("BP1+"); lcd.setCursor(25,1); lcd.print("BP2-"); lcd.setCursor(29,1); lcd.print("BP3=0"); } // Interruptions  tous les 0.1s void callback()  { temps++; //toogle state ledv for check   if ( digitalRead(LEDV)== 1 ) {digitalWrite(LEDV,LOW);}     else {digitalWrite(LEDV,HIGH);}     analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // frequency Umoteur=analogRead(A0); Imoteur=analogRead(A1); Imoteur2=Imoteur; Imoteur3=Imoteur2; Imoteur4=Imoteur3; ImoteurF=(Imoteur4+Imoteur3+Imoteur2+Imoteur)/4 ; Umoteur2=Umoteur; Umoteur3=Umoteur2; Umoteur4=Umoteur3; UmoteurF=(Umoteur4+Umoteur3+Umoteur2+Umoteur)/4 ;   }// End routine // Loop corresponding to main function void loop() {    // BP + LED   if ((digitalRead(BP1))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);      // Column line     lcd.print("BP1");     digitalWrite(LEDR, LOW);        digitalWrite(LEDJ, LOW);     Rcy++;                        // PWM incrementation     if ( Rcy>254)  {Rcy=254;}     delay(100);               //8bits * 100ms = 25S increment 25ssecond slope     }        if ((digitalRead(BP2))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);     lcd.print("BP2");             Rcy--;      if ( Rcy<2)  {Rcy=2;}  // PWM almost at 0, engine stop         delay(100);      digitalWrite(LEDR, HIGH);     digitalWrite(LEDJ, HIGH);     }   if ((digitalRead(BP3))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);     lcd.print("BP3");      Rcy=2;               // PWM almost at 0, engine stop     } if (temps>=2)  { lcd.setCursor(0,0); lcd.print("                "); // Erase line lcd.setCursor(0,0);     lcd.print(Rcy); lcd.setCursor(5,0); ImoteurF=(ImoteurF)/20;     //resistance (5/1024)*(10/0.25ohm) si ACS712 66mV/A                            // For resistance 1ohm (ImoteurF) / 20; Simulation 5/25 lcd.print(ImoteurF); lcd.setCursor(10,0); UmoteurF=UmoteurF*10/38;                              //10/38   10/30 simula if (Umoteur>ImoteurF){UmoteurF=UmoteurF-ImoteurF;  }  //U-R*I lcd.print(UmoteurF); temps=0; }// End if time    } // End loop https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/dsc_0614.jpg Since there is a limit of 9000 characters in the forum below Open loop program feature previous The interrupt routine lasts only 250 microseconds, the loop of the main program which scans the action of push buttons is 13micros and the display time of all data is 11ms. Thus, it is possible to improve the sampling period and thus the speed of the regulation of the current. The Arduino makes it possible to make the instrumentation of the scooter so to know the power, the consumption in Ah and Wh, to measure the speed, to know the consumption according to Wh / km, to measure the temperature of the engine, Have a safe operation. But for now we will see how to limit the current 4. Closed loop program, limited current control The sampling period will increase to 0.01 seconds (interrupt routine) If the current is less than the desired value, then the duty cycle can be increased or decreased to the desired value which is the setpoint. On the other hand, if the motor current is greater than the limiting value, there is a rapid decrease in the duty cycle. So as not to exceed the value of the duty cycle if it is saturated to 254 maximum and to the minimum value 6. Code: [Select] if (Imoteur<4000)                    // No current limitation at (20A * 10) * 20 = 4000   {if (consigne>Rcy)   {Rcy=Rcy+1;}   // Pwm ramp + 1 * 0.01second pure integrator    if (consigne    if ( Rcy>254)  {Rcy=254;}           // Limitation of duty cycle    analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // Frequency 32kHz timer2}         } if (Imoteur>4000)  { Rcy=Rcy-5;              // No current filtering, to be faster                     if ( Rcy<6)  {Rcy=5;}       // Rcy is not signed, nor the PWM therefore Rcy minimum must not be less than 6                   analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // Frequency 32kHz timer2}                        } 5. Closed Loop Program, Limited Current Control with Acceleration Handle An acceleration handle provides a 0.8V voltage when not operated and a 4.5V voltage when the handle is fully engaged. Instead of using pushbuttons to increase or decrease the speed setpoint, an acceleration handle will be used Code: [Select] Upoignee=analogRead(A3); // The relation in Upoign and the setpoint which corresponds to the duty cycle corresponds to if (Upoignee>100) { consigne=(Upoignee/2);     //0=a*200+b    et 255=a*800+b                      consigne= consigne-100;                   }                            else { consigne=0;   }               if (Upoignee<100) { consigne=0;  }     // redundancy     6. Temperature and safety program of the motor with the current measurement The outdoor temperature measurement can be easily performed by the LM35 component which charges 0.01V by degrees Celsius Code: [Select] temperature=analogRead(A2); //lm35 0.01V/°C temperature=temperature/2;       // Temperature coefficient lcd.setCursor(5,2); lcd.print("      "); lcd.setCursor(5,2); lcd.print(temperature);   // Display in ° C lcd.setCursor(9,2);      // Erasing secu display lcd.print("     ");   if (temperature>80 ) {lcd.setCursor(9,2);         // If motor external temperature is above 80 ° C                      lcd.print("secuT");                       Rcy=0;} In addition, thermal safety by measuring the motor current will be added. If the limitation current is greater than 10s then the motor will no longer be powered for 30s. A "secu" display will appear on the LCD display. This safety makes it possible to cut the motor on slope too high and when blocking the engine but it would be necessary to add the measurement of the speed in the latter case Code: [Select] if (timesecurite>=10000 ) {flagarret=1;      // If limitation current for a current of more than 10s                               timerepos=0;                               consigne=0;                               Rcy=0;                                 timesecurite=0;}       //   Then stop engine during a downtime    if (flagarret==1 ) {lcd.setCursor(9,2);         // If limiting current for a current of more than 20s                      lcd.print("secU");  }     //   Then stopping the motor for a stop time and display                                                     if (timerepos>=30000 &&  flagarret==1) {flagarret=0;                                           lcd.setCursor(9,2);      // After a rest time here of 30s                                            lcd.print("       ");   }   The display can be observed if the temperature is above 80 ° C https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a017.jpg Thermal safety by measuring the motor current (digital thermal relay) which allows to know the image of the internal temperature of the engine would be ideal. But for this, it is necessary to know well the thermal modeling of the motor. 7. Measurement of the energy capacity of the battery The energy capacity of a battery is in A.H, we will display the value in mA.H to have a high accuracy. The capacity will be in A.Second in the following equation. So to have in mA.H, it will be divided by capacity by3600. Capacity (A.s) n = I * Te + Cn-1 with Te = 0.01s and I multiplied by 10 So in the interrupt routine Code: [Select] capacity=ImoteurF+capacity ; And in the display Code: [Select] lcd.setCursor(0,3); // Display of energy capacity lcd.print("C mA.h="); capacity1=capacity/(18000);   //18000=3600*5  5=> Current measurement coefficient lcd.print(capacity1); To check a current of 10A with an adjustable resistor and after 30s, the capacity must be 83mA.H 8. Power and modeling with SIMULINK Modeling helps to understand the vehicle and its control. In addition, it is possible to compile the control part directly into the Arduino program from simulation under Simulink. But it will not be possible to simulate the instrumentation with the LCD display. In the following figure, we can observe the simulation of the programming of the chopper with the current limitation with Simulink. In the following figure, the green box shows the duty cycle control to vary the speed and the red border the current limitation. The controller of the control is here a simple integrator but it is possible to carry out a multitude of control. https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/azub_c15.jpg In the previous figure, it can be observed that the current is well limited to 25A from 2s to 9.5s. Then, the current reaches 10.8A under established speed regime at 22.5km / h. The dynamics are similar to the tests carried out. With a slope of 5%, the cyclic ratio reaches only 100% as can be seen in the following figure. The speed will reach painfully 19km / h with a current of 24A and a motor power of 580W. See article: Study of electric scooters 100W and 500W (Arduino), 9. First conclusion It is easy to control a 500W DC motor with an Arduino and some components So repair many scooters that are in DC motors. But it takes some knowledge (automatic, engine) to know how to properly manage the engine and limit its current so as not to damage it The display of the speed, the distance, the operating time to know the Watt.km / km can also be realized with a menu 2. The .ino program as an attached file, But it is not possible to put an attached file in ISIS electronic labcenter? What is this forum? It would be desirable that the compiler could generate the.cof to debug in Isis and test the program line by line .... Arduino still has to make a lot of effort to be on the same level as other microcontrollers 10. speed measurement (tachometer) Velocity measurement is carried out using a hall effect sensor SS495 or A1324 which counts each revolution of the wheel. It is enough to enter the perimeter of the wheel of the scooter (130mm of radius therefore 0.816m in the case To have the speed, it is enough just to divide the number of turn of wheel on an arbitrary time of 1s to have a minimum speed of 0.81m / s therefore of 2.93 km / h. In addition, an average filter with 3 values will be used to display the speed. At 25km / h, there will be 8.5 laps. To count the turns, an external interrupt routine will be used on input INT0 21 of the mega card. http://www.locoduino.org/spip.php?article64 To simulate the speed, a pulse on input 21 will be used with a duty cycle of 10%. https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a018.jpg Code: [Select] void INT0b21() {   Tspeed++;   // External interruption to count the number of turns } // In the set up declare the interrupt routine when the 5V edge of the magnet detection is done   attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(21), INT0b21, RISING );  // External interruption // In loop if (temps09>=5)  {        // 1 second loop lcd.setCursor(13,2);      // Erasing speed lcd.print("kph     "); lcd.setCursor(16,2); speed1=Tspeed*2937;      //1tour*816*3.6/1s=2.937km/h speed2=speed1;           //Tspeed (rate/seconde) speed3=speed2; speedF=(speed1+speed2+speed3)/3000;   // To put in kph lcd.print(speedF,1);    // Display to the nearest tenth Tspeed=0;   // Reset counter temps09=0;  //reset time } To improve the accuracy of the velocity measurement, it is possible that the sampling time of the velocity measurement is dependent on the velocity. For example: For speeds less than 10km / h sample at 1second, but above 10km / h sample at 2 seconds. 11. Distance measurement for autonomy The distance corresponds to the total number of turns of the wheel multiplied by the perimeter of the wheel. So do not set the number of turns to 0 for each sample. On the other hand, the reset of the distance will be done when pressing the reset of the Arduino Mega. The distance display will be displayed to the nearest second. At 32km / h, it will take 2 minutes to do 1km as can be seen in the following figure: https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a019.jpg Code: [Select] void INT0b21() {   Tspeed++;   // External interruption to count speed   nbrRate++; } lcd.setCursor(13,4);      lcd.print("km      ");  // distance=(nbrRate*816)/1000;  //distance m distance=distance/1000;  //distance km lcd.setCursor(15,4);      lcd.print(distance,1);  You can observe the electrical installation with the chopper, the arduino, and the display when the program is set up https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/dsc_0613.jpg 12. Synthesis The RAM space is used only at 4% and ROM space at 3%, for an Arduino mega. So we could take an arduino a little smaller. But, there are 8 Lipo cells to make the 24V power supply to power the engine via the chopper. Therefore, the voltage measurement of each element will be on the Arduino with a JST connector. This measurement makes it possible to know if a cell with an internal resistance which begins to pose a problem and to know if the balancing of each cell has indeed been carried out. It is possible to switch to 36V with 12 cells also with the arduino mega without using an external shield that multiplex 24 analog inputs on input A0 It is possible to send all data to a smartphone via Bluetooth HC06 via pins 20, 21, RX1 and TX1. But the application under android realized under JAVA Studio can not be shared on this forum. This part will not be explained. After having made the instrumentation of this scooter, a study should be carried out on the precision of the measurements, it is possible to read "Instrumentation of a low-power electrical motor vehicle" eco marathon "type Revue 3EI N ° 81, July 2015 http://www.fichier-pdf.fr/2015/09/07/instrumentation-vehicule-faible-consommation-eco-marathon/

Topic by Iutgeiisoissons  


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