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Marathoners Diet?

Hey guys. ive signed up for a marathon, and qas looking for a good diet to follow, as i believe diet is half the work done. any ideas?

Question by Shadowwalker2551    |  last reply

How do I train for a marathon? Answered

How do I train for a marathon or half-marathon? Nutrition? Schedule? After successfully completing a marathon, what about maintenance so I can run next year's marathon?

Question by guerrilla    |  last reply

Born to Run the Oakland Marathon

On Sunday, I ran the Oakland Marathon, finishing in 3:54:29, and placing 215th out of 945 runners.  I know it's cliche, but I read Born to Run and got inspired me to run a marathon.  It's the best book I've read in years:  the characters (all real people!) are fascinating, the setting and story are fantastic, and it just made me want to get out and go.  Halfway through the book, I decided to run a few miles to the grocery store in the rain just to run out back, not because I needed anything. Prior to reading Born to Run, I had been running a 2-3 miles twice a week to vary my preferred morning exercise routine of biking or swimming (the kitesurfing season hasn't really started yet).  Running was something I did if I couldn't get to a pool or didn't have the time for a long enough bike ride; it was exercise I did while traveling and when there were no better options.  Born to Run made me question that assumption, and I decided to see how longer runs would feel. Over a year ago I read "You Walk Wrong", a New York Magazine article on going barefoot.  It convinced me that I should be able to go unshod, or at least with minimally foot coverings.  Why would 30 years of running shoe development be able to produce better results than millions of years of foot evolution?  So I bought some Vibram Five Fingers  to protect my delicate soles, and had been doing lots of hiking and a bit of running.  The difference between running in running shoes and Vibram Five Fingers was profound for me.  In running shoes, I typically stopped running because my knees and hips hurt, not because I was exhausted.  The Vibrams forced me to take smaller, faster strides without heel strikes, and suddenly I was getting closer and closer to being able to run long enough to catch exhaustion without any joint pain.  The concept of going barefoot was initially tough because of my flat feet and overpronation, and the possibility of re-dislocating a kneecap. I never went anywhere barefoot, and after I initially dislocated my kneecap in 2000, I was told by a sports medicine doctor that I should never walk without the aid of custom orthotics in my shoes.  However, barefoot websites and forums are full of stories about people's arches coming back, and how kids raised without shoes never have flat feet.  Amazingly, it's all worked perfectly for me.  I now run without my orthotics without any knee pain, and my arches appear to have (re?)formed.  After hopping out of the pool, I always inspect my wet footprints, and they now have distinct arches.  I wish I had taken photographs every day to plot progress. With the characters and race in Born to Run still fresh in my mind, I looked for nearby races to give myself some motivation and something to train for.  When I discovered that Oakland was holding its first marathon in 25 years, and that the route literally went through my neighborhood, I immediately signed up for the half-marathon and convinced Christy to do the same.  I researched training regiments online, and discovered many were 4 and 5 month plans; since I had 50 days before the race, I decided simply to run longer and longer distances at a comfortable pace, and not worry about a rigid structure.  I ran most of my miles on trails in the Oakland hills, and some on the streets, but all of them in my Vibrams.  During a practice run on the half-marathon course three weeks before the race, I completed the half in less than my target time for two hours and felt so good that I opted to do the full marathon. In the marathon, I ran with GEICO-sponsored pacers aiming for a 3:50:00 time (8:46 miles on the flats, and slower miles in the hills; course elevation PDF here).  Of the three pacers, one was running his 34th marathon, and the other two were ultra-marathoners training for a 200 mile race from Calistoga to Santa Cruz; their normal weekend run was 50 miles, so a marathon was like taking a break.  Running in a group is awesome and way better than running by myself listening to audio books.  On multiple occasions, I imagined that we were the hunters of a tribe out running down game -- water stations every couple of miles broke the illusion, but I still eagerly grabbed cups, and the community support was tremendous.  There were bands, drummers, DJs, and gospel choirs making music along the route; families with full brunch buffets setup in their front yards offering all the runners fresh fruit and homemade baked goods; and many people just thanking us for running in Oakland.  The second image shows all my runs in the 50 days leading up to the marathon.  The first 5-mile run on the chart was the longest I had ever run at that point.  While I was coming from something of a limited endurance background (I've biked 135 miles on a tandem from Boston to Provincetown in a single day), I didn't really know my limit.  At mile 23 of the marathon, I finally caught up to exhaustion, and fell behind the pace group.  The last three miles were painful, but in the last quarter mile, I couldn't stop grinning and felt like I might laugh and cry at the same time.  When it was over, I just wanted to sit down. I was aiming for a sub-4-hour marathon, and I'm really proud to have done that on my first try.  Everyone made fun of me for walking like a zombie the next day at work, and I have some pretty large blood blisters on my feet, but nothing that won't disappear in under a week.  Go and read Born to Run, it might inspire you, too. Christy says: I'd always had to run as cross-training for other sports (I swam competitively for 13 years) and ran when I needed quick exercise, but hated it - my joints hurt, and it just wasn't fun.  I was a distance swimmer and can hike nearly forever, but could literally swim farther than I could (or would) run.  The most I'd ever run before was about 4 miles.   I got my Vibrams with Eric, and really enjoyed hiking with them on my feet.  I hadn't run in nearly a year and a half (pregnancy loosens the joints, which made running feel even worse) so when Eric announced he was signing up to run 13 miles I was dubious.  However, I read Born to Run and was suitably inspired - I was in good cardio shape from swimming and stationary biking, and would happily hike 13 miles, so why couldn't I run that far?  I decided to go out for a 5k jog to see what running felt like in my Vibrams. Long story short, I accidentally ran 6 miles, stopping not due to fatigue or joint injury but because of a blister from a poorly-adjusted shoe strap.  I signed up for the half marathon that evening, and started taking increasingly pleasant runs through the parks and across the city.  I ran the half-marathon course with Corvidae in her jog stroller, stopping to feed her periodically.  Eric finished while I was on mile 8, so he backtracked along the course and met us at mile 10, by which time she was thoroughly done with this stroller nonsense and had migrated to the sling.  I left the two of them to their own devices and jogged the rest of the way to the finish, about 3:25 after I started in the morning.  Not terribly speedy, even given the breaks!  The next day the bottoms of my feet were sore, and one of my Achilles tendons was a bit inflamed - I'd describe it as having overused my springs - but even though I was limping, my muscles were still in good shape. My pace is still quite slow (I ran the half-marathon in 2:42, for roughly 12:26 mile splits) but it's frighteningly consistent - I negative split most of the race, and at the end discovered I still had plenty of energy to sprint past a dozen exhausted runners.  Clearly I didn't run fast enough or far enough, but I was specifically setting a pace I felt able to maintain indefinitely.  The weak link is still my feet!  While I had plenty of muscle and energy left at the end of the race, the bottoms of my feet were tired from use - more practice is necessary to balance out years of shoe-wearing.  However, I recovered much more quickly this time, and was able to run again by Tuesday morning.  No zombie shuffle for me!  Of course, this means next time I'll be running the marathon, and at a faster pace!

Topic by ewilhelm    |  last reply

running a marathon with a camcorder-How to??

Can i mount a camcorder on my shoulder with straps (or duct tape)  and run 26.2 miles through beautiful mountain ranges.  Hands must be free. Any suggestions?!

Question by swieckert    |  last reply

How do I train for a marathon due this December 2011? Answered

Hi, i used to be active in school but that was donkey years away. So now a friend has invited me to join her for a 5 km fun-run marathon. My questions are : What diet should I plan? Should I count calories? I am a working mother so I need to plan my time carefully. If you have any suggestions on the timeframe that I should train it would be grateful. What exercise regiment should I follow? Please include a link, if possible since I always read first and follow instructions to the T. Should I time myself whenever I run? Should I train on a treadmill or run at the park? Thanks for the help and I look forward to your suggestions.

Question by ytashi    |  last reply

Material recommend actions for realistic dinosaur suit for marathon

Hi all I'm looking to build a realistic dinosaur for a marathon attempt next year and I was hoping to pick some brains here to do it. I guess I should ask whether anyone here has a dinosaur suit, or whether anyone could recommend light materials that would fit the bill. Thanks in advance.

Question by billybonker    |  last reply

Chinese marathon cheats hire impostors 

Topic by Lateral Thinker    |  last reply

USMC Vertical Marathon - 24th April 2010 - UPDATED - we did it

This may be of interest to some of you that climb and walk or love being outdoors. I'm a member of the University of Surrey Mountaineering Club. On April 24th we are planning to have our second ever Vertical Marathon, a charity event during which between 30-50 of us we will attempt to climb just over 26 miles.... UP! The event will be held at the newly opened Surrey Sports Park climbing wall where we will each have to climb about 80 of the 10m routes. We are raising money for the Mountain Rescue Council (MRC). In 2007 we raised £3995. This year we're aiming to hit £5000. The MRC was chosen because of the Club’s regular trips to mountainous areas and the USMC's recognition of the vital role fulfilled by the Mountain Rescue teams. It is hoped that the Vertical Marathon 2010 and similar challenges will encourage newcomers to the sport, raise awareness for the Mountain Rescue Council involved and put a smile on people’s faces. The MRC do a LOT of great work with very little funds, and not just for climbers. If you'd like to sponsor us, our just giving page is here. If you'd like to read a little more about how the money would be spent first, here is the MRC's page on how donations are spent. Thanks. Wish me/us luck!

Topic by Jayefuu    |  last reply


How is everyone who lives in the path of the snow storm doing?  I hope everyone's okay.  We're in Oklahoma and the worst is over.  We've been having jammies/movie marathons laughing ourselves silly.  I think tomorrow might be warm enough for some snowman building.   Make soup, stay warm, be safe!

Topic by zurichko    |  last reply

Bungie Bag O' Swag

Hey guys, So, if you're as big a fan of Halo as me, you'd find that Bungie has a special Bag O' Swag on sale, for their 20th anniversary, and leaving Halo. They have anything from a Tshirt to a Zune to signed games to high-quality figures. There are only 777 in existence. AND I FRIGGEN GOT ONE! OH YEAH! What was the most interesting thing, though, was that people were staying up all day and night,trying to get one, and they didn't come close. I managed to get one by sitting at the computer for TWO AND A HALF HOURS, and my dad's bank account just got billed(also, Amazon, says it's being "processed for shipment") So, did anyone else get one?

Topic by builder968  

How can I change the sensitivity on a 360 controller for the pc?

I'm trying to play fps games (Marathon with the Aleph One game engine) on my computer using joytokey and a wired 360 controller. Unfortunately, the sensitivity is so high that by accidentally tapping one of the joysticks, the game responds much faster than i want it to. That, and the joysticks don't always go directly to the center, so after i press the joystick one way and I release it, the controller keeps going that way. It's really irritating, and i can't seem to figure it out. Thank you to all who read and respond.

Question    |  last reply

Call of Duty: Custom Classes.

Post your Call of Duty Custom Classes below for everyone to see. Post anything from Black Ops Machine guns or World at War Assault Rifles.     I'll show you an example with one of my classes.                         Example: Game:                   Black Ops Primary:                Submachine Gun Weapon:               Ak74u w/ grip and rapid fire. Secondary:           CZ75 w/ extended mag. Lethal/Tactical:     Frag and Nova Gas. Equipment:            Claymore.   Perk 1:                    Scavenger Pro. Perk 2:                    Warlord Pro.                 Perk 3:                    Marathon.  Just Have Fun With it.       

Topic by Drew99-KGB    |  last reply

Sandals made from billboard fabric

The barefoot trend keeps catching on. About half of the Instructables staff wears Vibram Five Fingers shoes and Eric has even run a marathon in a pair. But it's totally understandable that people would want some even cheaper alternatives, such as the invisible shoe. Now there's an even cheaper option coming along that's made out of billboard fabric. They're called Paper Feet sandals and are set to go on sale this summer for $5-$15. Now I'm a little dubious about the comfort of such shoes with some potentially sharp edges, but it's cool to see people constantly trying out new ideas. Hopefully this one turns out well. Paper-Feet: Sustainable Sandals that Don't Cost an Arm or a Leg

Topic by fungus amungus    |  last reply

He who says there's no such thing as global warming.

A friend of mine today firmly told me that there's no global warming and we should all stop trying to struggle improve efficiency (and then as an afterthought added "especially with policies, and liberalness and the such). It was a dumb inconsiderate reply but non the less, I snapped at him. I told him that we should just let ourselves cut down all the trees and pollute our atmosphere so much that marathon running would become a dangerous sport. He looked at me sheepishly and said something to the effect of well you shoulden't worry so much and Al Gore is a nutcase. Typical conservative catholic response. The point of telling you this story was to encourage you to say what you think in the comments section, and to inspire you to create ways to make us (the race of polluters) better. So go on, debate it up!

Topic by DELETED_craz meanman    |  last reply

Plywood Challenge: Bike Polo Arena

The chain link fence around our Bike Polo arena  needs a 1' high runner at ground level. You can't bounce a Polo ball off a fence. I've found over two THOUSAND small 12" x 18" x 1" plywood  pieces (hardwood, not OSB) . At $0.25 apiece, these are 1/10 the cost per square foot of Home Depot! What is the CHEAPEST way you can think of to permanently join 8 pieces in a row, edge to edge? You have $0.50 per join. You must be able to lift the assembly and smile, confident and proud of its rigidity.  Already thought of: Gluing (biscuit, tongue and grove, etc): Lots of work, might work with the right process. Sandwiched between sheets (HDPE, HIPS, PC, etc): Expensive, >$1 per ft^2 Webbing, Jacob's Ladder style: Webbing ain't cheap

Topic by Marathon    |  last reply

10 Hints you were at a GEEK New Year's Eve party....

11. Champagne chilled with liquid nitrogen.10. Party games include D & D and Will It Blend?9. Countdown clock had 12 significant digits after the decimal.8. The ice bucket was in the shape of Bender's head.7. Started 24 hours early to allow time for hacking giant TVs in Times Square.6. Nonstop argument over whether leap second was really needed.5. Instead of champagne, toast was done with apple cider in Futurama wine glasses.4. Instead of party hats, everyone had a blinking RFID tag.3. Mac people and PC people had separate rooms at party.2. MC Frontalot and Jonathan Coulton rang in the New Year with a live performance of "IC's of Yore."1. Everyone was too busy watching the Battlestar Galactica marathon and missed the ball drop.Adapted from: BBspotPictured is the dart game that might have been there....

Topic by Goodhart    |  last reply

Need Party Ideas...

As many of you might remember, on 1/31/07 a terrorist group, in a coordinated attack against the people of this great nation, attached devices that contained circuitboards, flashing lights, and batteries to buildings and bridges in 12 major cities across the US. In 11 of these cities, the devices were largely ignored and people went on about their business as usual. But in Boston, someone decided that a circuit board with some lights in the shape of a cartoon character must be a bomb. The city was quickly shut down as they closed the subway, bus system, and several bridges and building were evacuated. The city was in a state of panic! Was this another 9/11? Were these sinister devices really dirty bombs meant to kill innocent civilians? By the end of the day, Boston had spent over $1,000,000 (yes, i said million) dealing with the devices. Who could have launched such an attack on American soil- Al Quada? the Taliban? North Korea? nope... Turner Broadcasting Group. They paid 2 artists $300 each to make what ammounted to a childrens toy known as a Light Bright to be used as guerilla marketing for the upcoming Aqua Teen Hunger Force movie. Rather than admit that they overreacted, the city of Boston sued TBC for $1 million in restitution and another $1 million in good faith money. The two artists who only did what they were paid by TBC to do, were forced to do a combined 140 hours of community service. I'm having an Aqua Teen Hunger Force marathon on the evening of 1/31/08 as a memorial to the freedom that we as a nation have given up in the 2000's. Americans as a whole have a hard time understanding that the terrorist do not intend to kill each and every one of us with bombs and plane hijackings. They seek to control us through fear. The city of Boston was so afraid that they completely shut down the city because of a lightbright hung on an overpass! Sad as it is, the events of 1/31/07 are an indication that the "war on terror" is a losing one. I said all that to say this: I'm looking for some ideas for my ATHF marathon party. I'm working on a lighted 'mooninite' for the front yard, and I know I want to incorperate the governments 'terror scale' (you know the color thing) somehow. I am also asking each guest to bring one harmless-yet-contraband item that I can confiscate at the front door much like the airport security. If you have any idea for other tasteless things for the party lets hear them. The less P.C., the better!

Topic by Handsome-Ryan    |  last reply

Increase running speed

I don't run very much. I never was all that good at it. Lately, though, I have found the need to improve that ability, specifically my endurance at speed. I can slowly jog a mile, sure, but haulin'-ass-away-from-an-amgry-man-with-a-knife-speeds don't last much longer than thirty yards, if that. I'd like to improve my overall speed if possible, and especially increase the distance that I can cover flat-out before I keel over. I'm not going to be running a marathon anytime soon, but I'd like to be able to get farther than average, as fast as possible, on demand. Any tips for training or proper form? I live at roughly 5400 feet, but I'm just a short drive away from 14,000-foot peaks. I would also like to improve my off-the-line times--in other words, acceleration. If I were to need to run between ten and twenty-five yards, I can do that at my top speed as is, but that speed is not as fast as it could be. I'm generally not even up to full speed until eight or ten yards past the line. Suggestions?

Topic by Rishnai    |  last reply

Track, Field, and Cross Country experiences

Hello everybody! This is knexsniper1 with a brand new forum for everyone to share their experiences! This time it's about athletics; cross country, track and field to be exact! In this forum, I would like everyone to share their experiences while competing, or just for fun; about the mentioned topics. you may share your fastest times in the 100 meter, farthest long jump, tallest high jump, but these are only some of the things that you can share. the choice is up to you! You can also use this forum for tips on competing, or you can share your ideas on how to compete better. Those of you who compete in these sports will have their name displayed here, and stats about them, such as their fastest times etc. Remember! I want this forum to be as "clean" and appropriate as possible, so don't be calling anyone a loser just because they can not run as fast as you, or jump as far as you, or anything! Just to start this forum off, I will be the first one to post my experiences on this! You may share anything you wish! some of my goals include competing national, and then moving on to international, beating the world record for high jump, and beating bolt at 100 meter! Have fun! knexsniper1: - 1 mile run: 5:27 - 100 meter: 10.62 Kiteman: -did an eight minute mile cross-country. That's a thirteen mile cross-country half marathon in less than an hour and three quarters. Smokedasphalt: -timings and distances: 100meters : 10.8s 200m : 22.1s Long jump : 7.08 meters. Triple jump : 13.76 meters. High jump : 1.80meters. Other achievements : Best athlete of the under-19 category of Pune city. Plus, loads of medals!! :D Now, I only concentrate on the 100m and long jump. Hope to participate in the internationals one day!

Topic by knexsniper1    |  last reply


This is a forum for real COD players. For players who are looking for a new clan, new and just starting, and just players in general. I need the list following; A sniper A "silent person"* A man for SMG trust me this is VERY important  A person who can run well which equals marathon pro or not with lightweight I would not mind a hacker but do not totally advertise yourself on my games just on here I however rather get stuff fairly until I get angry that I lost everything when I prestige :) USA clan is not for Untied States of America, it is "Unknown Soldiers Association" HOW TO PUT COLORS IN YOUR NAME: Shift button, then number 6 which is together ^ hooray! then you put a number such as ^2 that would be green PM me or comment PM is preferred Your favorite weapon it doesn't have to be what your combat record says, your Kill Death Ratio (this will not affect anything im just wanting to know)   IT DOES NOT MATTER IF YOU ARE GOOD OR NOT I'M JUST LOOKING FOR 10 PEOPLE My ally code is 3974-2523-7244 this is my weekend account I am not able to access my everyday account on weekends sometimes I will post my daily ally code ASAP I will also try my hardest to keep you updated on ALL black ops news and call of duty. PS. Don't look stupid and say "why dont you get an Xbox or ps3?" because one i have both my ps3 is not good for connection I have no clue why, and two I dont want to pay for Xbox live. *Silent Person is to me a person with ninja pro and ghost pro, DOES NOT MATTER WHAT SECOND PERK IS Goodbye! happy shooting!

Topic by mrelement  

Ship of Theseus - Philosophy of Identity

This past saturday there was a show on TV about the advancements in the field of prosthetics and human augmentation. I only watched less than half of it - but the timing was interesting. I came across an article about the Ship of Theseus (from Greek Legend) and have been reading quite a bit about "identity" and similar topics. This is philosophy - so there's really no right answer, but I have found it very interesting to think about and thought I'd share and see what others think.The gist of the story: Say we were to preserve Theseus' ship. As parts deteriorated and rotted away, we replace them with new (better/stronger) parts. Eventually, we replace each part with a new one. The question now is - Is it still the same ship? I'm willing to bet most of you will say yes.Now lets say that instead of replacing the ships components with new ones - we take all of the parts from the warehouse (where the parts are being stored) and reconstruct the ship from these new/better parts. Which ship has the "identity" of Theseus' ship? This is an interesting question because I'm again willing to bet that the "first" ship mentioned is your answer. But why? The parts would have gone to the "first" ship if not into the "second" ship. Why should this be different?Third Case:We take Theseus' ship and we tear it completely down in dry dock. In its place, we reconstruct using new parts. Is it still Theseus' ship?Now lets look at a digital device - my laptop for instance. Let us say that I have an "identical" machine (spec wise) and I cut and paste each file from this hard disk to the "new" machine. Does this "new" machine take the "identity" of the "old?" Can we say this "new" laptop (ship) is in fact Theseus' laptop? Talking with my colleagues - their answer (unanimously) was no - it is not the same.So here is where I get to the human side of things... Biological process have our bodies continuously replicating cells. In about a year, roughly 90% of the cells in your body will die. But no worries - they are continuously replaced with new ones. So, does that mean we are a different person compared to 12 months ago (I've read this question from several sources)? How about amputees? Today, prosthetic limbs can allow them to do what many of us choose not to do - run marathons. Are they any less of what they were before? <-- I know that sounds "wrong" - put put "political correctness" aside (but by no means am I putting down the situation of an amputee).Again, I'm willing to bet many will say yes - we're the same person. One argument is that our memories make our "identity." Fair enough. Now lets entertain the future. We now have the technology to save your memories digitally. We can digitize the human brain preserving its intelligence and thinking ability. Just entertain this idea for a few minutes. So if my brain (and its memories) are now digital and I copy it to another vessel. Is it still me? Do "I" still have the same identity? I'd like to think yes, but what was your answer about copying a laptop's memory (was it no - they are not the same)? Why should my digitized memories be any different than that of a laptop's digitized memory?At this point, my colleagues were floored. They figured out where I was going a few sentences before I said it. That's what makes the topic so interesting (in my opinion).If anyone has ever heard of HAL-5 - you already know what a feat it is. HAL-5 (yes, that's a play off of a space odyssey) is a human exoskeleton designed to assist those whom otherwise would be unable to walk for long periods of time. The user can lift heavy weights (80kg - say a dishwasher) among other helpful tasks. How does it know to move? Sensors on the skin detect electrical impulses in the brain that tell the muscle to react. Those signals are processed and turned into mechanical motion. All of this happens before the muscles have time to move. That is, the machine is moving before you even do.So if we replace our bodies and even our nervous system with mechanical devices - what makes us the same person? AND, are we the same person if we can simply copy ourselves to a new body?So last point - and it's not even my own. One of my colleagues brought this to the table today (literally at the lunch table) :P We were talking about the advancements and the potential/reality of human augmentation. Then he says something that makes complete sense to me. He said that we are at the point where our brain is evolving at a rate faster than our human bodies are. Just give yourself a minute to contemplate and wrap your head around the potential of that statement. To a degree - we have already done this (just not internally). Why else would we fly in a plane or drive a car? Well, I for one sure can't fly or run at 70+mph.1. I apologize for the length.2. I'm curious of your thoughts -- if you have another aspect of this, please do post.3. Remember there is no "correct" answer, this is just philosophy.4. There will always be more question than answers on this subject (at least I think so).HAL-5: (mountain climb):

Topic by trebuchet03    |  last reply

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Topic by dessy  

500W electric scooter control and instrumentation with Arduino mega

1. Introduction DC 500W motor control with an Arduino mega to limit starting current and to vary the speed of the scooter. The battery is in 24V, 10A.h. The following table summarizes their characteristics: 2. Bibliography: Link download : sketch_escooter_feed_back_reel_V1.ino escooter_ampli_SIMULINK.mdl escooter feed back ISIS.DSN youtube  :  "study trotinette electric e-scooter 100W et 350W, wiring"  youtube;=75&list;=PLfZunVn_gcq7EOurXuWU2sRFmh6CbiUiL Article: «Study of electric scooters 100W and 500W (Arduino), Revue 3EI 2017» Pdf? Book «I realize my electric vehicle» at DUNOD 3. Open loop program To test the programming, we simulate the program in ISIS, as can be seen in the following figure. In addition, we have an LCD display to display data (duty cycle corresponding to the PWM at 32Khz, motor current, motor voltage, action on the pushbuttons, 4 push buttons are used. BP1 to manually increment the duty cycle, BP2 decrement it. BP3 set the duty cycle to 0, corresponding to the brake contact. The speed of the motor is practically proportional to the duty cycle We made our own current amplifier called a step-down chopper but it is possible to buy a shield There are many cards for Arduino to control DC motors especially of low powers and also of great powers as can be observed on the following links. But all these chopper shields measure the current internally but there is no current limitation. In order to have a current limitation, an analog current loop is required using specialized AOP or IC or a fast digital current loop. But what should be the value of the limitation current? The choice of the current value is normally for the 1-hour operation service in order to be able to carry out relatively long climbs without reaching the critical temperature of the engine. In our case, the limitation current must be Limiting motor = Power / Upper battery = 500W / 24V = 20A In addition, the power transistor of the chopper can only support 50A in our case. But in open loop, it has no current regulation, so as not to exceed the maximum current, a ramp of the duty cycle will be used. A 0.1 second interruption routine will be used to measure the voltage of the current (sample measurement, sample). This sampling time is arbitrary but does not allow to be faster than the rise time of the current because the electric time constant of the motor is L / R = 1.5 ms. Open loop operation with a 25.5s (8bit) ramp and 0.1s interrupt routine provides a good understanding of the operation of a DC motor drive. The display will only be done every 0.2s to have a stability of the digits on the screen. In addition, a digital filtering will be done on the current and the voltage on 4 values therefore on 0.4s. [b] Algo open loop [/b] Interrupt Routine All 0.1S Read voltage and current Loop loop (push button scan) If BP1 = 1 then increment PWM If BP2 = 1 then decrement PWM If BP3 = 1 then PWM = 0 Displaying variables every 0.2s Code: [Select] // include the library code: #include #include #include #define SERIAL_PORT_LOG_ENABLE 1 #define Led     13       // 13 for the yellow led on the map #define BP1     30       // 30 BP1 #define BP2     31       // 31 BP2           #define BP3     32       // 32 BP3 #define LEDV    33       // 33 led #define LEDJ    34       // 34 led #define LEDR    35       // 35 led #define relay   36       // 36 relay #define PWM10    10      //11   timer2    LiquidCrystal lcd(27, 28, 25, 24, 23, 22); // RS=12, Enable=11, D4=5, D5=4, D6= 3, D7=2, BPpoussoir=26 // Configuring variables unsigned   int UmoteurF = 0;  // variable to store the value coming from the sensor unsigned   int Umoteur = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur2 = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur3 = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur4 = 0; unsigned   int ImoteurF = 0;  unsigned   int Imoteur = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur2 = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur3 = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur4 = 0;            byte Rcy=0 ;    // 8bit duty cycle unsigned    int temps; // the setup function runs once when you press reset or power the board void setup() {   pinMode(Led, OUTPUT);   // Arduino card   pinMode(LEDV, OUTPUT);   pinMode(LEDR, OUTPUT);   pinMode(LEDJ, OUTPUT);   pinMode (PWM10,OUTPUT);     // Pin (10) output timer2   //  digitalWrite(LEDV,LOW);   Timer1.initialize(100000);         // initialize timer1, and set a 0,1 second period =>  100 000   Timer1.attachInterrupt(callback);  // attaches callback() as a timer overflow interrupt   lcd.begin(20, 4);    Serial1.begin(9600);   TCCR2B = (TCCR2B & 0b11111000) | 0x01;         //pin 10  32khz                                                   //   //   analogWriteResolution(bits) lcd.setCursor(0,1); lcd.print("Rcy"); lcd.setCursor(10,1); lcd.print("Um"); lcd.setCursor(5,1); lcd.print("Im"); lcd.setCursor(10,1); lcd.print("Um"); lcd.setCursor(20,1); // 4 lines display * 20 characters lcd.print("BP1+"); lcd.setCursor(25,1); lcd.print("BP2-"); lcd.setCursor(29,1); lcd.print("BP3=0"); } // Interruptions  tous les 0.1s void callback()  { temps++; //toogle state ledv for check   if ( digitalRead(LEDV)== 1 ) {digitalWrite(LEDV,LOW);}     else {digitalWrite(LEDV,HIGH);}     analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // frequency Umoteur=analogRead(A0); Imoteur=analogRead(A1); Imoteur2=Imoteur; Imoteur3=Imoteur2; Imoteur4=Imoteur3; ImoteurF=(Imoteur4+Imoteur3+Imoteur2+Imoteur)/4 ; Umoteur2=Umoteur; Umoteur3=Umoteur2; Umoteur4=Umoteur3; UmoteurF=(Umoteur4+Umoteur3+Umoteur2+Umoteur)/4 ;   }// End routine // Loop corresponding to main function void loop() {    // BP + LED   if ((digitalRead(BP1))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);      // Column line     lcd.print("BP1");     digitalWrite(LEDR, LOW);        digitalWrite(LEDJ, LOW);     Rcy++;                        // PWM incrementation     if ( Rcy>254)  {Rcy=254;}     delay(100);               //8bits * 100ms = 25S increment 25ssecond slope     }        if ((digitalRead(BP2))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);     lcd.print("BP2");             Rcy--;      if ( Rcy<2)  {Rcy=2;}  // PWM almost at 0, engine stop         delay(100);      digitalWrite(LEDR, HIGH);     digitalWrite(LEDJ, HIGH);     }   if ((digitalRead(BP3))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);     lcd.print("BP3");      Rcy=2;               // PWM almost at 0, engine stop     } if (temps>=2)  { lcd.setCursor(0,0); lcd.print("                "); // Erase line lcd.setCursor(0,0);     lcd.print(Rcy); lcd.setCursor(5,0); ImoteurF=(ImoteurF)/20;     //resistance (5/1024)*(10/0.25ohm) si ACS712 66mV/A                            // For resistance 1ohm (ImoteurF) / 20; Simulation 5/25 lcd.print(ImoteurF); lcd.setCursor(10,0); UmoteurF=UmoteurF*10/38;                              //10/38   10/30 simula if (Umoteur>ImoteurF){UmoteurF=UmoteurF-ImoteurF;  }  //U-R*I lcd.print(UmoteurF); temps=0; }// End if time    } // End loop Since there is a limit of 9000 characters in the forum below Open loop program feature previous The interrupt routine lasts only 250 microseconds, the loop of the main program which scans the action of push buttons is 13micros and the display time of all data is 11ms. Thus, it is possible to improve the sampling period and thus the speed of the regulation of the current. The Arduino makes it possible to make the instrumentation of the scooter so to know the power, the consumption in Ah and Wh, to measure the speed, to know the consumption according to Wh / km, to measure the temperature of the engine, Have a safe operation. But for now we will see how to limit the current 4. Closed loop program, limited current control The sampling period will increase to 0.01 seconds (interrupt routine) If the current is less than the desired value, then the duty cycle can be increased or decreased to the desired value which is the setpoint. On the other hand, if the motor current is greater than the limiting value, there is a rapid decrease in the duty cycle. So as not to exceed the value of the duty cycle if it is saturated to 254 maximum and to the minimum value 6. Code: [Select] if (Imoteur<4000)                    // No current limitation at (20A * 10) * 20 = 4000   {if (consigne>Rcy)   {Rcy=Rcy+1;}   // Pwm ramp + 1 * 0.01second pure integrator    if (consigne    if ( Rcy>254)  {Rcy=254;}           // Limitation of duty cycle    analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // Frequency 32kHz timer2}         } if (Imoteur>4000)  { Rcy=Rcy-5;              // No current filtering, to be faster                     if ( Rcy<6)  {Rcy=5;}       // Rcy is not signed, nor the PWM therefore Rcy minimum must not be less than 6                   analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // Frequency 32kHz timer2}                        } 5. Closed Loop Program, Limited Current Control with Acceleration Handle An acceleration handle provides a 0.8V voltage when not operated and a 4.5V voltage when the handle is fully engaged. Instead of using pushbuttons to increase or decrease the speed setpoint, an acceleration handle will be used Code: [Select] Upoignee=analogRead(A3); // The relation in Upoign and the setpoint which corresponds to the duty cycle corresponds to if (Upoignee>100) { consigne=(Upoignee/2);     //0=a*200+b    et 255=a*800+b                      consigne= consigne-100;                   }                            else { consigne=0;   }               if (Upoignee<100) { consigne=0;  }     // redundancy     6. Temperature and safety program of the motor with the current measurement The outdoor temperature measurement can be easily performed by the LM35 component which charges 0.01V by degrees Celsius Code: [Select] temperature=analogRead(A2); //lm35 0.01V/°C temperature=temperature/2;       // Temperature coefficient lcd.setCursor(5,2); lcd.print("      "); lcd.setCursor(5,2); lcd.print(temperature);   // Display in ° C lcd.setCursor(9,2);      // Erasing secu display lcd.print("     ");   if (temperature>80 ) {lcd.setCursor(9,2);         // If motor external temperature is above 80 ° C                      lcd.print("secuT");                       Rcy=0;} In addition, thermal safety by measuring the motor current will be added. If the limitation current is greater than 10s then the motor will no longer be powered for 30s. A "secu" display will appear on the LCD display. This safety makes it possible to cut the motor on slope too high and when blocking the engine but it would be necessary to add the measurement of the speed in the latter case Code: [Select] if (timesecurite>=10000 ) {flagarret=1;      // If limitation current for a current of more than 10s                               timerepos=0;                               consigne=0;                               Rcy=0;                                 timesecurite=0;}       //   Then stop engine during a downtime    if (flagarret==1 ) {lcd.setCursor(9,2);         // If limiting current for a current of more than 20s                      lcd.print("secU");  }     //   Then stopping the motor for a stop time and display                                                     if (timerepos>=30000 &&  flagarret==1) {flagarret=0;                                           lcd.setCursor(9,2);      // After a rest time here of 30s                                            lcd.print("       ");   }   The display can be observed if the temperature is above 80 ° C Thermal safety by measuring the motor current (digital thermal relay) which allows to know the image of the internal temperature of the engine would be ideal. But for this, it is necessary to know well the thermal modeling of the motor. 7. Measurement of the energy capacity of the battery The energy capacity of a battery is in A.H, we will display the value in mA.H to have a high accuracy. The capacity will be in A.Second in the following equation. So to have in mA.H, it will be divided by capacity by3600. Capacity (A.s) n = I * Te + Cn-1 with Te = 0.01s and I multiplied by 10 So in the interrupt routine Code: [Select] capacity=ImoteurF+capacity ; And in the display Code: [Select] lcd.setCursor(0,3); // Display of energy capacity lcd.print("C mA.h="); capacity1=capacity/(18000);   //18000=3600*5  5=> Current measurement coefficient lcd.print(capacity1); To check a current of 10A with an adjustable resistor and after 30s, the capacity must be 83mA.H 8. Power and modeling with SIMULINK Modeling helps to understand the vehicle and its control. In addition, it is possible to compile the control part directly into the Arduino program from simulation under Simulink. But it will not be possible to simulate the instrumentation with the LCD display. In the following figure, we can observe the simulation of the programming of the chopper with the current limitation with Simulink. In the following figure, the green box shows the duty cycle control to vary the speed and the red border the current limitation. The controller of the control is here a simple integrator but it is possible to carry out a multitude of control. In the previous figure, it can be observed that the current is well limited to 25A from 2s to 9.5s. Then, the current reaches 10.8A under established speed regime at 22.5km / h. The dynamics are similar to the tests carried out. With a slope of 5%, the cyclic ratio reaches only 100% as can be seen in the following figure. The speed will reach painfully 19km / h with a current of 24A and a motor power of 580W. See article: Study of electric scooters 100W and 500W (Arduino), 9. First conclusion It is easy to control a 500W DC motor with an Arduino and some components So repair many scooters that are in DC motors. But it takes some knowledge (automatic, engine) to know how to properly manage the engine and limit its current so as not to damage it The display of the speed, the distance, the operating time to know the / km can also be realized with a menu 2. The .ino program as an attached file, But it is not possible to put an attached file in ISIS electronic labcenter? What is this forum? It would be desirable that the compiler could generate the.cof to debug in Isis and test the program line by line .... Arduino still has to make a lot of effort to be on the same level as other microcontrollers 10. speed measurement (tachometer) Velocity measurement is carried out using a hall effect sensor SS495 or A1324 which counts each revolution of the wheel. It is enough to enter the perimeter of the wheel of the scooter (130mm of radius therefore 0.816m in the case To have the speed, it is enough just to divide the number of turn of wheel on an arbitrary time of 1s to have a minimum speed of 0.81m / s therefore of 2.93 km / h. In addition, an average filter with 3 values will be used to display the speed. At 25km / h, there will be 8.5 laps. To count the turns, an external interrupt routine will be used on input INT0 21 of the mega card. To simulate the speed, a pulse on input 21 will be used with a duty cycle of 10%. Code: [Select] void INT0b21() {   Tspeed++;   // External interruption to count the number of turns } // In the set up declare the interrupt routine when the 5V edge of the magnet detection is done   attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(21), INT0b21, RISING );  // External interruption // In loop if (temps09>=5)  {        // 1 second loop lcd.setCursor(13,2);      // Erasing speed lcd.print("kph     "); lcd.setCursor(16,2); speed1=Tspeed*2937;      //1tour*816*3.6/1s=2.937km/h speed2=speed1;           //Tspeed (rate/seconde) speed3=speed2; speedF=(speed1+speed2+speed3)/3000;   // To put in kph lcd.print(speedF,1);    // Display to the nearest tenth Tspeed=0;   // Reset counter temps09=0;  //reset time } To improve the accuracy of the velocity measurement, it is possible that the sampling time of the velocity measurement is dependent on the velocity. For example: For speeds less than 10km / h sample at 1second, but above 10km / h sample at 2 seconds. 11. Distance measurement for autonomy The distance corresponds to the total number of turns of the wheel multiplied by the perimeter of the wheel. So do not set the number of turns to 0 for each sample. On the other hand, the reset of the distance will be done when pressing the reset of the Arduino Mega. The distance display will be displayed to the nearest second. At 32km / h, it will take 2 minutes to do 1km as can be seen in the following figure: Code: [Select] void INT0b21() {   Tspeed++;   // External interruption to count speed   nbrRate++; } lcd.setCursor(13,4);      lcd.print("km      ");  // distance=(nbrRate*816)/1000;  //distance m distance=distance/1000;  //distance km lcd.setCursor(15,4);      lcd.print(distance,1);  You can observe the electrical installation with the chopper, the arduino, and the display when the program is set up 12. Synthesis The RAM space is used only at 4% and ROM space at 3%, for an Arduino mega. So we could take an arduino a little smaller. But, there are 8 Lipo cells to make the 24V power supply to power the engine via the chopper. Therefore, the voltage measurement of each element will be on the Arduino with a JST connector. This measurement makes it possible to know if a cell with an internal resistance which begins to pose a problem and to know if the balancing of each cell has indeed been carried out. It is possible to switch to 36V with 12 cells also with the arduino mega without using an external shield that multiplex 24 analog inputs on input A0 It is possible to send all data to a smartphone via Bluetooth HC06 via pins 20, 21, RX1 and TX1. But the application under android realized under JAVA Studio can not be shared on this forum. This part will not be explained. After having made the instrumentation of this scooter, a study should be carried out on the precision of the measurements, it is possible to read "Instrumentation of a low-power electrical motor vehicle" eco marathon "type Revue 3EI N ° 81, July 2015

Topic by Iutgeiisoissons