Search for low frequency in Topics


Low frequency amp? Answered

For a future project (blue barrel infra sub woofer with ducted fan) I'm already looking for parts. I see most amplifiers and amp chips (like the TDA7294) have a frequency response usually 20 - 20,000 Hz. But I'm interested in a range from 0- ca 40 Hz. As far as I understand, the low cutoff is to protect the driver (speaker). Would it be possible to circumvent the low cutoff, or would I have to build from scratch? (I'm thinking in a 70 - 150 W RMS range).

Question by BobS    |  last reply


Questions about computer stereos

Hi! I'm building a portable amplifier from old computer-speakers and I have a couple of questions about them. 1. How do I make the stereo-speakers mono the best way? 2. Is it possible to make low- and high-pass filters to a simple amplifier as the computer ones? I thought I'd connect one bigger speaker (a whopping 5" one!) to amplify the low frequencies and one small to amplify the high frequencies. This would work the best with a 1-channel amp. Thank you in advance, hope you understand what I'm looking for! P.S. Please move the thread if it is in the wrong category, wasn't sure if it suited better under "music" or "tech".

Topic by Henell    |  last reply


Variable frequency generator? Answered

I'm looking for a way to build a simple frequency generator that generates high and low frequencies. I was thinking of using a POT to control the frequency range. I looked for it all around but the search didn't help much.

Question by matokage    |  last reply



4017 low frequency Digital clock generator / Oscillator Answered

Hi to all! I need to "feed" a digital clock pulses to a CD4017 decade counter. It should be possibly with only 1 active component and very, VERY few passives components around. It should give 1 to 30 pulse/second rate. FIxed frequency oscillator. It needs to be simplest, for the space constraints I have. Do anybody knows if it is possible? ;-) 

Question by mario59    |  last reply


How oscillators work?

Why oscillators like wien bridge oscillator or RC phase shift oscillator gives only sinusoidal waves instead of triangle waves or square waves of particular frequency. Please dont explain about multi-vibrators . Also please say how to differentiate between low frequency oscillator and high frequency oscillator. By using any value of R(resistance) and C(capacitance) i will be able to get any frequency(high or low) by substituting in respective formula. But what makes one to judge a oscillator as high frequency or low frequency.

Question by deepakmurali    |  last reply


FM Transmitter mod help

Does anybody have any idea how to modify a car FM transmitter for an mp3 player so that it will transmit in frequencies other than the low and high extremes built into it? Also would it somehow be possible to make it transmit to all FM frequencies at the same time? If someone could help me out with this I would really appreciate it.

Topic by kurdiz    |  last reply


Frequency driver HV generator circuit Answered

Dear all... At this circuit please help me to know: - How many cycle (frequency)and duty cycle : time high and low  (percent) for  better driver this circuit. Sorry for more question.If I change other transformer (ferrite core)and driver by 555 timer, frequency  and duty cycle must   be modifier or not ?                                      Thank you in advance

Question by lam    |  last reply


Low pass filter on LED Music Controller

I've purchased following controller: http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/131775427312 I was wondering whether it was possible to create a lowpass filter with potmeter, so that the LED only will be changing to the low frequencies?

Topic by FrederikH5    |  last reply


Voltage controlled low pass filter with resonance schematics, anyone? Answered

Can anyone provide a link or schematic for an audio low-pass filter with resonance, with the low pass frequency able to be controlled with varying voltage? I'm hoping to make something like the moogerfooger, but I don't need an envelope filter.

Question by aelias36    |  last reply


can laser be used as a frequency source for a photodiode which can act as a transmitter/oscillator? Answered

Photodiode induce current when a light of paricular wavelenth/frequency  strikes on them..laser have a high frequency and low wavelenth......instead of light but electromagnetic waves,can it act as a source of frequency on photodiode hence making a oscillator????

Question by arihant    |  last reply


Help...how to get more sound by ionizing a gas with high frequency?

So i am trying to make a geiger counter (if you don't know what it is...search it) and i'm kinda getting somewhere, but there is a problem. i need to get more sound out of the bulb i'm ionizing, i am ionizing it with very high frequency and low voltage (very low) and i connected it to some speakers that i have (they run on they'r own battery so i need only signal) but its very quite and i need to make it more... louder. So how do i do it? i'm kinda guessing i have to connect the input wire on parallel or in series with some batteries to the bulb so the high freq voltage or current would get up, and i also will put a potentiometer to get it to the stage before ionization so.... yeah thats all......thnx for all answers. (English isn't my first language btw)

Question by onepiece94    |  last reply


Electric Lady - High Frequency Power Supply?

I saw an electric lady in a travelling sideshow. The type where she throws sparks from the hands, makes paper  burst into flames and causes bulbs to light by holding them. I'm assuming they are using a high frequency power supply (very low amps), and I was wondering if anyone has built one and if there are any good schematics on line?

Topic by Divet    |  last reply


Audio low pass filter (crossover)?

Looking at a crossover inside a speaker box, I see some inductor coils and capacitors. As  understand, it seems capacitors are high pass components, and inductors are the low pass components. What is the formula converting frequency in Hz into inductance of the inductor coil and/ or value of the capacitor. (I would be looking for a crossover around 30 - 40 Hz) To me, it seems logical to put this crossover not in the speaker box, but in front of the amplifiers, so the remaining audio spectrum can selectively amplified, which should result in some more power...  True? (I see some recommendations for active crossovers, but the theory is way over my head).

Question by BobS    |  last reply


Is there a difference between a high pass filter with an op amp and a high pass filter without one? Answered

I'm trying to modify a guitar effects pedal of mine to remove some squeaking and decided that a highpass/low pass combo with some potentiometers to modify the highpass and low pass points (since my pedal emits squeaking at different frequencies on different settings) and I was wondering if I should use a high/low pass with an op amp, capacitors, and resistors - or just a simple resistor and capacitor filter. Does anyone know if either configuration is a detriment to sound quality?

Question by Squag    |  last reply


Question about op amp frequency response? Answered

Hello , i have some question about op amp frequency response. i use non inverting like the scematic below.If i set  R1=10kΩ  , C1=220nF  ,  R2=100Ω  , C2=1uF . R1 and C1 will set low frequency response of opamp at 72Hz . R2 and C2 will set high frequency response of opamp at 1592Hz.  But how much it affect the signal in dB ? and how its affect the signal if i set R2=100k ,C2=1n (gain~11)? Can you give me the formula please ? Thanks very much! Sorry for my bad English!

Question by login721    |  last reply



pwm o/p pic?

Dear sir,                how to get low frequency 30.....300c/s square wave from PIC MCU ,application required to simulate a tachometer.

Question by padmanabhan.k    |  last reply


0. What is Current ? 1. What is Voltage? 2.What is Frequency?

My Dout is : 0. What is Current ? 1. What is Voltage? 2.What is Frequency? I know Definition. But i need practical example for this thing OK. So what is my dout is 1. When voltage increased current is also increased !      But in some case When voltage increased current decreased OR voltage decreased current increased. How it is possible Current is depend on voltage so When Voltage is zero then current is also zero only know For Example: When 100 Watt bulb receive high voltage then high electron will flow through tungsten of bulb then bulb will give high brightness ok Then same 100 Watt bulb receive low voltage then low amount of electron only flow through the bulb then bulb give low brightness This is the Rule or Nature So Current is depend on voltage only. Then how voltage decreased when current increased. This is my basic dout not only this and many dout about frequency also And Thank U for Replying ME. Thank U

Question by Xzyamaha    |  last reply


I'd like to be able to detect a certian frequency using the Arduino. Anybody have an idea?

I'm brand new to the Arduino and I have the Duemilanove with the 328 processor. The incoming signal will be a multitude of low frequencies, all of them less than 20Hz.. I'd like to be able to select one and turn on a digital output. I'll be able to take care of things like input amplitude and bias etc. I would also like to find a good source for learning the programming language. Any help greatly appreciated.

Question by MAX.DOUBT    |  last reply


I need a way of measuring a 0-1000kHz signal (50% duty cycle square wave from a TSL237) with an arduino. Answered

I'm willing to use external hardware if it is cheap.I've tried using an interrupt base pulse accumulator but when the frequency becomes high the counter increments so fast that it stops the arduino from doing anything else (like stopping counting). Does anyone know of a nice easy solution to count frequency? Perhaps a fancy 8 pin DIP that talks i2c? I need to be senstive to the very low end of the frequency scale too, so just throwing a prescaler on will not solve this (afaik). Thanks.

Question by quatch    |  last reply


A few questions about induction heaters.

1) What voltage do they use? Would 12v, 110v, or 1kv work best? 2) Would simply directing the power into the heating coil work? Or do they need supporting circuitry? 3) What frequency should be used? Will low frequency AC such as 60 hz work, or will I need to step it up into the khz range?

Question by LiquidLightning    |  last reply


Why to use RF directional couplers in some measurements and control processes ?

I am an electronic engineer in the field of RF directional couplers, but I am puzzled about this question, why to use RF directional couplers in some measurements and control processes ? Today I come to this forum to turn to you to discuss my understandings are appropriate. Here are my personal understandings: RF radio frequency is referred to as RF current, it is a high frequency AC change electromagnetic wave short. Less than 1000 times per second changes in alternating current called low frequency current, more than 10000 times called high frequency current, and radio frequency is such a high frequency current. RF technology in the field of wireless communications with a wide range of irreplaceable role. In the electronics theory, the current flows through the conductor, the conductor will form a magnetic field around; alternating current through the conductor, the conductor will form an alternating electromagnetic field, known as electromagnetic waves. When the electromagnetic wave frequency is lower than 100khz, the electromagnetic wave will be absorbed by the surface, can not form an effective transmission, but the electromagnetic wave frequency is higher than 100khz, the electromagnetic wave can be spread in the air, and the outer edge of the ionospheric reflection, the formation of long-distance transmission capacity (Analog or digital) with high-frequency current modulation (amplitude modulation or FM), the formation of radio frequency signals, through the antenna to launch into the air, the radio frequency of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.  Long-range radio frequency signal received after the anti-modulation, reduced to the electrical information source, this process is called wireless transmission. Wireless transmission developed for nearly two hundred years, forming a large number of users and product groups, but because of climate change and the impact of surface obstacles, can not transmit the perfect information. Modern human invention of the cheap high-frequency transmission cable (radio frequency line), in order to pursue the perfect quality of information transmission, taking into account the original wireless devices, wireless cable transmission began to pop. Resulting in the concept of radio frequency transmission. If your information source through the secondary modulation, with the cable to the opposite end, the opposite side with anti-modulation of the information source after the re-application, no matter how low frequency, but also radio frequency transmission, if there is no modulation anti-modulation process, The information source is transmitted directly to the opposite end of the cable, no matter how high the frequency, are the general cable transmission. SI --- Signal Integrity Signal Integrity PI --- Power Integrity Power Integrity emc --- electromagnetic compatibility Electromagnetic Compatibility rf - radio frequency RF emc = emi + ems EMI = Conduction + Radiation Emission SI: The Fourier transform shows that the higher the signal rises, the higher the amplitude of the higher harmonics. The MAXWELL equations see that these alternating harmonics produce alternating current at the adjacent line. And even through the space parasitic capacitance directly to another conductor, so these high harmonics is caused by radiation interference (emission) of the main factors; (that the simple point is that the signal rise faster, the more complete the signal, the better the signal quality, But for emi bad) . PI: PCB exists on the number \ \ analog area, high frequency \ 'low frequency region and other different areas and planes, if the partition is not easy to interfere with each other, that is, conduction conduction (conduction). Ps: Excuse me if I was wrong in words or expressions as I am a green hand in the field of RF directional couplers. I need continual learnings. What is your idea ? Do you agree with my ideas ? Any of your ideas would be highly appreciated. May someone would like to help ? thanks in advance.

Topic by maryzhu    |  last reply


Higher powered speakers with lower powered amp or Low powered speakers with higher power amp?

There is a lot of conflicting information on this and I would like to know if my speakers/amp would get damaged. Using 80w speakers and a 50w amp will there be any problems with running on full volume? And if I got a 100w amp with those 80w speakers will there be damage, even if I added a heat sink to the back where the voice coil is? The speakers say 80w max but not really reliable as they are well priced Chinese speakers. Speakers: 80W Audio Sensitivity: 88dB Frequency Range (Hz): 100-20Khz 4 Ohm Amp: Efficiency: 90% Rated output power: 2*50W+100W Working voltage: DC18V to DC24V The maximum output current: 4A Frequency Response: 20Hz-20KHz Can drive a 3-16 ohm speakers In the condition of rated voltage 24V The sub woofer channel at rated voltage 24V state can drive 2-16 ohm sub woofer Bass cut-off frequency independent regulation 20HZ-20KHZ adjustable Very confusing conflicting info online with under rated amps causing clipping and over powered amps frying the speakers. Originally I thought it was only bad to over power the speakers. Any help about what is worse, is appreciated.

Question by bonze77    |  last reply


Can Anybody Help me with Audio Terms?

I am on my way to build 3 way speaker system and this my first time. I heard that i have to make crossover into the speakers which will drive the low frequencies to the woofer and mid ranger whereas the low pitch to the woofer. I went to a site that calculates schematics for any sort of crossovers. But they ask me the several things out of them i understood some of them while others made my mind disrupted. so please state the meaning of the following: High Xover Frequency ( fh ) Low Xover Frequency ( fl ) Frequency Spread ( fh/fl )   here there were 2 options I.E, 8:3 octaves and 10:3.4 octaves Bandpass Gain ( g ) Crossover Type In the last one there were several options: 1st Order normal polarity 2nd order reverse polarity 3rd order reverse polarity 3rd order normal polarity 4th order normal polarity What are the differences between these crossovers? Which one is the best and why? If nothing is best so what is the difference? Sorry I am a novice. So guys please be easy on me....  Thanks In Advance :-)

Question by adarshnarsaria    |  last reply


Audible frequency amplitude modulation of 20kHz carrier for diffraction demo. Answered

I am attempting to build an audio projector that takes advantage of the low diffraction of high frequency audio waves. Audible range frequencies diffract more than, say 20kHz, so I want to modulate a 20kHz carrier wave by an audible range source, hoping that the carrier wave will be maintained for longer distances (like a beam of sound), and that my ear will ultimately perceive the audible input being delivered on the carrier wave. My question is: Should I be aiming to produce an AM Radio type modulation that has an envelope of the input both above and below, mirrored across the x axis? Or should I try to make it so the final signal has the same shape as the source wave, just filled in with 20kHz carrier? Also, is a square wave carrier sufficient, or will it need to be a sine wave?

Question by laserjocky    |  last reply


Can I use a 555 timer to cycle on 1 minute and off 1 minute? Answered

I am kinda familiar with the 555 timer for flashing lights and such, but I am in need of a circuit which will cycle on for 1 min and off for 1 min. Can this device (555 timer) be used for such low frequencies. It will ultimately control a 12v relay to run a bilge pump in an Instructables evaporative cooler which I am making (this mod is my idea which I will share with the original inventor if it works). I guess that if the low frequency is possible I will also need a power transistor to step up to the voltage/current needed to operate the relay. Any help greatly appreciated........ Thanks, Peter :-)

Question by ppowell14    |  last reply


I need a fairly easy 500 Mhz to 3 Ghz signal generator schematic

It needs to be fairly simple to make, my resources are a bit low again, and it doesn't have to generator a lot of different frequencies, just one or so within the range of 500 mhz - 3 ghz. Everything I found on line was either more complex then building a 40 meter transceiver, or was ready built and only cost $200 + Even if there was a source I could purchase, for under say $30, I would take that too. I need it to test my newest rig. I don't want to have to resort to something like this project here...

Topic by Goodhart    |  last reply


Buying "Untested"

Is buying "Untested" equipment on ebay OK? Many auctions have very low prices for equipment that was bought in a large lot and has no testing done other than "powers on." Is there a good chance that these equipments are totally fine and functional? For example: Oscilloscopes, function generators, frequency counters, multimeters, etc.

Topic by guyfrom7up    |  last reply


how to generate signals arduino? Answered

  uhi i want to generate 3 equal variable pulse high with constant pulse low signal that vary with potentiometer and asume it repeat it self every  10us and pulse min is constant 2u and pulse high vary betwwen 5-8u and i want it to carried at specific frequency? i attach the signal i want to generatel 

Question by britich    |  last reply


Sensitive Accelerometer Chip

I've seen some projects that use accelerometer chips with arduinos to get readings (e.g. in MATLAB). I'm looking to do this but I'm going to be measuring very low amplitude, low frequency vibrations so, I imagine, the types of acceleromters I've seen used (e.g. the MMA7341L) won't be sensitive enough. Does anyone have a suggestion for which accelerometer would be appropriate (I know that MEMS are a popular brand - there's a list here: http://www.analog.com/en/mems-sensors/mems-accelerometers/products/index.html)  Many thanks for your time! Oli

Topic by ocheadle    |  last reply


How does this CCFL inverter work? Answered

Hello, I have this CCFL (Cold Cathode Fluorescent Light) inverter from a scanner. it powers the scanner light. That's the schematic, but I can't see all the components very good, I'm sure about everything that's noted in the schematic, but I don't know the value of that capacitor between both collectors. It's that brown one from the picture. So the question is: How does this circuit work? I'm still trying to figure out how the transistors switch, it's really weird, because when I try recreating this on my breadbord it doesn't work. And why is the first coil shorted out? What I do know about this is that it has an output voltage (very low current, serveral micro amps) of 2 to 3kV. It also works at a very high frequency, about 30kHz I think, and it has a ferrite core transformer. The primary windings are very thick, and there are about 10 turns. the secondary has Many windings, a few thousand. The primary current is limited by the frequency (Xl = 2*Pi*f*L) so high frequency means high resistance of the coil, and that means a low current. now  how does the switching process work? and what's the use of the brown capacitor?

Question by DELETED_Electorials    |  last reply


Multiple Color Sensors?

Hello! I have the following TCS230 color sensor code, which works fine with my Arduino Mega. I want to connect more than one of these TCS230 color sensor to the Mega, but have no clue, what i should change in the code. Can someone help me? Thanks! Here is the code: #include #define S0     6 #define S1     5 #define S2     4 #define S3     3 #define OUT    2 int   g_count = 0;    // count the frequecy int   g_array[3];     // store the RGB value int   g_flag = 0;     // filter of RGB queue float g_SF[3];        // save the RGB Scale factor // Init TSC230 and setting Frequency. void TSC_Init() {   pinMode(S0, OUTPUT);   pinMode(S1, OUTPUT);   pinMode(S2, OUTPUT);   pinMode(S3, OUTPUT);   pinMode(OUT, INPUT);   digitalWrite(S0, LOW);  // OUTPUT FREQUENCY SCALING 2%   digitalWrite(S1, HIGH); } // Select the filter color void TSC_FilterColor(int Level01, int Level02) {   if(Level01 != 0)     Level01 = HIGH;   if(Level02 != 0)     Level02 = HIGH;   digitalWrite(S2, Level01);   digitalWrite(S3, Level02); } void TSC_Count() {   g_count ++ ; } void TSC_Callback() {   switch(g_flag)   {     case 0:          Serial.println("->WB Start");          TSC_WB(LOW, LOW);              //Filter without Red          break;     case 1:          Serial.print("->Frequency R=");          Serial.println(g_count);          g_array[0] = g_count;          TSC_WB(HIGH, HIGH);            //Filter without Green          break;     case 2:          Serial.print("->Frequency G=");          Serial.println(g_count);          g_array[1] = g_count;          TSC_WB(LOW, HIGH);             //Filter without Blue          break;     case 3:          Serial.print("->Frequency B=");          Serial.println(g_count);          Serial.println("->WB End");          g_array[2] = g_count;          TSC_WB(HIGH, LOW);             //Clear(no filter)            break;    default:          g_count = 0;          break;   } } void TSC_WB(int Level0, int Level1)      //White Balance {   g_count = 0;   g_flag ++;   TSC_FilterColor(Level0, Level1);   Timer1.setPeriod(100000);             // set 1s period } void setup() {   TSC_Init();   Serial.begin(9600);   Timer1.initialize();             // defaulte is 1s   Timer1.attachInterrupt(TSC_Callback);    attachInterrupt(0, TSC_Count, RISING);    delay(400);   for(int i=0; i<3; i++)     Serial.println(g_array[i]);   g_SF[0] = 255.0/ g_array[0];     //R Scale factor   g_SF[1] = 255.0/ g_array[1] ;    //G Scale factor   g_SF[2] = 255.0/ g_array[2] ;    //B Scale factor   Serial.println(g_SF[0]);   Serial.println(g_SF[1]);   Serial.println(g_SF[2]); } void loop() {    g_flag = 0;    for(int i=0; i<3; i++)     Serial.println(int(g_array[i] * g_SF[i]));    delay(400); }

Topic by roineust  


how to make an Ultrasonic Water Fogger for those creepy witch's cauldron effect?

Also known as ultrasonic fogging devices, these consist of metallic plates which vibrates with ultrasonic frequency to nebulize the water molecules to form a vapour which appears as thick low lying fog. For the effect they are simply placed below a water body. Please provide complete details. www.mainlandmart.com/foggers.html

Question by adilqaiser    |  last reply


Bluetooth, RGB sensor and Android app

This code is supposed to convert information from a color sensor and display what ever color is shown to the sensor as RGB values on the android app.  How can one incorporate bluetooth functionality to the following code?  Any help will be more than greatly appreciated. Even a donation  This is the code that I want to use: #include #define S0     6 #define S1     5 #define S2     4 #define S3     3 #define OUT    2 int   g_count = 0;    // count the frequecy int   g_array[3];     // store the RGB value int   g_flag = 0;     // filter of RGB queue float g_SF[3];        // save the RGB Scale factor int unChar; // Init TSC230 and setting Frequency. void TSC_Init() {   pinMode(S0, OUTPUT);   pinMode(S1, OUTPUT);   pinMode(S2, OUTPUT);   pinMode(S3, OUTPUT);   pinMode(OUT, INPUT);   digitalWrite(S0, LOW);  // OUTPUT FREQUENCY SCALING 2%   digitalWrite(S1, HIGH); }     // Select the filter color void TSC_FilterColor(int Level01, int Level02) {   if(Level01 != 0)     Level01 = HIGH;   if(Level02 != 0)     Level02 = HIGH;   digitalWrite(S2, Level01);   digitalWrite(S3, Level02); } void TSC_Count() {   g_count ++ ; } void TSC_Callback() {   switch(g_flag)   {     case 0:          Serial.println("->WB Start");          TSC_WB(LOW, LOW);              //Filter without Red          break;     case 1:          Serial.print("->Frequency R=");          Serial.println(g_count);          g_array[0] = g_count;          TSC_WB(HIGH, HIGH);            //Filter without Green          break;     case 2:          Serial.print("->Frequency G=");          Serial.println(g_count);          g_array[1] = g_count;          TSC_WB(LOW, HIGH);             //Filter without Blue          break;     case 3:          Serial.print("->Frequency B=");          Serial.println(g_count);          Serial.println("->WB End");          g_array[2] = g_count;          TSC_WB(HIGH, LOW);             //Clear(no filter)            break;    default:          g_count = 0;          break;   } } void TSC_WB(int Level0, int Level1)      //White Balance {   g_count = 0;   g_flag ++;   TSC_FilterColor(Level0, Level1);   Timer1.setPeriod(1000000);             // set 1s period } void setup() {   TSC_Init();   Serial.begin(9600);   Timer1.initialize();             // defaulte is 1s   Timer1.attachInterrupt(TSC_Callback);    attachInterrupt(0, TSC_Count, RISING);    delay(4000);   for(int i=0; i<3; i++)     Serial.println(g_array[i]);   g_SF[0] = 255.0/ g_array[0];     //R Scale factor   g_SF[1] = 255.0/ g_array[1] ;    //G Scale factor   g_SF[2] = 255.0/ g_array[2] ;    //B Scale factor   Serial.println(g_SF[0]);   Serial.println(g_SF[1]);   Serial.println(g_SF[2]); } void loop() {    g_flag = 0;    for(int i=0; i<3; i++)     Serial.println(int(g_array[i] * g_SF[i]));    delay(4000); } I have a code that works with bluetooth and the android app but it's not giving me accurate colors. The above code gives accurate colors but I cant seem to find a way to incorporate the bluetooth section  If you want to take a look at it:  #include // Library to count frecuency from TCS3200 sensor #include // Library to LCD Control ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// int S0 = 6;//pinB int S1 = 5;//pinA int S2 = 4;//pinE int S3 = 3;//pinF int Out = 2;//pinC PARA EL ARDUINO MEGA SE CAMBIA POR EL PIN 47 int LED = 13;//pinD int unChar; word absoluto; word ROJO; word VERDE; word AZUL; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); FreqCount.begin(10); //initialize pins pinMode(LED,OUTPUT); //LED pinD     //color mode selection pinMode(S2,OUTPUT); //S2 pinE pinMode(S3,OUTPUT); //s3 pinF     pinMode(Out, INPUT); //Frecuency Out pinC # 47 on Arduino Mega 2560     //communication freq (sensitivity) selection pinMode(S0,OUTPUT); //S0 pinB pinMode(S1,OUTPUT); //S1 pinA } void loop() {   if (Serial.available() >= 0) {   // escucha la llegada de nuevos datos serie:   unChar = Serial.read();   // imprime el caracter:       //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////     if (unChar == 'R') {          digitalWrite(LED, LOW);          digitalWrite(S0, LOW); //S0          digitalWrite(S1, HIGH); //S1          digitalWrite(S2, HIGH); // RED Filter select          digitalWrite(S3, HIGH); // RED Filter select          delay(250);                  absoluto = (FreqCount.read()/10)*2;          ROJO = absoluto;          if(absoluto>255)            {                                                     Serial.print(255);          }          else            {                                 Serial.print(ROJO);          }              } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////     else if (unChar == 'G') {             digitalWrite(LED, LOW);          digitalWrite(S0, LOW); //S0          digitalWrite(S1, HIGH); //S1          digitalWrite(S2, LOW); // GREEN Filter select          digitalWrite(S3, HIGH); // GREEN Filter select          delay(250);          absoluto = (FreqCount.read()/10)*2;          VERDE = absoluto + 35;          if(absoluto>255)            {                                 Serial.print(255);          }          else            {                                  Serial.print(VERDE);          }              } /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////     else if (unChar == 'B') {              digitalWrite(LED, LOW);          digitalWrite(S0, LOW); //S0          digitalWrite(S1, HIGH); //S1          digitalWrite(S2, LOW); // BLUE Filter select          digitalWrite(S3, LOW);// BLUE Filter select          delay (250);          absoluto = (FreqCount.read()/10)*2;          AZUL = absoluto - 45;          if(absoluto>255)            {                                  Serial.print(255);          }          else            {                                 Serial.print(AZUL);          }              }   } }

Question by CourageQ    |  last reply


3D or correctly 2.5D engravings on wood with a CO2 laser

Due a lack of correct forum sections I just post in the tech department, hoping the right people will find it ;) I did some tests with my CO2 laser cutter to find out how good or bad it works for 2.5D engravings. Turns out not too bad really. But during those tests I often noticed that I have areas where the wood is burnt while in areas with other power levels the wood is vaporised without charring, looks totally clean. So of course this meant further investigation on the topic but to my surprise my Google skills seem to get rusty as I could not find anything of use. As I am still planning to do a full Instructable on the topic of 2.5D engraving it was time to do more detailed tests myself. My machine uses an Arduino Mega as the controller, running on a modified MarlinKimbra release, so I had no problem adjusting all required parameters. Here are some of my findings so far: Once the power levels are high enough to do real damage to wood instead of just darkening it, there are levels that just vaporise the wood. I did not test the full power range but there seem to be several "sweet spots" for the power, above and below the wood will be burnt instead of a clean vaporising. Next step was to check this behaviour with changing PWM frewunecies for the laser firing. Started with a know power level that vaporises and adjusted only the PWM frequency. Lowering the frequency soon caused charring, increasing the frequency had very little effect. Next was a lower power level that with the original PWM frequency would charr the wood. Here lowering the frequency caused more charring, at quite low frequencies to the point that the kerf suffered massively. Increasing the frequency again allowed to find a sweet spot where the wood would vaporise rather than burn. So I am wondering if anyone else has done tests in this regard or knows of any links with more info?

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Tesla coil antenna?

With the cold and bad weather out there I started again to tinker with my old UHF radio.Trying to build a nice antenna to put on the roof of the hous and such things...While looking up on the various antenna designs I could not help it and followed a few links with antenna designs and specs for all sorts of frequencies.There are things like horizontal or vertical transmission waves or even circular ones.But also some of the basics can be quite different, like whip antennas, dipoles or coiled ones.The later we often see in these keyfob transmitters and receivers for door bells and similar low range, low cost options.Some really old ham radio links got me to the topic or electrically shortening and lenghtening antennas.Things like coils in a whip or added capacitors to match the antenna to frequency and transmitter.A tesla coil usually produces a lot of RF interference, not just on the main frequency it operates on.And from research and physics we learned that for really great distances you need really low frequencies.Like for example the very low bands used for submarine communication around the globe.Here antennas on land can be several km long...The inventor had a few ideas in terms of wireless electricity and communication but I wonder if there is more to it...Despite the broadband EMF a tesla coil produces it is also a really narrow beam antenna.Basically the radiation cone is orientated straight up instead of the usual horizontal patterns we use for communication.The topload again provides a spherical radiation pattern.I am wondering about how a tesla coil would operate as a directional antenna if the topload is replaced with a whip style antenna of a lenght that matches the wavelength...The hip would again provide a more or less spherical beam but the coil underneath would "puch" a directional from underneath.In the classic design the topload is meant to prevent arcing while providing a capacitor so the whole thing is resonant.At lower power arcing is no problem anyways, but what effect in terms of capacitance would a whip style antenna have?Classic pherical or donut style toploads provide little to no gain in terms of antenna properties.If you would use a sphere as an antenna for your CB radio then it would be perfect for very short distance but utterly useless for open range communication.We all know the fun of placing a flourescent light near a tesla coil to show "wireless electricity".Sadly this is more an effect caused by the high frequencies be able to produce the glow in the gas filling.Trying to make an incandescent lighbulb glow is far trickier.Several experiments show that two properly tuned tesla coils can work as transmitter and receiver.But to my knowledge no one ever tried this type of experiment with an antenna on the tesla coil...

Topic by Downunder35m  


What would be a good portable amp chip? Answered

I'm making a simple portable amp, and i'm searching for a good chip. I've already tried LM386 didn't like the sound and power output. TA7368P good sound, but the low frequencies and the power consumption weren't great. (also 741, TL082 but they aren't ideal for amps.) Now i'm with TDA1015 so far the sound is great, power output also great, the consumption is sort of good. Can someone tell me a good mono (or stereo) amp chip that has good power output (>2W) and it has low power consumption. I know it sounds sort of stupid but iv'e seen some great sounding amps with low power consumption and high power output in an old BoomBox. But it was covered by a big heatsink and when i removed it the IC was blank. So if anyone can help thank you in advance.

Question by T0C    |  last reply


How to quiet my neighbour's loud music?

My next door neighbour has a bad, annoying and rude behavior playing his music loud while I'm sleeping fairly early in the morning and in the evening, around 8 or 9, when I'm trying to relax. I need a device or a circuit to disrupt the sound momentarily or that will deliver a low but irritating high frequency squeal to transmit via his stereo speakers without hurting him or his equipment.

Question by Jmeister    |  last reply


Portable Guitar Amp Hiss

Hi all, I have built this design with a few modifications to accommodate for the parts that I already have. I used a stereo 1/4 inch stereo jack, but I connected the 2nd signal to the battery negative and the ground to the circuit ground. This way the circuit switches on when I plug in a guitar. I also used headphones only instead of a speaker, so I don't need a switch. Now the circuit works and it is amplifying the sound, except there is a very load hiss. I am assuming that a certain frequency in not being filtered out but this may not matter when using a medium quality speaker because of its low frequency range. However high quality earphones can play this sound. Is this correct? Does the headphone work for anyone with the hiss? Thanks in advance

Topic by geniass  


Need help modifying project? Answered

Hey guys, I need help modifying a project. The schematics are provided and i need to keep only the bass part of the color organ (in red). How would I go about removing the other part of the circuit and powering an 16 inch long green led strip instead?Can anybody provide me an edited schematic of the project with the other part of the circuit removed and the transistor connections made for powering the led strip? Oh and someone was saying in the project video that the polarity of a few components are wrong, can someone point that out too? Help will be GREATLY appreciated. Note: If you know that bass is low mid or high frequency please tell that too because i have a feeling that i have circled the wrong part of the schematic. The part I have circled is for low frequencies which i THINK is bass. Another Note: The LED strip is green, 12v, 16 inch long and the flexible type. I dont really know the power consumption but i think that a 1 amp transistor will be enough. (Video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wJlglHS2w74) Thanks in advance. -Prickly Potato

Question by SA-DIY    |  last reply


Electrolytic Capacitor types/ uses? Answered

About electrolytic (aluminium) capacitors..... what do the low ESR ones do that normal ones don't? And how come they have these capacitors in bipolar types, but not all are bipolar? Is it because of the size/cost? And lastly, can you make an LC circuit with any electrolytic capacitor?                                                                                                             Many thanks P.S: In which frequency range are LC resonant ciruits best used? Cos I heard that lower/higher than a specific point, they become impractical or something....

Question by .Unknown.    |  last reply


What does a &quot;Q Multiplier&quot; do? Answered

I recently picked up a Heathkit HD-11 "Q Multiplier" for free, and I can't figure out what it does. I did some research online and figured out that it was used somewhere in older transmitters that had low IF frequencies. Unfortunately, I don't understand how I can use it. Also, I was confused because it only contains one tube, a 12AX7. The strange thing about this tube is that it is not suitable for radio frequencies because of its high miller capacitance. Everything appears to be intact and when I plug it in, the tube lights up. My questions are "What does it do exactly?", "What can I use it for?", and "Should I keep it, or take the parts out and reuse them?". My camera is broken at this point, so I can't post any pictures. Please help.

Question by Xellers    |  last reply


An idea for highly directional and loud loudspeakers

I am currently playing around with vibration experiments.Mainly in the ultrasonic range though.But when messing around with some vibration speakers I found a not so well documented misuse for themEveryone wants a big TV these days but once you have it the sound often turns out to come from a tin can.Those with a good entertainment or at least stereo system won't mind hooking the to it.The rest usually opts for a sound bar or how I like to call them shredderbox.Sooner or later they just fail to produce the sound you had on the first day - or they cost a small fortune.What is the secret to a powerful speaker?Firstly efficiency.Secondly the design.You need the right material to produce a more or less even reaction at all intendet frequencies.The design makes sure those frequencies that need extra attention get more volume output, like by using a little pipe for the low frequencies.Some even include a dedicate speaker for these low volumes.What if you could just build you own soundbar on a budget?If you have a failing soundbar with the actual speakers as the problem you could salvage the electronics.In case you can make do with headphone input or RCA connections than any cheap amplifier will do.Leaves the speakers...Vibration speakers are still underestimated for their uses...I tried the the usual approach of using a glue on vibro speaker:Place it on surface tha gives a re more or less decent sound.The thing is though that there is no ideal surface for them.A table can sound like the highs are missing, a hardwood desk might not produce any low frequencies while a window or plaster board wall bring the problem of wiring and vibrations.To check the reactions of sound on different media I, one day, mounted one speaker under a big tin can.Right in the center.The fun hit me when my tests with water were over and tried to play a song with the empty can.Of course there was some degree of tin can sound but the directional qualities together with the wide frequency spectrum made me experiment.The key is to find the right material and shape!You want something that is hard enough to vibrate properly but soft enough to allow for lower frequencies.I tried pipes, boxes, old plastic containers....But nothing seemed to provide a broad and even sound spectrum without distortions.If you vibrate a surface then only at certain, resonant frequencies destinct patterns will form if some dust or similar is place on the surface.In all other cases there is only chaos.Preventing the harmonics to form prevents harmonic vibrations to build up to distortion levels.Like it or not but waste seems to work just fine as a speaker ;)I made a plug to fit reall tight into a 2 liter juice bottle neck.The original plastic cap is just too soft.A vibro speaker glued onto the plug and the bottom of the bottle cut out and the soun was quite impressive.Proper use is however limited as the speaker would need to be mounted upright.Next thought was to utilise the bottom of the bottle too.By cutting a round hole in the side of the bottle I got an even more directional speaker with a better response to low frequencies.Placement of said hole of course affect how certain frequencies travel and where nodes can form.The size might also matter as the hoe itself, or better the material around it can get resonant at certain frequencies.You can cheat at bit though by using sticky tape, duct tape and so on as dampening meterial in badly affected areas.Especially with a wall mount for the speaker and the bottle hanging down behind the TV the effect is good compared to a standard shredderbox. The above design is certainly not for everyone although I think it has a wow factor to it if you show a decent sound coming out of a juice bottle ;)My next step was trying to find out how more fancy designs could work.So just stop reading here unless you like the idea of creating speakers that should not even work.Back in the old days we had more than just the speakers with magnets and cones.Anything that can vibrate can produce sound.It all depends on how much of it we can actually hear.My first exotic idea to really misuse a vibro speaker is a vibrating harp.Does not need to be in the classic shape though.A string in a resonance box, like a harp, guitar, violine and so on will start to vibrate at the set note.This is true even if the force for the vibration is external.You might remember the old school experiment with the two pitch forks on their boxes?Hit one and the other starts to swing too.If you make a resonance box for a vibro speaker with internal or external wire strings at different tensions or lengths you can amplify the sound for the notes that correspond to the strings.Make a relatively large box with some sturdy wires for the frequencies between 60 and 100Hz and you have a really powerful subwoofer from just 20W of input power...I think you get the idea on how to use amplifying strings now ;)My second and total misuse is the xmas tree.If you are a sparky by old trades then you might remember the mechanical frequency meters for generators or other things that required a stable supply.Well, if not than you should know the little wind up toys that play a melody with a drum and tiny forks.Imagine you would replace the glue plate with a rod.Depending on material and length harmonic nodes will form at various places and frequencies.Between those nodes the swing is maximised while the node itself appear to be stationary and without and vibrations at all.For example a steel rod of 1.2m would have a single standing wave at about 1kHz while a copper rod of the same lenght will be much lower in the frequency for a single standing wave.The xmas tree assumes that the rod is of such material that no single standing wave can form below 200Hz and that it won't swing too much at other resonant frequencies.Since aluminium is easy to work with and available in flat and thin bars already it would be my first choice for the branches of the tree.The required length is calculate based on the speed of sound in aluminium - you find online calculators for that.You want the lenght so that you end up with an even fraction of the wavelength you want to "play" with that strip.This allows for the rod to be placed right in the center of the strip where the standing wave movement is zero in the node.Make a lot of thin strips to get a broad frequency response.Placement on the rod can now be crucial.The best option I found so far is using a threaded rod and tapping the holes in the strips.The strips swing quite violently if long and at certain frequencies.And those not in resonance will still transfer their momentum to other strips.This can cause unwanted harmonics.Most evident when a single strips swigns violently at a certain frequencies.Adjusting the angle by turning it is often enough to get out of the overlapping harmonics.With enough strips it then really looks like a tree with flat branches.The sound might not be as loud and impressive as a plastic bottle as the virations are going up and down.But if placed in the right spot it not just looks nice but also makes people wonder where the sound is coming from.Last but not least my yet to be tested hidden speaker system - due to renting restrictions :(If you own a house of the standard frame design then you have plasterboard walls and ceilings.With a large enough surface of the right material, one or two vibro speakers can cover a really wide frequency range at good volume levels.So far I could only do tests in an old wooden window frame but the priciple works the same way between the wooden frames of a wall or ceiling.In my experiments a standard plasterboard sheet needs to be 100 x 100cm to get a more or less decent response for the lower frequencies.Before you rip your walls down use a stud finder and place your vibro speaker on the plasterboard between two studs or beams.I found that two speakers for the lower frequencies and three or four for the higher ones make a good sound.That is per channel and if you have the right size plasterboard sheet in the right place.No point if your left side is further away from the TV than your right.Ideally you replace the entire sheet with the speaker in the right spot on the new sheet but on the back.For obvious reasons this is far from being a perfect solution.But if you plan a full renovation anyway...A way out for older houses is the wooden floorboards.They make excellent resonators for low frequencies.The directional speakers could then still be hidden in picture frames of the right thickness and design.Anyways, I hope I gave you some ideas here ;)

Topic by Downunder35m  


Simple AM transmitter

I wish to make an extremely small (size and part count) AM transmitter using only a few transistors and passive components. I wish to transmit an audible tone on a set frequency.I am thinking along the lines of a transistor flip-flop circuit oscillator, perhaps routed through another. It really needs to have less that five/six small components. DIP components are too big. Small electrolytic and other capacitors, transistors, and resistors are acceptable. Transmission distance needs to be at least 1/4 of a meter, but further is better. It needs to run on between 1.5 and 6 volts, low to middle'in milli-ampage im thinking watch batteries for a few hours at least. I have read the following article but as stated before it needs to be very small. https://www.instructables.com/id/Make-a-simple-AM-transmitter/Can anyone help me out with a schematic, thoughts or advice?Thanks in advance,-AndyP.s. I can work out transistor loop timings and I understand how the Amplitude Modulation system works. Current thoughts/plans (if you can call them that) are an audible tone switching a secondary transistor loop from high (no resistor in series) to low (resistor in series) power and back. The secondry loop will be switching at the target frequency.

Topic by andy    |  last reply


Arduino Uno Synth project - Audio output questions

Hi! I am developing a synth/sampler project based on the Arduino Uno r3. This is my first electronics project ever and because of that reason I have some questions which I can't find a definite answer for on internet. The synth has two function. It has a tone generator using the ToneAC library. With code I have mimicked LFO and VCO functions, using potmeters I can adjust the frequency and LFO speed realtime. The other function is that I can trigger samples stored on a SD card using the TMRpcm library. The device will be used in nightclubs on high end soundsystems and PA. I am afraid I will damage the equipment with my device because I do not send a pure audio (AC?) signal. Currently the flow is like this: PWM output (pin 9, 10) -> voltage divider to 2.5v -> RC Low Pass Filter 15Khz -> LM386 amp with volume control -> mono jack output -> mixing desk -> amplifier -> speakers (the TMRpcm and ToneAC library share the same pin (9), I have fixed this by disabling the TMRpcm when the ToneAC is playing and vice versa. The mono jack is wired as follow. pin 9 goes to plus side of mono jack output, pin 10 to negative side. The TMRpcm pin 9 also needs to go to plus side of mono jack output, and mono jack negative needs to go to ground. Because I disable the ToneAC at that time I consider port 10 grounded because it not generating any sound so there is no signal/voltage running out of it, aka the IO pin is set to LOW) I am hoping that using the voltage divider I am within range of the Audio Line levels of a default mixers Line-IN (like Pioneer, Behringer, etc). The RC Low Pass Filter is used to filter of inaudible frequencies and clean up the sound a bit, the LM386 audio amp is used to amplify the signal and (hopefully) make it a real audio signal. The lowest frequency you can play with the synth is 100hz and the highest frequency is 3100hz. Because I lack a lot of knowledge in this field and because I do not own a oscilloscoop I can't say for sure if my output signal is harmful for the equipment and was hoping to get some guidance on my project on this forum.

Topic by erik404  


Does ClassD amplifier not suitable for 60Hz transformer?

Hi there, My application is in Audio range. I am going to use a Transformer instead of Speaker. A 3- phase power calibration is my intention. Similar to this link, https://us.flukecal.com/products/ele...wer-calibr... My current AMP design might be class AB type. I am thinking how can I move class AB to Class D amplification. A lot of the design effort relates to maintaining linearity and avoiding crossover distortion. 2 amplifiers( current, voltage) output will feed to CT and PT! REQUIRMENTS : 1. The amp input should be plus and minus 7volt AC, 45-65Hz( 1 Hz has been converted to 1024) 2. Amp operating voltage should be more or less 24v. 3. 2 channel signal (not sure PWM) should be use , one for current, one for voltage. 4. Can run current transformer(input 16.5 V/1.5 A) and potential Transformer (input15v/2A). 5. If possible both voltage and current amplification is required in one IC. 6. Both positive and negative half signal should be amplify. For CT, current transformer primary winding has 80turns, 16.5 V/1.5 A, secondary has 20Turns, 4.125v/6A output!For PT, Potential transformer, Primary has 80turns, 15v/2A rating input, secondary has centertap! At secondary 960turns, 360v/0.332 A and 960turns 180v/0.166A output.For the time being lets disscuss issues like, 1. Low frequency and high frequency phase shifts caused by a transformer will occur if the transformer is inside the negative feedback loop (when the output of the transformer provides the negative feedback). Then the amplifier must be compensated for these phase shifts.A transformer causes a phase shift at low frequencies caused by its inductance. 2. A product with a Class-D audio power amplifier (APA) driving an output transformer with inadequate low-frequency performance may shut down when its output is stepped from zero to maximum at the start of a sine cycle. Shutdown is triggered by short circuit protection (SCP), after the first half cycle of the sine output. The root cause is saturation of the transformer core. 3. Class D amplifiers approximate voltage sources, they won't take kindly into a CT load.

Question by Hasan2015  


Spectrum Analyser circuit help

I've decided to task myself with building a large scale spectrum analyser to get me back into electronics as I figure it will use the most common base components (transistors and op-amps) and will jog my memory on what does what. I know there are a few guides around, but they either give the circuit diagram with no explanation of what's going on, or talk about things that I've long since forgotten. I'm trying to piece together how to build this circuit myself rather than follow a suck-eggs-follow-and-learn-nothing style guide, and trying to re-learn what and how each component works. Right now I've figured that I should be looking to split the output signal into different frequencies and then indicating the volume of each frequency separately. So I plan on using low and high pass filters (band pass?) to split the frequencies into manageable chunks. For getting the volume display I want to do it in roughly 3db intervals as this is roughly double the sound intensity (not entirely sure how I'm going to achieve this), then it's a case of somehow triggering the LED when a certain voltage (volume) is achieved. Finally, rather than triggering a single LED, I want it to set off a large cluster of LEDs (as this is going to be a rather large display), so I'll need some way of triggering the cluster. So my questions here are mainly: Am I going the right way about the project as a whole, or am I in totally the wrong direction? Should I be looking at another method to split the frequencies, or is a low pass plus high pass filter good enough for the job? For the actual volume display, how would I discern the ~3db different? Would I need to double the voltage required to trigger the LEDs (as this I believe would be the double intensity that an ~3db increase would incur)? For triggering the LED section of the circuit, should I be looking at op-amps or transistors? Lighting a large cluster of LEDs from what I assume to be a low voltage output, should I be looking at using a transistor as a switch? Finally, can anyone recommend some good online reading material while I try and source my old college paperwork (it's been a fair few years, but I know it's here somewhere...)? Hopefully I've not just reduced you to a shaking wreck with my obvious obliviousness, and thanks in advance to anyone who helps!

Topic by Auraomega    |  last reply


Alarm using RTC.

Hi, I am new to arduino and RTC DS1307. I am trying to create an alarm using RTC and arduino. I have a buzzer that I have connected to arduinio and also I have connected RTC module to it. I am programming the arduino in such a way that whn the timer runs off, it produces a sound from the buzzer. I am trying to use Time.h and TimeAlarms.h libraries. I dnt know how can I make the timer buzz the buzzer.  This is the code I ve done so far.  #include #include "RTClib.h" #include #include ; RTC_DS1307 RTC; void setup () {     Serial.begin(57600);     pinMode(4, OUTPUT); // set a pin for buzzer output     Wire.begin();     RTC.begin();   if (! RTC.isrunning()) {     Serial.println("RTC is NOT running!");     // following line sets the RTC to the date & time this sketch was compiled     RTC.adjust(DateTime(__DATE__, __TIME__));   } } void loop () {       DateTime now = RTC.now();     Serial.print(now.year(), DEC);     Serial.print('/');     Serial.print(now.month(), DEC);     Serial.print('/');     Serial.print(now.day(), DEC);     Serial.print(' ');     Serial.print(now.hour(), DEC);     Serial.print(':');     Serial.print(now.minute(), DEC);     Serial.print(':');     Serial.print(now.second(), DEC);     Serial.println();     Serial.println();        delay(1000);             //Somthing sould come here to make the buzzer buzz     soundBuzzer(); //sounds the buzzer        buzz(4, 2500, 500); // buzz the buzzer on pin 4 at 2500Hz for 1000 milliseconds } // This is the function to make the buzzing void soundBuzzer(){   } //This is for the buzzer. It produces a beep. void buzz(int targetPin, long frequency, long length) {   long delayValue = 1000000/frequency/2; // calculate the delay value between transitions   //// 1 second's worth of microseconds, divided by the frequency, then split in half since   //// there are two phases to each cycle   long numCycles = frequency * length/ 1000; // calculate the number of cycles for proper timing   //// multiply frequency, which is really cycles per second, by the number of seconds to   //// get the total number of cycles to produce for (long i=0; i < numCycles; i++){ // for the calculated length of time...     digitalWrite(targetPin,HIGH); // write the buzzer pin high to push out the diaphram     delayMicroseconds(delayValue); // wait for the calculated delay value     digitalWrite(targetPin,LOW); // write the buzzer pin low to pull back the diaphram     delayMicroseconds(delayValue); // wait againf or the calculated delay value   } } I am really bad at programming so sorry for mistakes. But please I need help.

Topic by Bam Boy    |  last reply


Help with making a triangle wave sequencer with pitch relative to tempo, please? Answered

I'd like to make a low frequency triangle wave oscillator/sequencer, but the oscillator and sequencer have to somehow be synchronized with each other, so that if the tempo gets doubled, for example, the pitch also goes up one octave. How can I do this? I've already made a circuit based on this oscillator and the 4017 decade counter as a sequencer. (Ignore all capacitor, resistor and pot values; I haven't defined them yet)

Question by aelias36    |  last reply