Remote Internet Kill Switch?

I'm looking for a device that would allow me to be able to cut connections to my ISP with a hard switch (located in a network closet of my home).  The switch would be one in which I can control form one of the PCs located on my home network.  My current setup is a DSL modem/router to a network switch with 24 ports ran throughout my home.  I have three PCs on the network, two printers, and a couple of NAS.  I would like to have a switch that cuts the connection between my DSL modem and my ISP.  The switch would be access from any PC on the network.  The "internet kill switch" would connect to one of the ports of the network switch so that it could continue to be access from the network even when the ISP connection is disconnected. Has anyone came across anything like this.

Question by q127238   |  last reply


On and Off Switch?

I have a kiln that I need maintained at a certain temperature for an extended period of time (9 hours). Problem is  the kiln I got doesn't maintain its temp, it just constantly supplies heat until it would kill itself. Making me sit there for 9 hours turning it on and off exactly once a min. Obviously this is a problem... there is a physical on and off switch where maybe I can rig up some timer to hit it for me? Otherwise maybe there is a way to modify the wall outlet to supply power 1 min on, 1 min off? Any suggestions would help, thanks :D  http://www.clay-king.com/images/quickfriec.jpg

Question by ReconIII   |  last reply


How can I make a kill switch for a ride-on mower?

I've just got hold of an old Westwood ride-on mower, but the electrics are a bit dodgy and will need re-doing. What's the best / safest / most reliable way to make a kill switch for a 4 stroke tecumseh engine? Thanks!

Question by sladek   |  last reply


answers category unanswered and answered switched

to reproduce: at page https://www.instructables.com/tag/type-question/ press unanswered and get a list of questions with answers hit back on your browser press answered  and get a list of questions without answers

Topic by kill-a-watt   |  last reply


Lipo battery charge/discharge on the same port with button?

I like to have the battery charged and used on the same wires with a switch in between. How to achieve this? The switch has a on, off, ground and kill.

Question by DennisK20   |  last reply


Movie Error

I was watching the first part of Generation Kill, its about a group of marines during OIF 1, and I was getting all into it and I noticed an error, a Major error. Well just look at the picture. Normally for a vehicle to go, the engine has to be RUNNING. Tactical vehicles have switches to start them. You have off, run, and start. He has the engine off, but yet the vehicle is making noise and its going down the road. Now i know the vehicle is being pulled by a trailer, and the engine is "off" because if it was "on" it would be a crap load louder and everyone would have to scream at each other just to talk, but come on guys at least rig the knob so that it points up right when driving. What movie errors have you noticed that made you upset?

Topic by thematthatter   |  last reply



Best way to switch multiple circuits?

Hi, all - first time posting. I have limited knowledge with electronics and have come across a scenario where I basically need a kill-switch for a cable with 9 ends. I can't find any sort of toggle switch (SPST, DPDT, etc..) that would accommodate that many wires. I started reading up on digital bus switch IC's. It seems a 10-digit one like this would work, leaving one unused. http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/74CBTLV3861PW,118/568-8418-1-ND/2765135 My question: is this the easiest solution? I simply don't know what all options exist, so any advice from someone more experienced would be greatly appreciated. Thank you for your time. -Caleb

Topic by calebpaul   |  last reply


Will switching the 100k resistor for a 1meg resistor in the following schematic kill my battery life? Answered

Here is the schematic: http://forum.hackedgadgets.com/viewtopic.php?t=114I switched out the 100k resistor for a higher value resistor in order to make the photocell much more sensitive. 1meg was the first resistor that would keep my LED off in dim light. (I want the LED to power on only when it's "lights out." Will this kill my 9 volt battery? Is there a better method to make the photocell more sensitive?

Question by erikp   |  last reply


analog demultiplexing?

Is it a good idea to use just a single DAC to produce 2 or more separate analog outputs? I do not need super fast updating rate, but I do need precision. My DAC is a old but pretty cool looking DAC71, of which I have like a handful. It has a 16 bit parallel interface (which is a REAL PAIN) and a CC output. Placing a small resistor on the output of that gives me a voltage range. To interface it to an arduino, I used two 74C164 shift registers so that I only use 2 pins on the arduino. (one for clock, the other for data). However, the DAC does not have an updating rate, it is kinda analog in that respect. Because of that, you can see all the garbage from the shift register outputs while data is being shifted in. My current solution to this problem was to use a spare TL601 analog switch and a 3rd wire from the arduino to "mask" the updating period when data is being shifted into the registers. This worked well, until the wire popped out and came into contact with +12V rail, killing arduino pin 10. :(  so sad, it was literally a brand new arduino clone... In a similar fashion that the output of a single ignition coil in a car is fed into a distributor to distribute voltage to the correct spark plugs, is it OK to use a few more analog switches to do some interlacing? Are there things that I potentially have not considered? My idea is that after data for, say, output A has been shifted into the 2 registers, the arduino will activate switch A and (through a buffer amp) charge a capacitor up to the same voltage, then turn switch A off while shifting in data for output B, then activating switch B to allow the capacitor to charge up to that voltage, and again the switches turn off to let new data for output A shift in, and the process repeats. The capacitors will "remember" what voltage they held during the off period, as sort of analog memory. I think the updating rate will take a hit, but oh well.

Question by -max- 


How to create reed switch that activates wireless alarm?

I've been reading alot about reed switches after learning about a security feature for cars, a reed kill switch. I wanted to know how to or if someone could create some kind of setup where if the reed switch closes the circuit, it will activate a wireless remote or something like an alarm within a reasonable distance from the actual switch. I've seen those window/door entry alarms. Would those work? For a car, would it be possible to have the reed switch activate a small alarm in a key fob type of thing?

Question by booooyet   |  last reply


very similar to 33cc Gas GS Moon Scooter.

Verified it has spark. Compression. It has no pull cord, so I used a high speed drill to turn it over, while spraying carb spray directly in to it. Also the on/off or kill switch is broken. I have taken apart and cleaned out the carb.  I've dried different variations of grounding the kill switch. At this point, I'm stumped. Also, I have a few scrap 33cc weed eaters laying around for parts. Need some help Very appreciated Brian

Question by mrshadow37   |  last reply


Killswitch Help

Alright, so i built a killswitch for my guitar like SomeRockenGuys minus the rocker switch. and i get this buzzing noise, kind of like feedback and i was wondering if anyone had any ideas on how to tame this wild buzzing. I've got mono jacks in there now, would stereo help? what about grounding it, what would i ground it to?All suggestions are appreciated?

Topic by 0utCold   |  last reply


Can you put a key on a pocket bike?

Hi i was wondering if i could still keep the pullstart on my pocket bike, but make it so the key has to be in inorder for the bike to turn over, kind of like a kill switch any help would be much apreciated.

Question by walterh9   |  last reply


Need some help... tiny blinking LED's with a small battery and off/on switch?

I incorporated a few circuit boards into a stained glass panel I created (titled..."The Board Room") (kind of city scape piece with different textures of all clear glass) and would like to add 2 tiny red blinking LED's on the front side, with a small battery and off/on switch attached on the back of one of the boards, AND I'm electronically challenged.  I think the boards are a phone and a remote but shouldn't make a difference. Want to place LED's near the tops of the boards like blinking light atop tall buildings.... I have a radio shack nearby and plenty of beer for the project.  Would have attached a picture but a pin in card reader bay in my camera just broke off.  NOT in a huge hurry, I've had the piece shelved for 3+ years so a while longer won't kill me. Anybody out there got any ideas?  Thanx!

Question by Brodus   |  last reply


How to Disable Headphones-Speaker Mute of a Guitar Amp? Answered

Hello! See, we have a nice digital guitar combo amp with a headphones/record out jack. We'd like to connect the amp to the PA system. The thing is, it automatically kills the speaker once you insert something on it like a headphones.  We swish to use the jack as a direct line out without killing the speaker. In addition to this, I also wish to do the same thing on our electric piano with built-in speakers. It does the same thing of muting every time you plug it to the PA. QUESTIONS:: 1. How do you tweak and bypass this mute function on some combo amps/instruments? 2. Does the same principle/switching applies to these situations? Hope to see your post soon! Thanks!

Question by ervzman   |  last reply


My fave LED just DIED!! Please help!!

My latest work involves one of those LED's that change color as they glow. I'm using a battery pack i ripped off of something because it has a switch pre installed. It holds 4 AA batteries. I've tried it with the LED in question before, and it worked just fine. I was testing it again after some assembly and BAM, twas dysfunctional. It glows very feebly. So I switched with my one back up LED. That one won't even light. What did I do wrong? Did I over power it? Where can I go to purchase a new LED of the color-changing type? How do I not kill this one?

Topic by KentsOkay   |  last reply


How to make a double electric circuit?

First things first, I don't think the title is accurate for this question but anyways, We have frequent power cuts in the place where i live and this is pretty irritating as my modem wont work and i cant use the internet. So I have this backup generator and I got an extension from that to power my modem (The backup generator only powers specific lights). But, the problem i face is that every time the electricity goes, i have to manually remove the plug from the mains and plug it into the generator and vice versa when the electricity returns.  So, in a nutshell, i want to make a device which can accept both the mains and generator inputs but output only one of them at any time to the modem. Problems: If the generator switched on as soon as the mains went, it would be fine. But thats not the case. 1) As soon as the power goes, the generator takes about 2 minutes to switch on and then my modem takes about 3 minutes to reboot. 2) When the power returns, the generator stays on for about 2 minutes as well. So if I were to make the device I mentioned earlier, For 5 minutes I would have no internet (generator+modem starting times) and for 2 minutes I would get 440 volts instead of 220 which would practically kill my modem. Finally the device should have, (I think) 2 inputs. 1 output. A small battery or a capacitor(For the 2 min generator lag) A switch to automatically switch form generator to mains. So can anybody give me some ideas? If you didn't understand what i am trying to say, i can gladly rephrase. I thought of using a ups or something like that but i don't know how to provide two inputs and not kill the ups itself. Thanks!!

Topic by Srujan Deshpande   |  last reply


Can someone make sure I made this HV power supply right?

So I'm making an HV power supply from a flyback transformer and a CFL, I need to know that I've wired everythng correctly, and I'm not going to kill everything plugged into the walls in my house when I turn it on. From left to right is: Socket, IEC13 (From an old computer power supply) Switch, rated for mains voltage (from old CRT TV) CFL circuit Flyback Blue wire is the live and brown is neutral, the red and black connect to the primary coil of the flyback. All help appreciated, thanks.

Question by Pie Ninja   |  last reply


I wonder if this is possible....

Today I got a little Idea. I looked at my floor and saw my 160gb external hdd, my ethernet switch, my usb hub, and usb my wireless router. And I had an Idea the idea to put them all in one. So that I can wirlessly/wired boot off my usb hdd from anywhere in the house. Then I can use anyones computer in the entire house leaving only my fingerprints. But my idea is missing on core component THE PROCESSOR. Sure I could plug it all into my computer but that makes it less portable and kills the idea. Did I mention I want to fit it in my backpack and run it all off a battery ? ( then I can run it at school )

Topic by littlechef37   |  last reply


Need a timed reversible DC motor with either a string or rack and pinion.

Originally this was a way to cheat a video game.  But it kills two birds with one stone.  I get what I want in the game and I get to learn about electronics/robotics... I want to create a device that will lower a stylus to touch the screen on an ipad, then lower another stylus to touch another part of the screen.  Then 6 seconds later repeat. I thought to use 2 timers and 2 DC motors with either string attached to a spool attached to the styluses OR a rack an pinion set up.  But I don't know what type of timer I need, or how to make a switch to reverse the direction of the motor...  Thanks so much in advance! J

Topic by BANTAR1000   |  last reply


Led lights

Hello everyone, i have a question and i think people here on instructables are best suited to help me! So i wanted to connect 21 leds together to make a bigger light. I would connect them in parallel and in series (3 in series 7 rows :P) and i thought i would use a 12v 7Ah battery to power this thing. The problem is i also wanted to use an arduino so they would turn on automatically but it can not output 12v. So is it beter to use the arduino to phisiclly controll a switch to turn the leds on or is it possible to power the arduino and then output 5v to the leds. And if it is will they be dimmer? or will the system draw more current killing my battery faster? Thats my problem and i hope someone here can help me. Thank you in advance.

Topic by thecreatorst   |  last reply


Sitway code verify error: trying to download a sitway full balance rocker code into arduino, but get an error.

Trying to download full_balance_rocker_test.txt code onto my arduino. It worked last week on my old computer, OSX 10.5, but won't work on my new computer 10.6.8.  Don't know if this has anything to do with the error. When I download, the verify says "The 'BYTE' keyword is no longer supported.  The highlighted lines in the code that are highlighted are as follows: SaberSerial.print(0, BYTE);   //kill motors when first switched on } The error message includes the following text: As of Arduino 1.0, the 'BYTE' keyword is no longer supported. Please use Serial.write() instead. I tried replacing the 2 highlighted lines with the Serial.write() command, but not working. Anyone have a suggestion? Thanks, Charlie

Question by organs   |  last reply


PIR Sensor troubleshooting

Hello there people of the internets, I'm an electronics newb, hoping someone can help me. I'm trying to trigger a 1.5-3 volt DC motor using a PIR sensor, without using a microcontroller.   I have the PIR sensor's output connected to an npn transmitter which triggers a 5v spdt relay to switch on the motor.  When testing the circuit with an LED, it works perfectly, turning the LED on when motion is detected.   When I swap the LED for the motor, the relay turns on the motor repeatedly every 6 seconds no matter whether there is motion or not. (it also may have killed the relay after about a minute or two) I tried a different circuit, using a transistor as a switch instead of a relay, which also works perfectly with an LED, but when the motor is connected instead, again the motor is turned on every 6 seconds without a care for the PIR output. What could I be doing wrong here?  I'm assuming that perhaps it has something to do with kickback from the motor...maybe? Anybody have any advice?  (Remember, no microcontroller!  As much as I'd love to try my hand at using arduino or the like, I can't afford to use a microcontroller for this particular project.)

Topic by yuck   |  last reply


Charging a capacitor? Answered

Recently I've had an idea for a project that requires a relatively low voltage (5 to 30 volts) capacitor bank. However, that capacitor bank needs to be charged. While I do know you can easily just hook it up to power, I find that too simple, and lacking of safety, and knowing when it is fully charged. So, could anyone please enlighten me on how i can charge my cap. bank relatively slowly, with, say, an LED that lights up when charged (to avoid them blowing up in my face), and a kill switch/button that discharges the capacitor bank in the event of an overcharge. If anyone could provide an explanation or circuit diagram that would be great, thanks. BTW, the capacitors I was planning on using are http://www.goldmine-elec-products.com/prodinfo.asp?number=G17623 or http://www.goldmine-elec-products.com/prodinfo.asp?number=G16573.

Question by LiquidLightning   |  last reply


Can you help me with my mini E.M.P. generator design?

Hello everyone! I am currently planning on bulding a handheld E.M.P. generator (it's dangerous, I know, sorry) that is capable of killing a small devices (e.g. a small camera) at close range (<10cm). I got to the capacitor bank and wondered if 180J is enough for my needs? I also have some other questions (in no particular order): - What is the bare minimum to kill such devices? - Does it normally take 90 secs to charge a 90uF bank to 2kV (using a DC boost converter)? I have never designed a high voltage charging circuit before so I don't really know if I'm doing things right. - Is my capacitor configuration good enough or does it need tweaking (e.g. more voltage)? - How do I protect my circuitry from getting blasted by the coil? - Is a single pulse sufficient? - What kind of switch should I use for high voltage? - Should I use lithium-ion batteries for supplying power? - Should I make the frame of the device out of metal? - Should I be using a DC boost converter for charging capacitors? If not, suggestion? - Should my coil have a little or a lot of inductance? Again, I am fully aware this has "Darwin Award" written all over, sorry about that, but I think this is safer than guessing around. Thank you for reading this! Looking forward to your responds!

Topic by mr.derpinton   |  last reply


Can you help me with my mini E.M.P. generator design? Answered

Hello everyone! I am new here so tell me if I have broken any rules :) I am currently planning on bulding a handheld E.M.P. generator (it's dangerous, I know, sorry) that is capable of killing a small devices (e.g. a small camera) at close range (<10cm). I got to the capacitor bank and wondered if 180J is enough for my needs? I also have some other questions (in no particular order): - What is the bare minimum to kill such devices? - Does it normally take 90 secs to charge a 90uF bank to 2kV (using a DC boost converter)? I have never designed a high voltage charging circuit before so I don't really know if I'm doing things right. - Is my capacitor configuration good enough or does it need tweaking (e.g. more voltage)? - How do I protect my circuitry from getting blasted by the coil? - Is a single pulse sufficient? - What kind of switch should I use for high voltage? - Should I use lithium-ion batteries for supplying power? - Should I make the frame of the device out of metal? - Should I be using a DC boost converter for charging capacitors? If not, suggestion? - Should my coil have a little or a lot of inductance? Again, I am fully aware this has "Darwin Award" written all over, sorry about that, but I think this is safer than guessing around. Thank you for reading this! Looking forward to your responds!

Question by mr.derpinton   |  last reply


I want to build a(quick simple design=least amount of parts)compact/portable inverter use a 9v battery making 22volts?

I always wanted to make a type of SILENT portable hand held lighter/ignition source that doesn't use flints or fuel that can ignite any firecracker fuses, cigarettes, or generate enough heat in a quick time. So what i did was part out my moms old 1875watt hair dryer that she burnt out the motor to and i kept the spring coils portion that used to make the air blown hotter. I cut a 1inch piece of them heat coils, mounted it to an old parted out lighter reservoir and wired the piece up with a momentary slider type switch on the side of the reservoir that is being my safe to the touch so i can hold portion -  to a cigarette car lighter type plug adapter and plugged it to my car battery jumper pack that has the cigarette lighter receptacle.(i did this as it was my only option to a DC type of power because at the time i didn't have batteries & unsure how much it would need) now i tested it by sliding the slider switch on and in less than 7seconds it had lit up bright orange and really hot. Okay cool its almost exactly what i wanted but i don't want to have to plug it in to anything or carry around a huge heavy battery pack. So i tried to connect a 9 volt battery to it since that would in fact make it compact & portable completing my design,  but when i push the slider switch to on it took really long to generate any heat(barely even lit up)and killed the battery after holding it on to get any type of heat for like 4-5minutes. I need it to lit up to its bright orange HOT in that 7seconds or less and i need or would like it to have longevity or more then 1 time use. http://i126.photobucket.com/albums/p97/krax78/lighteridea.png

Question by KrAx   |  last reply


Why does my PICAXE 08m seem to be resetting itself half way through the program?

I am at the final stage of my automated chook door project, and have come across a problem which is proving a real headache. To begin explaning the problem first of all I must explain a bit about how it works. First of all a PICAXE 08M is used to control a linear actuator attached to a vertical sliding door. The PICAXE is fed an LDR (light reading) and based on this 'light level' is programmed to either raise or lower the door. Two relays are employed to operate the actuator in one direction and then to reverse it (that is turning ouput 1 on lowers the door, turning both output 1 & 2 on raises the door). Unfortunately I don't have any position sensors built in (something which I now realise I should have done), which means that I have to operate the door for a set period of time (meaning that the program assumes where the door is at). Anyway when it is day I want the door to raise in order to let the chooks out. First it checks through regular intervals (and I will extend these intervals when I know its operating correctly) whether it is a certain light condition, then a pause occurs aswell as another light check to ensure that it is acutally the right light level, ready to open the door. The same also occurs when the door closes HOWEVER there is a safety system fitted to the bottom of the door (an aluminum bar which is spring loaded and hangs bolow the physical door. It is hooked up to two microswitches in series which provides input to the PICAXE). It is designed to provide feedback to the PICAXE in regards to detecting an obstruction. Because this model of PICAXE 08M does not support the SETINT command, I cannot detect a obstruction while the program is paused for the duration of the doors travel to the closed position. This lead me to try and develop some code to beat the situation. ( By the way, when an obstruction is encountered the unit is programmed to raise the door for the equivalent of 4 loops worth of door travel, and then return to the closing sub to continue closing the door. If 5 or more obstructions are encountered the program ends requiring the user to remove te obstruction and reset the unit.) As seen in the code, I broke the time required to close the door into 250 ms intervals, and then created a for loop which performs each interval seperately. I did this so that within each loop (and therefore within each 250 ms interval) I could conduct a check to see if an obstruction had occurred before a certain loop number (NOTE I'm using Normally Closed microswitches: If input3 = 0 and Position < 83 then). The reason I have to test that the obstruction is within a certain loop number is so that the program will only accept an obstruction input while the safety bar has not reached the door frame - otherwise the PICAXE will think the bottom of the door frame is an obstruction and will continually raise and lower until the program ends after 5 obstructions - when in fact there were none! In theory and using the BASIC program simulator, my program works fine, however in reality it doesn't! The door raises fine and lowers to the closed position as desired (only when there were no obstructions! - in other words the safety microswitches were never activated). Unfortunately as soon as I introduce an obstrucion when the door is closing, it raises correctly and begins traveling to the closed position as I would hope. However when the door reaches the bottom it begins a continous cycle of raising and lowering (as would be valid if it were an actual obstruction). It has baffeled me for almost 2 days now, and the way that its behaving seems as if it reseting itself somehow. I am thinking this as I know that the program continues to raise and lower the door even after 5 obstructions (which would work if it was reseting as the obstruction variable would be reset to 0 everytime) have occured. If this part was at least working it would kill itself after 5 obstructions, however it just keeps going. To me it seems that when there is an obstruction and it reverses the door, a reset occurs, beginning the full door closing process. But because the door has already lowered a little the program then beleives that the bottom of the door frame is an obstruction and hence is in an evil loop of door raising and lowering. Can anybody please offer some adivce on my problem? I have tried replacing the PICAXE chip but the same problem occurs. The underlying issue I think sits at the level of trying to match the physical door location with the virtual location, based on time. HELP would be greatly appreciated! CODE: 'NOTE: Not all comments may be correct Load: symbol RELAY1 = 1     'Initialise Relay1 to output 1 symbol RELAY2 = 2     'Initialise Relay2 to output 2 symbol SETIME = 26500 'Initialise the SETIME variable to 26.5 seconds symbol LIGHT = b0     'Initialise current LIGHT variable symbol DAY = b1       'Initialise DAY light variable symbol NIGHT = b2     'Initialise NIGHT light variable symbol POSITION = b4   'Initialise counter variable symbol STARTPOS = b3 symbol OBSCOUNTER = b5' DAY = 100    ' Set Day threshold equal to 100 NIGHT = 30   ' Set NIGHT light threshold equal to 30 CheckLight: '**************Check Light**************** Readadc 4, LIGHT       'Read in input4 (LDR) and store in LIGHT variable If LIGHT > DAY then    'Check if current light level is > than the day light threshold   Goto CheckDayAgain   'If condition is true go to the CheckDayAgain sub Endif If LIGHT < NIGHT then  'Check if current LIGHT level is less than the NIGHT light threshold   Goto CheckNightAgain 'If condition is true goto the CheckNightAgain sub End if 'Pause 60000           'Pause 10 seconds Goto CheckLight        'Recheck light level CheckDayAgain:'*********Check Day Light Again********* 'Pause 10000 Readadc 4, LIGHT       'Read in input4 (LDR) and store in LIGHT variable If LIGHT > DAY then    'Check again if current light level is > than the day light threshold    If input3 = 0  then     'Check if switches are open indicating door is closed (as micro switches are normally closed)       Goto OpenDoor    'If Light > day light threshold and door is closed, then go to OpenDoor sub    End if End if Goto CheckLight        'If either of the above conditions are not true, then return to CheckLight sub CheckNightAgain:'*******Check Night Light Again******* Pause 1000 Readadc 4, LIGHT       'Read in input4 (LDR) and store in LIGHT variable If LIGHT < NIGHT then  'Check if LIGHT is < than the night light threshold   If input3 = 1  then  'Check if switches are closed indicating door is open (as micro switches are normally closed)       Goto CloseDoor   'If Light < day light threshold and door is open, then go to CloseDoor sub   End if End if Goto CheckLight        'If either of the above conditions are not true, then return to CheckLight sub OpenDoor:'***************Open Door******************* High RELAY1            'Switch on relay 1 or output 1 High RELAY2            'Switch on relay 2 or output 2 Pause SETIME           'Pause 26.5 seconds to allow door to rise Low RELAY1            'Switch off relay 1 or output 1 Low RELAY2             'Switch off relay 2 or output 2 Goto CheckLight        'After opening door go back to CheckLight sub CloseDoor:'**************Close Door****************** High RELAY1                 'Switch on RElAY1 to close door For POSITION = STARTPOS to 93         'Enter a for loop representing the time needed to close the door   PAUSE 250                'Pause 250 milliseconds for each loop   If input3 = 0 and POSITION < 83 then'If switches are closed and safety bar has not reached the bottom then an obstruction has occured     Pause 10                'Pause 10 milliseconds to allow for switch bounce     If input3 = 0 then                'Check if switches are still closed      Gosub Obstruction      'Go to obstruction sub when switches are closed and door is not fully closed     End if   End if Next Low RELAY1                 'Switch off relay 1 or output 1 STARTPOS = 0 Goto CheckLight          'After closing door go back to CheckLight sub Obstruction: OBSCOUNTER = OBSCOUNTER + 1 'Add 1 to the obstruction counter High RELAY2                 'Activate second relay to reverse door Pause 1130                  'Pause 1010 ms. The extra 10 ms is to account for the swith bounce delay Low RELAY2                  'Deactivate seconds relay to allow door to continue travelling down If OBSCOUNTER > 4 then      'if there are 5 or more obstructions then shutdown unit. Goto Shutdown End if If POSITION > 4 then        'Prevents a negative POSITION STARTPOS = POSITION - 5     'Minus 5 is to account for the fact that program returns to the next statement before executing another loop. End if Return                      'Return back to the loop to try finish closing the door Shutdown:                   'This sub raises the door slighty before killing the program. The user is required to clear the obstruction and reset the unit. High RELAY2 Pause 1000 Low RELAY2 Low RELAY1 End

Question by Mattdog123   |  last reply


Help: NiChrome wire, making a dry/cure/melter panel 330f

Hi, Can anyone answer a few questions for me or direct me to a site for Nichrome information?   My background:  I'm more into mechanical tinkering:  drill press, saw, lathe.  I have minimal skills in Arduino.   I have very little understanding in Ohm, Resistance, etc....many things electrical.  I can read an electrical schematic and build it; but, I have no clue how to design it. My purpose for this:  heating panel for vacuum form machine as well as a curing plate on top of wet paint and coating (two different machines). I'm trying to make this:  http://www.infraredheaters.com/solar-f.htm   <--- something like this with it's blown air as a convection-like dryer over water base coating. My requirement is:   1,  120v prefer, highly desire.  220v isn't an option at the moment until I move to a new place. 2,  +250-350f temp range, I'll be using an Arduino to set this up 3,  14" x 18" panel 4,   as efficient as possible, I want it as close to 1000watt as practically possible. My questions are:  size of nichrome?  length?  How tightly should I pack the wires.  Should I use a dimmer switch to control the heat?  would that be a good idea?  Where can I find information to get 120v AC into nichrome to give me 330f without killing myself or burning down the house? Thanks!

Topic by Alpha Odyssey   |  last reply


Javascript bugs in FF and IE

I'm experiencing multiple bugs in Instructables, most JavaScript related. FF 11.0, have these same problems with FF10.2?. Instructables on safe list @ NoScript 1. Images look ok in instructables, switching between them in steps do not work at all. I click on the second image. It should replace the first one in the same container, nothing happens. 2. Can not vote. The stars are simply not there anymore. 3. There are 4 fingers white gap above, and 3 fingers white gap below the instructable title / photo-step row FF Javascript error console shows no errors. Things like Favoring/Unfavoring, commenting works fine. IE 8.0.6 1. Same problem as previous #1, yet clicking on the second image opens the image thumbnail directly in a new window. 2. IE displays "Errors on page" with this text: "Webpage error details User Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 5.1; Trident/4.0; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; .NET CLR 3.0.4506.2152; .NET CLR 3.5.30729; .NET CLR 1.1.4322) Timestamp: Wed, 14 Mar 2012 13:18:56 UTC Message: 'f[...]' is null or not an object Line: 25 Char: 358 Code: 0 URI: https://www.instructables.com/static/js/gw-11.6.4/lib/gw.min.js I bet some script near the bottom of scripts is killing the rest of scripts, this is why some scripts work and some don't. Can provide more info if needed.

Topic by skiedra   |  last reply


A good way to add a variable speed controller for my re-made Hobbies fretsaw.

Hi folks. I have decided I want to add a variable speed foot controller to my re-made hobbies fretsaw. https://www.instructables.com/id/1950s-Hobbies-treadle-fretsaw-remade/ My question is what do you guys out there think would be the easiest, least costly (cheap) way of doing it? I have given some thought to using a foot controller from a sewing machine possibly because this thing started life as a treadle fret saw & I guess it seems fitting that it should follow a similar evolution as sewing machines did. I know very little about sewing machines so if anyone has any ideas regarding this I would welcome them. I plan to include an isolator switch on the machine itself, it seems a good idea as we have a small grandson who visits very often as well as two dogs & 'ible the kitten & as much as I try to keep them out of my tiny workshop it sometimes seems as if I am the only person in the house who has mastered the skill of closing the door so with all those feet around I want to be able to kill the power when I am not actually cutting. So there you go guys what does the combined genius of the 'ibling world have to suggest for my little project?

Question by Nostalgic Guy   |  last reply


Project Help - USB Charger AA batteries

So i wanted to try and pick peoples brains about this and surprisingly my web searches havent really returned anything fruitful on the subject. I have an electronic device that uses 4 AA batteries in series (6v) in a standard arrangement. Due the relative newness of the product and the way the battery compartment is shaped, its basically impossible to replace them with a 6 volt pack and its equally tiresome to use rechargeables as the battery compartment is screwed shut and this is designed to be a portable device. Ideally what I would like to do is remove a section of the case and embed a micro usb socket and setup a charging circuit to the existing battery compartment and stick some long life (lion maybe) AAs in there then just leave the compartment shut and charge via the usb port. Maybe add an led indicator for charge level, i dunno.  However, while i can solder with the best of them, the actual engineering part of laying out the necessary circuit etc is wayyyyy beyond my skills. would anyone be able to assist? Would it be easier to just scrap the battery compartment entirely and stick a battery pack inside the case that was 6v and many many many mah and hook the charge circuit up to that and its leads to the wires going to the compartment and leave it empty? theres plenty of hollow space inside the appliance itself. Second, the device itself doesnt have a "hard off" switch, it has a momentary to boot it up and a reset button. The momentary is constantly being hit in travel and turning the device on, draining the batteries. Theres no internal memory to worry about being wiped, so id love to slap a slider switch on there to kill power to the whole device unless its physically toggled, especially if im cutting a spot for a usb port as well.  Anyone willing to help consult to bring this to fruition? Ill happily give you full credit and buy all parts and what have you, and do all the solder work, just need someone to help me plot out the circuits, decide best course of action, and design a nominal breadboard to slap it together for testing.  

Topic by xBenedictx   |  last reply


Nexus 7 (2013, Gen2, FLO) - internal micro SD mod

With games getting bigger and bigger with every new release and limited storage capacity some of you might think the same: Why not add a SD card to my Nexus 7? The lates Lollipop update basically killed the normal USB OTG funstions, so if you do want to use a USB stick or external SD card in a reader you will need a powered USB OTG cable. I am not sure if this was intentionally or another bug but it is damn annoying. After openeing my tablet to check m options I realised my main problem is space. Even adding a micro SD with a similar small reader is a major pain as there simply is no empty space left inside. So I was hoping someone here might be interested in such a mod and contribute with good ideas during the build and maybe even copy the mod (if I manage it) to confirm it is in fact doable. My findings so far: A custom rom is a must have due to the OTG limits of the original. It might be enough to just find a suitable kernel but so far I settled for the Team UB Lollipop release. It offers some mods based on Cyanogen and claims full OTG support. Other roms also added support for external WiFi and TV dongles, so there is room to play. As said space is a problem I am working on ;) For an internal mod and due to the lack of physical support on the mainboard the only option is to use the standrad USB port for this mod. This means SD, reader and OTG mod must fit inside somehow. It also means some sort of physical switch is required for the times when you need full power during the recharge - although I have to test if this still works with an external SD while the tablet is switched off. In that case I could accept 500mA charge during normal use and 1A or more when the tablet is switched off. The rom should support fast USB charge but I am not sure if this olaso works in host mode. It is possible to use some extra app and scripts to make good use of such a mod. Not only can you use the SD for music, movies and other demanding files but with scripting you can also move the big data files from games to the external storage. Works similar to the apps you can get for devices with a real SD card, where you often find the "Move to SD" option in the app manager. This mod will not be for the faint hearted as it requires serious soldering skills on these tiny components, so if you only know how to solder copper pipes you might need some training on old electronics first ;) Let me know what you think and if you would be interested in such a mod as otherwise I won't bother taking pics during the progress. And without pics there will be no Instructable follwing ;)

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


Bicycle security!

Hey hey, so the other day i came up with a way that i thought might work well for a bicycle security...thing. anyways, since just about all bikes are made of metal, except the carbon ones, and metal conducts electricity, what if you had some way of making your bike, electrically charged? i guess (i dont know all the proper words heh) so if a person comes up to your bike and wants to take it, at some point in the process of taking your bike, he would come in contact with some metal part and get shocked. i thought if you made it properly, and made the shock strong enough, it would be a great way to keep your bike safe...cause i know if i went to take someones bike, and all of a sudden i get zapped all of a sudden every time i touch the bike, i would not want that bike! i figured you'd need some batteries with enough voltage to give him a good shock, enough to make him not want to take the bike, but not so much that you would kill him...that obviously would not be good.  but i'd imagine that more powerful batteries might be to big, and not fit anywhere on your bike. i thought that maybe you could hide everything in the seat tube after you take the seat post out, and maybe have a hidden switch somewhere on the bike so you could turn it off. im sure there's more issues i havent thought over, just an idea, and im far from an electrical expert, so i dont know how rubber shoes might ground the person, or how you would go about wiring it, and other stuff like that. i just wanted to see what some people here thought about it, and if it is even possible for me to do

Topic by sirshmoopy   |  last reply


A good way to add a variable speed controller for my re-made Hobbies fretsaw.

Hi folks. I did ask this in the questions section but only got one reply which suggested I didn't really need one so I thought before I start on it I would give the forums a try. I have decided I want to add a variable speed foot controller to my re-made hobbies fretsaw. https://www.instructables.com/id/1950s-Hobbies-treadle-fretsaw-remade/ My question is what do you guys out there think would be the easiest, least costly (cheap) way of doing it? I have given some thought to using a foot controller from a sewing machine possibly because this thing started life as a treadle fret saw & I guess it seems fitting that it should follow a similar evolution as the sewing machine. I know very little about sewing machine controllers so if anyone has any ideas regarding this I would welcome them. I plan to include an isolator switch on the machine itself, it seems a good idea as we have a small grandson who visits very often as well as two dogs & 'ible the kitten, as much as I try to keep them out of my tiny workshop it sometimes seems as if I am the only person in the house who has mastered the skill of closing the door so with all those feet around I want to be able to kill the power when I am not actually cutting. I plan to do an 'ible about the job so I will happily give credit where it is due to any to any body/bodies that comes up with any ideas I use. So there you go guys what does the combined genius of the 'ibling world have to suggest for my little project?

Topic by Nostalgic Guy   |  last reply


I need to build a special &quot;box&quot; for an alert response system?

I would like to use an Arduino, but a parallax or a Vellman kit, etc would work to... Need usb connectivity for programming...easy i know. But i have a total of 20 momentary switches at different stations. I need one box at a front desk (i'll need to go full custom, laser cut, nice graphics, etc..so if you have a really good reference for front panel production and panel parts..buttons, leds, etc...) I will eventually build 20 of these for each of their locations. but basically here is what is HAS to do... station user presses and releases button LED on front desk box lights up LED stays lite until the button next to the LED is pressed...as in killing the request for help or acknowledging it...no response notification to the station needed. What I would LIKE to have happen... station user presses and releases button system generates a signal to play a recorded audio clip custom for each button "Attention Needed at Repair Bay 1" the LED on the control box lights up for 5 seconds, along with a one or 2 quick (not loud) beep from a pezio speaker like the little tiny ones i have a ton of from pc's etc. after 5 seconds...if not responded to by pressing the control box "response button" by the specific LED, then it will flash for 15 seconds or so and then beep 5 times and do this over and over for 1 minute until responded to, in not after 1 min, either the standard flashing ot a rapid flash starts...until responded to. A Scrolling LED display with the Stations ID (station Name), one after another that are still in the "Que" until responded to.... i need an answer fast....and im putting myself out there...i need is fast like as done weeks ago....this was thrown in my lap at last min and i'm the solution/fix-it/invent-it guy and that is just where i am in this...i am willing to pay what i can to have someone help with this....

Question by IdeaVault   |  last reply


Portable speaker boombox wiring help?

Hi guys, I'm currently in the planning/semi-begun-building stage of my first DIY electronics project, which is in the form of a portable boombox based around the lepai 2020A+ amp and the Sure APT-X Bluetooth 4.0 module (which both run off 12v). Despite searching the entire internet up and down, I just can't seem to make the electrical/power side of the wiring clear in my head. And to be honest, I'm a little worried about burning a house down/killing a battery and would be very grateful for some help. I'm looking at incorporating a cig lighter 12v socket for charging accessories like phones/audio players/whatever through a classic car to usb device as the stepdown, as well as a 2.1mm DC jack that can be used to charge the battery via AC mains (240v in Australia) as well as via a small solar panel. I am sort of hoping that I could be playing music and charging accessories while the solar panel or AC mains is plugged in... basically I can have anything plugged in/not plugged in/left overnight by accident and the house wont burn down. I have attached a mock wiring diagram that worked in my head, but I really do doubt if this is actually an acceptable circuit. There are also a couple of components I have left off there because I simply wasn't sure where to put them. The first is a simple power switch, so that when off nothing can drain the battery. Is this a simple case of wiring in line on the positive lead between the battery and the solar charge controller? The second is a small volt/ammeter (http://www.ebay.com.au/itm/251498991739?ssPageName=STRK:MEWAX:IT&_trksid=p3984.m1423.l2649) that I would desperately like to use to know both when the battery needs recharging, as well as how much current the amp is drawing. I have absolutely no idea where to begin with this one. The yellow wire is scaring me even though the product hasn't arrived yet! Can anyone help with this? Am I at least on the right track? I hope you understand my misunderstandings, and are accepting to an enthusiastic novice's questions Thanks!

Question by chemacky 


Specifics of building a multi-stage coilgun?

So I recently decided that I wanted to build a coilgun. I already knew how they function, and after some light research, I've got the main design already laid out. What I'm looking for now is some more detailed input on the exact power requirements, circuitry, etc. Specifically: Firing a standard .177 steel BB, I want to use many small coils in series as opposed to one/few large ones. From my understanding, this will provide better end speed while keeping each coil's power draw relatively lower, and thus safer. (Am I right about this?) How many coils should I use, what would be overkill, etc? Each coil will be triggered sequentially by a IR LED/photocell trigger system rigged through tiny holes drilled across the barrel. Will a simple on/off circuit suffice, or will the projectile pass by too quickly for the full charge to release? If so, I assume I need a system to trigger a full discharge when tripped. Correct or not, and if so, how? I'm also considering fitting an extra gate at the end to trigger a circuit to bleed any remaining charge. Ideas on this? What size of capacitors should I use, and how would I charge them? The only thing Google can seem to turn up is camera flash circuits, but I'd much rather have one tailor-built to the system's exact levels. I'm going to use a press/hold switch to charge them, and would like an automatic shutoff with an LED that comes on when they are charged, but turns off when I release the button. Kind of like a camera flash, actually. I'd like to fit it with a re-chargeable battery. What sort of power is required here? How many firings would I likely get per charge, etc? What sort of muzzle velocity can I expect? I don't want to kill bears with it, but soda cans would be nice. I don't want to waste my time fabricating it only to be able to stop it with my eyeball. Lastly, are there any other points of concern or things I should know? Thanks for any input, and if everything ends up coming together nicely, I'll be sure to properly document the process for everyone's enjoyment. :)

Topic by Skye Pyro   |  last reply


Is my book good ?

Well i hate to bother anyone but can you please take some time to read this book i worked hard on ? i spent  countless hours of my free time over the weekend developing the plot and creatures so can you please take some time out to read the whole thing tell me what it needs or what would be good i already am 16 pages into the sequel so tell me if this is good so i can post the sequel ! enjoy Times come by Alby Chapter 1- beginning It was the night I would never forget,the night.......i....the......the last night I would enjoy life. It was spring of 2017 the night air was heavy in my lungs and you could faintly smell the BBQ and charcoal smoke from cookouts that died down hours ago I could here people talking and having a good time but I think my drink I grabbed the wrong beer it was Sarah's it was spiked I never would have noticed who did it at least it wasn't her to drink it. I simply enjoyed the sky line of Chicago filled with sky scrapers and mirror like office buildings it all seemed like a Bokeh picture to me the drug is taking affect on my body I feel dizzy . I hopped on the train, it was empty as for the weather gave a good reason to walk but I needed to get home safely. In about 30 minutes I was home. I clumsily walked up the stairs and almost fell it took about ten minutes before I opened the door, I then plopped down on my bed and ran to the bathroom and regurgitated everything I ate that night. i starred at the ceiling. I saw every detail to the nearest centimeter and then blurry the specks the marks swirled in my vision and I felt weightless for a while. I starred at the clock and noticed it was about 4:00 am and cursed myself for going to that bar with Sarah I threw up all over my bed. I tried to grab the phone to call the paramedics but I fell and hit my head on my night stand. I passed out from the concussion i fell into a deep sleep a very deep sleep. Chapter 2 Change I wiped the crust out of my eyes and felt my head a sharp pain rippled thru my scalp it was a Gash about two inches in length. i walked into the bathroom I pulled the faucet but all that came out was a wisp of air. I snatched a baby wipe and cleaned off my face I cleaned my wound with alcohol the sting ive gotten used to I used to get hurt pretty bad in the army, I got shrapnel in my knee and they sent me home the first year. I noticed a dead silence on the street I thought they probably closed it off for some type of repair. I put on my white tee shirt and noticed its softness and how it fit snug on my semi-muscular figure I was in good shape for a twenty-four year old, my mom would always tell me most of the people in America are fat but I guess she loves to tell stereotypes for what they are. I put on my jeans and not forgetting the belt this time either. I snatched my keys off the kitchen counter and headed for the door. I walked outside and paused too look at the empty streets filled with litter and carnage . My mouth wide open in amazement I asked myself what happened and pondered the different reasons riot,panic,fire what could cause such a mess, I walked towards a police squad car and smelled something rancid I slowly proceeded, I instantly veered back in panic I could not believe what I saw a dead police officer lying face down with half a chunk blown clean off his head. There were pieces of it every where splattered on the windshield and door of the police car and some on the concrete. I instinctively inched towards him and thought to myself that something bad is happening and I need protection. I unhooked his holster off his waist and placed it on mine I pulled off his Kevlar vest and put it on weirdly enough it barely was messy or smelled bad. I checked the pockets of the vest and took out a pair of keys I knew it belonged to his squad car. I first popped open the trunk and saw it glistening in the sun a Ar-15 assault rifle. I picked it up and the memories of my army training it just instantly popped into my mind. I guess it applied the same here, I slung it around my back and walked into the silence. I took out the pistol put in the clip pulled the slide back and switched the safety off and cautiously held it. I believe the gun made me more nervous than whats in the shadows, I walked down the narrow street and saw it the skyline of the city filled with smoke and fire. I stood in anger and confusion my home town ravaged broken and charred blood stained the streets and walls, but why.....why....how could this... I mean what could....d..do such a thing. I walked away in the opposite direction and then cut into an alley way to piss and paused as I heard a roar I looked up and saw a quick glance of the belly of a apache attack craft it quickly zoom by and then another. I looked away and ran out of the alley and then down the street to see what direction they were heading. They sped towards the lake area and then I saw a tiny black object fall horizontally from the choppers belly and it slowly fell, then a explosion. I could feel the vibrations. the explosion ripped the lake area into nothing....nothing..but....but...smoke. My heart skipped a few beats thinking what if the next one falls in this area I quickly broke my daydream and bolted as fast as I could as far as I could until I saw a woman crawling on the concrete she was Moaning and holding her stomach. I came up behind her and asked for help. She turned on her back “ Sarah? Ohh my god sarah are you okay ?” and she held a gun in her hand a Glock 22 model the slide locked all the way back and no clip in the gun. I kicked it out of her and and sprung on her she begged for mercy “albert you have to stay away from me im turning” she saw that I was armed and quickly told me the gun was unloaded and that she was sorry she told me she would do anything just get away from her . I told her “Im not here to hurt anyone I just want to help” I starred at her beautiful figure her perfect face and thin hourglass body but ragged cloths and red eyes from crying. How and what did she go thru that could turn her into such a wreck. She got up and put her arm around my shoulder kissed me on the cheek and passed out. I dragged her to an fenced off alley where there was a mattress I put her down and sat next to her .she hugged me and began to cry she than jumped on top of me “Sarah what are you doing no we cant do this now no!” I told her I will help her but I dont think she understood a word I said. She looked at me in my eyes I could feel her touch my soul, her blue eyes glared in the sun. “i dont want to die alone please” I stood up nervously, I was concerned for her health when suddenly I heard a bang then felt a sharp pain in my leg. I collapsed in agony and saw the cause of my pain a bean bag round I looked up and saw a gas mask wearing figure he shot me with another bean bag round in the knee, from his shot gun he then walked over my numb body and. picked up both bean bag's and threw it aside two people in hazmat gear grabbed Sarah and took off her clothing I screamed “what are you doing to her!!!” they did not acknowledge me they looked at her body like they where searching for something. Her passed out figure limp as a rag doll they removed her pants then her underwear I screamed “No!! you son of a bitch don't do it ill kill you” they studied a bite mark on her upper thigh they made some type of hand signal and left. the soldiers then they came and started pouring gasoline on the mattress and her body. the one with the kriss super V took his cigarette out of his mouth and then flicked it at her it rolled of of her shapely belly and hit the mattress her body bursted into flames and she spasmed and kicked wildly. Then the man pointed it me and said in a British accent “ knock that fuckin Yankee an put em in da ACP double time, thoes hungry bastards are comin” Chapter 3 world gone mad I awoke on a bed in clean clothes and a hair cut. I stood up and walked into the hallway and noticed that this was a hospital. Suddenly a hand grabbed me. “aey where do you think your going ya damn runner rapist” I starred at him & his arrogant look and heavily customized ACR bushmaster. “get the fuck away from me im leaving what ever the hell this place is” he then sprung up and pushed the barrel of his ACR into my neck. “look if you want to get devoured by those runners be my guest buddy but dont go exposing this place to the infection” I looked at him like he was retarded “infection what infection and why the hell is the army bombing populated areas” he looked at me the same way. “ where were you 2 days ago ? There was a virus it was originally H1N1 but it evolved up to 10 times now its got Chicago by the balls and its spreading across the world as we speak turning everyone into animals devouring and ripping people to shreds and then the virus takes over the dead body and brings it back as a runner also know as a fresh undead body that has the ability to run or sometimes sprint god forbid but after 2-4 weeks without food the tissue breaks down from constant use without fuel and they start to get slow and shuffle around” my mind felt overwhelmed I wondered how my parents were doing in Dallas. “so what am I supped to do here but be a waste of space” he grinned. “well you obviously know how to use a weapon and our records say you have been in the military. you cant take care of yourself out there so we will make you part of out kill squad. “kill squad ?” “ohh shit you mean you have never killed or seen any infected yet ? that means your fresh you can be put to good use in our kill team” he told me his name was henry the specialist of his team kill team Charlie-mike. He directed me to the staff sergeant who looked at me and said “well well well we got some fresh meat hope you ready for 3 months of hard core trainin cuz this wont be easy now get yo ass in the garage and clean every APC tire the armory I think the kill teams ran over a little too much runners” 3 Months later........ the training was more rigorous than the basic military stuff a the armory where there was at least a 100 others conversing and grabbing into boxes of gear. Henry took me to the gunny of the armory where he helped me choose my gear. I picked up dragon skin Kevlar with implanted ceramic & alloy inserts. I took some gloves which I cut the fingers of. My boots where the basic digital camo color probably a left over from the war in Iraq which ended several years ago when our president simply drew the troops out. And European troops and some Russians finished off the big time terrorists soon after we heard no more from any our genocidal efforts finally payed off. I went to the weapon stand where I had to fill out a ID sheet to make sure they knew I had training with combat rifles. I chose the ACR which was in stock by the thousands as a gift from the weapon companies to the American army. I pulled all the safety clips and then grabbed a eotech scope out of a box and locked it onto the rail system of the weapon. I attached a mag pull the every one of my carbon strength reinforced clips. The gunny looked at me with a grin and we left for briefing. Chapter 4 things get messy we met up in the garage of the hospital every runner hunter of this kill force a total of 300 men and women in the huge elevated parking complex of the hospital, a general arrived in the elevator his chrome glasses shined in the evening light so did the many badges pinned on his suit which fit his old figure rather awkwardly. he had two formally dressed men with him they both had desert eagles on there side holsters but the general had a FN 2000 slung around his back. it was worn and scratched its polymer body was embedded with and insignia that I did not see so well as it was obscured by the scuffs and grime he looked at us and smiled his mouth opened and he flung his cigar off the ledge of the building he then begun and explained in a dominant voice. “there are 40 spec op Humvee's set up in formation ready to patrol the streets of Chicago you all will be in sector 6 the most dangerous sector of Chicago but no need to worry we have full fledged firepower of 4 APC's which will Carrie your kill team to your objectives take as much time as needed the runners arent going any where. you will clear the sears tower area a hot spot for runners. look all you men and woman, its time to revolt and fight back. its time to say we will not be scared, we will not be intimidated, we will win back our freedom!!” the whole complex light up with cheer. As the two men in formal wear took out PDA's and started directing people to there kill teams the first man shouted “ Chavez,Williams,buck, and,Samson go to APC #1” I quickly advanced thru the crowd to APC 1 I slowed my pace and saw its matte paint job of digital camo and its pop up dillan machine gun turret mounted on top. I pounded on its steel behind and its back door unlatched I stood waiting for the rest of my team I saw all three walking in a line towards the door I saw him ,the man with the kriss super V he smiled at me and said “no fuckin way you tha yankee we picked up in tha alley way you mad cus we killed your little runner girlfriend” I sprung towards him and grabbed his collar and punched him in the stomach then elbowed him in the mouth all the color drained out of his face. “ if you wouldn't of shot me with a fucking bean bag I would of blown your brains out back at the alley” he looked at me and with blood dripping down his mouth “i was just doing my job. welcome to foxtrot 3 by my names john samson you can just call me hunter” I let him go and he limped into the APC then another walked towards me he wore a Grey baklava and tight fitting clothing and a vest that barely covered his chest which awkwardly bulged out he walked towards me and took off the mask. She looked at m surprised face and said “what ? a woman cant be in the military” “well I..I...I just did not expect to have such a high rank personnel on our team” she looked at me and frowend “were both specialists grade one my names Kelly williams” “a heavily armored male in a hijab walked towards me playfully he came up to me and pulled off his hijab he was a African American . “hey specialist now look Im basically here to keep the moral you catch me ? I was in the navy im Ricky buckman Just call me squid now what do you want to go by kid?” I smiled “echo” “nice choice” Albert “echo” chavez I thought in my head I figured that sounds good. We all jumped in the APC while a kill team of rangers in a heavy Humvee with a mounted sentry gun rolled behind us as the whole convoy of kill force 6 prepared for battle. I thought about all my training aim for the head,short controlled bursts a shot anywhere else just stunned them. They move fast so they have to be neutralized if you get bitten or infected kill yourself with the poison capsule that was given or a team mate would do it. I grabbed a Kukri blade off the weapon rack that was provided in the APC I looked at its razor sharp edge its brushed steel surface reflected no light I sheathed it and strapped it to my leg. I caught the eye of Kelly who was fiddling around with the UAV control panel she looked at me and smiled. The APC's lights blinked red prompting us that we are in a hot zone. The APC vibrated as the co pilot took out a pack of runners with the Dillon remote controlled mini gun. We all loaded our weapons and packed up some ammo. Hunter and squid looked at each other and they bumped fists. I put a clip in my ACR and cocked it I turned on the eotech scope and strapped on my helmet and then slid on a black baklava. The APC driver prompted a alarm which was the signal that the door was opening, the big metal door slowly lowered its platform to the ground and we all got out Kelly was the last one out she grabbed that control panel and slid it into her bag she ran out and flipped the close button on the APC. We met up with the four other teams in our sector who already exited there Humvee's. A black Humvee that I never knew was in the convoy rode up and a military adviser jumped out and barked orders like some scared little dog and then jumped back in glad that he wasn't us. He positioned eight snipers on the roof who where each divided into teams of four they zip lined up the roofs and soon each team where picked up by two little bird helicopters the rest of us where on the ground either Humvee calvary hit teams or long range grenade support foxtrot was positioned on the magnificent mile at least it was magnificent. We cautiously walked down the street with another team of 6 watching our back and little birds with snipers covering us and telling us where the nearest pack is. It was empty until we got a report a pack of twenty runners where heading straight for us about 3 blocks away we had about a minute to prepare, snipers took out some and only six broke there steady aim and where 5 feet away, I drew my weapon and just before I could fire a Humvee rammed half the pack of runners over my team shot at there heads to finish them off . I stunted back and fell startled by a runner with broken legs dragging its smelly corpse towards me, my team did not even notice as they where pre occupied with finishing off the pack it grabbed my boot and pulled itself onto my chest I pushed it back and hunter tackled it and shot it once it grazed its ear he then rad up to it and curb stomped its head in over and over, like an egg it crunched under his boot he then walked towards me and picked me up and then our comm's screeched with a danger code: sector red REPEAT SECTOR RED!! this is not a drill!! squid looked at Kelly “OH shit radio the APC radio the APC!!” Kelly hastily radioed the APC and it arrived around the corner ASAP she got in and took the panel out of her backpack all the rangers got back in there Humvee's and formed up a line of vehicle's and the APC was in front we all jumped in and squid popped open 3 of the four combat hatches. We took stance and poked our body's out of the hatches while Kelly was typing away at the panel. “Kelly get us that predator drone NOW!!” “on it Echo..about.....NOW!! get ready for some boom boom boys” she said over the comm a predator drone deployed from a building somewhere and roared across the city's night sky. The little birds shot flares into out immediate area and the military advisor said nervously over the comm “formation green zone ASAP make space for one more hummer!!” his hummer screeched into our circle formation at the middle of the block intersection. We all could hear the uproar and the screaming rage of the Runners it was 9:00 PM and my stomach dropped as runners came at us from every angle swarming in between all the vehicles as we took out as much as we can the advisor yelled. “Break formation head for lane 3 of sector 5 Kelly yelled “but thats a dead end we have no where to go !!” “exactly now MOVE !!” we hastily rammed out way thru the crowd of runners it was easily about 200 to 300 runners we reached the street which was a dead end it was blocked by a collapsed building from all the beach bombing runs. We waited for 5 minutes until we saw it our doom three times as much runners appeared and headed for the convoy. The driver looked bewildered “Get ready im breaking position” he advanced the APC towards the crowd its massive tires gripping the rubble and concrete so agile and quick. He opened fire the Dillon mini gun until there was not one round left. the APC swiveled madly like a dog chasing its tail, all the blood and body matter stuck to the tire made it impossible to control. The whole interior rocked forward on impact with the flipped car. suddenly a screech and the APC flipped over on its side. the runners ignored the APC and went for the group of Humvee's ripping the rangers out that had not locked there Humvee door and devouring them. We herd the screams despite layer after layer of Kevlar and Armour of the APC. My radio started to squawk. “ Pindad Panser down repeat,flipped on its side calling in little bird for support !! bring in UH-60 shadow for medivac ASAP!” I groaned in pain the impact was hard,i could taste blood in my mouth my world was spinning. my team mates did not move they where all laying face down. I soon passed out Chapter 5 delta crimson “Delta crimson GO GO GO !!” I awoke in a sweat, I felt normal again I wiped my blood crusted face off. I leaned up and saw them. “Squid Kelly Hunter Your all alive !” hunter smiled “the crowds not givin up. Hurry mate we got to get outta this APC or crimson is just gonna have to save us” Crimson was an elite rescue squad of some of the best rescue force members in the military marines,rangers,green berets, you name em they can save you. Suddenly we heard the roar of helicopters. Then the door of the APC light up and blew of its hinges a soldier in a crimson baklava shined a light me and my team he latched two metal hooks onto our APC and then the helicopter lifted us into the air, this vehicle the best attack helicopter crafted by the engineer crew over at Hudson base they called it the Shadow because thats all it was, a quick killer in the night. A man made machine manufactured to kill and thats what it was best at. I broke for the chopper and jumped in then squid then Kelly it started to take off right before it left ground hunter grabbed the bay door and climbed in. “forgetting something ?” He threw me my ACR bushmaster which started to look like the generals FN 2000 it was scuffed and marked in every crack and crease. A crimson medivac specialist handed us some refreshments and snacks he said he picked it up at his last raid. He gave me some meds, adrenalin shots use them as a last resort of energy he said. I looked at squid who was holding his dog tag “ man echo you see how that APC flipped on us I almost crapped my pant's” I laughed at the joke even if its not funny my team needs the moral. I looked it the pilot he caught my stare. “where going to the main objective” I sighed and looked away hunter looked at me and made some type of hand signal. “hey Kelly you think we could of died back there” “easily hunter luckily the runners did not find our APC interesting” I looked over at Kelly who was looking at the cracked screen of the control panel. “hey Kelly what all did you use that panel for” “i saved the whole platoon with this thing while you where taking a nap, now its gone and base is a long fly away. The screen broke when the APC flipped. And the predator drone crashed without me controlling it” “damn, nothing good ever lasts long does it” “well echo thats not true your still alive aren't you ?” I we both smiled and when the happiness broke it was back to work. chapter 6 Raid The shadow landed on the roof of a building about 3 blocks away from objective R.R.T.R (runner ruled territory raid) our forces had to kill all runners and take back the sears tower. Kelly was stationed on the roof with hundreds of other snipers .with her barret M82 which ripped into 2 to 3 runners at a time with its large caliber amour piercing rounds. Military advisors sent Ground troops they marched the streets for the main attack on the R.R.T (runner ruled territory). Soldiers of all pact creed and faction marched side by side. the ISF (Iraqi Security Forces) the IRA (Irish Republican Army) even the CIA and DEA forces were marching along with whole police precincts including the bulk of the U.S military. This battle was inevitable and we are going to win.

Topic by albylovesscience   |  last reply


BJT vs MOSFET? Answered

-- background: In my perpetual pursuit for designing the best, cheapest, & best performing flyback (line transformer) driver, I've decided to try out some big BJTs, which appear to have higher voltage & current ratings @ considerably lower cost. In the past, I have tried MJE3055's, which work OK, and allow the generation of thin blue arcs from a 12V supply for a few minutes until the transistor dies due to high voltage kickback or overheating. The FDP33N25 gives good results but is somewhat unreliable at 24V. So I decided to give these alluring "PHE13009" 400V 12A rated NPN BJT's a try. However driving the transistor adequately seems to be the problem. (I didn't realize these transistors would require like 5A base current w/ only HFe of 2!) It seems like almost all the "good" driver schematics utilize large $$$ FETs or even IGBTs, but almost every CRT, plasma globe, and ballast (SMPS) I took apart seem to prefer high power BJTs probably due to this exact cost difference. I was only able to get simalar performance to my 33N25 MOSFET when I stuck an additional TIP120 in as an additional darlington stage, which worked very nicely (white hot arcs) for about 1 second, then it popped! :( Since the collectors are tied together they are all exposed to >200V transients, I am sure that's what killed it. I substituted that transistor for another PHE13009 to see what would happen and with a third driving stage (2N2222) I could get somewhat acceptable results but I know I can do better. >:) - My actual questions:  * The GDP of this transistor is 40MHz, seems fast to me. (certainly faster than the 2MHz GDP of the 2N3055 which works well in my slayer exciter.) and MOSFETs have significant gate charge. ECE2630 glossed over transistors mentioning BJTs are faster, (small signal ones, anyway :P ) and some internet sources agree, but I am finding lots of sources saying the opposite! What's the deal? Which one "faster?"  * How to traditional BJTs compare to IBGTs? Which are faster/better? The datasheet for this transistor explicitly mentions its use for "high frequency ballast and switch mode applications" which implies that it is well suited for my needs. It also includes a several inductor test circuits, but other than that the datasheet is pretty bare-bones.  I'm actually a little disappointed the HFe is so low (around 2-3) @ >10A. I may require more windings on my primary and a 48v supply. (not ideal) * I know I will dissipate a little more heat due to the base current, and something I didn't consider was heat dissipated in the resistor biasing/controlling the base. (like 12V at several amps just to drive the damn thing!!) so it is worth the cost benefit of $0.5? Is there a configuration I could use that makes driving the transistor easier?

Question by -max-   |  last reply


convert any CRT TV or monitor into a vector (XY) monitor?

NOTE: I since found a couple links that might shed some light on the question... From HackIt: New uses for old CRT monitors http://hackaday.com/2008/02/25/hackit-new-uses-for-old-crt-monitors/ It would be very hard to do, but it is possible a CRT could be converted to a vector monitor. Perfect for playing Asteroids, perhaps under MAME. You would have to replace all the control circuits, probably with an FPGA and three ADCs (x/y/intensity). Posted at 8:58 am on Feb 25th, 2008 by MoJo Television and PC monitor experiments http://www.educypedia.be/electronics/televisionexperiments.htm old cga/vga monitor to oscilloscope ? http://www.edaboard.com/ftopic57853.html The inquiry: Maybe I am over-simplifying but I was reading one of those examples of hacking into a CRT's horizontal & vertical yoke controls to sync to music:     http://geektechnique.org/projectlab/707/how-to-make-mac-se30-audio-visualizers and had the idea that it should be possible to create a DIY XY monitor (vector display like on an oscilloscope, Vectrex, Asteroids, etc.) for an Arduino or other uC, MAME or Vectrex emulator, from any TV or CRT, once you have hacked into the electron gun's yokes. My understanding being: Raster display: the horizontal yoke (an electromagnet) sweeps the electron gun from left to right turning on the beam wherever there's a "pixel" at that line (which lights up the phosphor at that point making it visible), then it starts over at the next line (vertical yoke moves down) and draws the next line, and so on, Vector display: instead of rendering a moving image frame-by-frame using top to bottom/left to right scanning, shapes are drawn directly to the screen by positioning the horizontal & vertical yokes at the starting point, the beam turns on, and the yokes repoint to the end point, thus "drawing" the line inbetween the 2 points (I would assume this is for straight lines, not sure if circles or arcs are possible?) then the beam turns off, and the yokes get re-positioned to the next line's starting point. I'm not sure what turns the beam on & off or what kind of timing might be involved, obviously that needs to be controlled somehow. Or for color, where instead of a single white (or green, amber, etc) phosphor exists per pixel, there are multiple (red, green, blue) per pixel, and the beam hits each one at varying strengths (or for a varying length of time?) to 'mix" the primaries to the desired color? I'm not sure how that gets handled in a color vector monitor, but I would assume it's something similar to raster? So if we can hack into a CRT's X/Y yokes and move them around with an audio signal, can we control the yokes more deliberately from a microcontroller to plot specific shapes or text, hence a vector display? For those audio/TV hacks, what is the audio signal doing to the yokes that causes them to move? Whatever it is - voltage, resistance, etc - this is what our device would have to control. Possible proof of concept version: make a device to control the yokes' position etch-a-sketch style with a couple of potentiometers, and turn on the beam with a switch or button. If you see a dot of light moving across the screen then it works. I am thinking the controller might need to be "calibrated" for the individual CRT? (Maybe build some kind of calibration mode into the device.) You might dedicate a microcontroller to driving the display - it could receive text or vector shape coordinates via serial, store the shapes to draw in its own memory, and persist or refresh the image independently, freeing up processing power for whatever device it's displaying for. Another idea would be maybe add some kind of way to read light pen's coordinates, thus making the CRT an input device that can be read from the microcontroller or PC (the Vectrex had a light pen right?)  [This would be a cool mod for the Arduino composite TVout as well.] So is this idea possible without a ridiculous amount of work & parts?  I may be dead wrong about how this stuff works (I'm sure that if this was possible, someone would have done it by now?) but figured it can't hurt** to put the idea out there. I have visions of 4-player vector Arduino pong, Asteroids, Tempest, PDP-1 Spacewar!, vector NES Duck Hunt, a vector etch-a-sketch or lightpen drawing or animation program, or vector Atari Video Music. Possibly an open source color vector games system. Or just a vector display system for any Arduino or microcontroller project, made from any TV. **WARNING: maybe it CAN hurt... Evidently hacking into any CRT can be deadly, you have to discharge the CRT and capacitors properly or you can get killed. So please be careful. This definitely is NOT for kids to try at home.

Question by apple-o   |  last reply


Bee sting thearapy - a natural alternative to classic medication?

A lot of medications we use originally came directly from nature.Like chewing on some inner bark from a beech tree - it contains natural "asperin".And even potent medicine started by sourcing the natural stuff until we managed to created it all in the lab.Poisons from plants and animals are in many cases still the backbone of modern medicine - including opiates like morphine.It is then no real surprise that the long forgotten bee sting therapy makes a big comeback these days.Forgotten only in the mordern, western world - in Asia it was and still is part of the normal medical approach for many people.So what is it all about and how does it actually work?A little bee gives her life so you get treatment....And if we trust modern medicine from just under 10 years ago this is where the story would end.Thankfully we did not stop there once more and more people spread the word about the benefits of their treatment.Social media helped a lot here for once.Be it inflammatory deseases, nerve pain, arthritis and much more - you are certain to find people providing evidence that their condition improved noticable.In some case they even claim to be cured from their problems.What they all have in common though is that they all started like you and me: Fully of scepticism...With nothing to loose and no doctor giving you any real relief you might get desperate to try all sorts of weird things, so why not bees!?So far a bee sting therapist is just your normal bee keeper, but one with a passion for both the bees and your suffering.There is neither a need for doctor nor a need for a doctor to start as a bee keeper.Their knowledge of where to place the bee on you comes mostly from feedback and experience.Although a lot if quite obvious.Like when you have sever pain from arthitis in your elbow then that is the area were get stung and not in your leg ;)Sience is starting to take all this serious now and some studies try to figure out how and what actually is in the poison that helps better than any medicine and without any noteworthy side effects.I say notewroth because the obvious risk of a shock reaction is always there.But even you never got stung by a bee before and don't know if you are allergic: All bee sting therapists have an epi pen at hand for those unknown cases.Evidence shows the bee venom has good anti inflamatory properties, however what component is responsible for this is still largly unknown.Patient obvervations and tons of blood tests also revealed that the continued bee sting therapy attack the bodies systems in a very positive way.The immune system goes into to overdrive but what targets the poision or venom also targets and attacks a lot of related things that out of level or control otherwise.The body also produces endorphines and a generally stronger immune reaction to other things.Again, evidence is there, the lab proves it, but why and what exactly is still a huge mystery to science.And it flies anayway!You might know the old problem of aeronautic students when the task comes why or how a bumblebee is able to fly.Physics tell us the wings are too small, the body too fat and the overall weight just impossible.Sadly no bumblebee has even the slightest clue about physics or even earonatutical desgin, so it just flies off and does whatever a bumblebee needs to do these days....The story for the bee sting therapy is quite similar.We know it works for many things, we know it shouldn't and that it does it anyway.But does that mean you should try it out to end you pain or at least get some relief?Do be stung or not to be stung - that is the question...Unless you are allergic you have nothing to loose here once you think about it.So you, like so many before, might just start some internet search to find out more.And if it happens to be something other people already reported the treatment was beneficial your doubts might fade away and you dare to try it.Some of the stories you find are just a hype with things those who posted can never prove.So don't fall something exotic and expect that it will work for you just because you found a single article or posting saying so.Not because it might not work!Just because nothing is worse than getting your hopes and expectations up with nothing happening at all.Either way the cases of relief right away are few, in almost all cases it takes several rounds of therapy before the patient notices anything that couldn't come from simply hoping it works.Once it does though the effects are usually great.For mayn it is last ditch attempt but it does not have to be that way.Pain killers and other drugs might help you good enough and you wouldn't consider killing a bee for a test....Why not?Again: You have nothing to loose ;)Medication is good, nature is better!If ever switched from some expensive medicine to a generic brand than chance are you noticed they work differently or in some case not enough or with worse side effects.The same is true for the basic, natural product.We can, for example create the raspberry ketone in the lab and we know it the stuff giving us the nice raspberry smell.But the artificial produt has suprisingly little smell and even less taste than the original...Like all natural venoms, posion and toxins, bee stings give you a cocktail of ingredients.The artificial product only what was identified to be the most beneficial.Science has shown over and over again that a lot of these cocktails contain things that prevent the negative effects of the artificial counterpart.Does not mean though anyone ever bothered to include these in the recipe for the created meds..."What does not kill you makes you stronger!"We use this phrase for a lot of things but in terms of natural healing ways it is often more ture than for anything else.Bee keepers use protection but you won't find any who does not get stung on a more or less daily base.They don't bother with the little pain anymore and most might even tell you that apart from the initial sting they don't really feel it anymore.What is even more interesting is if you have a chat with them about the general health.It is hard to find any bee keeper that suffers regulary from a cold or flu, let alone infections.Back before we had things like penicilling or anesthetics we had much more people knowing what nature can offer to help us.Pharma companies are exploiding nature wherever they can to make money with "new" medicines and "discovieries".Bee keepers won't ;)They won't even charge you much, some are already happy if you buy a pot of honey or wax candles while being treated.But as said, it is neither a miracle, nor something anyone "must" try out!Never expect any, especially quick, benefit!You deserve to be sceptic and only get your hopes up once or better if you see a real benefit over time.Just have a look at your daily dose of medications and how much it helps you - including the side effects.If you say that enough is enough then do your own bit of research first.Try to find people with your condition that got help from bee sting therapy, at least their online presence or testimonials.In case all adds up good and positive you can cosider to try it yourself without expecting anything.And, well, if does help you too then fel free to spread the word...

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


UV filtration in your fish tank or small fish pond

Year after year the topic "I have a fish tank" seems to go more out of control. What was once a hobby just to have some fish can now be a design feature both in your home and inside the tank. Realistic looking lasdscapes, optical illusions that make you think the tank is much bigger and the list goes on. But one thing that now always pops up is the must have thing of UV filtration. Or to be precise: UV-C sterilisation! Now, if we trust Wiki and our big water suppliers then UV-C will literally kill anything alive that comes into contact with. So of course it would be a good thing to have for your tank - or not? UV-C is very dangerous for your eyesight and quite harmful for your skin! Looking into a proper UV-C lamp without protection means you can go blind! Even good sunglasses might not have enough protection in the UV-C range, so only use them for additional protection but never without and glass between you and the lamp! Don't be a fool! Treat UV-C seriously! You would not look into the full sun with your sunglasses and would not expose your eyes or skin to a powerful laser, UV-C is to be treated the same way! Let's start by using some boring text to explain the concept a little bit. On a large scale special and quite powerful systems are used to treat our drinking or pool water. Here special UV-C lights with a wavelenghts of 260nm or below are used to shine through the water passing by. There are two key factors here. a) the wavelenght b) the water flow rate and the corresponding time the water is in contact with the UV light To ensure all bacteria, viruses, algae and other harmful organics are dead the water must circulate for long enough so even the last water molecule had a few seconds of exposure. All this only works good with "crystal clear" water for obvious reasons as otherwise the UV has to be even more powerful to pass through. Single cell organisms literally crack into pieces similar to being exposed to gamma rays, more complex cells like algae have their cell membranes damages and the DNA suffers as well causing reproduction loss and early death. Even some chemicals break down, most importantly here chlorine based substances. Differences within the UV-C range! If you bothered to check Wiki about the topic of UV-C you will already know that only certain wavelengths within this spectrum will actuall be powerful enough to do what we want it to do. And here is the first problem for us hobby users. Most cheaply advertised "sterlisation lamps" you find in places like Ebay are actually totally useless. Stating to be selling a UV-C light to sterilze your water in such a case is still not considered to be fraud though. Simply because it still does what it supposed to do, just very slow and with very little effect. Only the so called "short wave" UV-C range is powerful enough! To avoid loosing business during the times of the biggest hype in 20 years no seller will actuall state the available wavelengths. That means without this info anywhere you can be certain the advertised lamp is of little to no use. Even those advertised to be short wave UV-C might not be the real deal. However, if a decent manufacturer is behind the actual lamp used it is possible to check the datasheet for these performance figures - but again most cheap systems come with no-name lamps inside. Check the prices for a reputable UV-C light with the same lamp fitting, e.g. G23 and you will see it might cost more than your entire system. Ok, you have a poper short wave UV-C lamp or consider getting a canister filter with one in it.... Never, ever test your lamp without proper protection!!!!! UV-C will damage your eye within seconds! If you system or lamp does not provide a viewing port or shine through area then you have to place a piece of glass between you and the light! UV-C won't be able to penetrate normal window glass but will pass through quartz glass. Place the lamp in a box and cover with the glass. How make proper use of UV-C sterilisation... The replacement lights are quite expensive, so let's see how to get the most out of them. As said before exposure is the key factor so the flow rate of the UV system must match tank size and flow rate of your filter system. Canister filters with a build in lamp should be designed to match but I will tell you later what to look for ;) Most of us will prefer to have a in-line system if there is already a good canister filter at work, so I will focus on those and rop in solutions. If you compare in-line system you might notice that some quite small and low power units claim to allow for the same flow rates as for example 40W units. Some are fraud and just want to sell while others use simple physics to make the claim true. A good system will utilise an auger like "ramp" that forces the water to circulate around the tube many times - causing up to ten times longer exposure rates. Others create this sprial effect more like a vortex with some diverters and modified inlets. The later seems to be less efficient though with low power lamps. An in-line system should be on the outlet side of your canister filter so the best quality water will pass through it. A drop in solution should be used alone and without the existing normal filter pump you might have in there. Ok, got it, but how do I actually use it now? Despite common thinking a UV-C system should not run 24/7 like your normal filter. You really only need it to solve problems you should not have in a healthy tank! It is not a magical solution to make your underlaying problems go away ;) Let's start with the most common reason someone buys a UV-C system: An algae or bacterial outbreak causing greenish or milky water. If that developed slowly over a period of weeks then you would be better off to do a good clean of the tank and filter plus a decent water exchange. A few drops of meds will do the rest. And if you constantly get algae growing on your glass, ornaments and plants then your nutrient levels and water quality is not right anyway and needs a good check. But of course there is also the problem of light - too much for too long and unwanted gree appears everywhere. If in doubt reduce the light power, shade out natural light or reduce the on time for your lights. Having said that we now face the problem of a sudden outbreak after introducing new fish or plants. If you don't have a quarantaine tank chances are that sooner or later you get unwanted or even harmful guest into your tank. Here the UV-C will be beneficial, which is why a canister filter with build in light should have a seperate switch or power supply for the light. After an outbreak or while introducing new life into your tank the UV-C will remove a lot of the things that we don't want to bring along. For new life I leave the light on non stop for a week, that is for a small 4ft tank with 200 liters. To control an outbreak it depends on how bad it is. I assume here you can still see the back of your tank  but that the water either appears greenish or slightly milky from bacteria. As a personal thing I prefer to to remove and clean my filter material before treating a severe outbreak. Once done I fill the filter with a mix of activate carbon material and fine filter wool. Reason for this quite simple: The outbreak causing stuff is already in your filter material and will be a constant source of re-infection. And since breaking down all this bad stuff causes even more bad stuff to be produced as biological waste we want to discard it properly once done. Using just fine filter wool and activated carbon also reduces the flow rate bit if compacted ;) Now we can turn on the light and pump and forget about it for a while. It is not recommended to run UV lights on a timer as you want them on all time to prevent short lifespan and have ongoing treatment of the water. Good idea to take a picture at the same of a day from now on to compare and check results. After 3 days the water should definately be clearer, if not then either your filter material is packed too losse or the lamp is no good. Once the water appears to be clear do a readin test - take a newspaper behind the tank and check if the text is clear - blurry means the water is still not clean. You will reach a point where the water quality will not further improve as much as in the days before. This is the time where you discard or clean out to dry your filter material and put the original stuff back in. The activated carbon should be discarded of course. You cleaned filter material will now need a certain time to grow enough good bacteria to go back to the old performance. During this time you should still leave the light on. In most cases with enough fish and plants in the tank a week should be sufficient. After that you can leave the light off and keep the tank fit and healthy. Special case: Algae everywhere! Especially after getting a new plant you can end up with quite pesty algae growth. Be it these long ghost hair types or in a bad case the black stuff growing on plants, ornaments and the glass. I have even seen tanks with algae covering the entire bottom of the tank causing the gravel to look like carpet. Here I can only advise to set up a quarantaine tank for your fish. Then remove all infested material for manual removal and cleaning. Infested plants should be cut clean and what can be boiled should be boiled in water for a few minutes. Now start scrubbing in the tank with ongoing water replacements. I prefer to let everything settle over night without any bubbler or pump running. This way I can suck up a lot of sediment the next day. If you can remove all plants and fish you can now use hydrogen peroxide and add it to your tank water. But this is only feasable for small desktop tanks. Before using the UV as above to cure an outbreak you should consider all water one last time. Allow at least 2 weeks with ongoing water checks before adding plants back in and another week before placing your fish back in the tank. The week before adding fish should be used to monitor the plats for any signs of algae you might have missed - if you find any remove it! A week after the fish is back in you can turn off the UV light. Underwater UV-C light!? In most online stores you will find quite cheap UV lights to be advertised as underwater or in tank use. Although it might sound tempting you should be well aware of the dangers of using them. The glass of your tank will block the harmfull UV rays but the water surface won't, so either don't ever look at it or use proper sunglasses with real UV protection. Apart from the dangers to you these lamps are not just cheap in price but also cheaply produced. That means there is no way of telling how much or how little UV-C is produced. If they are good then you still need to know in what type of tank setup you can use them. As plants can tolerate a bit of UV a placement as far away from the nearest plant should do, especially if you can place a bubble wall betwenn light and plants. The fish is another thing as some seem to be unaware of the danger in their tank. This means they can get too close to the light but I have not found any articles explaining how harmful UV-C is to fish or their eyesight. I guess once your fish starts to bounce into everything you know... ;) My advise is to stay away from the idea of hanging a UV-C lamp in your tank, the risk for you and your tank is just not justified. If you need to go cheap then get two or thre of these lamps so you have spares. But use them externally ;) Meaning: Take a UV proof plastic container of small size and place the light in there. To be really safe tape the lid and all holes for the hoses with black tape. Place the container above the water level of your tank and if you only have an internal filter pump push a suitable sized hose into the outlet to feed into you canister. Check how high you pump can make it and place the outlet or overflow slightly below this level. When to change the light? If you made it all the way down here then you might already had the benefit of using light to "cure" your tank. Now we are faced with the high replacement cost for the lamp itself. Ususally only flouroscent tubes are used. It is always good to check after purchase what type of lamp and manufacturer (if there is one) was used. In some cases the system itself is like an inkjet printer: Just a cheap way to make you buy the consumables. Let's say you new in-line filter was priced at $100 to have a nice round number, some are cheaper some much more expensive. The lamp used might be an exotic type and not even be available easy, so before you buy your system check where you can get spares, not just the lamp of course. A replacement lamp can be as ceap as 20 bucks or cost even more than your system if you need to order it elsewhere. The quartz glass sleeve can break too meaning you then need a lamp and cylinder. Going with a reputable brand and paying a bit more certainly helps to get spares in the future. Let's just assume you either got your system in bulk due to the price of replacement lamps or can get them at a reasonable price. UV-C lamps are not like your normal flouroscent light tubes you have around or maybe even on top of your tank. Consider them like the tubes used in the now unhealthy tanning beds. After a certain amount of time they no longer produce enough of the short wave UV light that we need. As you can't see it and most of us won't have the means to specifically measure it we have to trust manufacturers recommendations. For most good brands the numbers are the same: 8000 hours max. Considering the costs it does make sense to keep written track of the usage. Not too hard since we won't use them like normal lights but instead have them on for a week or more without turning them off. I recommend to have a replacement at hand long before you need it. A lamp can fail premature, crack or simply burn out. The 8000 hours are based on 24 hour usage, so one day on, one day off. This could mean for us the lifetime can be slightly longer but I would not go over 9000 hours. As a rule of thumb: If the water does not show good signs of getting clear on day thre the lamp is due.

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply