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Search for metal repair in Topics


Repairing a desk chair...

So, I put my feet up on the desk while sitting at my chair. And then this happened. http://img855.imageshack.us/img855/8730/imag0022h.jpg http://img695.imageshack.us/img695/8859/imag0020b.jpg How would I go about fixing this? (Sorry about scrappy phone pics)

Topic by Doubleagent    |  last reply


Removing a metal object from wood?

Hello! Somehow a small 9mm steel BB found it's way into a piece of wooden outdoor furniture. I know how to repair wood, but I can't seem to get the BB out. I've tried digging it out with a small knife, but that only resulted in me damaging the piece further. Do any of you have any experience with this, or ideas on further courses of action? Anything is appreciated.

Question by TheMike25    |  last reply


How to repair a piece of metal jewelry without soldering.? Answered

I have part of a necklace my mother used to own (the pendant part) that has a broken area(a gap) where you attach the jump ring to the piece. The jump ring I attached is probably thick enough where the pendent won't fall off, but I don't want to take the chance. It has swarovski(sp?) crystals and I'm afraid the heat from soldering would ruin the stones.

Question by amnartist    |  last reply


Metal clay thread repair for 3d printer extruder head

Does anyone have experience with metal clay or 3d printers with a good way to fix the female slot on the extruder aluminium block

Question by benjaminjbarringer    |  last reply


Desk chair fix? Answered

So, I put my feet up on the desk while sitting at my chair. And then this happened. http://img695.imageshack.us/img695/8859/imag0020b.jpg http://img855.imageshack.us/img855/8730/imag0022h.jpg How would I go about fixing this? (Sorry about scrappy phone pics)

Question by Doubleagent    |  last reply


Metal T-Frame Basics

Hi there, I'm new here and pretty much to DIY in general (except for general repairs) - I'm planning to build a glass dry-wipe board with a simple aluminium T-Frame and need a bit of basic advice. Not knowing the lingo of the trade, its been very hard to find suppliers/information and my research seems to have gone as far as it will ever get, so I figured it was time to ask for some help. I've managed to find a supplier who stocks 25mm square al tubing and was wondering about the best way to construct the frame. My design for the frame is extremely simple - it's just a t-frame with a single crossbar which will run below the pane of glass. I have access to a reasonably well equiped workshop, but unfortunately no welding gear (I hear that al is difficult to weld anyway) which isn't too much of a problem as I would like to be able to deconstruct the frame. I would appreciate any tips which may be useful to a newbie, but mainly I need to know how to fix the al bars at right angles in a non-permanent manner. The desk which I'm sitting at right now has some sort of threaded inserts at the end of each crossbar, allowing it to be bolted a right angles to the frame. I tried googling these inserts, but couldn't find anything which seemed relevant. If anyone could point me in the direction of these inserts or provide an alternative solution, it would be very much appreciated. Thank you

Topic by CorruptioN    |  last reply


How to repair solar cells? Answered

What soldering techniques are best? What is the best base (surface) to work on? Can the fine metallic fins be soldered? If pieces are connected in parallel is it okay for them to touch each other?

Question by oldfogey    |  last reply


How to repair a small metal joint? Polaroid SLR 680 camera.

I recently bought a £200 polaroid camera off e-bay for only £20. It was sold cheap due to a break on a hinge. I knew it was something I could fix, or that the camera might work with anyway. I am asking if anyone has any better suggestions for fixing this joint? So far my best plan is to cut out a small metal bridge, and attach it using epoxy resin. I have attached 3 pictures, an overall shot, a close up, and a comparison shot to the other side which is in one piece. They are all high res, so you can click on the images and view them larger for more detail.

Question by gmjhowe    |  last reply


circuit board repair question

This little audio input jack broke off a circuit board.  I'm wondering if anyone knows what I need to do to fix it? You can see that there are 4 metal connectors which I assume a soldiering iron can easily fix.  But there is also an orange strip that snapped off of the little orange baseball home plate-shaped tab on the bottom of the jack.  Does anyone know what that is and the best way to repair it?  (The loose strand is right by where it says "CN6" on the board) I don't know anything about circuitry but was going to borrow a friend's soldiering iron. Thanks to anyone who can point me in the right direction! Phillip

Topic by pmottern    |  last reply


Food-safe permanent repair (re-join them) of 2 tines of metal (stainless steel?) whisk/beater of electric stand-mixer?

I have a 34 year old stand mixer (Sunbeam Mixmaster) which uses 2 separate beaters (whisks) to mix ingredients in a bowl while it rotates. The beaters each have 4 tines which are joined with a rivet where they intersect at the tip of the beater/whisk (see photos. The broken beater is the one on the right).  On one of the beaters two of the tines have come apart (broken) at the rivet so I can't re-rivet to repair.  I believe the metal is steel (maybe stainless although there is some rust on the metal - they ARE 34 years old).  What can I do to permanently re-attach the broken tines at the tip, that is food-safe and doesn't add bulk to that spot? (the beaters interlock with each other while rotating so they have to be the same height or else they won't interlock correctly while spinning).  The mixer works fine otherwise and I am reluctant to buy a new one because the comparable ones that are available are built much more cheaply than this one was (very flimsy, lots of plastic instead of solid metal body) and I don't want to buy an expensive, large and bulky Kitchenaid-type mixer which is more than I need for the amount of baking that I do.  Thanks for any suggestions!

Question by irmab    |  last reply


Straightening old oil lamp glass shade metal ring?

The lamp is 19th century. The metal ring has bent over the years and the three spokes have come away. First need to unbend the outer metal ring, and then find a way to fix the 3 spokes (have tried soldering, without much success). If anyone knows how to repair this or someone capable of doing the job well, this would be very useful.

Question by PaulS201    |  last reply


Soldering tips and tricks for complicated metals

Whether you are just a hobby builder or do your own electronics projects, you know how to solder...Then one day you find yourself in the position that your solder just does not want to stick...My first moment of total defeat happened when I was a teenager.Was building some simple motor with instructions from a book but substituted what I could...Ended up with some stainless steel contacts and being unable to solder my wires to them...If you ever had problems like this then read on ;)What are easy to solder metals?Basically everything that does not form an oxide layer on the surface and is able to bind with tin, lead or silver.Copper is one of the easiest metals to solder on but every plumber certainly knows how important a clean and corrosion free surface is.Any coating or alloy that prevents oxidisation or provides a harder surface usually means with normal, electornics solder we might be lost.Nickel for example can be a true pain and same for chrome.So lets start with the hard metals first.Steel, nickel, stainless...If the part size does not already mean trouble to get it hot enough, then we face the problem of how to "wet" it with our solder.Normal steel is usually fine if you give it a fine sanding right before the soldering, however getting the heat onto the part is crucial.Even something simple like a 5mm thick steel rod can be a pain with a normal soldering iron.I good way to cheat is to preheat the part or area with a blow torach on a soft flame - not a hot, blue flame.Try to do this away from the area you need to solder as the temperature difference usually causes some initial condensation on the surface.Most steels that play a vital role don't like to be overheated as it can affect the hardness an other things, so be careful here.Rosin core solder works fine on steel and it also indicates when the temperature gets too hot by boiling and smoking badly.If you still struggle to wet the surface try to scratch it with your solder - if it does not melt the surface is not hot enough.Nickel coatings are usually very thin and a slight sanding quickly reveals the layer underneath.If the metal used is not copper already then a copper layer will be electroplated on before the nickel coating.Either way the key is to get through the nickel without going through the copper, for example if steel contacts were used for durability reasons.After that soldering is as easy as directly onto copper.Steinless steel however can be a true pain, same by the way if you need to preserve the nickel coating as best as possible and can sand it off.Without using chemistry the only way I found is to use a stainless steel tip in the soldering iron.But as the preperation of one requires chemicals anyway we might start with them first.The passivating layer of layer or stainless steel can of course be pre-treated by sanding.Especially very shiny surface benefit from it.After this I prefer to wet the surface with Phosphoric Acid - you can find it in the harware store as "Rust remover".It is a food grade acid used in many of your favourite fizzy drinks, so skin contact is not a big deal - just wash it off.The phosphoric acid is not strong enough to break the oxide layer but it keeps air away.And once you start scratching the hot metal with your stainless steel soldering tip it will prevent a new oxide layer from forming.This method however requires a low temperature solder and quick work as the acid boils off quickly.In the plumbing section of your hardware store your find various fluxes for soldering.Look for something containing both Ammonium Chloride and Tink Chloride.Around here a common brand name is Bakers Fluid.Usually if it has a red danger label on it you will find the above ingredients on the lable somewhere.Be careful with it as it is very corrosive and harmful to your health!Good thing is that all remains can be washed off with just running water.What does it do though?Unlike the phosphoric acid, the chlrodies directly attack the metal.Especially once getting hot, so if in doubt wear proper protection as advised on the label!The oxide layer is not only being eaten away, there is also an ion exchange happening, so a product with more than 30% of zink chloride is prefered here.The zink binds with the stainless steel or nickel and provides an easier way to bond for the solder.Key is to work quickly and with precision!Flux paste is good for brazing but not so good for soldering.The flux liquid, unlike the paste will start to boil right when the metal get to soldering temperatures.That is if you use standard lead based solder, most lead free types should be ready a bit sooner.Start to scratch the metal with the solder and use a soft flame from the other side or close to the soldering area - do not apply the flame directly onto the flux covered area.Why? Well, the flux isolates the metal from the heat of the flame and it will boil off way before the metal gets hot enough ;)On smaller parts and when using the soldering iron create a small bubble of solder and keep scratching the surface while it heats up.In case the flux dries off apply a bit more before this happens!Once the solder starts to wet the metal a tiny bit it is usually very easy to spread it out to the desired size and shape.With the heat applied from the underside the solder will always flow to the area of most heat!Once done it is best to let the part cool down then to give it a good wash under running water to remove all remains of the flux.Failing to to do so will result in quick and ongoing corrosion, so do it properly...Aluminium, the bad metal...I encountered it first when I could not welding or brazing on a quite small part.Plus, of course, the problem of having to add a copper wire as well.Then again when I had to solder some aluminium wire.Acid won't work, chlorides only make it worse, so don't bother with either for aluminium.Standard rosin core solder also fails.But there is a suprisingly simple solution to the oxide problem on aluminium.Mechanical work...There are quite few videos out there showing how someone solders onto some aluminium foil.It is so simple because the foil is thin - use it to test your new skills.A thing though that is often done wrong is the surface preperation.It usually starts with a fine sanding - to remove the oxide layer.....The some oil is applied and soldering starts under the oil cover.And if pay attention then it is often a painful process of scratching with the soldering iron while trying to make the solder bubble wet the aluminium.That's why foil is so simple here....What happened in those videos?Quite simple: Aluminium oxidises right away while you sand it.Even if you are quick with the oil it already happened.So why not do the sanding after the oil was applied?A fibreglass pen or a stainless steel wire brush (usused on other things!) work quite well here.The oil prevents the air from attacking the aluminum.If in doubt use some clay and form a little dam around the soldering area to prevent the oil from running off.Petroleum jelly, vaseline and all other identical things work fine here same for clean engine oil.But you have to use rosin free solder, no flux core, just plain solder.If you don't have it simply melt some normal rosin core solder to a nice drop and clean the rosin off ;)Since there is no real oxide layer with this way of pre-treating the soldering and wetting happens right once the aluminium get hot enough to melt the solder.You might find it sticking nice right away but don't be fooled!You need to heat the aluminium until you actually see the solder forming a nice puddle.With careful sanding you create very clean boundaries.Other soldering tricks...Getting cholired based flux for a single job might be overkill.If you happen to have one of these tip cleaning stones for your soldering iron then you have what you need ;)Simply scrape some of it off and dissolve it is a tiny amount of water.Will only be ammonium chloride and requires more scratching on stainless steel but works...Preparing a stainless steel soldering tip sunds as easy as finding a suitable piece of wire and grindinga tip onto it.If you every changed the tip on a soldering iron them you know there is two types.The simple one for the cheaper irons uses a set screw or similar to hold the tip.The better ones are hold in place by a collar or other type of screw fitting.And well, those have a thicker part in their body.If you need to solder stainless steel more than once or twice it makes sense to buy a cheap but powerful soldering iron and to make sure it uses a straight piece of metal with no thicker parts to hold it in place.If you can't find some stainless steel wire or round bar of suitable thickness you can go slightly below or much thinner if you require a thin tip.Just make a copper or aluminium collar for the tip to hold it in place, like a sleeve to go around.Grind the tip to your desired shape before fitting it in....You won't need a mirror finnish and it can be helpful if the the surface is quite rough.After all, you want to scratch around on stainless steel with it and you can't harm it this way.To get a nice and clean cover of solder onto the tip you need the mentioned flux from above.Use a small cup and fill some of the flux in it so you can dip the tip of the soldering iron into it.If there is no temperature control start with a cold iron and the tip sanded off a last time right before dipping it into the flux.Use some clamps or whatever you feel like to help keeping the tip in place.If you get flux onto bits you don't want to cover with solder then wash off and try again.Turn the iron on observe the tip.As soon as you see tiny bubble forming take it out and quickly start rubbing your solder onto the tip.It helps to have a thick enough solder so you can apply some pressure here.And of course the solder should be nice and shiny and not covered by oxides...Special cases like titanium or othe metals that usually fail to bond with solder....Let's face it: whenever soldering is not feasable we are happy to revert back to crimping or screwing.Nothing wrong with it either and often the better option when it comes to being able to do a quick repair at a later stage.Most of thes special metals, including your favourite heating wire can still be solder using the right surface prep and flux but it really should be avoided if you can.And real bond like you get when soldering copper would only be on a surface level and mechanical strenght questionable.On a professional level ultrasonic soldering is used to make the impossible possible.The cavitation effect breaks through the surface oxides or passivating layers and the solder just wets the surface like it would be copper.On a hobby level things look different though.Unless you decide to build your own solar panels from scratch the investment into some low end ultrasonic soldering machine already set you back a few grand....There is a way to cheat on the cheap though if you are into experimenting and building things....More on that in my other topic about making an ultrasonic soldering tank. ;)

Topic by Downunder35m  


How best to repair a plastic battery or CF cover door? Answered

I've got a common problem: a plastic cover on a device that has had one its tiny hinge pins sheared off.  I'm wondering what approaches to this problem people have used successfully? I'm considering the following: a) superglueing on bit of metal snipped from the end of a paperclip, or from a straight pin, or b) simply trying to build up a pin with JB Weld or other hardening material. Thoughts?  Comments?  Anecdotes? Thanks! -JD

Question by jdtwelve12    |  last reply


I need help fixing my Xbox 360 headset, is there anyone who can help me?

Ok, my Xbox 360 headset is not working correctly. I was using it alot, but when my bro used it, something happened, it didn't have sound coming from the earpiece. I could still talk. But the metal thing that plugged into my controller seemed as if it wasn't making a good connection, so when i wiggled it sounds came from the earpiece, I wiggled it more and I could hear again, a few weeks later it wouldn't make any sound at all. This has happened to many of my Xbox 360 headsets.

Question by mmartin7    |  last reply


Space Heater Repair, is there a glue for broken heating element coil spacer that is inflammable? Answered

Usually a space heater consists of a fan mounted to a motor which is then mounted to a back plate. Connected to the back plate are reflective spacers that hold the heating element coils seperate from eachother so they don't spark. Recently, I figured I'd repair my space heater after it started sparking instead of going and buying a new one. I opened it up to find the spacer plate which has several arms for holding 1-5 coiled wires. One of the arms was broken and the coils touched which is why it was sparking. Seeing as this is a heater, i'm fairly certain I can't use a super glue or epoxy to fix the plate due to its flammable nature. The plates are not easily replaceable themselves as they've been spot welded into place. So the question, is there a type of glue which will hold up under high temperatures which is not flammable that will bond metal / plastic / ceramic. I'd estimate the heating element probably reaches no higher then 700 degrees. If you have any suggestions on how I would go about repairing this I'd love to hear your ideas. Thanks in advance.

Question by Lorek    |  last reply


Can Sugru prevent an old, eroded rubber gasket from failing?

I have a great old Corona ultrasonic humidifier that is 21 or 22 years old. The humidifier works like a dream, but the old rubber gasket around the vibrating plate is going to fail soon. I am thinking that Sugru would be a fix to model around and on top of the existing gasket. Anyone think it would have trouble under water? It's one of the best old humidifiers  but has gone out of production. Have kept this sucker clean and in good order. The gasket has eroded considerably, and if it goes it will be a dead machine. I have repaired the broken water tank twice. I used a piece of Sugru to hold an old toilet flapper in place inside the reservoir tank and it hasn't moved in months. Anyone work with Sugru for things underwater? It is my only hope to keep this great old machine working. Sooner or later, it will go, but it is a grand old remnant of the days when we built things to last. My old metal blade fans are still going even after a switch had to be replaced. Good maintenance will keep things running  long after they are supposed to fail from use. Appreciate anyone and everyone's help. Thanks! Tess Elliott

Question by tesseliot    |  last reply


Good day, where can I get parts for butane lighters- metal filling valves; outlet valves dunhill?

I have old lighters ,I would like to repair

Question by dunhill    |  last reply


Electronic repair after a voltage spike or power surge

So far I was lucky and never got a lightning strike or other power failure to induce high voltages into my house and equippment. But over the time I got several requests from friends to take a look at things after literally all connected electronics in their house got fried. In some cases there is only a total write off as due to a lack of surge protectors inside all unwanted juice made it's way into vital components. Like a brand new Samsung TV where the replacement of the power board was the only option - which makes you wonder... But in other cases, like microwaves, induction cooktops, computers and such I had some good success with the repairs. Guess it comes down to purs luck on both sides, power surge was not too bad and simple components on the input side failed quickly enough to prevent damage to microprocessors or other sensitive parts. Right now I have an induction cooktop here again that failed after a mains transformer in street blew up during a thunderstorm. I can tell it was bad as everything in the area of fried parts has a vaporizsed metal film on the surface and not much is left that was a surge protection. I cleaned all up, replaced the varistors and missing parts of the traces on the circuit board but the cooktop is not performing the way it should anymore :( At some stage during cooking it turns off with a meaningless error code stating the input voltage was out of bounds. So my next attempt was to literally remove every single component from the filter and power supply board to measure for any possible connections between the traces. By doing so I noticed several points where I had a quite high but measurable resistance in areas where there should be none. Mostly on the direct input side where the varistors tried to save things. So I used my Dremel in a tin drill press to cut the circuit board aourd the affect areas (where possible with a drill, otherwise with a thin grinding disk).. Sure enough I was greeted by charcoal colored dust in several areas. After removing all material until the dust was "clean"  tried again and this time all seems to work fine. I would like to use this topic to offer some help and guidance in case you have devices that suffered a severe power surge of some sort. Many of us either have no insurance to replace those items or even if you do the device might be expensive enough to try a repair despite getting it replaced. Trust me, even it went up in smoke there is still a chance to fix it in some cases and if proper protective circuits were in place the repair could as cheap as a few Dollars for replacement parts. To get useful advice the following things should be included in your request: Some clear pictures showing a close up of the affected parts - if there is visibale damage to be seen. A brief description of what happened, e.g.: lightning strike directly into the house or outside power lines, generator or inverter failure or simply that the power company stuffed up and your entire street was affected. Of course you will need the means to take the device apart for investigation and also some basic soldering skills or somehow how has and can assist you. But if you are up to the challange I am willing to help if possible.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


DIY Slik Stik joystick for Atari, repair rubber washer spring?

I have 5 or 6 of these Slik Stik joysticks for Atari 2600/Commodore 64, but they all inevitably break, which is too bad because they have a nice feel. The main problems are the self-centering "spring" is a rubber washer around the stick that deteriorates, or the metal shaft bends. The bent shaft is easy to fix (just bend it back into shape). But could anyone suggest how to replace the rubber spring?  Preferably something that is * cheap, quick, easy * uses readily available parts * won't degrade over time too much * looks OK (not too noticeable a hack) It would be nice to fix these so that they last, I just don't have the time / skills to get into a really complicated project. I think there are parts online but if there is an easy cheaper DIY solution I would prefer that http://www.smithbrothersplowparts.com/store/index.php?l=product_detail&p;=15104820

Question by apple-o    |  last reply


Threaded Brass Inserts, 6-32, Sonic Weld, Press or Solder.

Add threads to new projects as well as modify or repair existing products. If the plastic you are using can be melted with a soldering iron you can place the insert on the part you want to add threads to. Then heat the insert with a soldering iron and press in to the part as the insert melts the plastic. Try with and without pilot hole. Excess plastic can be cleaned up with a dremel tool. You can also try soldering the inserts to the surface of metals that can be soldered such as copper and brass. Add these as threaded standoffs by soldering to bare copper on you circuit boards. Just the right color for steam punk projects. This part can be pressed into some materials with the right size pilot hole. Get them here: 50 pieces for $9.00. Free shipping: http://www.ebay.com/itm/50-Pieces-Brass-Threaded-Insert-6-32-Ships-Free-/130947172652?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash;=item1e7d0f492c#ht_96wt_1084   12 pieces for $5.50 http://www.ebay.com/itm/12-Pieces-6-32-Brass-Threaded-Insert-Free-Shipping-/130947489203?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash;=item1e7d141db3#ht_115wt_1084

Topic by luxstar    |  last reply


How would I fix a cracked laptop lid?

Hello. I have a laptop that's several years old. During its service, the lid has cracked near the hinges. The hinges themselves are intact, but the bottom of the lid is almost completely cracked along the length. The question is: how would I fix it, without causing permanent damage, cheaply and make it last at least 2 years? I can work with wood, but not metal (no equipment for that). I'm on tight budget so I cannot afford to spend more than 10 GBP. I'm located in London. Does anyone have any suggestions?

Question by xc1024    |  last reply


Does anyone know of a good 1 to 1 resin/catalyst and metal powder that can be gotten locally (to Phoenix, AZ)? Answered

I am making a custom sword. The intent is to make it out of resin. I have made the blank out of wood and will be making the mold from silicone. I currently have Castin Craft Clear resin. I have made a few sample casts and the results are fairly inconsistent. I have made it from straight resin (plus Catalyst) which made it too brittle or too tacky, either too much or not enough catalyst. I tried to do a cold cast by mixing in Aluminum Powder (I used Stop leak for radiator repair), but that made the cast like rubber. I am not keen on buying stuff online and can't source Real AL Powder locally and the only resin I can find is either the stuff I have or Fiberglass resin at Home Depot. I am trying to end up with a finished product that will not be tacky and will not shatter if I bump it against something. It will be used as a Renaissance Festival Costume piece, not for real use. Any other Resin casting suggestions would be welcome as well.

Question by Zippomanonfire    |  last reply


Looking for some suggestions to repair an guitarist anime figurine, Alters Azusa Nakano is her name. Answered

I have an anime figurine made by alter. She is a Azusa Nakano with a cool guitar. A very cute figurine I must say.Anyway uh, she took a little tumble and her guitar got slightly damaged, specifically the tuning knobs up top did, four were lost and one was damaged a little. So I am trying to figure out how to make new knobs, how doable is this? They are roughly 1.6ish mm in diameter pearly white discs that have slightly sloped edges, so they are circles but rounded on the corners instead of perfectly flat. Oh and they are super thin.there is a little stick attached to the disc which connects to the guitar. So in short I am trying to figure out how to make little white plastic lollipops. I can paint some parts if I have to, or use a little metal if it is safe. Any suggestions? Sorry for bothering you all. I am a noob, i know, and I bow to your greatnesses. :P? Oh the included picture is her with her guitar intact. It is one someone else took, not of my figurine but rather the same make, so I am not claiming credit for the awesome photography, but what I am looking to make are the white things up top. I ordered a set of jewelers drill bits and some steel wire which I think might help out a lot. Also my dad is a model railroader and I was thinking his skills may help me where I fall short. Anyways thanks in advance.

Question by JonPWills    |  last reply


Removing a teeny/tiny iPod/iPhone drilled screw

Hello, I have been doing some repair work on an iPod Touch 3G. One repair I'm having to perform is the power button which is totally unresponsive. This required removing some very soft tiny screws at the bottom of the device. Unfortunately, one didn't survive the screwdriver and quickly chewed up, which means I've had to drill it using a drill bit, which took a surprising amount of effort. The problem now I have is extracting the final stem which is still screwed in. The stem isn't flush with the metal but it's not far off, making it hard to grab using pliers. I'm looking for some suggestions how to remove it. I've read that cutting a thin screwdriver in half and gluing it using super glue is a way. Another way seems to buying an extraction set but the only one I can find in the area looks far too big (despite having a precision piece). Thoughts? All suggestions welcome.

Topic by skezza    |  last reply


The Crucible is looking for instructors

The Crucible, a nonprofit arts education community organization is currently seeking instructors for motorcycle maintenance, properties of metals, wood working, stone carving, and kinetics. If you have experience and interest in teaching fine and industrial arts to the community, we encourage you to apply! If you're qualified to teach classes like these, we want to hear from you!Properties of Metals & Materials Entry-level class What causes work hardening in metal? Why does work hardening go away when the same metal is heated? Why does glass need to be annealed? This class explains physical occurrences that you will observe in classes at The Crucible. Examining these phenomena at the atomic level will help you better understand metals and materials. There will be no math, labs are incorporated into the class, and there are no prerequisites. Everything you need to know about demystifying the behavior and use of materials will be taught in class.Clay AnimationEntry-level class Create and build your own claymation characters. Learn quickly how to draft and organize a storyboard, then build your own scenario. During production, you'll apply colored lighting to your action scene and then learn how to shoot frame by frame to give life to your creation. You can collaborate with other students to develop a more involved group project. For this class, you must bring your own digital camera and tripod.The Art of Motorcycle Maintenance & RepairEntry-level class Learn how to repair your motorcycle and avoid paying the top dollar that motorcycle shops charge. If you have a bike that you want to learn to fix or are interested in owning a bike and don't want to rely on someone else to keep it on the road, this is the class for you. Generally motorcycles are simpler and easier to work on than cars. In this class we will cover a number of different bikes. With the consent of the instructor, you will be able to work on your own bike in class or choose to work on one of the bikes provided by the instructor. If you choose to work on your own bike, you must buy any materials needed. The Crucible faculty is comprised of Bay Area artists, tradespeople, artisans and educators who teach innovative educational programs to students of all ages, experience levels and areas of interest. The Crucible seeks a staff of broad diversity and strongly encourages women and people of color to apply. For more information, visit our website: Job Opportunities at The Crucible

Topic by plasmajan    |  last reply


Military bone yard episode on the History channel

Did anyone watch the Military bone yard episode on the History channel? It is amazing to see how they can repair a vehicle that is in as bad of shape as it was and make it like new again. On the other hand, I could not believe what they do with equipment that is outdated or too much work to rapair.M16 being tossed into grinders Vietnam and WW2 era tanks smelted down into a hunk of metal. Amazing pieces of engineering destroyed along with its history. All because of the idiots in Washington who want to keep this stuff away from the public. The episode pained me so much, that I could not watch the rest of it.

Topic by Sedgewick17    |  last reply


Help Fnding and Acquiring a Career

Well, I just turned 18 in March and decided that I should pick what it is that I want for a career. I am fascinated with every building technique that there is whether it is for metal, wood, or electronics (to name a few). I enjoy studying on these skills, and find a great satisfaction when I am building, repairing, or inventing. I want to do all of these things in a career that I will enjoy till the end of my days. The problem is that I am not even sure if there in a name for such a profession, let alone how I would go about acquiring it? If anyone knows anything about the career I am talking about I would greatly appreciate it.

Topic by Sedgewick17    |  last reply


How does one replace cuisinart motor shaft sheath?

I was given a friend's grandmother's  dlc-7 Cuisinart.  The old sheath has the upper half of the side without metal underneath broken off. The plastic is super brittle.  I've gotten a replacement part.  It looks as though the old one should slide off and the new one slide on.  It's not working out that way. We've cleaned off the corrosion on the shaft that's exposed and cleaned up the plastic with paint thinner.  Pulling on the sheath hasn't  worked.  I've considered super gluing the broken piece back on, but would really like to install the new sheath.

Question by mole1    |  last reply


How can I make a "PVC Sump Pump Float Switch"?

I've got the idea in my head what it looks like, & the parts to make it, but I'm having trouble in how to build it. I want this pump switch to have a setting were if I want, the switch be on when the float is down or up.To attach the cable, will a press fit pipe connector work for a air/water tight fit?How do I mount the switch in the pipe? I do have a metal ball weight to activate the switch.Suggestions on pipe size, materials for the switch mount, should I glue everything or have a screw off cap to access the electronics inside for repair?

Question by elkaddalek    |  last reply


Washing machine door won't open - possible solutions!

If you have a front loader and found this then most likely you are currently unable to get your washing out of the machine.Welcome to the club!Here is what happened to me, skip this bit if you like:The washing finnished, I try to open the door but nothing.Ok, maybe some electrical bugger somewhere, so knock it a few times but still no go.Mind you that I am in AU now but a long time ago I took my European machine with me - not knowing there won't be any service down here.A quick search on my model and the problem informed me that either the electrical safety lock is faulty or the handle part is broken.The solution to open the door as suggested by the official support:Take the damn thing apart until you get the front off.Unscrew the lock from the inde and then investigate the actual problem.Well, lets just say I was not in the mood to dismantle the entire thing just to open the door, so here is how I did it:Part two: Options to open the door if the handle won't do the trick:Most front loaders are designed to make thing complicated when it comes to the door mechanism.It is considered a safety thing, so tempering from the outside shall be prevented.A faulty electrical lock is rare but I will try this a bit further down.Almost all front loaders use a hook like pin in the door.And once the power was off for a few minutes the safty lock will disengage - if not look further down this text ;)But since the cover is screwed on from the inside of the door you can't get easy access to this locking pin.In some cases you can be lucky and if you look from the side you can see it - if so then try something flat enough (but sturdy) to press it towards the center of the door.For me the problem was the cover really covered it all :(I used some strong, braided fishing line instead to pull on the hook pin.Take a lenght to go all around the door, push the line in where the handle is and guide it around the door.Take both ends together and pull - the door pops open.Be aware though that fishing line can cut into your fingers, so make a loop and a wooden handle or so instead of your fingers ;)Part three: The door is open - what now??Well, if you managed to open the door during part two already then your handle part is clearly broken somewhere.At the hinge should be two (or four) screws with heads that are different to the rest - if in doubt aim for those closest to the hinge.Remove them while supporting the door!Once the screw are out you should be able to get the door off with a bit of wiggling and different opening angles.If not put the screws back in and remove all others first to take the front cover off while you attempt to get the door off.The handle part isusually fixed with screws that hold the cover, so it should come out once all is seperated.With some luck you find a part number on it somewhere on the back, if not check your prefered supplier for a spare.Part four: To repair or to not repair?You might notice that with just the actual locking pin and its frame that screws into the door all would work fine.If really just the handle part is broken while the stronger part for the screws and actual pin is fine:Consider leaving the handle off until you get a spare.The door can be mounted without the actual handle but you need to take the framework apart.Once done you should only have a basic frame to screw into the door with the hook in it but the actual handle is gone.And without the handle you have easy access to the pin - you can even push it with your finger to open the door...But as said, in my case the frame for the door cover blocked this bit too much.For the first wash I used a popstickle stick as it was thin enough...If no spares are available anymore and repairing the broken plasic is not an option either:Part five: For the desperate - modified locking pin.I have seen people placing a bolt into the front of the machine and then literally screwing the door close.The safety was then just bridged of course...This however is not recommended and a bad idea anyway.Much better is to be creative and to use some spare metal or strong plastic like Delrin.Fibreglass re-inforced plastic like from an old sewer box is great too but a pain in terms of protective gear while cutting, drilling and sanding.Either way you should now see the resulting parts of your accident scene.And this of course only works if at least the frame for the pin itself is still intact.The mechnism in the original is a double lever - you pull the handle away from the door and the pin is "rotated" over its pin to move away from the lock.Take the actual locking pin out, trace its shape and on the drawing add a suitable "extension that you can press down (on the outside of the door).In the most basic form a simple straight lever going away from the machine at a 30° angle will do.Cut a cardboard sample to check if you really have enough free movement.If all is good create a copy in the right thickness and put it all back togehter without the broken handle.To open the machine you then just press the lever towards the machine and the door pops open.

Topic by Downunder35m  


Restoring a vintage child's pull-wagon. Anyone know where to get replacement wheels?

I am desperately looking for replacement vintage-style wheels for a pull-wagon that I'm restoring. It's in rough shape but all the bits are good except for two wheels which are beyond repair. I also have a strange old 3 wheel kick scooter that needs a wheel. I've scoured the 'net under every heading I can think of with no luck. Can anyone help? I need metal disc-type wheels like the ones in the photo. This is a pic of an old wagon I simply cleaned, waxed (including the wheels) and turned into a coffee table using a piece of tempered glass someone threw away.  I've since added those transparent little silicone "bumpers" on the corners to stop the top from sliding off.

Topic by zombateen    |  last reply


What New Useful Products Have You Recently Become Acquainted With ?

Here is My list. I recently saw an ible about sugru. Had neverheard of it, before  but can see its usefulness. Kind of expensive and not generally available. Have seen polymer clays, but cant see how it would replace epoxy putty Available at craft shops. Have heard Rescue tape ( fusible silicon ) . I haven't had a use for it, but it seems to be a great repair tape. It was available at Craftwood  Lumber, so it is a mass market product. Expensive, but can see it's potential worth. I'll wait til. I need it before I buy it. The oscillating tools have come down in price. Not exactly new, but extremely useful especially for people whose shop is their desk or kitchen table. If I were to have one power tool, it probably would still be the cordless drill driver. But if I were allowed a second power tool, this would be it. Blades are expensive.  Demolition Bags are very useful and cheap and generally available. I recently saw a device for bending PVC pipe. I have avoided using PVC because of the joints. I prefer thin metal conduit because it can be bent with the pipe bender I was able to acquire. That being said, the Pipe Viper may  be worthwhile. I am considering a small greenhouse made of arched PVV pipe and clear sheeting.  

Topic by Wilmette    |  last reply


fixing a laptop cable

Hello all! Love this site. First time poster. I have a problem with my laptop cable. It stopped working--I had to maneuver it into all sorts of strange positions to get it to charge my laptop. It finally refused my attempts by not charging at all. So I did the least sensible thing possible and cut into it with wire cutters to see if it was a frayed cable that I could possibly just wrap with electrical tape. Because the adapter was real bendy, more bendy then usual. I thought something inside wasn't connecting right. So now I have a really messed up laptop cable. There seems to be only one wire that extends from the adapter into the cord. I kinda cut into that too by mistake. At the end of the adapter there is a metal knob type thing, I don't know what its for but it doesn't really look like it connects to the cable. Is it fixable? I have beginner soldering skills. I've looked at other laptop cord repair instructables, but I'm not even sure where to begin. Thanks for any help! -Gil

Topic by gregorsamsa    |  last reply


FSR - Conductive foam readings

Hello! I am making a prototype of a force sensitive resistor, and i am using, to old 97%kobber coins, metal sheet and a tiny piece of conductive foam that i got from a tv-repair shop. The setup is not very good, but its a start, and i am planning the next move for better results... Now... I want some decent understanding of how the readings work, and why I get these results.. First test, are written with black, and and as you can see it, has the same amount of space between 0-1kg and 1-2kg, but 2-3 and 3-4 changes to a very small space? Why is that? Second question is, that i have used the x10, to read larger forces. 0-2,5kg and 2,5-5kg has same amount of space. Will the space decrease too, when getting further up the scale too?  - I know the conductive foam has its limits too, but just to be clear of my readings. Thanks in advance! I hope you can see the readings on the picture..!

Topic by L33boy    |  last reply


How can you prevent Galvanic Corrosion? Answered

My parents bought a new green heater they've had repaired by 2 different guys in the past 2 months. The last one was a guy my brother knew; he said that it needed to be sanded, which I thought was a bit strange. It's beginning to act a bit funny again, kicking on, then going off. So I opened it up today, thinking that it was probably Galvanic corrosion from the way he talked. It seems as if a few companies are getting a bit careless in there designs. :-) So I opened it up and there was still corrosion laying on the bottom of the case from the first fix. He didn't even know what I was talking about. I read the Wikipedia article: Galvanic Corrosion. They mostly advise electroplating, which could get a bit labor intensive in this case. From what I understand, the idea is to separate the base metals, the anode and the cathode, from the electrolyte. In this case, it's the water vapor in the air. Wouldn't it just require some type of heat resistant coating to act as a barrier against water? Like some kind of spray on coating?

Question by Vorenus    |  last reply


Multi-function, multi-materials workshops?

I'm on a small rural acreage. My shop situation is that I’ve got two separate, fairly compact spaces for working with wood (or general “handyman” repairs for the home) and for working with metal (cutting, welding, grinding, etc). My metal area is where I also often work with small-engine equipment. These spaces are located inconveniently, separated by nearly 100 feet! I think about how I might like to combine functions under one roof. So I’m posting to try to coax some of you people to show me how you may have done this. Or examples you've found on the internet (give URLs). Obviously, no one wants to get sawdust into an area where torch flames or electric-welding sparks could cause a hazard. And you wouldn’t want to get engine lubricants or solvents mixed up with wood projects. Discussion and description are fine, but I’d really like to see pictures or floor-plan diagrams if possible.  I need examples that represent modest investment, as I could probably only afford to build an enclosure of about 16x24 ft, with a bay door. ( Yes - could probably learn something from shops that are somewhat bigger than this.) In grandfather's day, farm shops were usually multi-purpose. You know, for "bench carpentry", and maintaining or servicing the truck or tractor, welding bailer components back together, etc. Often had a tablesaw, maybe a bandsaw - besides the hoist, welders, socket wrenches. I suppose sometimes a fire did occur in one shop or another, but probably not often.  I'd like to see some more modern versions, rather than just the "version" I have in terms of vague memories. Thanks.

Question by Joel_BC    |  last reply


Help with Leyden Jar Answered

I have seen many of the instructables about building a leyden jar, but I built two and I cannot seem to make either of them work. First I made the glass one. I filled it with salt water and stuck a long nail in through the lid because I couldn't fit my hand in to wrap it with aluminum foil on the inside. I sealed it well with hot glue and taped a very neat, crinkle-less strip of aluminum tape around it, the kind that is used for repairing air ducts. I tried charging it by rubbing around a fuzzy blanket on the carpet. That always produces a big spark, so while my brothers were rubbing their hair on the blanket and carpet, I was holding the metal tape around the glass jar with one hand and touching the grounded screw on the electrical plate with the other hand. When my brothers touched the nail on the top, we both felt a shock but when I tried to discharge it by touching my fingers to the nail and the tape at the same time, nothing happened. I don't think it is holding a charge at all. Next I didn't touch the metal tape at all, and we rubbed our hair on the blanket and touched the nail. But when I tried to discharge it, the same thing: no spark. So I assumed the glass was too thick, so I made the plastic one. This is made out of a Tang powdered drink mix container, I cleaned it, filled it with salt water, and wrapped the inside and outside with aluminum foil, as tightly on the sides as I could. I used a smaller nail this time, but I attached it to the inside aluminum foil with a thin strip of foil. I sealed the nail up and made sure there were no leaks. I performed all of the same tests as last time, but still no results. Can someone please help me figure out where i am going wrong? Thanks :)

Question by Technicolor    |  last reply


Radioactive lift controls recalled in France

NEW DELHI (AFP) - India's atomic safety body said Thursday that radioactive scrap metal which found its way into buttons installed into lifts in France had been traced back to a western Indian foundry.At least four Indian firms were involved in the manufacture of the components, an official said, but it was still unclear where the contaminated scrap originated."We are tracking back the whole chain," Satya Pal Agarwal, head of the radiological safety division of India's Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, told AFP."We are taking steps in each place. Exporters have been advised to buy monitors to check their materials before exporting."France's Mafelec firm delivered thousands of lift buttons to Otis, a subsidiary of the US elevator company, which installed them in at least 500 lifts in the country over the summer.Otis has said it is now in the process of removing the buttons, after France's Nuclear Safety Authority announced Tuesday that 20 workers who handled the lift buttons had been exposed to excessive levels of radiation.The French nuclear safety agency has said the lift buttons contained traces of radioactive Cobalt 60.AFP articleSteel items imported {into Sweden} from India showing faint traces of radioactivity were found in Sweden, before the same substance was traced on Indian-made lift buttons in France, officials said Wednesday.The levels of Cobalt 60, a radioactive form of the metal, were considered harmless and the steel components have not been recalled, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) told AFP."Dutch customs discovered that a shipment of industrial flanges from India to Sweden showed traces of Cobalt 60," SSM spokesman Mattias Skoeld said.Focus Agency feedFrench elevator maker Otis said it would remove the buttons from hundreds of lifts it has installed after a radioactivity scare over Indian-supplied materials.The company made the announcement after France's Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) said 20 French workers who had handled buttons used in lifts had been exposed to to excessive levels of radiation.An Otis spokesman said the firm's plan to remove the buttons "concerned 500 to 600 lifts out of the 2,500 that Otis has installed, modernised or repaired between August 21 and October 9 even if there is no danger for users."The ASN classed the incident at factory of the Mafelec firm in the east-central French town of Chimilin at "Level Two" on a scale of seven because of the exposure of more than 10 people to doses exceeding the reglementary limit.SA Times article

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply


Waterglass or Liquid Glass

Back when I was a kid I had a little chimistry set and part of it were instructions on how to create your own chmical garden in a jar.The metal salts only "grow" in the areas with lots of water while being cured into somthing more solid when it contacts the waterglass.Quite nice trick for kids of all ages.Another and commercail use is as a binder for refractory uses.On a home level you can just crush up some vermiculite and perlite to create solid and light weight fire bricks or plate - with just waterglass as the binder.Although for this purpose you want a higher amount of cat litter in your mix.Cat litter???Yes, cat litter is the same as silica beads but it dissolves much easier in the reaction with sodium hydroxide, or drain cleaner.60g of crystal cat litter, 80g of sodium hydroxide, 100ml of water.Mix it carefully and without getting too much sodium hydroxide in the mix to quickly and you have a jar of watergalls - easy...But there is other uses too, like you could see in my Ible about making your own ferrite.In some areas it is still used as a flame retardant or to fireproof materials that otherwise would combust too quickly.Wood that was vacuum treated with waterglass and fully dried turns into a rock like substance that looks beautiful once polished.And it has a really hard time burning...As it cures like glass with just little heat it was used in Fukushima by injecting it into the soil to form a barrier for the radioactive water.The heat from the radiactive water helped curing the mix...You can even use it to repair your cracked potter and glassware..Holes or leaks in your exhaust system? What a pain if you are too short on money to replace the parts.So a lot of us pay quite a bit of money for repair putties and bandages to seal the lak at least for long enough to consider a real fix.Did you know that all these putties and such are nothing but waterglass, glass fibres and filler material?The later often just very fine sand.Easy to make you own in bucket loads for less than what the repair kit costs LOLA total pain in the behind is if your old car gets a water leak.Usually it is a seal on the pump, a hole in the radiator or a tiny crack.One to to fix it for a while is to add an egg white to your cold radiator water or coolant.Then go for a drive and the egg white will boil off and dry where it comes into contact with air - outside you problem.Works remarkably well and won't harm any part of your engine either.Only downside is that it usually only lasts for a few days, being a natural product and such.Some people though claim they got weeks or even months out of such a cheap fix.A btter and more permanent way to seal such tiny leaks is to use waterglass mixed into the cooling system.It will form a lasting glass like seal that has no issiues under high heat or pressure.It even fixes your leaking head gasket if the water goes not get into the oil jet.Oil getting into the water might still still be fixable with waterglass.Water in the oil means the waterglass could enter the oil and if that happens you end with glass in your moving engine bits.A sure way to kill every engine and used to properly destroy them for recyling purposes by law in some countries.Waterglass is added to the engine oil and then it runs until hot enough for the water to evaporate.At this point the engine and all bearings just permantly seize.Waterglass added to cement provides a good barrier for oil and other liquids, making a spill cleanup much easier as the spill can't really penetrate the concrete.My personal favourite though is to use it for the easy removal of unwanted paint gretings on walls and such.You know how some kids think that a spray can with paint and a clean wall make artwork...If said wall is "painted" with a a mix of waterglass and sugar the spray paint will stick as good as before.But then you come with a pressure washer and clean it off in a few minutes and without any traces left on the wall.Sadly you need to re-apply the protective coating before the kid with the spray can comes back next night...What are your uses for liquid glass?

Topic by Downunder35m  


Grand Opening for new maker space in Reno, Nevada: Bridgewire

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE CONTACT: Dan Johnson 775-219-7987 Dan@renobridgewire.org, Jeremy Osborn 775-240-1177 jwosborn@runbox.com Reno Makerspace Grand Opening Oct 1 Reno, Nev. (9/21/2011) - - Bridgewire is a new collaborative workshop where people can learn a variety of skills from welding to hacking. Bridgewire, a nonprofit, will launch Saturday, October 1, with the public invited from noon to 5pm. “We are a rapid prototyping shop with woodworking tools, metalworking tools, and high tech tools. We provide the opportunity for motivated people to learn. We want to arm people with the knowledge and tools to bring their ideas into reality” said John Lusak, a founding member. “All the projects I work on are open source, so you can modify them the way you want” said Lusak. He flies a variety of homemade remote control and unmanned aerial vehicles. “They’re not just RC helicopters, they can have GPS, sonar, camera, barometer, and so forth. They’re aerial robotics.” He notes that people often need a hand up to get started learning. ““I was intimidated, then I decided to spend an hour a day, got some help, and now I help other people. This is a place where people can get help to get started, and to get unstuck.” Bridgewire will host a variety of workshops where people can learn how to use a 3D printer, soldering, using CNC machines, hacking, and even such unusual skills as lockpicking. Hotshot The Robot plans to learn to weld. He says, “I’ll be at the Opening because so few humans know how to fix robots. I’m always on the lookout for qualified techs.” About Bridgewire: Bridgewire is Reno’s first makerspace. People can come to Bridgewire to create and repair. Tools available include various types of welders, CNC machines, metal and wood shop tools, high tech such as 3D printers. Bridgewire is located at 1055 Industrial Way #20, Sparks.

Topic by BlindDevil    |  last reply


brushed induction motor confusion? [answered] Answered

My father and I are currently restoring a metal-working lathe, however, we do not have 3 phase power to power the original 0.5HP 3 phase motor. We do, however, have a slightly smaller 0.25HP motor. At first appearance, it seemed to be a simple AC/DC brushed motor with a field and winding on the armature. There was no wiring diagram supplied with it, but in one configuration (what appeared to be the ameuture and field coils) are wired in parallel for 120V operation. This did not seem right, since the field coils will be simply shorted across the mains, but I assumed that since we are dealing with AC and inductors, this is OK. It works flawlessly, but reversing the polarity of either the fields or armature would cause the motor to sit and buzz. If started manually, it took off slowly but sounded awful. I need the motor to rotate in both directions and do not have enough materials to do this mechanically. On closer inspection after dismantling the motor, it appears there are 4 brushes, connected together in 2 pairs. They are not directly connected to anything. The 4 wires coming out seem to be just for wiring both field coils in either series of parallel for 110V and 220V operation respectfully. Perhaps even more strange, the 4 brushes are mounted on a centripetal switch, which disengage the brushes from the armature. I was able to make out on the rust that it said "revolution induction motor." So I reasoned out that after the fields are energized, it will induce an electrical current in a few of the coils on the armature, and the energy would flow to the other 2 sets of brushes, causing a different set of coils on the amature to energize and this would initially start the motor. After it gets going, the switch disconnects all the brushes and the motor operates as a simple induction motor. My father used to rebuild motors for a small company, and this is in fact one of the motors he repaired. Although he is skilled at this practice, he does not understand the operation of induction motors and can only figure out wiring by strictly following a diagram or trial and error. I am curious about what this type of motor even is, and how it works! In th meantime, I will research induction motors and how they work, and see what I can learn.

Question by -max-    |  last reply


Spare parts overpricing - anyone familiar with the concept?

I recently had the joy of getting one of the machines I use at work fixed. We already knew a valve was no longer working but I did not expect the source to be a motor with a gearbox on it. I kept the faulty part to check the internals - just out of curiosity. Now mind you that after little online I sear I found all the components of this drive: 1. A Mabuchi RS-555 motor - priced at under $10 2. A 3 stage planetary gearbox with a sproket for a chain drive - all up and in top quality around $250 with much cheaper options available... 3. A mounting plate - just an aluminium square with 4 holes in it. 4. A standard connector plug with 6cm of cable. Even if I consider that there are only 2 manufacturers for this sort of machinery wordwide I fail to see how a price of very close to $1000 is justified for this part. But let's not brag about politics but design instead: The gearbox is totally over-engeneered for the task and could deliver about 15 times the torque required to moved the valve even if it would be blocked. And against the technicians assurance the drive failed because of us forcing it to be used to often (ROFL) I had to realise the culprit is the design and way it is put together. Despite being all hardened steel there was basically no grease left inside the gearbox, I was not even able to turn it from the motor side by hand! As it is a fully sealed unit I highly doubt the grease just disappeared because most of the metal parts were bone dry, the rest only had a smidge of grease hard like wax left on it. And although the motor has a similar laser engraving than a real Mabuchi motor of the same type it has no ball bearings and judging by the free space bushes of only 4mm lenght, maybe less. One broke off, the other still had about 2.5mm left. I could argue the dry gearbox caused a constant overload of the motor, which is evident by the thermal marks on the rotor but I never had a motor with te brushes broken off the metal clip holding them. The next day I reported my findings to the boss and he said he might have another one somewhere from a previous repair and wanted me to check it as well. Needless to say the faul was identical. This system is being replaced on average every 18 months at a total cost of close to $1500. One third of this is for labour, other spares and general service but the amount for the motor drive is always a sting. Now to really funny part: After my boss had a long and frustrating phone call with our service company it turns out we not allowed to use any parts other then what the manufacturer supplies. Ok, truth told, we are of course allowed to do so but if the service company notices non-genuine parts they have to report it and this automatically cancels our service agreement with the manufacturer. Only one company produces the stuff, only one company in the country has the service contract with them - you see the circle? LOL I found a supplier that could offer a similar motor drive that would only require the original mounting plate and sproket. Priced at just $300 and with a 2 year warranty it sounds tempting especially if you consider that is only for the gearbox and the motor has 3 years. Of cours we won't do it and have to suck it up, so just for laughs a few other spares for this machine that I found in old bills and their price on Ebay for the same part or one of better quality on the right: Various microswitches:                                  25 - 88                       0.20 - 4 Temperatur sensor:                                              129                       1.20 Temp sensor with 30cm heat proof cable:       149                       3.50 Stainless steel sheet metal screw:                        6.50                 0.40 if ordered more than 10 Main switch (simple flip):                                        99                      1.20 Stainless steel screening fliter:                             114                      8.30 And that is just for the mechanical and electrical stuff, if I would go into the plumbing with little stainless steel parts and ruber seals some here might end up with sore muskles from all the laughing... Do have similar equippment that could be serviced better for a fraction of the cost but can't because of similar restrictions? Mind you that I am not talking about warranty stuff here as the machine is far over this already... If someone wants to see how much damage a broken off peice of carbon will cause in the long run let me know. But be aware that I already cleaned away most of the black dust before you complain it looks too clean - I did not want that stuff everwhere ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


The animatronic project Is finished

Here my instructableMy Animatronic Mod ProjectIn 2003 I made a casemod MONSTERMOD ( picture 1), Just a creature sculpture tearing out of a PC case.And It Didnt Move . So , I want the next MONSTERMOD to MOVE.Maybe to tell me that I have email.... Picture people's PCs having Heads .There favorite movie star or rock star maybe a animal. Maybe like Hal from 2001Space Odyssey .But, My animatronic Mod Has no A.I. But maybe one day. Im programmingthe 16 servo movements into the PC and press the play to play the movements a lipsync routine.Well, For Over 2 years now I have been working My Animatronic Mod.My Animatronic Mod is a floating creature head over a desktop case.( picture 2 IMG_1383.jpg)It controlled my a 2 Mini SSC II (http://www.seetron.com) this allow the computer to control 16 RC servos.16 RC servos = 16 Movements .I made the teeth out of dental acrylic, The samething denture are made of.Teeth and fangs are made 1st in tooth color dental acrylic and shaped.Then are placed in dental wax .,the mold is a silicone putty is place on the teeth allow to setup overnight.To demold the wax is melted away with boiling water leaving the teeth in the silicone putty sockets.This is called the lost wax process.( picture 3,4,)After I made the eyes out of dental acrylic ,Which is a molded ping pong ball is 40 mm .In half 20 mm sandwhich in between the 2 halves is a metal small metal ball 10mm give me a ball joint and socket.The iris is a painted metal washer. The veins are silk yarn And is cover with clear dental acrylic .The white of the eyes was changed to black color ,To give more of a alien look. ( picture 6,7)I molding the finished eyes alginate and casting them in ultracal 30, ( picture 8) Ultracal 30 is the hardest plaster made.And place them in the sculpture.This will be for Proper registration for the eyes in the skull.( picture 9 )I had to sculpt face in Roma Plastilina Clay ( picture 10)and mold it in silicone( picture 11a,11b, 11 ) This molding process called a matrix mold . A layer of water clay cover theentire clay sculpture and Ultracal 30 is place on top of the water clay .After setup ,Its demolded and water clay removed .This water clay has made a space for the silicone.Matrix molda thin layer of water clay is place ( picture 12 ) and made the core A .This gave me the thickest for the skin .Molded core A in silicone and a thin layer of water clay is place in this mold also this made core B.And this gave the thickest of the Skull. Now I have 2 molds.( picture 13,14 )Mold 1 is the Skin moldMold 2 is the skull moldI casted foam rubber in mold 1 ( picture 15,)http://www.monstermakers.com/foam.htmlTo make the foam rubber skin337 gms. base67 grams foaming agent33 grams curing agent15 flow enhancer24 grams gelling agent4 grams ammoniaThe room temp73 degrees 40%Using a Sunbeam MixMaster Mixer1. Speed #1 - 1 minute (to blend all components)2. Speed #10 - 3 minutes : blend all3. Speed #3 - 4 minutes : refine4. Speed #1 - 30 seconds :refine5. Speed #1 - 30 seconds : ADD GELLING AGENT ( picture 16 )6. Speed #1 - 30 seconds : Backturn the bowlFoam rubber can be tricky.Mold 1 was place in a Hot box oven for 11 hours at 125 degrees .= A very soft and flexable skin ( picture 15,16 )Hot box oven 3'x 3'x 3 " plywood box with foil insulation with a single burner. This must be watched.( picture 17,18,19)I casted urethane Plastic from smoothon.com in mold 2.This gave me the Skull,The skull was trimed and dental acrylic teeth and eyes were place inside the skull .The mechanics were place using R/C servos.The skin was painted with PAX ( is a flexible paint). The skin was glue on rubber cement to the skull .And the hair was glued rubber cement also and placed.Hair is from National Fiber Technology ,Hair 1 was Blended Black and Brown modacrylic with White and Brown Mohair and Natural Goat hair.And hair 2 Black with gray texturized modacrylic with Yak and Horse hair.The PCMy motherboard (MSI KT6) and AMD 2500xp video card (MSI 6600)The case is LIAN LI PC-V800B .To make the lip sync move ,I used VSA , Visual Show Automation , http://www.brookshiresoftware.comThis aloud me to make a lip sync animation routine. Synchronize with graphical audio MP3 file.Not only that My Animatronic Mod looks Wicked ,It Talks Back.(Picture 1st floor) ( Picture 2nd floor)I designed the animatronic so I could repair it if needed, And the support pipe is like a swing arm so I can work on the PC too. By removing the back of the skull. Inside there are 2 floors the bottom floor has 6 servos :1 Head Up + Down2 Eyes Up + Down and left + right2 Eyelids1 Jaw2nd floor 7 servos3 right,left and center Brows1 Nose3 upper lip wireAnd also 2 servos are in the Jaw for lower lip wireand 1 left + right servo gimbal= 16 servosWhen uncovered ,Here is 32 feet of servo cable.(picture32 feet )The only thing connecting to the PC and the Animatronic is a modular cable (Lookslike a phone cable). Which is plug into a modular adapter that plug into the PC's serial port . The end of the modular cable plug in Mini SSCII Serial Servo Controller.you would be surprise how many people are into making monsters. Ive beenmaking monsters , masks and makeup fx for 30 years now.I put my 2 hobbies that Ienjoy together.Computers and making monsters.Im a dental lab tech. for 20 years now .I make dentures for a living.Thank You so muchGary WillettTo see Video Demos http://www.youtube.com/willettfxhttp://www.servocity.com..................For Servoshttp://www.nftech.com/ ...................For Hairhttp://www.smooth-on.com/ ............ Silicone,Urethane PlasticbooksTechniques of Three-Dimensional Makeup by Lee Baygan Special Make-Up Effects (Paperback)by Vincent Kehoe Men, Makeup & Monsters: Hollywood's Masters of Illusion and FX (Paperback)by Anthony TimponeStop-Motion Puppet Sculpting: A Manual of Foam Injection, Build-Up and Finishing Techniques (Paperback)by Tom Brierton Stop-Motion Armature Machining: A Construction Manual (Paperback)by Tom Brierton MagazineCinefex

Topic by willettfx    |  last reply


open arts and design sailing school : in progress ...

Here is a dream ... i had a few week ago :My dream just looked so real !!!! :- I want to create stuff- i want to travel- i want to share (teach, learn)- I want to be free, share this dream- I want to make something usefull for myself and others... I'm dreaming ...I want to be inspired from what i prefer from the different places I have seen as a student and teacher :institute without boundaries = The concept of the open arts and design sailing school, should be to solve global and local problem creatively. The institute without boundaries is a graduate school (all students are self-responsible and motivated) with the boat we can go where the design/ art solution is needed and exchange it with goods, money / services to survive promoting global well-being. At the moment they have decided to focus all the students attention in soving one problem : housing in develloping countries, now the energy of everyone is this direction, the school is based in Toronto, but the students travel the world study and find clever-cheap solutions adapted to different places.ensci = the 24h//365days open school you can weld or hammer at anytime of the day and night, all the facilities are all accessible, the students are responsible.wikiveristy : the on-line community everyone can join.boat building school : the maker knowledge of ancientsgispy school = compact school solution in a truckmake zine = publicating, is very important, and it should be done daily, simple rawnavy boat = woaaah this boat is so amazing !!! Imagine sucha big ship, we can have everything in, metal wood plastic glass fibers music painting textile chemistry workshop !!!!Open course ware = Super high quality training FOR FREE !!! School should be preparing for professional life, so teachers and students should undertake together briefs from the outside to make money for financing the boat and learn.open source softwares = the open school should use 'only' open source software and promotes its usage and be independent.cousteau = scientific and politicaly engaged ship missionrainbow warrior = promoting ecological ideology and freedom and respect of diversity.Royal College of Arts = aplace where students from different areas of study exchange and collaborate on diverse projects : if you join the project you come to learn and maybe you can teach something as well ! v2 lab = to be a place for people to pursue long term researches and experimental projects.squid lab = instructables is run by a company, Squid Lab. Not like a charity they can also undertake projects to make money to run other activities such as instructables website and feed a community of enthousiasts users.UDK Berlin wiki system = i was mucky enough to pop-in the UDK " Experimental Media Design " class, i asked if i can sit and listen, ans what I saw amazed me : the students were doing a vast presentation on the subject "network", each group of student would focus on a particular angle of the subject, everyone collecting informations and uploading it on the class wiki (on-line collaborative website), making a huge and relevant knowledge base for the next step : creating artefacts !!! AMAZING people ! Students and teachers were equal, just collecting infos, the teachers was just here to order the datas and rovide support of experience when needed.The boat itself should be made ecologicaly and collectively.I'm sure funding can be found from goverments, private funders, environemental organisations, scientific missions, foundations, cities, councils, and the money made by the members of the projects while travelling, providing solutions.So that's pretty much it, from what i know, but if you know any particulairity you think exellent, it has to be included in this project.Isn't this exciting !!!!????I have seen immense boats abandonned in Greece waiting to be repaired and re-used !!!!Now, it's time to build the idea and see who's interested.So many things must be done :- defining what needs to be on-board, the functions ...- how many users ...- materials, place to build, legal, money ...- the entire prject actually ... heheheh !! ...

Topic by cesar harada    |  last reply


Tempered glass screen protectors - understand and beware!

I recently had the joy of needing a new screen protector for my mobile after being dumb enough to drop it on gravel. The hard cover took all the impact but the film protector on the screen was scratched badly. Was old and partially worn anyway so I decided to upgrade to a Tempered Glass screen protector. Being somewhere rural I had no chance to get one in a shop so I ordered online. With no intention of advertising for some sellers, I collected a few links so you can check what I am talking about: Item1 Item2 Item3 Item4 Item5 Item6 So, what is my concern with these? They all can be found on amazon and other online services as well as on local markets... As I said I ordered a glass screen protector. If you check these listings and even some of the packing you will notice they all have a thing in common - being shatter proof and of 9H hardness. I also love this video showing how to remove and fix a glass screen protector! The last time I checked glass had one very distinct feature: It is hard and before it really bends it breaks - unless you use fibre optics of fibre glass cloth... What is my concern and warning here? Pretty simple: Stay away from expensive scams! Some claim their screen protector is only 0.25mm thick, even the 0.2mm one I measured was over 0.5mm with the glue... The hardness of 9H refers to the so called Moh's hardness - look it up on Wikipedia if you like. That means these tempered glass protectors would have a similr hardness than a diamond, or at least close to it. Problem is that they are made from plastic to start with and not glass at all. They claims that the screen protector is flexible because it is so thin - again a fake! Even the thinnest tempered glass will shatter if you bend it enough, not so these plastic ones. If you think I am making all this up try to use a really sharp knife or deburring tool and cut the thin sides of one of these protectors. All the ones I tested could be cut quite easy - and I though glass can't be cut with a kinfe... A nice website showing that the scratch resistance is far from the claims can be found here. And a video showing how a real glass screen protector sounds and breaks can be found here. So is it really all bad and should I avoid getting one? Not really if it is only for the added protection. To be clear here, and without the intention to blame any of the above sellers, some protectors actually do have a top layer made from glass and you can hear it as in the above video - it sound solid and not like plastic if you tap it with something hard. Another factor is the simple fact that plastic absorbs impact much better than glass. So where a real glass screen protector might shatter and crack like in the above video, the fake ones might one get a nasty dint or scratch. But you should be aware and clear about what you get and what to expect from it. These glass imitations are made from a strong polycarbonate plastic, similar to the stuff used for bullet and explosion proof "glas" windows - if you every watched the Mythbusters you have seen the big sheets I mean. The top layer of these things is specially treated to repell water, oil and dirt, it also gives the surface the good scratch resistance. The technique is nothing new, camera lenses, plastic sheets and the clear covers you see over the timetable at your bus stop all use it. The new thing is to intentionally mislable a product to make the consumer think it is glass ;) What is the real difference for the user? Check this video. Here a guy performs a drop test with a real glass screen protector. Thing is once the protector breaks the screen itself is broken too but until then it was not too bad. Here it is demonstrated how a real glass screen protector reacts to certain types of abuse - one of the reason I decided on glass. Compared to the plastic counterfeits just the sound on the glass is worth it, but I think the hacksaw was best. Another video from XDA gives a bit more info on how the glass is made - if you can't seeing a phone being abused then don't watch the drop tests at the end ;) Glass with these hardness levels and types of surface protection will give the user a long and worry free use of the phone. The plastic fakes will perform at a similar level for some time but will show signs of wear long before even the top coat of the glass one fails. Both types have their uses and if the fakes would be labeled correctly the user would actually benefit from that. On bigger screens like a tablet I would actually prefer the plastic ones to prevent damage once it needs replacing. On a mobile used in less than perfect conditions I would also go for plastic as it usually is a bit thinner and will fit better within quality hard covers. But when it comes to real abuse like using with dirty fingers most of the time or mostly outdoors where a lot of dust and fine sand can be involved I always go for glass. If you paid attention to the surface treatment then you already realised that the plastic and the glass are in the same region, making them quite scratch resistant. Still fine sand or metal dust will scratch it.... The difference is in the hardness of the actual material that was covered with the oleophobic film. Glass will not give in any way, where plastic is much softer - so not to be confused with the surface hardness! This mean that sharp and point object will easier penetrate the plastic than the glass, something to be considered if you often ecounter harsh use. In terms of actual protection we need to differenciate between surface quality and actual screen damage. After all when badly scratched we can replace the protector but if the display got damaged we are back to square one. The surface hardness was already covered so let's move on to the screen itself. In some of the above videos you can see the abuse a screen might see in normal conditions, and if we would not drop our phones so often repair shops would not be at every corner LOL I have done quite a few screen repairs, mostly for friends and work mates that did not want to pay the hefty extras in a repair shop. From there I got the stories on how it happened and in almost all cases the screen cracked when the phone landed on the corners. In one case the screen and glass protector failed, including the actual display when the phone was dropped out of a 4WD and landed screen first onto a rock. A glass protector will spread the (direct onto the face) impact force onto a much larger area, where a plastic one will produce a dint onto the actual screen much sooner. So again glass wins in terms of actually protecting your expensive screen. But be aware that all this is useless if the phone lands on the corners!! Let me explain: Both the top glass on your screen and the screen protector have a thin layer of "glue". This acts like a shock absorber, so unless an impact goes deep enough so the pressure on the actual screen is too much only the protector should fail. But the screen itself is a tight fit into the frame of the phone, so all side and corner impacts go directly into the glass. As the rest of the glass has no way to give or go the stresses will crack the screen. How should I treat my phone with the new screen protector? Exactly the same way you would without it of course. But if you don't have a proper cover that offers protection of the corners you should invest in one. Having a quality protector and a good case does not mean your phone can be used as a football, see it as an added insurance in case something does go wrong. For obvious reason it can also pay off to have a spare at hand, if something bad happens that requires replacement of the protector you won't be left with an unprotected screen ;) Last but not least, double it up: For people that already know their screen will see a fair bit of abuse in term of scratches it is a good idea to put an extra film protector onto the glass one. Once it is too scratched you peel it off and replace it, while the glass protector gives you the actual protection for your screen. Corning Willow glass As time of wrinting Corning Willow glass is the only "flexible" glass on the market, unless stated with your flexible screen protector you can assume it will be just plastic. I did not list it above as this high tech material is mainly reserved for displays and at least to my knowledge is not available for screen protectors, although I will stand corrected as I have to assume some big players use it for their protectors. The material is actually a sandwich where an ultra thin sheet of glass stis bewteen two layers of durable coating, read it up on their website it is quite interesting. It won't reach the strength of their famous Gorilla glass so without an outer plastic that has the additional oleophobic coating it won't provide the strenght of real tempered glass protectors. Some phones like the Galaxy Round and the fleixble HTC phones use it for example.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


"Secrets" about CB/UHF antennas on your car

Despite more and cellphone and internet coverage mobile radios are still a favourite of people in remote areas or just loving to explore by 4WD.And for most the complex task of starting with this great hobby ends by buying a radio and antenna.Of course the raio goes it fits best and that is fine but what about that antenna and while at it what type of antenna do you need?Let's start with the great myth that so called rugged or heavy duty antennas are really worth their money.Durability and stiffness is their main selling point or better was.At highway speeds they won't bend and flex around like your whip antenna.In the bush they won't swing all the way down onto the painted parts of your car either.But then again, a more solid steel whip on a spring base would do the same - but won't look as cool or proffessional...Inside those plastic or fibreglass rods is a dipole antenna, in rare case you get a 5/8 configuration or even a normal steel whip with a pipe around it...Means in terms of reception or transmission quality they are not a tiny better or worse than any other antenna out there.Come down to well it is tuned and where the radiating part is located.Location...There are often obvious choices to put an antenna, like that nice mount or your nudge- or bull-bar.Or the good old boot clamp in the back.I have even see 4WD's with the antenna mounted onto the rear bumper :(Why is it so important to place the antenna correctly?Place on the front corner of your car it is not only quite low but also partially covered by the metal parts of your car - limiting where the antenna can properly radiate.If you ever got some half decent training on a tiny handheld UHF radio then you remember to seek higher ground if you can't get anyone to hear you.The same is true for the antenna on your car.You want nothing obstructing it.People with a long spring base often think of it as just an elevated foot.Most of these however are "ground idependent", which means they actually form a dipole with the antenna you screw on the top.Having this "pole" below bonnet hight is quite bad for your reach and reception quality already.Mounting just a normal whip on a direct foot here means you might have better luck with a handhelp from inside the car...The best would be right in the center of your roof, the highest and most centered point.This provides not only the optimum radiation pattern but also give you that little edge in terms of higher ground.How much gain do I need and how long should my antenna be?Gain is quite relative if you ask me as it far more important to mount the antenna in the best possible place.A 3DB antenna on the roof will often provide better reception and range than a 9DB mounted on the bullbar.Assuming you have the best feasable location than to simplify it:The further you can see the higher DB you want if reaching far is the main objective.For general use a 4.5 - 6DB antenna is always good.In hilly terrain range does not matter that much, here you want the outgoing signal to be as strong as possible and with a shape that allows better coverage by being more like a sphere.For extreme cases it can mean on a 9DB antenna your friend that is just over that little bump ahead is not visible and with that can't hear you.On a 3DB antenna however the signal is strong enough to reach that blindspot at a short distance.The overall length of an antenna can be deceiving for UHF frequencies.What matters is where the antenna is radiating from.In most cases it will be the top 15 to 30 cm of your antenna.For a dipole or ground independent antenna you often need to include the entrire base mount.Antenna tuning....For the good old 27MHz bands we always had our SWR meter at hand and tried to get the best tuning.Since the big jump to UHF the commercial antennas come pre-tuned and are claimed to be good to go.That means that are within acceptable performance to fit almost all installation locations.In terms of SWR reading it means that 1 over 3 is still perfectly fine.Would have been an outcry on 27Mhz though in my times.What is true though that there is not that much real difference to notice between a near perfect 1 over 1.1 to 1 over 3.If you would bother to a distance test it might be less than 200m you gain on the near perfect antenna.For the reception it does not even matter all, so why bother anyway?On the much lower frequencies a really good SWR does not only mean you can get your signal much further out there but also that your transmitter is happy.Modern ones are now all digital and have ways to protect and compensate for bad antennas or cables.Together it means we could just forget about these few extra meters and move on.The stress on the transmitter in your UHF radio however is still there ;)The reflective energy from a badly tuned antenna has to go somewhere and that is usually back into the transmitter.The bit that lost directly to your antenna, as said, does not matter too much with the overall limited range of the UHF frequencies.I did quite a lot of experimenting with my own and commercail UHF antennas, so a network analyser and SWR meter was a requirement anyway.In terms of output power a good SWR reading means you get what your transmitter is capable of and set for.With an SRW reading between 2.5 and 3 however a 4W radio might only actually transmit 3-3.5W.With a bad mounting and an not so optimal cable it might go below 3W!Distance is not so much affected by this as we now know, but the loss in power on 3DB antenna in hilly terrain can make the difference between being heard and your signal getting lost in static on the other end.Repairing a blown transmitter often costs more than a simple SWR meter for UHF, so why not add it to the Xmas wish list? ;)Two antennas...In some case you want two antennas.Be it for two different DB ratings on the same radio or for totally different frequencies.High and centered is still best here but you should keep the antennas as far apart as possible, preferable at different heights as well.On a single radio it does not matter too much but right next to each other the unused anteanna is like these beams on your TV antenna on the roof.Unlike the directional and watned features in a Yagi antenna the unused element means we change the radiation pattern.In the worst case creating a blindspot from which direction we won't get any signals.As a rule of thumb let them be apart at least twisc as far as the wavelenght, so for UHF over 65cm.

Topic by Downunder35m  


Universal ultrasonic driver circuit - help required

I would like to build a few, properly working, ultrasonic devices.For example an ultrasonic soldering iron and an ultrasonic soldering bath.But some small ultrasonic plastic welder or cutter is nice too :)If you ever had one of the above to play with you know why they are great to have.The development story so far:I managed to destroy several driver boards.The ones you find for cheap with 28 or40kHz transducers in your favourite online store.In the beginning I knew I will have a need to repair or replace these boards but no clue why.Take an ultrasonic cleaner and read the manual.There it is always pointed out that a low water level can destroy your toy.What does that exactly mean?The transducer needs to be kept in resonance, if the water level is too low or something havy sits right at the bottom of the tank the frequency drifts off too much.Very expensive untis can cope a bit better here, which gave me the idea for the universal driver.During my experiments with hoorns I noticed that it is very hard to get usable results without extensive computer simulations first.Just one mm too long or too short and literally nothing happens, go a bit further and a thin aluminium horn might start to crack under the stress.And in all these cases the driver overloads, in one cheap case to the point that the transducer fused together.Trying to examine these driver circuits while they operate turned out to be a total nightmare!Place the probe from the ocsilloscope literally anywhere and the thing goes out of tune already.By the way: Never coil up the wires going to your transducer.....Only way I found that somehow works is by adding a tiny transformer around the wire going to the transducer and to measure the voltage generated there.To make it short: Destructive testing provided the requirements a driver needs to match to keep the cost low.Reasons for the premature death of cheap driver boards:Almost all of these cheap drivers I could find generate the 28 or 40kHz signal from the mains voltage.Means it goes through a transformer to get the desired 50-80V and some witchcraft turns that into a more or less smooth DC voltage.This is then switched by some beefy transistors, mosfets or similar, depending on the circuit.The actual feedback happens with a tiny ring toroid, similar to what you use to drive a ZVS system.With this dirt simple design a fully tuned transducer - like when nothing is attached to it yet - would cause the driver to provide a voltage of about 6x of what the transducer is rated for.Thankfully in most cases the transducer survives this a couple of times while the transistors fry within about 3 seconds no matter how good the cooling.Slightly out of tune - like when mounted onto a cleaning tank - the resonant frequency is slightly off the tuned 28 or 40kHz.The driver compensates this through the tiny feedback transformer.But this only goes for a about 1-4kHz, drift away further and first the power drops, then the voltage spikes and it dies.The feedback is not able to shift the generated frequency enough as it is ultimately derived from the mains frequency of your grid.Reasons why a dedicated, low cost driver would open new possibilities:Imagine you need to make a horn or sonotrode for your transducer.Knowing that each half of it should be equal to a quarter wavelength of the operating frequency is nice and easy.But if you add something like a blade for cutting or you need some pressure for welding then calculated dimensions become useless.Programs to fully simulate complex sonotrode designs, especially if you need to add screws or blades are costly and out of reach for most of us.Even if you would have access you still need to know the material properties to know the speed of sound in the material and how much it can flex in various directions without being subjected to metal fatigue.For basically all hobby needs in terms of ultrasonic gadgets we are happy with a simple push pull motion.the same motion our transducer offers by default.And when it comes to attachments it turned out that quite stubby horns of light weight are a good compromise already.A 50-50 ratio of diameter and length works reasonably well in most cases.For example the standard 40kHz transducer of 45mm diameter is quite happy to work with a horn like this:45mm diameter on the thick end, 20mm diameter on the tin end.Thick part 40mm long, thin part 42mm long.The extra 2mm are for the manual tuning by filing or sanding it off until there is good cavitation happening when you put the end into water.This however is only good for simple testing purposes and some fun but as soon as you attach blades or a small pot with about 200grams of molten solder the tuning is way off and destroys the driver quickly.To be able to deal with different pressure levels on the working end or just a different mass that is attached the driver needs to "know" the new self resonant frequency.Basic idea for a dedicated driver:Please bare with me on this one as my developing days got severly neglected once I moved to the other side of the globe....Input should from a 12V power supply, preferably a PSU to keep costs and sourcing time low.The operating voltage for the transducer shall come from a simple switch mode supply.I was thinking of scrapping a PSU for the transformer and switching transistor.This however would provide about 120-160V on 240V mains with the transformer of a PSU.To match the required load changes it would be great to drive this first transformer by PWM means to regulate the output voltage with a potentiometer while keeping it steady within the set values.Basically like every cheap phone charger but with an output voltage that can be adjusted and kept regulated.The switching transistors for the transducer should be well over the required specs of an out of tune transducer.I guess capable of switching 600V should be sufficient.Main design change to the cheap driver boards would be the feedback.A hall effect sensor could provide the proportional voltage to the current going into the transducer.It would also provide the real operating frequency of the transducer for the feedback loop.The resulting real resonant frequency of the running system is then used to drive the switching transistors.As a result the transducer would always be driven at the exact right frequency no matter the load on the working end.These transducers still have a quite limited frequncy range due to the fixed counterweight on the back - it is optimised to be self resonant without the transducer being mounted.To explain this feature let me use a spring with a weight on it....You can move your hand up and down to make the weight swing up an down with the spring force.You can also push the weight to get the same effect.But if the weight would just expand and contract there would be no change in the spring force or position or the weight.Our transducer however is mounted to something and the weight on the back is heavier than what is on the front end of the transducer.As a result the weight is pushed back and forth and because all is fixed together this movement is transfered to for example your cleaning bowl.Without anything attached to the transducer it would literally start to rip itself apart until either the bolt or the ceramics fail.The feedback loop needs to prevent this by adjusting the switching voltage going to the transducer.Once too far out the system needs to shut off until it can reset.The frequency control is not that fragile.With the power controlled through the feedback even a wide drift in the operating frequency of about 5kHz would only reduce the effectiveness and amplitude of the moving horn/sonotrode.Sadly my skill set in circuits is not that good anymore to have the required parts in my head and to know how to combine them properly :(Why this concept is only really good for really basic applications:Professional solutions utlise often less than 20W of ultrasonic power for a soldering iron or scaler.For these devices the sonotrode/horn is spefically designed for the task at hand.Same goes for any possible attachments - without them these things don't do much at all.Finding these low power ceramic transducer rings for a good price is hard enough, making an amplifying horn even harder.But when using these quite big 50 or 100W transducers we find for cheap online we can compensate the lower amplitude with the added power of the transducer.Since we only need surface action but won't have to go through a few liters of liquid it might even be beneficial.Fun fact: A 40kHz transducer has the second harminc frequency at about 170kHz.Means we could design a driver for the second harmonic and enjoy total silence when working with it.Would also mean that the ultrasonic power would be much higher.Mass times acceleration and such things ;)If you want some ultrasonic cutter then you don't want to waste weeks and lots of money trying to come up with a working attachment to your transducer.Just keep it as short as possible and with about the same weight as the front part of the transducer.At least the driver desing would make it quite easy to design an amplifying horn by trail and error through reducing the lenght of the thin end until it really fits.Anyone with good circuit skills willing to volunteer? ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Is my book good ?

Well i hate to bother anyone but can you please take some time to read this book i worked hard on ? i spent  countless hours of my free time over the weekend developing the plot and creatures so can you please take some time out to read the whole thing tell me what it needs or what would be good i already am 16 pages into the sequel so tell me if this is good so i can post the sequel ! enjoy Times come by Alby Chapter 1- beginning It was the night I would never forget,the night.......i....the......the last night I would enjoy life. It was spring of 2017 the night air was heavy in my lungs and you could faintly smell the BBQ and charcoal smoke from cookouts that died down hours ago I could here people talking and having a good time but I think my drink I grabbed the wrong beer it was Sarah's it was spiked I never would have noticed who did it at least it wasn't her to drink it. I simply enjoyed the sky line of Chicago filled with sky scrapers and mirror like office buildings it all seemed like a Bokeh picture to me the drug is taking affect on my body I feel dizzy . I hopped on the train, it was empty as for the weather gave a good reason to walk but I needed to get home safely. In about 30 minutes I was home. I clumsily walked up the stairs and almost fell it took about ten minutes before I opened the door, I then plopped down on my bed and ran to the bathroom and regurgitated everything I ate that night. i starred at the ceiling. I saw every detail to the nearest centimeter and then blurry the specks the marks swirled in my vision and I felt weightless for a while. I starred at the clock and noticed it was about 4:00 am and cursed myself for going to that bar with Sarah I threw up all over my bed. I tried to grab the phone to call the paramedics but I fell and hit my head on my night stand. I passed out from the concussion i fell into a deep sleep a very deep sleep. Chapter 2 Change I wiped the crust out of my eyes and felt my head a sharp pain rippled thru my scalp it was a Gash about two inches in length. i walked into the bathroom I pulled the faucet but all that came out was a wisp of air. I snatched a baby wipe and cleaned off my face I cleaned my wound with alcohol the sting ive gotten used to I used to get hurt pretty bad in the army, I got shrapnel in my knee and they sent me home the first year. I noticed a dead silence on the street I thought they probably closed it off for some type of repair. I put on my white tee shirt and noticed its softness and how it fit snug on my semi-muscular figure I was in good shape for a twenty-four year old, my mom would always tell me most of the people in America are fat but I guess she loves to tell stereotypes for what they are. I put on my jeans and not forgetting the belt this time either. I snatched my keys off the kitchen counter and headed for the door. I walked outside and paused too look at the empty streets filled with litter and carnage . My mouth wide open in amazement I asked myself what happened and pondered the different reasons riot,panic,fire what could cause such a mess, I walked towards a police squad car and smelled something rancid I slowly proceeded, I instantly veered back in panic I could not believe what I saw a dead police officer lying face down with half a chunk blown clean off his head. There were pieces of it every where splattered on the windshield and door of the police car and some on the concrete. I instinctively inched towards him and thought to myself that something bad is happening and I need protection. I unhooked his holster off his waist and placed it on mine I pulled off his Kevlar vest and put it on weirdly enough it barely was messy or smelled bad. I checked the pockets of the vest and took out a pair of keys I knew it belonged to his squad car. I first popped open the trunk and saw it glistening in the sun a Ar-15 assault rifle. I picked it up and the memories of my army training it just instantly popped into my mind. I guess it applied the same here, I slung it around my back and walked into the silence. I took out the pistol put in the clip pulled the slide back and switched the safety off and cautiously held it. I believe the gun made me more nervous than whats in the shadows, I walked down the narrow street and saw it the skyline of the city filled with smoke and fire. I stood in anger and confusion my home town ravaged broken and charred blood stained the streets and walls, but why.....why....how could this... I mean what could....d..do such a thing. I walked away in the opposite direction and then cut into an alley way to piss and paused as I heard a roar I looked up and saw a quick glance of the belly of a apache attack craft it quickly zoom by and then another. I looked away and ran out of the alley and then down the street to see what direction they were heading. They sped towards the lake area and then I saw a tiny black object fall horizontally from the choppers belly and it slowly fell, then a explosion. I could feel the vibrations. the explosion ripped the lake area into nothing....nothing..but....but...smoke. My heart skipped a few beats thinking what if the next one falls in this area I quickly broke my daydream and bolted as fast as I could as far as I could until I saw a woman crawling on the concrete she was Moaning and holding her stomach. I came up behind her and asked for help. She turned on her back “ Sarah? Ohh my god sarah are you okay ?” and she held a gun in her hand a Glock 22 model the slide locked all the way back and no clip in the gun. I kicked it out of her and and sprung on her she begged for mercy “albert you have to stay away from me im turning” she saw that I was armed and quickly told me the gun was unloaded and that she was sorry she told me she would do anything just get away from her . I told her “Im not here to hurt anyone I just want to help” I starred at her beautiful figure her perfect face and thin hourglass body but ragged cloths and red eyes from crying. How and what did she go thru that could turn her into such a wreck. She got up and put her arm around my shoulder kissed me on the cheek and passed out. I dragged her to an fenced off alley where there was a mattress I put her down and sat next to her .she hugged me and began to cry she than jumped on top of me “Sarah what are you doing no we cant do this now no!” I told her I will help her but I dont think she understood a word I said. She looked at me in my eyes I could feel her touch my soul, her blue eyes glared in the sun. “i dont want to die alone please” I stood up nervously, I was concerned for her health when suddenly I heard a bang then felt a sharp pain in my leg. I collapsed in agony and saw the cause of my pain a bean bag round I looked up and saw a gas mask wearing figure he shot me with another bean bag round in the knee, from his shot gun he then walked over my numb body and. picked up both bean bag's and threw it aside two people in hazmat gear grabbed Sarah and took off her clothing I screamed “what are you doing to her!!!” they did not acknowledge me they looked at her body like they where searching for something. Her passed out figure limp as a rag doll they removed her pants then her underwear I screamed “No!! you son of a bitch don't do it ill kill you” they studied a bite mark on her upper thigh they made some type of hand signal and left. the soldiers then they came and started pouring gasoline on the mattress and her body. the one with the kriss super V took his cigarette out of his mouth and then flicked it at her it rolled of of her shapely belly and hit the mattress her body bursted into flames and she spasmed and kicked wildly. Then the man pointed it me and said in a British accent “ knock that fuckin Yankee an put em in da ACP double time, thoes hungry bastards are comin” Chapter 3 world gone mad I awoke on a bed in clean clothes and a hair cut. I stood up and walked into the hallway and noticed that this was a hospital. Suddenly a hand grabbed me. “aey where do you think your going ya damn runner rapist” I starred at him & his arrogant look and heavily customized ACR bushmaster. “get the fuck away from me im leaving what ever the hell this place is” he then sprung up and pushed the barrel of his ACR into my neck. “look if you want to get devoured by those runners be my guest buddy but dont go exposing this place to the infection” I looked at him like he was retarded “infection what infection and why the hell is the army bombing populated areas” he looked at me the same way. “ where were you 2 days ago ? There was a virus it was originally H1N1 but it evolved up to 10 times now its got Chicago by the balls and its spreading across the world as we speak turning everyone into animals devouring and ripping people to shreds and then the virus takes over the dead body and brings it back as a runner also know as a fresh undead body that has the ability to run or sometimes sprint god forbid but after 2-4 weeks without food the tissue breaks down from constant use without fuel and they start to get slow and shuffle around” my mind felt overwhelmed I wondered how my parents were doing in Dallas. “so what am I supped to do here but be a waste of space” he grinned. “well you obviously know how to use a weapon and our records say you have been in the military. you cant take care of yourself out there so we will make you part of out kill squad. “kill squad ?” “ohh shit you mean you have never killed or seen any infected yet ? that means your fresh you can be put to good use in our kill team” he told me his name was henry the specialist of his team kill team Charlie-mike. He directed me to the staff sergeant who looked at me and said “well well well we got some fresh meat hope you ready for 3 months of hard core trainin cuz this wont be easy now get yo ass in the garage and clean every APC tire the armory I think the kill teams ran over a little too much runners” 3 Months later........ the training was more rigorous than the basic military stuff a the armory where there was at least a 100 others conversing and grabbing into boxes of gear. Henry took me to the gunny of the armory where he helped me choose my gear. I picked up dragon skin Kevlar with implanted ceramic & alloy inserts. I took some gloves which I cut the fingers of. My boots where the basic digital camo color probably a left over from the war in Iraq which ended several years ago when our president simply drew the troops out. And European troops and some Russians finished off the big time terrorists soon after we heard no more from any our genocidal efforts finally payed off. I went to the weapon stand where I had to fill out a ID sheet to make sure they knew I had training with combat rifles. I chose the ACR which was in stock by the thousands as a gift from the weapon companies to the American army. I pulled all the safety clips and then grabbed a eotech scope out of a box and locked it onto the rail system of the weapon. I attached a mag pull the every one of my carbon strength reinforced clips. The gunny looked at me with a grin and we left for briefing. Chapter 4 things get messy we met up in the garage of the hospital every runner hunter of this kill force a total of 300 men and women in the huge elevated parking complex of the hospital, a general arrived in the elevator his chrome glasses shined in the evening light so did the many badges pinned on his suit which fit his old figure rather awkwardly. he had two formally dressed men with him they both had desert eagles on there side holsters but the general had a FN 2000 slung around his back. it was worn and scratched its polymer body was embedded with and insignia that I did not see so well as it was obscured by the scuffs and grime he looked at us and smiled his mouth opened and he flung his cigar off the ledge of the building he then begun and explained in a dominant voice. “there are 40 spec op Humvee's set up in formation ready to patrol the streets of Chicago you all will be in sector 6 the most dangerous sector of Chicago but no need to worry we have full fledged firepower of 4 APC's which will Carrie your kill team to your objectives take as much time as needed the runners arent going any where. you will clear the sears tower area a hot spot for runners. look all you men and woman, its time to revolt and fight back. its time to say we will not be scared, we will not be intimidated, we will win back our freedom!!” the whole complex light up with cheer. As the two men in formal wear took out PDA's and started directing people to there kill teams the first man shouted “ Chavez,Williams,buck, and,Samson go to APC #1” I quickly advanced thru the crowd to APC 1 I slowed my pace and saw its matte paint job of digital camo and its pop up dillan machine gun turret mounted on top. I pounded on its steel behind and its back door unlatched I stood waiting for the rest of my team I saw all three walking in a line towards the door I saw him ,the man with the kriss super V he smiled at me and said “no fuckin way you tha yankee we picked up in tha alley way you mad cus we killed your little runner girlfriend” I sprung towards him and grabbed his collar and punched him in the stomach then elbowed him in the mouth all the color drained out of his face. “ if you wouldn't of shot me with a fucking bean bag I would of blown your brains out back at the alley” he looked at me and with blood dripping down his mouth “i was just doing my job. welcome to foxtrot 3 by my names john samson you can just call me hunter” I let him go and he limped into the APC then another walked towards me he wore a Grey baklava and tight fitting clothing and a vest that barely covered his chest which awkwardly bulged out he walked towards me and took off the mask. She looked at m surprised face and said “what ? a woman cant be in the military” “well I..I...I just did not expect to have such a high rank personnel on our team” she looked at me and frowend “were both specialists grade one my names Kelly williams” “a heavily armored male in a hijab walked towards me playfully he came up to me and pulled off his hijab he was a African American . “hey specialist now look Im basically here to keep the moral you catch me ? I was in the navy im Ricky buckman Just call me squid now what do you want to go by kid?” I smiled “echo” “nice choice” Albert “echo” chavez I thought in my head I figured that sounds good. We all jumped in the APC while a kill team of rangers in a heavy Humvee with a mounted sentry gun rolled behind us as the whole convoy of kill force 6 prepared for battle. I thought about all my training aim for the head,short controlled bursts a shot anywhere else just stunned them. They move fast so they have to be neutralized if you get bitten or infected kill yourself with the poison capsule that was given or a team mate would do it. I grabbed a Kukri blade off the weapon rack that was provided in the APC I looked at its razor sharp edge its brushed steel surface reflected no light I sheathed it and strapped it to my leg. I caught the eye of Kelly who was fiddling around with the UAV control panel she looked at me and smiled. The APC's lights blinked red prompting us that we are in a hot zone. The APC vibrated as the co pilot took out a pack of runners with the Dillon remote controlled mini gun. We all loaded our weapons and packed up some ammo. Hunter and squid looked at each other and they bumped fists. I put a clip in my ACR and cocked it I turned on the eotech scope and strapped on my helmet and then slid on a black baklava. The APC driver prompted a alarm which was the signal that the door was opening, the big metal door slowly lowered its platform to the ground and we all got out Kelly was the last one out she grabbed that control panel and slid it into her bag she ran out and flipped the close button on the APC. We met up with the four other teams in our sector who already exited there Humvee's. A black Humvee that I never knew was in the convoy rode up and a military adviser jumped out and barked orders like some scared little dog and then jumped back in glad that he wasn't us. He positioned eight snipers on the roof who where each divided into teams of four they zip lined up the roofs and soon each team where picked up by two little bird helicopters the rest of us where on the ground either Humvee calvary hit teams or long range grenade support foxtrot was positioned on the magnificent mile at least it was magnificent. We cautiously walked down the street with another team of 6 watching our back and little birds with snipers covering us and telling us where the nearest pack is. It was empty until we got a report a pack of twenty runners where heading straight for us about 3 blocks away we had about a minute to prepare, snipers took out some and only six broke there steady aim and where 5 feet away, I drew my weapon and just before I could fire a Humvee rammed half the pack of runners over my team shot at there heads to finish them off . I stunted back and fell startled by a runner with broken legs dragging its smelly corpse towards me, my team did not even notice as they where pre occupied with finishing off the pack it grabbed my boot and pulled itself onto my chest I pushed it back and hunter tackled it and shot it once it grazed its ear he then rad up to it and curb stomped its head in over and over, like an egg it crunched under his boot he then walked towards me and picked me up and then our comm's screeched with a danger code: sector red REPEAT SECTOR RED!! this is not a drill!! squid looked at Kelly “OH shit radio the APC radio the APC!!” Kelly hastily radioed the APC and it arrived around the corner ASAP she got in and took the panel out of her backpack all the rangers got back in there Humvee's and formed up a line of vehicle's and the APC was in front we all jumped in and squid popped open 3 of the four combat hatches. We took stance and poked our body's out of the hatches while Kelly was typing away at the panel. “Kelly get us that predator drone NOW!!” “on it Echo..about.....NOW!! get ready for some boom boom boys” she said over the comm a predator drone deployed from a building somewhere and roared across the city's night sky. The little birds shot flares into out immediate area and the military advisor said nervously over the comm “formation green zone ASAP make space for one more hummer!!” his hummer screeched into our circle formation at the middle of the block intersection. We all could hear the uproar and the screaming rage of the Runners it was 9:00 PM and my stomach dropped as runners came at us from every angle swarming in between all the vehicles as we took out as much as we can the advisor yelled. “Break formation head for lane 3 of sector 5 Kelly yelled “but thats a dead end we have no where to go !!” “exactly now MOVE !!” we hastily rammed out way thru the crowd of runners it was easily about 200 to 300 runners we reached the street which was a dead end it was blocked by a collapsed building from all the beach bombing runs. We waited for 5 minutes until we saw it our doom three times as much runners appeared and headed for the convoy. The driver looked bewildered “Get ready im breaking position” he advanced the APC towards the crowd its massive tires gripping the rubble and concrete so agile and quick. He opened fire the Dillon mini gun until there was not one round left. the APC swiveled madly like a dog chasing its tail, all the blood and body matter stuck to the tire made it impossible to control. The whole interior rocked forward on impact with the flipped car. suddenly a screech and the APC flipped over on its side. the runners ignored the APC and went for the group of Humvee's ripping the rangers out that had not locked there Humvee door and devouring them. We herd the screams despite layer after layer of Kevlar and Armour of the APC. My radio started to squawk. “ Pindad Panser down repeat,flipped on its side calling in little bird for support !! bring in UH-60 shadow for medivac ASAP!” I groaned in pain the impact was hard,i could taste blood in my mouth my world was spinning. my team mates did not move they where all laying face down. I soon passed out Chapter 5 delta crimson “Delta crimson GO GO GO !!” I awoke in a sweat, I felt normal again I wiped my blood crusted face off. I leaned up and saw them. “Squid Kelly Hunter Your all alive !” hunter smiled “the crowds not givin up. Hurry mate we got to get outta this APC or crimson is just gonna have to save us” Crimson was an elite rescue squad of some of the best rescue force members in the military marines,rangers,green berets, you name em they can save you. Suddenly we heard the roar of helicopters. Then the door of the APC light up and blew of its hinges a soldier in a crimson baklava shined a light me and my team he latched two metal hooks onto our APC and then the helicopter lifted us into the air, this vehicle the best attack helicopter crafted by the engineer crew over at Hudson base they called it the Shadow because thats all it was, a quick killer in the night. A man made machine manufactured to kill and thats what it was best at. I broke for the chopper and jumped in then squid then Kelly it started to take off right before it left ground hunter grabbed the bay door and climbed in. “forgetting something ?” He threw me my ACR bushmaster which started to look like the generals FN 2000 it was scuffed and marked in every crack and crease. A crimson medivac specialist handed us some refreshments and snacks he said he picked it up at his last raid. He gave me some meds, adrenalin shots use them as a last resort of energy he said. I looked at squid who was holding his dog tag “ man echo you see how that APC flipped on us I almost crapped my pant's” I laughed at the joke even if its not funny my team needs the moral. I looked it the pilot he caught my stare. “where going to the main objective” I sighed and looked away hunter looked at me and made some type of hand signal. “hey Kelly you think we could of died back there” “easily hunter luckily the runners did not find our APC interesting” I looked over at Kelly who was looking at the cracked screen of the control panel. “hey Kelly what all did you use that panel for” “i saved the whole platoon with this thing while you where taking a nap, now its gone and base is a long fly away. The screen broke when the APC flipped. And the predator drone crashed without me controlling it” “damn, nothing good ever lasts long does it” “well echo thats not true your still alive aren't you ?” I we both smiled and when the happiness broke it was back to work. chapter 6 Raid The shadow landed on the roof of a building about 3 blocks away from objective R.R.T.R (runner ruled territory raid) our forces had to kill all runners and take back the sears tower. Kelly was stationed on the roof with hundreds of other snipers .with her barret M82 which ripped into 2 to 3 runners at a time with its large caliber amour piercing rounds. Military advisors sent Ground troops they marched the streets for the main attack on the R.R.T (runner ruled territory). Soldiers of all pact creed and faction marched side by side. the ISF (Iraqi Security Forces) the IRA (Irish Republican Army) even the CIA and DEA forces were marching along with whole police precincts including the bulk of the U.S military. This battle was inevitable and we are going to win.

Topic by albylovesscience    |  last reply


Looking for a cheap compressor with a high pressure rating or for airbrush use?

Today a friend of mine asked me if I know a way to reduce the noise level of his compressor in the work shed. With the current heat he prefers to work in the evening and nights, which does not make his neighbours too happy. His main use for several airbrush guns and sometimes for mormal airtools or the big spray gun for an undercoat or similar. So his main concern is oil in the airline and the actual flow rate is of second concern as he has an old 25kg propane cyclinder as an additional air tank. For relative low air volumes I would suggest an old fridge compressor. With a thicker pipe at the outlet that is filled with stainless steel wool most of the oil stays in the compressor. That is if this pipe is a) long enough b) upright c) of sufficient diameter so there is enough for the oil to avoid it being pushed up A second, standard oil seperator will be enough for the oil level required for airbrush stuff - and most other things too. If there is no pressure regulator on the airbrush system it is best to add a small air tank and shut off valve for it. In our case however a fridge compressor would be just enough to keep the bigger airbrush gun running but not to fill the tank at the same time. Not to mention the problem of fluctuating pressure levels. Since we already had a tank and pressure shut off connected to the loud compressor it was only a matter of finding something that keeps the neighbours happy. The first thing we did was to check how often the compressor comes on and how long it runs till the tank is back to pressure. With that and the stated air volume on the compressor we guesstimated that something a bit bigger than the compressor of a window airconditioner should be sufficient. The search begins.... If you don't know what to look for I give you a few hints: Older airconditioners often run on R22 or R12 - both use quite high system pressures which is a bonus, but more on that later. As a rule of thumb for these compressors you cans say: the bigger the higher the flow rate. At the local wreckers and scrap yards we found a few units but noticed the bigger ones often used three phases and not just one :( So we opted for the R22 compressor of a 4.5kW unit. Keep in mind the 4.5kW is for the entire system, so the quite massive fans can be removed from the sum. Usually the compressor alone is the 2.5 - 3kW range. Ok, we found the big thing but how does this help us? First things first ;) The oil was removed as the housing stating the original oil amount. This allowed us to use an oil rated for air use that has little to no water absorption qualities - you don't want water in your compressor. With the usual heat the water should be no problem anyway. Next was a pressure test to make sure the thing actually still works, so we added some plumping in the form of standard connectors to the inlet and outlet. We got well above 200PSI and abondoned the test at this stage as it was more than enough already. The air volume seemd to be well more than expected too so let'S move to the next stage. A fridge or aircon compressor always needs to have a certain amount of oil in it as it will otherwise seize and overheat quickly. But they are also designed so that the oil mixes with the refrigerant to cool all moving parts. So the biggest hurdle is to make sure the oil stays where it should stay and won't enter or get lost in the tank. Only real option for this to use something to catch the oil that is capable of releasing it into the compressor once it shuts off. Now there are several options for this so I start with the most basic: A "catch can" will get most of the oil, especially if filled with stainless steel wool or similar. Downside is that you have to find a way to get it back into the compressor. A step better is a thicker pipe filled with stainless steel wool to catch the oil. If placed upright and the outgoing pipe can be bend a bit upwards you have a good chance that most of the oil will sweep through the valves and get back down into the compressor housing. But only too often the cheap or even free compressor is better than expected and the oil won't get back into the housing as the vlaves are just too good. The last and IMHO best option is a pressurised return system. Most compressors for bigger aircons have a seperate filling port or sealed off piece of pipe. In this case you can do a simple check to see if they are usable for our purposes. Open the port of pipe and use a simple bike bump or similar to get some pressure in it. With a dedicated oil filling port you are best off but they are hard to find. The air you pump in should come out of the high pressure side - you might need a little pressure to overcome the valves. If you hear any bubbling in the housing (use a pipe on your ear or a sensitive microphone) it means you are going through the oil inside the compressor - perfect! You might not hear any bubbling but the port or pipe is still usable. Get ready with your fingers and start the compressor. The fill pipe should be sucking air in, same for the service port if there is one. A dedicated oil port should not suck but instead force some oil up if you cover the high pressure outlet. I assume all is good and no oil is splashing out of the open pipe or port. Add a small amount of oil with a syringe or similar into the port/pipe. If you see an oil mist coming out of the high side it is bad news. Clean outlet air is good. To get the oil back from the catch pipe or can we have to add a hose or pipe with a needle valve. It needs to be adjusted so that there is only a very little airflow (or oil mist) coming out. This regulated outlet is now being connect to the port/pipe with a bit of suction that we found earlier. Now every time the compressor runs the collected oil is forced back into the compressor :) Please double check the port/pipe used is not directly connected to the intake port! The last thing you want is a puddle of oil going into the cylinder and damaging it! They are designed to move gas but not liquid! If in doubt use a hardened sttel nail or similar to create a small puncture in the top of the compressor housing if there is nothing else to use. Check first if the material sound very thick, if so it might help to drill with a 5 or 6mm drill first - only about 1mm to make sure you won't enter the housing and conimate it with metal shavings! Once you have a small puncture hole of about 2mm in diameter get some 2 component metal repair glue mix and add a suitable connection for the collecting pipe/can. If you feel up to it you can of course use a blow torch and solder the connection on. Now we have the compressor working with a oil return system that also gives up very little to no oil at all in our system. You might now think you are good to go but you should at least add a decent and fine filter to the air inlet ;) The compressor noise of a bigger system can still be an issue if thicker pipes are used that allow the noise to travel out. Keep in mind they usually run in a fully closed system.... As we only need to match the noise level of the compressor itself a solid steel can like an old fire extinguisher in the 1kg rage is a good way out. Fill it with filter wool and a fine filter pad after adding some hose connectors either end. You can misuse the trigger nozzle and keep it to seal the top if you braze a connector on it. If the intake here is about 5 times larger than the pipe connection to the compressor itself the air flow going into the thing is low enough for a cheap paper air filter can or box if you have a quite dusty enviroment to work with. The real trick is to have a hose or pipe on the inside of the fire extinguisher connected to the compressor pipe connection. A garden hose is great here as is reduces the noise quite good and is dirt cheap. Make a lot of about 2mm sized holes in this pipe and close the other end of it off. Now the compressor will suck it through the small holes and the soft garden hose reduces the noise, the surrounding padding brings it down to basically nothing. The special case of clean air for airbrush.... If you read this for the sole purpose of airbrush use then this chapter is just for you, all other might want to skip it. The two things you don't want to enter your gun is oil or water. Both are a common thing in normal compressors due to lubrication and pressure difference resulting in condensation of the humidity in the intake air. Oil free compressors of good quality can cost quite a few bucks and often require ongoing replacement of membranes or piston seals. A refrigeration compressor with the above modifications already provides clean enough air for most airbrush users if a proper tank is used to store enough of the compressed air. So you might just want to add a basic oil filter or very fine paper filter close to the regulator. For very detailed work with very sensitive paints you might want to build a filter box containing of several layers of oil absorbent paper. This stuff is often used in the industry to clean up minor oil spills and bind oil very well. A PVC pipe (pressure rated please) with 5-8 layers of filter screens should last about a lifetime before the filters need changing if the diameter is in the 10-15cm range. That leaves us with the dreaded problem of condensation and water contamination. Depending on the type of paint and gun used a small amount of water vapour is usually no problem. Solvent based paints usally show their disliking by unwanted drops or run offs caused by water droplets. Of course you just go and buy a professional dehumidifier and accept the ongoing replacement costs for the cartridges... But if you are in a climated that has above 30% humidity for most of the year than you will have to remove the water one way or the other. A big enough storage tank for the air that is upright usually helps to release any condensated water prior to usage. But if you use a homemade tank you might want to avoid this problem completely and forget about water in the system altogehter. Silaca gel is the answer here, specifically the indicating variety that changes color once "full". A spaghetti glas or similar should be big enough unless you are in a very humid climate - is so just use multiple in a row. The air intake side for the compressor has to go through the silica gel to be effictive. This mean we need two holes in the lid. One with a pipe or hose going all the way to the botom - that is the air intake side. The other right on the lid - this is the air outlet side which continues to the compressor intake. With the color change in the silica gel we can estimate how much usage we have left until we have to heat it up to remove the water. If this color change happens quite fast from the bottom to the top, let's say within three days or less than you really need to use more jars with silica gel in a row or a longer one - like using a long and clear acrylic pipe instead. Of course you can always just cut holes and "viewing glasses" along the length to a PVC pipe.... No matter how wet your climate is you want to get at least 100 hours of compressor run time before you need to recharge the silica gel. This brings us to the recharging.... Once the color changes and you only have about one quarter left to the top you want to get the water out of the gel and re-use it. To do this you simply heat it up in your oven to around 120-150°C - the supplier should state the max temp for this. If you use a gas oven or one with limited accuracy here it is best to stay within the 120° range. You need to stir and mix the gel or use something big enough like an oven tray. But be aware that these little balls are like glass! The roll and bounce like no tomorrow! IMHO it best to use an old cooking pot that has no plastic handles for this and not to overfill it. This allows for easy mixing without making a mess that might cause a bad trpping hazard on your kitchen floor tiles! Once the gel is back to original colr it is time to let it cool of to a safe temperature and to fill it back into our canister or pipe. Tanks and shut off systems.... We have a refrigeration compressor working for us, and since it was for R22 we can use much higher pressures as a simple compressor from the hardware store. The low pressure side is used to 70PSI or around 5Bar of pressure in normal working conditions. The high side often works at pressure in the range of 200-300PSI or 14-20Bar! The tank we used is a big propane tank that was restamped at some stage in his life for the use of LPG - so it was tested to quite high pressures. The lower pressure limit is what keeps the stored gas liquid at the given temperature. For Propane at an imaginary 30°C this would around 155PSI or 10Bar. The stamped test pressure, although outdated, showed 600PSI or around 40Bar of pressure with no problems - and the thing was thick in the walls... The old shut off switch from an old air compressor was adjustable after removing the safety cap with a bit of force and the help of few cold beer. With a little tank attached we adjusted it to turn the compressor off at 250PSI or around 17Bar of pressure. If your tank is old or has no test pressure stamped on do your own test in a safe location. Make sure the area is secured so there is no chance of debris from a brusting tank can go anywhere - this includes to chain down the tank itself ;) Use the aircon compressor to fill it up to 300PSI or 20Bar of pressure - this should be tolerated with ease by any propane or LPG tank. Shut the valves and let it rest for a day or so. It is best to do this in the early morning so the heat from the day will slightly increase the pressure. At the end you still want to have a working tank and no major pressure losses. All of our mods on this tank were done without actually harming the tank. This was possible as the original valve had a release port for filling purposes - as it standard on most refillable ones. Here we removed the valve and added a pressure guage instead - better to know what is happening than to assume things. As this "port" had a seperate connection to the bottom of the brass valve we added as T-connection to allow for the connection to the compressor. Just be be really sure a thin piece of copper tubing was brazed to the exit hole of this port so all incoming air will be going down and away from the outlet connection with the big shut off valve on top - which we use to actually isolate and close the tank when not it use. Last thing required was something to connect the pressure shut off switch and regulator to. That was the only major expense on this project as we had no old BBQ hose or similar to get a suitable connector to the tank. We bought a simple adapter for the use of smaller hoses and cut the unwanted bits off we there was only the bottle conntector with the nut left. After removing the rubber ring we brazed piece of copper pipe onto it. Here we drilled holes and fitted severy connectors. First for the pressure switch, then for the connection to the pressure regulator and two standard ones with a ball valve for air hose connections. One air hose connection female, the other male so a standard compressor can be connected as well or "backfilled" for additional and mobile storage use. As we wanted to avoid any reduction in the safety and burst pressure no release valve was added at the bottom on the tank. The added silica gel filter stage was used instead so no water will get into the system to begin with. Additionally, and painfully for me and me friend, the inside of the tank was coated with a layer of acrylic paint to prevent and rust as it was free from it when we checked it at the beginning. This involved filling a suitable amount of paint into it, closing the top while keeping the thread clean and then to move the tank around to cover the inside evenly. If you do this be prepared for some weird movements with your friends LOL Once we were sure all ust be covered by paint at least three times we released the exxess paint and allowed the inside to dry with the assistance of some air forced to go in with a length of pipe. This was repeated 3 times... Then another two just for the bottom third of it where there might be some moisture after all... Now you don't want to remove the brass valve with everything connected to it just to turn the tank over to releae the collected water. Instead we made sure the added pipe on the former relese port would go all the way to the bottom of the tank. If any water collection is suspected only the connection to the compressor needs an additional valve for the disconnection so the water will be force back out here. To make this easy and fast we used standard quick connectors and a piece of flexible airhose rated to 20bar of pressure for the connection to the compressor. We checked the performance of the moisture removal and oil removal only for a few hours of running time while priming some surface for later use. The compressor oil used was very smelly to say it nice but nothing coul be smelled in the first paper filter after the pressure regulator. To check for remaining moisture levels (65% humidity in the house) we used a 10m length of clear PVC tubing going through an ice bath. After 30 minutes of moderate air release there was no condensation on the inside of the tubing visible. Of course if you only need it for air supply and don't care about a bit of moisture and oil you can keep it simple ;) Benefits of doing such a stupid thing: For starters noise and the peace of mind that you can do a lot of airbrushing until the compressor needs to kick in again. Then of course the benefit of an almost silent system compared to a standard compressor - something you can actually tolerate while doing art. But the real deal is knowing YOU did it and you did it for cheap. Warnings and some advise... I know, it should be at the very beginning but I just hope you read till the end ;) If the compressor fails from overheating you are up for a new one. This means the tan size should be within the limits of what the compressor can handle - same for what you actually use on air. You want an empty tank to be filled before the compressor feels hot to touch - quite warm is fine but if you can't leave your hand on it then it is too hot. Same story for the usage. There is no point in using a tiny 10 liter storage tank if you need that capacity every few minutes. The compressor would only have little pauses and overheat quickly. You want a good balance of usage time before the tank goes below supply pressure and running time of the compressor to get it to full pressure again. This brings us to the safety of high pressures. Where possible only copper tubing or sufficiently rate hoses should be used, the later as short as possible to avoid them acting like a whip if something goes wrong. When it comes to the safety of the tank you want to make sure to stay withing it's rated limits. All benefits of a compressor capable of producing over 500PSI otr close to 35Bar is wasted if your tank and pressure regulator can't handle it. This must not mean that you try to use a gas cylinder of unknow age and pressure rating and assume it will work! If in doubt use a lower shut off pressure and stay within the limits of normal air compressors - which is around 120PSI or 8Bar. Never, ever use a tank that is compromised by inside rust or bad corrosion on the outside! If you don't know how to braze copper tubing, pipes and connectors then check out some of the great Instructables about it! Whenever you know you won't use any compressed air for more than a few hours close all valves especially the ones going back to the compressor on the high pressure side! Some compressors really don't like a huge pressure difference constantly pushing on the reed valves. If your tank is big enough to allow for more than one hour of operation before the compressor has to top it up you might want to consider a one way valve right on the compressor outlet. This will prevent any massive pressures going onto the valves - especially helpful for modern compressors that only rely on the sealing capabilities of the clyinders or rotary system used. One thing you should always consider is a pressure relief valve rated for about 50PSI more than your tank pressure - it can be added to the pipe ;) If the shut off valve ever fails the relief valve gives you the ease of mind that it will blow before your tank does. Maintenance... If modded correctly the compressor should stay in the compressor and the compressor itself should not overheat from use. Having said that your compressor might force out a little more than your best catch system can handle. If that becomes a problem it might help to use an oil with a lower viscosity. If all fails it just means you need to top up oil once the last last paper filter is filthy or use slightly more to begin with so the intervals are longer. The silica gel, if used should be recharged before all of it is wasted - no point in adding it if you use it once full of water. If no gel is used there will be water in the storage tank. Even with the added paint and a good air filter it is possible that nasty things grow in there. Making sure the tank is emptied of any water after long uses and again before the next use is good practise. If no pressure gauge is used on the tank you must make sure the shut off valve is always working fine and within set parameters. I strongly recommend using a gauge and if not to perform a pressure check of the system every now and then to confirm all is within parameters of normal operation. A compressor constantly running means you either use far too much air or you have a leak - same story if the compressos kicks in after some of forgetting to shut it off and close the valves. If you keep the above in mind the salvaged compressor should work just fine for many years to come. Troubleshooting and alternatives.... You put everything together the right way, double checked and something is till not right? Maybe my crystal ball helps me to find something... 1. Always oil coming through the catch system. It usually means you use too much of it. A salvaged compressor, if the refrigent was removed legally from the system should still have a "correct" level of oil inside. Too much oil would mean is being pumped through the system at an excessive rate. Very thin compressor oils tend to do that in the compressor is misude like we do. Changing to standard mineral oil can help here. As a last resort you can use a pressure gauge or good judgement to allow more flow through the needle valve from the catch system back to the compressor. Too much backflow here would mean we loose system pressure to the set level of this needle valve! 2. The R22 rated compressor seems to be unable to produce enough pressure. First do a leak test using soapy water to rule out any leaks. Do a back pressure test on the ports. If you can push air through them in the reverse way with ease it means the valves are damaged making the compressor useless. You need to replace it. A regular cause with our type of usage is a constand back pressure from the storage tank to the compressor. To prevent this it might help to mount an electric solenoid between the compressor and storage tank. Such valve should be off when the pressure switch is engaged and on when the pressure switch is disengaged. This prevents the coil from overheating but requires a "normally off" type of valve. A good source at the wreckers are cars with LPG systems installed, they usually have suitable 12V valves somewhere on or near the tank and filler cap. 3. I am using several kg of silica gel but still get a lot of water in my storage tank. Going overboard in a humid climate can be a good thing here but if moisture makes it into the tank even with great amounts of silica gel there are only two causes: a) the tube or cylinder used is not long enough or not wide enough to allow the absorption of all the moisture going through. b) the flow rate is too high and the temperatures are too. For the first the solution is obvious enough. The second is related to the first for the diameter and lenght but temperatures constantly above the 30°C while operating somehow limits what the gel can do. Using a cooling coil on the intake side or simply putting the gel containers in icy water will help to a great deal here. If that is not an option than I suggest to layer the gel and to seperate it with fine paper filter screens. This will slow and even out the airflow allowing for more contact time with the gel. 4. The compressor gets very noisy after some time. If "some time" means more than 30-45 minutes you simply have it running too much and it overheats. If the noise increases too much when reaching the shut off pressure it can mean the pressure is too high for it. 5. Can I use multiple compressors from smaller units or refrigerators to get enough air volume? Of course you can but it might mean you have to lower your pressure expectations. Consider that each individual compressor would get the back pressure from all other compressors running while it's outlet valve is closed. To avoid premature failure you want to make sure the compressors are shut off at a lowver pressure. 6. I don't want to use a big tank but require a good airflow for airbrush. Two or three fridge compressors working one after the other with a small tank to keep the output pressure even can allow for about 30 minutes runtime per compressor. With three it gives one hour for the the first to cool off and should be enough for ongoing work. Downside is you need to make some sort of automatic switch to "rotate" to compressor working. Last words.... Is you find any spelling mistakes you can keep them. However, if you use them in any way to make a profit with them I kindly ask for 10% of your earning from it ;) Why did I not make an Instructable out of all this? Well the day was very hot, the beer very cold and my mobile phone at home, so I did not take any pics. To top it up the whole thing is now in a seperate box for additional noise reduction so it can be used in the same room where the guy is working. Of course he just used a nailgun for the job without any regard of access or at least easy view of the two pressure gauges. Typical if you have a great idea and the cold beer tells you to forget all about screws or hinges ROFL Only comment was: You created it and it works fine, why would need more than the pipe connections for the gel and regulator? Maybe he will reconsider when the service is due....

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Ancient technologies revisited - the ATOM

Imagine a great war or battle.These days it means you imagine devastating weapons and huge destructions in a short period of time.But what would you imagine for a great war that happened about 4000 years ago, or some that happened over 10.000 years ago?Bow and arrow maybe? Some metal blades and axes if you are lucky?Anything that could make a big band is out of the question if we trust history and the timing for inventing black powder...Mohenjo-Daro is one of many ancient ruins that have been found and studied.According to mainstream science the city was abandoned due to some climate change or maybe a change in trade.Later excavation found skelletons in the streets, holding hands...Certainly a sudden and unexpected end for those found.But why are those skelletons still intact after well over 4000 years and show no signs of decay?Or why is it that predators still avoid the entire area?Further tests quickly revealed elevated background radiation - a nice term for saying there is radiactivity but we don't know why.Outside the area level drop to normal.The estimated 4000 years is based on carbon dating other things found in the area as the skelletons themself returned "inconclusive" results.A process called vitrification can be observed through the area on rocks, walls, and everything "rock".The material or at least surface was heated to melting point, lava and then cooled down again.Resulting in a glacing effect.Ancient Indian texts speak of a time of great war around 5000 years ago.Close enough for many to consider the time matches the ending time of Mohenjo-Daro and other ancient cities in the region.In those text a weapon was used that created a fireball thausands of times brigther than the sun that swirled upwards.The earth was rumbling even hundreds of miles away.People how saw it happen shortly after lost their hair and fingernails, developed painful blisters and died shortly after.Tell the same story to a modern human and he say it was radiation exposure from a nuclear explosion...The same almost identical stories can be found in other ancient texts, the oldest dating back over 50.000 years for the time of war(s).But we know humans definately had no clue how to make gun poweder, a cannon, let alone how to create a critical mass for a nuclear explosion....If no humans then who else?Carbon dating at those sites often provide totally different results.One piece shows for example 4000 years and another found close by shows well over 10.000 years of age.Considering the architecture, capabilities of humans at that time and assumed mental (brain) development, mainstrea historians tell us that humans could not have designed and planned those big cities.Apart from not having the required tools for the stone work and transport.In archeology people like to say that the deeper you dig, the older the stuff you find.If the same is true for these ancient cities than those dated relics from the deepest ground put Mohenjo-Daro at approximately 12.000 before Jesus was walking around...That would implicate that there was a thriving city for about 8000 years!!! until it suddenly got superheated, and exposed to radiation....And Mohenjo-Dara is only one of many cities in the region and even more with identical "marks" from around the same time can be found all around the world...The ancient text always refer to gods, higher beings or those coming from the stars as the ones at war with those below on the surface being collateral damage....Ok, let's assume we humble humans were not as evolved as some other humans we have not found through digging yet.According to the mainstream that wouldn't work because we already "know" how old the human race is and where it originated.And then there is this old GOD problem....Most ancient cultures and religions speak of more than one god, usually at least three are known throughout ancient texts with many refering to large numbers, like the greek, Hindu and even Romans.The bible make a big exception, same for the religions based on the same old topic.There is only one god.If so then why did he say "WE" when speaking about who created humans and "OUR" when refering to what image is used for the appearance of humans?Moses was an Israelite send by his mother onto the river to prevent being killed as a first born by the pharao.But when you check who fathered Moses you again find a god who had sex with a human female.God himself however never had sex with humans....Still Moses was his big favourite and got all the help needed, including food and water in the desert for 40 years....When a sinful city was burnt to the ground and a woman decided to stop and watch against strong advise not to look back she turned to salt.If a human body is exposed to intense heat and radiation it decomposes to ask - you turn into a pile of white ash that could be mistaken for salt when the wind makes it crumble and fly away.Especially considering that those who saw it must have turned around as well and they could not have done that without turning to "salt" unless it was all over or they were far enough away.Some say the god from the bible indeed use atomic weapons on humans for punishment...Nice stories, nice "evidence" if you interpret it the way you like - I know.Thing is that mainstream science and historians can't come up with any theory that is more feasable and does not rely on literally every text only refering to events in mataphers or by mythifying it.Once you have to interpret translations of ancient texts so they must exclude all acknowledgment of higher technology you are hinding something....Personally I accepted for many years that there are people out there with a strong desire to make everything (im)possible to look like the work of aliens.But the more time I wasted trying to completely disprove what I strongly trusted to be bogus, the more I struggled myself.Some things just fail to add up once you look at them with a wider field of view and a lot more references than what single texts and publications can offer.Once you start to accept that some "facts" we learn in school or through studying at a fancy university can be correct you start to question even more.For lots of things I found plausible explanations, workarounds and even basic ways to design things just using a compass and ruler.Still a lot of things failed to add up no matter how I tried and how willing I was to accept that someone used a bronze chisel and a stone or copper hammer to create 1000 metric ton obelisk....It was sometime in 1992 I think when I found documents that revealed the true accuracy on some of the ancient contructions.Be it the great pyramids or just granite staris in south america....Like some household bowls granite or even harder rock was used and precise angles created that even modern tools and machines will struggle to re-create.A box cut-out in granite with fully parallel (less than 1% deviation) walls and inner angles with a radius of less than half a millimeter where the surfaces meet!!I got hooked if you like...As a result I did a little "game" about a year later.Using good quality images I could find in books or online I selected a few nice granite creation from the Inka, ancient Aegypt and the middle east.After removing all background and adding and overly with dimensions in another version of the pics I contacted stone masons...Not any stone masons, only those predominantly working with granite or harder rocks and creating tru masterpicese.My request for the images was simple and everyone got another ancient object from me.All I wanted was a quote on how much it would cost me to have this piece replicated in granite - to the dimensions and specs as referenced.Not a single mason was willing to take on the job.A few stated it would take them weeks and most likely several blocks of granite to just figure out who to make the required cuts.And for the surface finnish they were lost completely....Does that mean just because we modern humans can't do some "basic" stone work that peole did with bronze tools that aliens were involved - nope...It only means that for some of the ancient structures not only hundreds of thausands workers were required to move this big rocks by hand.And well, that unless you had thausands of years to finnish your decorations you would have had a few hundred stone masons - all with identically high skills and identicaly accuracy when creating their pieces.Highly unlikely, but according to archeologists the best explanation we have.When I got back to researching for the Repulsine and other related "UFO's" I soon discovered certain annomalies when it comes to how science and archeology refer to our ancient past.One side tells us total bogus once they start digging in the sand, the other side refuses to at least consider that if all evidence speaks against side one than side two needs to provide real answers.The science anomaly...I you finace some expedition to dig out an ancient temple or city then you do that to get some postive out of it.In return a lot of our old archeological explorations ended with biased findings and translations.These days we have more and more teams working "independtly" from financial sponsors that try to influence results.And with that came the exposure of the science anomaly.If the grave diggers say it is some decorative item showing some bird or insect that it is accepted.If the same thing appears in texts on a wall and other Language specialists" learn how to translate the writings these symbols often caused gpas or totally nonsense translations.Then someone totally unrelated to it all build a model, puts a tiny engine in it and that things actually flies and performs perfectly....Of course some students of ancient wrtings try their versions of translating the gaps and misleading areas...And despite having no clue what to look for they translate and reference to flying machines or people from the stars - based on using the same translation matrix used by the real specialsts that claimed the text can't be translated...I found the same anomaly when it comes to things related to higher technology, even if it is just batteries.Total bogus from the archeology department, utter silence and no interest at all (offically) from the science department.Still the science geeks invested billions over the years sponsoring all sorts of diggings and translations...Only hand full of these studies were made available to the public...At first I thought it is just coincidence because of all the aliens nutters out there.But even things that even an idiot wouldn't try to link to aliens are affted by this anomaly.We have experts of an entirely different field making the wildest of assumptions to avoid even hinting people in ancient times were far more advanced than what we think.And those experts of the science field who could help simply refuse to even tough the topic - officially.Then one day it hit me...The same familes and companies that sponsored some of the greatest explorations of our times are still very, very powerful and influencial....And they all made more than just good money since those glory times...The power of the atom was harness and used long before we even thought about a wheel.Real and true translations of ancient text with an interpretation based on the Y2K bug instead of the 1800's reveal a lot more than what museums and schools let us believe.The discovery of several thought to be only mythical ancient cities in the recent decades started to even open up the minds of strongly religious people.If the city is there, then the stories about it must have more truth that just being a nice story...If evidence speaks against archeology then ther must be a scientific explanation - or at least a technical one.What would that imply if the "new" evidence it correct and archeology is indeed totally wrong?What would happen if humanity starts a nuclear war?Even if it would come to what we had during the cold war, it won't take too many modern missles to make the world uninhabital for most areas.A lot of land will be free from direct radion but the fallout, failing reactors and the climate change would certainly set back humanity to the dark ages.Let's say the cold war would have turned into a real one and only enough of the rockets were used so all sides realised the game is over for everyone already.After a few hundred years our big cties would be overgrown by jungle.Conrete, steel, roads and all would slowly decay.A few thausand years and not much at all will be reminding someone of out glory past.Humanity might have survived in bunkers for a while but there isn't a real way to prevent degradtion once technology fails and you have no one to fix it or replace it.We might still have stories and legends about a past where we traveld through the skies, even made it all the way to the moon and back - but they are then just myths and bedtime stories to scare the kids.We think we are well prepared with DNA banks, bunkers that can sustain thausands of people for decades -but what if it take longer until we can go out and stay unharmed?How would humanity change after generations under ground?And what would they find a thausand or two years later when they find our cities as ancient ruins?What would they think finding the remains of a nuclear reactor that is still "hot"?What would they do if they find some old and still intact bunker with still working tech and plans/designs?Imagine the stories about Area 51 at it's glory and now imagine what it would mean for a cicilisation back in the dark ages to find still sealed areas with usuable (for out todays understanding) technology?The truck might no longer drive, the engine might be fully seized and corroded but you could try to reverse engeneer it, replicate it, even find notes you can translate giving your a repair manual and details on the fuels and lubricants used....Imagine good old Henry Ford would have found a Haynes manual for a modern car in his backyard when planting roses....We would claim inventions or discoveries of someone else as our own now, would we?So if anyone would have discovered ancient tech or even the atom and made it usable we would know about it!?If that would really be the case then why does most of the world still think Edison inveted the light bulb? ;)History is always defined by the winner or by those in charge of writing or interpreting it.That is the beauty of ancients texts and writings - they don't lie like we do, they just use the words and mental capabilities of people that have no clue about science, math, technology or just astrology to describe events.History does not lie is a statement often used for archeology.If that is true then why does history say it was the american space program that got us to the moon when in reality it was high ranking Nazi officials that provided both the technology and the scientists?Why does history state the numbers on the arms of jews in death camps were an idea of the Nazies when IBM provided not only the computers and punch cards that corresponds to those tatoos but also did the data recovery after the war?History tells us other facts and disguises the reality because it suits the winner.America would not have liked the idea that Nazies got them onto the moon or that the millions Thyssen provided for the ware production actually came from US companies in return for steel - long after all trading with the "enemy" was forbidden.The companies and familes got never charged for this war crime....Back to the atom....If history as it was in reality was cahnged over and over again by the US government then why would or should we assume any different for ancient technology or the utilisation of the atom itself?Some theorists clearly state that science, especially theoretical science provided us with what needed to find ways to turn theory into reality.And thankfully a lot of countries around the same time period started to experiement with the atom - coincidence that the war lasted until it was evident Germany is just weeks away for having enough material for their own nuclear bomb and already the rocket in a late building state to carry it all the way to New York?History shows us an entirely different picture of Germany before the Nazi times.Percision and quality at levels that caused envy in the world.And within a few years of a nutcase running the show there is a technolgical boom that should have taken several decades to develop...History like to state the Germans were just really good at what they were doing and that under pressure they got even better...Reality tells us that under the pressure they had they would have come up with all these ideas themself - try to think straight is your family is threatened if your don't deliver results...After the war it took decades to regain a certain level of quality and to come up with good inventions...And the US started a boom that went similar fast as before Germany's...Some theorists now start to claim that China is not only rich in ancient history but also in ancient sites that no outsider will ever see.The areas containing ancient cities that were discovered are entirely under state and military control...Only once there is nothing for them left some are opening to "normal scientist and archeologists"...Some insiders now make the claim that China discover ancient texts and matching technological remains for working cold fusion...Funny enough that an ancient city that widely used the claimed technology (in ancient texts) is said to be in close proximity to a few tiny islands disputed for hundreds of years not just by China and Japan....We know history is being manipulated on purpose to create a flase image of governments and religions alike.We also know that stealing things and peole and claiming them as your own is common practise - not just for the US if that still matters...We also know the moon is hollow, even NASA admits it, still history says it is a lifeless rock...If it is not: then what better place to suspect perfectly conserved remains of a past we state never existed?Does our ever growing need for electricity and energy of all kind plus our need for more space to humans explain the sudden urge to go back up there?I mean it was made very clear that we never need to go back up there again, been there, done that, let's move on - and the space program for the moon was cancelled with rockets, equippment and astronauts already lined up and ready...Take a look at ancient drawings, statues and texts and try not to see or think about modern technology when you find strange things.The more you look the more you wonder how those stories would sound if a modern human would have been present, how a modern human would put what he saw into images and carvings....One picture shows a thriving city, the next shows a great fireball rising UP, the last picture shows only flat land, ruins covered in ash and pushed over trees for miles - what would those images tell you if the text to them states hair loss, fingernails falling off, blisters and a painful death shortly after?They had no blackpowder, there was no vulcanos for thausands of miles, there is no impact crater from a meteorite - so how could these ancient people make a big city disappear within seconds and only leave glaced stone and radiation behind?If there is no gods, no aliens, no time travellers and humans could not have done it - who or what did?What is so important to feed us so easy to figure out lies about our own history, our own inventions our own accomplishments?What is it the Nazies never had, the US never took and that has period links to areas in Antarctica that are now "assigned" to US control?Funny coincidence that one of these "research" station is literally right on top of a base the Nazie never had down there.Linking it all back to the ancient Sumarian people, and good old moses himself ;)Imagine yourself what is important enough to feed your whole country nothing but lies for decades ;)Not that hard to figure out if you link the dots and spend a few weeks with you favourite search engine these days.The answer will surprise you when you find it - promise!

Topic by Downunder35m