The forums are retiring and are now closed for new topics and comments. The existing content will remain online and accessible through 2020 to provide everyone the opportunity to save any relevant information. In the spring of 2021, these Community forums will be taken offline.

Search for oxygen tanks in Topics


Regulator for disposable oxygen tanks? Answered

Does anyone know how I can get (or make) one of the regulator / valve things that screws on to a disposable oxygen tank? I would use the regulator from a propane torch but it has to have left hand threads. All the ones on Google shopping and Ebay cost like $40 and I realy don't want to pay that much, I'm thinking more like $10 or $15. I could use a Nitrous Oxide dispenser like the ones used for making whipped cream instead if anyone knows how to get or make one for the same price.

Question by Jaycub    |  last reply


High Pressure Oxygen Fitting?

Does anyone know what type of fitting/threads are used on common high pressure oxygen gas tanks used for welding/cutting.

Question by seedorfj    |  last reply


air tank question? Answered

I have a medical regulation oxygen cylinder it is a dark green i am wondering if i can turn it into a compression cylinder by drilling into it would this compromise the tanks integrity please respond. sorry if i left anything out, fidgety2

Question by fidgety2    |  last reply


What kind of tanks would I need to store liquefied hydrogen, and oxygen or gas forms? But not h2o form.? Answered

What kind of tanks would I need to store liquefied hydrogen, and oxygen or gas forms? But not h2o form.

Question by nfarrow    |  last reply


Looking for ideas to repurpose M-6/8 oxygen bottles/tanks

Looking for ideas to repurpose M-6/8 oxygen bottles/tanks. I sure these can be used for something cool. Thanks for any ideas

Topic by Tygrant    |  last reply



Artificial Gills

I don't kow about you, but I swim a lot and, as with most swimmers, would LOVE to be able to breath underwater without bulky air tanks or even a light rebreather. Fish take oxygen from the water so I don't see why can't I build something that does the same. Is there anybody who has any ideas or suggestions as to where I should look?

Topic by NumbersAndLetters    |  last reply


What equipment is needed to fill an appropriate cylinder with oxygen generated by the electrolysis of water?

Update: I need someone that has experience with gas cylinders to point out potential dangers that would be present by filling this way, We've already discussed water vapor and oil potentially making its way inside. That doesn't sound good to me so I need certainty that its safe or those can be eliminated or reduced to safe levels. Right now I would really like to know what I need so I can refill tanks myself. I'm guessing its a special adapter or replacement valve, but I don't know where to start Original: Would it be possible to fill an appropriate oxygen tank with the right adapters/compression system with the oxygen generated by electrolyzing water and what kind of equipment would be needed? I know for propane you can buy adapters and refill/transfer from one to another, but obviously this is completely different, and I don't know anything about oxygen valves/adapters or compression systems. Yes I know this could potentially be very dangerous and also have no interest in collecting the hydrogen. Just to clarify we are talking about commercial grade tanks, not a 2 liter soda bottle. Also, if possible how high of purity would be expected using optimal electrodes and electrolytes to prevent corrosion and impurities. Any information at all would be very helpful.

Question by NathanE31    |  last reply


How to make an oxygen-nitrogen blender with caudal and O2-fraction control? Answered

Hello,I am installing a laboratory reaction system for research. This system requires an oxygen-nitrogen gas supply. For this, I have high purity nitrogen and oxygen tanks (99.999%). I need to control the flow rate and the oxygen fraction, so I was evaluating the acquisition of an electronic mass flow valve control system. In the specialized market I have found them between 5-8K usd. However, my budget is very limited and I consider a homemade one.I will be very grateful if someone could recommend a more accessible device.

Question by alex.toriello    |  last reply


Rapid decompression cooling? Answered

Is a possible way to super cool a gas (nitrogen or oxygen) to liquid temperatures by using a sub-zero tank of 5000 psi compressed air to blast that gas over a radiator and therefore cool the gas in the radiator to a liquid, then quickly pump it to a chilled high pressure insulated tank.

Question by jj.inc    |  last reply


How can i compress a biogas from a compost tank without risk of ignition.

I already have minor semblance of a design but, i always prefer to consult the hivemind before doing something potentially stupid(i'm missing enough fingers). so, big picture is to create basically a sealed septic tank tied into the water lines of a residential house, which would produce methane to be stored year round then used during the cold season. not so much that i could cut off the natural gas line, but enough to reduce the bill.the design so far is a gas line coming from the septic tank connected to a bladder sitting inside a large tube. once the bladder reaches a nominal capacity, it will trip a sensor near the top of the tube activating a compressor until the bladder retracts to a lower set optical sensor turning off the compressor. somewhere in this mix i have the intent to set up a large air filter filled with that "oxygen eater" stuff they use in food storage applications. as well as several o2 sensors in the main line set up to stop the compressor and activate a solenoid valve to make sure no oxygen ever get to the compressor. what i dont know, is what kind of compressor i should be using to avoid any type of possible spark. proper placement of the o2 sensors, and if a giant air filter for eating oxygen already exists or is that something im going to have to make the hard way.

Question by snowfox222    |  last reply


Is tubing used in fish tank air pumps "food quality" tubing, like a drinking straw? Answered

I'm wanting to use some (new) plastic tubing that is used with fish tank aquarium air pumps as a drinking straw but I don't know if it is safe "food quility" plastic. How about the plastic tubing used for oxygen machines?  Is that safe to use for a drinking straw? I'm trying to make a cheap hydration system to use while kayaking so it keeps my hands free to paddle.

Question by robynky    |  last reply


Hydrogen Peroxide at home and in the Garden

Although the topic is quite old for some of us and mostly because I am too lazy today to make an Instructable: Hydrogen Peroxide ! Back in the day Hydrogen Peroxide was mainly known for the ability to bleech your hair, later it replaced chlorine based products for the preparation of paper and organic fibres. For me it is a good opportunity to go back in time and to pull out some of the remedies my grandparents already used. Who knows, there might be something that helps you or you might know other good uses that I failed to mention here, so feel free to comment. First off: What actually is hydrogen peroxide? We could check Wikipedia but I think it is enough to say that it basically water with an added oxgen mulecule which turn the stuff into a quite powerfull oxidizer. When hydrogen peroxide reacts the added oxygen is released and the normal water remains. Precausions and health risks. In the normal supermarket form hydrogen peroxide comes at a strenght of just 3%. This is just enough for wound treatment or cleaning off a fresh and small stain. The stuff you can buy at your hair dresser comes in concentrations of 5-15%, above that it is of little use to them. Pool grade peroxide however can come as high as 50%. It often requires a permit of at least leaving a copy of your drivers license to buy such high concentration but well worth it price wise. The downside of anything above 5% is a risk for your skin, eyes and airways. So when handling hydrogen peroxide you should waer long sleeve rubber gloves, safety or better swimming goggles and make sure that you don't create vapour by spraying it against the wind direction. Having water at hand to dilute and spillage on your skin is always good. What happens to me if things go wrong? Well, if handled correctly nothing should go wrong but of cause the worst would be eye contact. Getting concentrated hydrogen peroxide in your eyes means extreme pain and even with rinsing it out asap eye damage is more than just possible. Again: wear proper eye protection and if spraying use a filter mask, the paper type is enough!!! Nothing immediate happens on sking contact but a few minutes after contact the skin will turn slightly brown or goes white. This is caused by the oxygen release into your skin cells, if washed off quickly after noticing the discoloration will fade after a few hours. Prolonged exposure of the skin can cause skin cells to fully discolor and living cells might get damaged - a burning sensation is usually the sign that you need to wash the area now ;) Enough bad stuff said, let's see what we can do in the garden.... Fungal infection of your old roses or on your fruit trees? Sometimes the weather does not like our plants and by the time we discover a fungal infestation it is usually pruning time. There are commercial producta available that work quite well but especially the copper based ones tend to do more harm than good in th long run. An alternative is a solution of 10-20% hydrogen peroxide. Spray generously over all affected parts of the plant, leaves, twigs, stem and all. Make sure everything is properly wet! In some cases the fungus can act as a water replellent and it seems impossible to get any of the solution to wet these areas - a drop of dish washing liquid into the bottle will fix this! Watever runs off can be left as it only helps to get oxygen into the soil but of course you should not soak the area... Leave it on for about an hour, around 20 minutes if it quite warm. Rinse all off with clear water and repeat every 2 days for 5 treatments all up. After this time wait 2 or 3 weeks and check if the fungus still gows in some hard to reach areas. If so then repeat the treatment there until satisfied but wait another 2 weeks every 5 single treatments. In some areas of the world certain types of fungus on roses are refered to as "rust". ----- Moved into a new home and the garden beds smell really bad? The last house I moved into had a previous occupant with a big dog but no time to clean after his pet. The garden beds looked dead and I mean so dead that I could not even find weeds in them. And the smell was a distinct mix of old dog poo with lots of fresh cat poo mixed in it - the perfect outdoor pet toilet :( Trying to dig it all under made me recover that the top soil was more §$&*# than soil. I had to get rid of the bacteria of all the poo and somehow neutralize a lot of the unwanted "nutrients". The solution was to first loosen all the soil as deep as I could go. Then I added rice straw (but anything straw like or dry grass will do) to mix it through. At this stage I wished I had a gas mask LOL All up the contaminated garden beds covered about 20square meters. I got a 10 liter canister of pool grade hydrogen peroxide, from this I diluted down with 20 liters of water and a few drops of dishwashing liquid to help with the soil wetting. All was applied as evenly as I good with a watering can and then the area was covered with some tarp to try keeping as much oxygen on and in the soil as possible. A day later the tarp was removed and all beds watered with hose to drowning point. This watering was repeated every 3 days for 3 weeks to drive out all the excess and unwanted nutrients from the poo. The smell was already gone except for some cat urine residue which disappeared after some rounds of watering. Three months after the initial treatment I did some soil tests, added nutrients were required and the next season I had vegetables growing :) ----- Planting? Whether from seeds or seedlings, give hydrogen peroxide a try! I use a 5% solution to soak the potting mix I use before putting my seeds in it. Not only does it kill a few of the unwanted things that might still be in there but it adds a lot of oxygen into the soil, which gives the seeds a much better start. For seeds I use a 5% solution as well but only leave them in for about an hour before placing them between some wet paper towels until they start germinating. This way I can be sure all harmful bacteria and fungal spores are dead and I can use a sterile seed to keep going. Might just be my opinion but I think the germination rate is better and seedling in comparison start growing faster and stronger. Home uses.... As we learned before hydrogen peroxide, at least in higher concentrations is a powerful way to remove fungus. In our bathrooms we often have the problem that the ceiling starts to develop black spots as in the colder times water condenses here and takes a long time to dry off. If you now go to your favorite hardware store they will recommend the use of a chlorine based product, basically bleach... And although it does the job it also means your house will stink for days and if you scrub the ceiling you will get it on your sking and stink too. Hydrogen peroxide at 20% or higher concentrations can be sprayed onto the cleiling :) Of course you will need good protection for this and all things color should be removed, like towels or floor mats. By protection I mean a minimum of swimming goggles, a tyvek suit or similar to cover all exposed skin areas and at least a paper dust mask, better a filtered respirator like you use for spray painting or using insecticides. If you have a spray bottle with an adjustable nozzle then a stream is far better than a spray mist!! Not only is your exposure far lower but it much easier to wet the ceiling quickly. Wet all affected areas, then leave and the room, close the door and take off all clothes you used t protect you. The clothes can be left out to dry but double check that you had no soaked spot where your sking might have been in contact - if so rinse the skin with plenty of water! It will take some time to work and then dry, so best to do this in the summer time or if during the colder times you need to make sure the room is porperly heated and aired out to dry! Repeat until all black spots are gone, really bad areas will leave a permanent discoloration looking like a slight brwonish color is the ligh it right otherwise you won't see it. Once fully dry it is best to scrape off all lose paint and then to use a acrylic based sealer before giving the ceiling a fresh coat of white. The sealer will prevent the water to penetrate more than the paint level and if you get the fungus back on the paint it is far easier to clean ;) ----- Carpet cleaning.... When moving into a new rental with carpet on the floor you often are left with areas indicating the carpet might be "clean" but the underlay certainly is not. You can fix the underlay but you certainly can make sure all harmful stuff is gone from the carpet. Carpet cleaning machines can be hired but often much cheaper if you buy the "recommended" cleaning product with it. Rent is usually based on a daily base and price depends on how much cleaner you need. If you only want to desinfect the carpet which otherwise looks mostly fine than go for the smallest pack available and use it to spot clean areas you want cleaner first. For the desinfecting part I recommend to test how high you can go with the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide before using it on a big scale - keep in mind the carpet will never be fully dry and the remaining peroxide will continue to act! Test a 10% solution first before you go higher as you don't want to buy 30 liters or more of pool grade peroxide - just trust me on that one and only try to buy this much you do want to get into trouble a few days later! If 10 percent solution left on the carpet does not cause any bleaching of the fabric (unwanted bleaching that is) you can try higher for spot cleaning in demanding areas. A good spot to try the solution is under the cover or duct outlets, under these joining bars where carpet changes to tiles (if you can lift them off) or in wardrobes if the carpet goes inside. There are two way to treat your carpet once the general cleaning is done. a) use a garden sprayer or similar to wet the carpet This is good for single room treatment like for the baby room but especially on thicker carpets it requires a lot of solution and can become costly. Once wet leave for at least 30 minutes so the peroxide can do its thing, then use the machine with either the solution filled or just to dry off the carpet. I recommend to use the peroxide solution in the machine as it allows for better penetration and it will remove more soiled solution this way. If your catching container starts bubbling like mad it means you have a lot of §$%&#+ in the carpet and it might be best to first clean it all with the normal carpet cleaning agent before using the peroxide again - again tesing on smaller areas can help wasting the peroxide. If you need to store prepared solutions than it is best in a cold place. It will take several hours on an otherwise clean carpet for the peroxide to fully disappear so it best to use shoes and prevent skin contact during that time - especially if a baby crawls around ;) ----- Toilet.... We don't want to talk about it but everyone needs to clean their toilet sooner or later. For most things in there using the toilet brush when it happens will keep things clean and healthy. But what if someone in the house is sick or with a weak immune system? You could use all sorts of commercial cleaners and desinfectants but a wipe with wet towel or cloth soaked in a 10% solution of hydrogen peroxide will quickly eliminate all harmfull things on your seat, lid or bowl, including the buttons to press and the door handles ;) Just wipe and leave it wet for a minute or two then wipe again and ry - done! Personal use I always pack a small bottle of supermarket grade peroxide when going off road or camping trips. Although we now have modern desinfectants that won't stink or otherwise harm you I still prefer the old stuff ;) If you are far from civilisation than the last thing you want to need is medical attention for something that started as small as a scratch or graze.... Out in the unkown wilderness you will never know if the rockk you just crash landed on was used as a urinal by a fox the night before... A bit of gravel left in your skin might contain harmful bacteria... A cut with your own knife?? - What did you all cut since the last proper cleaning of the blade? You see where I am going here, a small thing might turn into something really nasty a day or two later. If you clean a freash and minor wound properly and then rinsie it with hydrogen perodixe most if not all harmful leftovers will be killed by the releasing oxygen. Of course this pretty much useless on bleeding wounds or where it is obvious that you won't be able to remove all debris from the wound - here it means you trip is still over in favour for proper medical treatment. The thing is that hydrogen peroxide was basically abandoned for all wound treatment once the modern "cleaning aids" became available as the peroxide will not only attack harmful things but also living tissue. The claims goes as far as causing bad scar tissue, damage to blood vessels and even "burning" of the tissue. One big problem I have with all these claims is that they were never really mentioned until the new meds came out. IMHO exposure time and how you use it it the key - common sense if you ask me. Noone should ever soak a wound in peroxide, if it is that big that you need to soak it you need medical attention anyway. And as said you should rinse the wound, that means all remaining liquid should be allowed to flow off - this will only leave a minor amount of peroxide in the wound and the exposure time will end with once all oxygen is released. For minor wounds I only use a paper tissue or cotton bud soaked in peroxide and wipe the wound.... ----- Smelly feet? Ok, maybe not the best way to start a conversation but we all know what sneakers do to our feet in the summer... Insoles with copper and activated carbon will help a lot and at least "cure" your sneakers while they are off your feet and have time to dry. But the smell is actually cause by bacteria growing from everywherey in your sneaker to your sking, actuall starting at your sking... If you wear your sneakers for long periods of time time or even whenever possible and also suffer from a bad smell hydrogen peroxide might be able to help you. Most sneakers will tolerate a machine wash and should come out germ free, if that is no option pack them in a sealed back and leaven them in the freezer over night - this will kill all bacteria and remove the smell. Now to break the endless cycle you need to remove the bacteria from inside your skin. So daily sock changes, freezing shoes and washing feet is a must! Your feet will really benefit from a foot bath in a 5% solution of hydrogen peroxide. To keep costs at a minimum use a container that is just the right size for your feet and prepare the solution from pool grade peroxide. I an ideal case you should not need more than 2 liters but all used product can be stored cool and re-used the next day, after that you need to make a new batch. Keep your feet submerged for at least 10 minutes. This will allow a deep penetration of the skin but might result in some white spots that will disappear after a few hours. Consenquent foot baths can be reduced to 5 minutes. After about a week you should notice that wearing your sneakes no longer causes and bad smell and you can stop the treatment. Freezing the sneakers over night, dialy (or more) sock changes and daily, proper cleaning of your feet should prevent any further bad smells :) ----- Bleaching your hair Althoug it was done for many years I really can't recommend using hydron peroxide for this purpose! Any concentration strong enough to have a proper effect in a reasonable time will at least cuase skin irritation. Back in the days they said your burning scalp is what you need to endure to get blonde hair :( And as said already you really don't want to get that stuff into your eyes... General uses If you have a fruit based stain then cahnces are hydrogen peroxide will remove it, especially if fresh. Even at supermarket concentration repeated application and proper drying off with a paper towel or similar will remove even red wine or beetroot stains. ------ Blood... On you skin blood is easy removed with cold water, same on other surfaces but washing off is no option a wet cloth or cotton piece will work fine. Hydrogen peroxide is good if things need to go fst or if the surface is porous, here the releasing oxigen will drive out the blood with the bubbles. ----- Fish tanks... If you love your tank then you really hate to medicate or even worse have a bad algea infestion, especially the stuff of the black kind. A change to activated carbon filter material is always recommended after a medical treatment to remove all leftovers from the system. However, certain medication simply won't be affected by a carbon filter and stay in the system until fully used or broken down otherwise. Especially in bigger tanks a partial water change is often out of the question as it would cause too much additional stress to the fish and plants. Hydrogen peroxide can help to break down most if not all remains of the used medication while at the same time adding more oxygen to the water. To be sensitive and safe in all enviroments I recomment to calculate the concentration based on the volume of your tank and to add the required amount of peroxide very slowly into the outgoing water stream from your pump. By slowly I mean in terms of a slow drip if using solutions over 10% to be added to the tank. If in doubt remove a suitable amount of tank water into a bucket and add the concentrated peroxide to reach the final tank limit. I strongly recommend to stay below 2% in favour over additional treatments a few days later if required. That means the diluted solution you add should be entered into the tank slowly if in doubt add a glass full every few minutes. For the treatment of the dreaded black algea you do the same 2% solution but be prepared that it will take several treatment until you see them die off. If you can then it is best relocate the fish for a few days so you can use a stronger solution of 5-8% just with the plants left in the tank. When transporting fish in a bag it can pay off to add a little bit of 3% peroxide to the bag to give additional oxygen for transport. I do this maually for every fish I buy from a store so I can be sure all fungus and bacteris is killed of before I introduce it to my tank. Really helps to prevent loosing a lot of fish just because you added one or two more to your tank ;) For the normal sized transport bags I use a good shot glass full of 3% peroxide in case you wondered. ----- Fridge and freezer Be it after long use or because you bought one second hand - once empty and warm some of our colling gadget just smell bad. A good clean with a hot water and your favourite cleaning agent is a good start, no need for aggressive stuff ;) If clean but still smelly, like after a power failure with fish in it you might want to go one step further. Best option is to use a spray bottle and a peroxide solution of at least 15% here. Use proper protection as mentioned above and spray all surface with the solution until soaked. What you can take out you take you take out, clean properly and then wipe or brush with the same peroxide solution. Bare aluminium should be handled with caution as in some cases it can oxidise badly, leaving a white and not removable crust behind. Here it is best to wipe and then wipe again with a cloth soaked in clear water to limit exposure time. No need to dry out - wipe out and check if it still smells, if so repeat and wiped off all areas as good as you can with a solution soaked cloth. Once the smell is gone dry out and enjoy smell free use from now on :) ----- Fruit and vegetables Unless you know exactly what happened to it you might want to clean your vegies and fruits properly before using them. Pesticides, herbicites, fungicites.... Not mention normal fungus and bacteria on the product.... On a commercial base hydron peroxide baths are often used to clean products for sensible people, hospital use or long term storage. For a personal use this only makes sense if you have free and unlimited access to the peroxide. An alternative are ozone bubblers. Expensive models can eb bought in shops or online, complete with timers or even a gauge showing the concentration in a room. On a hobby level for the kitchen sink we can use an ozone generator, air pump and bubble stone from the aquarium store ;) Let the pump bubble out the ozone for a minute or two, fill the sink with the fruit and veggies and move them around every few minutes. Best of course with an open window to limit you exposure to the ozone! Rule of thumb: If you can smell it is already too much in the air! The ozone in the water does the same as the peroxide: It breaks down harmful things with pure oxygen. The downside is that it is very harmful for your airways and body in general, so against all what youtube can offer I actually prefer to treat my fruit and veggie in a sealed bag. Place them inside, push out as much air as you can and then fill up with the ozone from the generator. Once the bag is full leave for about 30 minutes then wash and use or place the things in the fridge.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Forge Welding Idea

So, I have a half formed idea to turn a forge into a welding device, by somehow 'extruding' or directing a flame from the fire, maybe through a tube, to a point, to heat the metal to be welded. Using a water hose analogy, it's like creating a high pressure water hose from a tank or reservoir...or something. Please don't say things like 'just buy a welder"... etc. I'm looking at doing something unique (maybe) and off-grid, that doesn't involve electricity or batteries or propane gas...etc., just pure flame, and available natural resources like air, belows, oxygen...etc. Any thoughts how this might work?

Topic by isaacacheampong    |  last reply


Small Scale Scuba Gear within $100?

I had an idea for a good instructable. I'm trying to plan out on paper a neat breathing apparatus for a hundred dollars. Constraints are that it has to fit on the face, can be carried anywhere, and should at least provide one minute of oxygen. As a plus, why not add a pump so you can replenish the air supply when its running low. The way i might build this, ultimately, shouldn't be too hard. But what is being difficult is what to use to hold the air supply. would an air tank from an airsoft gun be any good? or would i have to use something different to contain the pressure? Any input would be greatly appreciated! -Jakit

Topic by EngineerJakit    |  last reply


Would this floating idea be plausable?

Basically, I was thinking in my sleep as I usually do. I thought about how less dense things float on top of more dense things. And this got me thinking towards this: Are there any gases that are more dense than the human body? If so, we could float on this particular gas (with gas masks or oxygen tanks of course). This also led me to think about: Are there any liquids which are lighter than air? We could have a swimming pool of sorts that floats on the ceiling. All we would need is the right chemical. Any scientists out there? (I know it is unlikely as states of matter generally mean that in terms of density, Solid>liquid>gas.

Question by The Jamalam    |  last reply


Rain Water Collection Filtration System?

We are in the middle of  designing a  rain water   collection system for a  commercial  building   that    includes: 1.  a  2500  gallon  in  ground  tank 2. 1/2 hp  submersable  well pump 3.simple  float  valve to maintain  minimum   water level  during  drought What we  are     trying  to figure   out   is  to exclude   purchasing a  complicated  expensive   store bought  filtration   system we were   trying  as we always  do to  keep things  simple.   we have to   provide  sometype of  secondary filtration  system    to  aereate  the  water as well as  clean  it   in order to  run  to  our  toilets.  Whatwould  be wrong with using a   small  pool filter  set   in a  1 hour  a day   cycle  that  would   provide  oxygen  to  the water ? Also we were looking  at   using  one of  the floating   chlorine  tablet  holders  like  a   pool would  use  to   maybe   kill  any pathegons    that would  be in  it. We  realize this is  too simple  to    not have  some   down side  so  all    opinions  and help would be greatly appreciatted.

Question by andy1917    |  last reply


Controlling anaerobic digesters with arduino

Hi I am new on the Arduino scene and I am trying to build eight anaerobic digester tanks to conduct experiments for my thesis in engineering. The setup will look as follows: -Arduino mega -Arduino motor shield R3 -Two motor stirring the digester at different RPMs. Motors will run at 12 V and around 0.5-1 A. -The motor shield will use the wall jack as power supply via an AC-DC adapter. -Biogas volume measuring device (tipping sensor) -Aquaria air pump to supply Hydrogen Sulphite consuming bacteria with oxygen. This will be controlled with a relay and the volume measuring device. -The pump will use the wall jack as power supply -Temperature sensors DS18B20. -Immersion heater controlled by the temperature sensor and a relay. The digester is supposed to be kept at 37°. Everything will be logged but I haven’t decided if I will connect a Ethernet shield or if I should log on a SD card. I think that I can manage to build it but I have some questions (a lot) but will just post some and post more later. The experiments will run for 4-6 months how will the Arduino, shield and relays handle being on for that long? Do I need something with higher quality? (It would suck to burn down the university) Any spontaneous thoughts that I should know or that could help me?

Topic by joche11    |  last reply


The end is Here ?

This is an urgent call. I think the world would really come to an end because of the increase in natural disasters around the world. I think the world would certainly come to an end with a huge tsunami. Since the effects of global warming is here, within 5-10 years i am afraid to say that the world would certainly end. So do you think this is possible ? Thats why me and a couple of my friends are thinking of making a safehouse or ship where we could be safe in case of a tidal wave or other natural disasters. The problem is that we do not have any clue of what we are doing. i am thinking of making a anchored kinda ship which could acompany 5 people each. This ships would contain oxygen tanks with supply of about 2 years, food and safe drinking water wit seawater purifer, necesary tools and items, survival supplies and other necesary things. This ship should contain an onboard motor engine which could enable the ship to move in water. This ship should atleast protect the passengers from a big tsunami. It would contain a 5 passenger seating with folding beds and solar panels which could also power the engine and equipments inside. i really wanna build this because it's a fun project and could protect peoples lives who are poor and could not afford to go on a boat or are in low lying areas. So what do you think?

Topic by arylic    |  last reply


Is the effluent produced by a biogas generator enough to feed plants in a hydroponic system?

I'm looking at various ways to grow food free/almost free in a small space.  I would like to grow enough veg to feed myself comfortably. Hydroponics in a vertical farm set up would allow me to grow lots of veg in a small space, trouble is I now need nutrients to feed my plants. After much reading, it looks like I could anaerobically digest all my food waste (including meat, diary, plant stems and anything else that decomposes) in a biogenerator. If I use the resulting liquid effluent, would this alone be sufficient to grow healthy plants.  Are all the nutrients they need going to be in sufficient proportion and are they all in an accessible form for plants. Will I need to add bottled nutrients from a store to top it up? Another question is if the effluent is safe or a biohazard?  My reading so far suggests that most pathogens are killed off in the anaerobic process. Is there anyone who has tried anything like this already? So far I can only find people who are fertilising crops in soil with the effluent. Any comments are greatly appreciated. P.S: for those who do not know what a biogenrator does/is.. a quick description.  Its a sealed tank filled with water, waste (shredded) is added, naturally occuring bacteria in the water (not dependent on oxygen to survive) breakdown the waste into their nutrient parts, methane is also produced by the bacteria (methane is CH4, carbon is in the waste and hydrogen is in the water), the methane can be tapped off for burning and the old liquid can also be tapped off, supposedly this liquid is an extremely good nutrient source, though I don't know if it could sustain plants grown hydroponically on its own.

Question by sloth456    |  last reply


Wood gasifiers and safety - Carbon Monoxide poisoning - hospital

Sorry if it is in the wrong section of the forum. If it can be moved to a better place then do so. This is a quick mention to anyone that is playing around with any burners such as:    wood gas generator    bio-gas    wood gasifier    'hobo' stove I am not severely concerned but it did happen, I think it needs a mention, as it is for everyone's safety. After playing with wood gas and attempting methanol creation from a small gasifier unit for a few weeks, I had started to realize that each day I had a most annoying headache / migrane in my frontal area of my brain / head. They ended up getting so bad that my body could not tolerate them anymore and started to go into shock, causing a rather painful, endless throwing up session for many hours each time even.  It came to a point where after 3 weeks of playing with a bio-gas generator for about 4 hours a day had started to lead me into temporary blindness an hour and a half at a time. This was when I was concerned as I could not read any more instructables :( After a quick jot to the local doctors, I explained what I had been up to and I was correct. I had given myself the rather classic, and very close to death, carbon-monoxide poisoning where my doctor insisted I go to emergency at the hospital ( 2 hours away ) immediately and have someone else drive me. Pretty much equivalent to staying inside a garage with your car running for 5 hours, all the doors closed. I was very close to severe carbon monoxide poisoning and death.  At the hospital, blood was taken, analysed, and they had discovered large traces of C02 that they attempted to flush with some oxygen, but this only works to a point and they mentioned that nothing else could be done apart from telling me not to use or be near any smoke sources for at least 3 weeks and I should recover fine. I am still playing with my wood gas generators, and attempting to make methanol, but these days, after 3 days ago, I take further safety precautions to make sure it wont happen again. Such as: ventilation / exhaust fan ( I WAS OUTSIDE WHEN I WAS POISONED! DONT TAKE THIS LIGHTLY! ) keep a distance, find a better way to ignite / extinguish the burner keep your face and body out of the smoke dont watch the flames / smoke from above for any longer than 2 seconds do not taunt the Criosote by-product of wood. I am not sure which is more toxic. The smoke or this.   ( criosote / bio-crude, whatever you want to call it, it is the condensate of the burner unit containing more chemicals, very stinky) do not store criosote indoors withough a sealable container ( the smell likes to soak into things, like my kitchen ) if you know what you are doing, keep oxygen tank nearby use all protective clothing and masks, etc. There was a small arrogance in my head when playing with these units. And that is simply that I was thinking 'it is just smoke'. Wood gas generators are generating a much more toxic smoke than just sitting around your camping fire and should not be considered to be something to play with, without proper valves, pipes, burn off points etc. It contains on some scale: carbon-monoxide, methane, acids ( acetic ), tar and many other defects that will cause you issues if you are not careful. Keep it safe guys, this was a rather difficult one for explination, but I do not want someone other than me to be in that same sickness / position as I was with the poisoning, as it is the most painful experience I had yet had.  Worse than me hitting a tree head on at 80km/h. Worse than falling 2 stories off a cliff onto rocks. Worse than being hit by a car and thrown over it's windscreen. Worse than the feeling of an unsuccessful home made rocket launch. All of these above I have had happen to me, and the poisoning was by far the worst and I was scared more for my life than than any above accidents. It is not a very nice feeling, it is a deathly, sickly, useless feeling, blindness is not far away from death if found in this situation. Oxygen / fresh air is the only thing to help you if poisoned, even if in hospital. Keep it safe guys. If you want me to write up a full on poster on wood-gas / wood-heater safety I can or even just a propper write - up on general safety with this smoke and the wood gas units etc. Ask please and I will. Hospital staff will most likely give you 'items of interest' for instructables if you just ask them too. I have a heap of things from a stethoscope to vials to 'red dots' for homemade ECG machines. They tend to like crazies like me that make weird stuffs .. i hope ive gotten the point across anyway.   

Topic by AtomRat    |  last reply


Smoke detector and ozone generators / air purifiers

I recently made a quite disturbing discover and thought I share it here so other are aware of it. We all love to protect ourself in case of a fire and the first and most vital of the information chain is a working smoke detector. In my house I had the old type installed, based on a radioactive isotope that detect smoke through ionisation. The newer types working optical or using combined optical and isonisation detection should perform better - but does not really matter for this "warning". If you do have pets, smoke in the house or just do a lot of cooking you might also use one of these fancy air purifiers that use Ozone to clean the air in your room. I only have a tiny unit for a fish tank that I also use to remove smells from my work clothes or purify some water for the plants. My discovery started with a simple cooking exercise involving a lot of onions, garlic and a big wok. To avoid filling the house for days with the smells I had the ozone generator running as well. At some stage I noticed that the whole kitchen was covered in the fumes from the cooking, nicely visible from the hallway - like fog. To my surprise the smoke detector did not the usual alarm but performed fine with the test button. So I blew some cigarette smoke directly at it - still no reaction. Next day I started to investigate and was prepared to buy a new detector but whatever I used, smoke, steam or just killing a burning candle underneath cause the alarm to go off. Then it hit me: The ozone! A quick test with the hose of the ozone generator next to the smoke detector and no matter what I blew in it the device staed silent. Ozone is ionized oxygen, the detector uses the ionized particels from the radioactive material to detect smoke. Smoke or very fine dust / steam will bind the ionized particles forcing the electronics to sound an alarm because the sensor no longer detects the ionized particles. With enough ozone entering the detector there will be always enough ionization to prevent the alarm. Conclusion: If you do use ozone in your house upgrade your smoke detector to a model that uses optical AND ionisation detection! Otherwise there is a good chance that the device is unable to detect a fire. Of course chance are slim that you would use the ozone while sleeping and a fire starts, but if it does....

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Producing Hydrogen to Function as a Lift Gas

The short version: I want to make hydrogen to fill model airship envelopes with, because screw helium. Help me make a cheap electrolysis device that can do this in under an hour (ideally), or come up with an even better system for production. My immediate problem is that I need a high-surface electrode that won't fail in a solution of sodium hydroxide.The long version:I've devoted a fair portion of my time to contemplating airships, primarily because they're awesome. Fell out of use with the rise of much faster aircraft, and the technology its fate sealed by the extraordinarily bad rep the Hindenburg gave it. It is still far from useless, however, in that lighter-than-air systems can lay claim to flight times measured in days, and sometimes months, thanks to the fact that they literally float in the air like a boat floats in water.Their day may have come and gone, but I still want to experiment with the technology and create some model airships of my own. Helium works okay as a lifting gas, but it remains expensive and isn't going to get any cheaper in the foreseeable future. It is for this reason that I am pursuing hydrogen, in the hope that I might be able to produce a cheap lifting gas for my projects. Unfortunately for my aspirations, hydrogen is surprisingly hard to get cheaply in decent quantities. Here's what I've figured out so far.For one, it is absurdly hard to find sites that don't veer into fringe science when talking about hydrogen. HHO production, Joe cells, power your car with water...it all keeps cropping up, and not only does none of this do what I want, the concepts are often poorly documented or riddled with problems. However, I have been able to glean some information from my research. First off, one of the easiest methods (and the one I'll be pursuing the most) of hydrogen production is through electrolysis. For those of you unfamiliar with the concept, you can basically take two electrodes, stick them in water, add some electrolyte (like regular table salt), and apply a decent voltage. You'll get hydrogen gas streaming out of the negative electrode and oxygen out of the positive electrode. Fancier systems use large tanks, platinum electrodes, and a strong acid or base as the electrolyte. To increase efficiency (yeah, it's not 100% efficient), there is ongoing experimentation with high-temperature electrolysis and ongoing research into an effective electrocatalyst.Now, when I did my research, I thought "Hey! This sounds easy! I'll just set the system up like explained, and away we go!" Unfortunately, those exclamation marks were unwarranted. My first attempt showed that production is mind-numbingly slow with small electrodes. Using salt had the wonderful side-effect of producing chlorine and sodium hydroxide, a.k.a. caustic soda. It's called that for a reason, and I'm lucky I didn't run it too long or I might have a chemical burn now. Now I know. Choosing a good electrode turns out to be a problem too, as most conductors oxidize quickly or dissolve in the solution (now I know why everybody uses platinum when possible). My aluminum foil electrodes in a sodium hydroxide solution? Yeah, that didn't work AT ALL. I had better luck with steel mesh, but I recently found that it seems to fail over time too. The only thing that isn't disappointing is the container and the collection apparatus: an inverted plastic bottle with some airtight hose running off it, connected to a gas valve. If the bottle is placed such that forming gas causes the internal water level to be lower than the external container water level, the gas will be pushed through the hose (no pumping necessary!). There was one good thing I discovered, however. Apparently there was a bit of soap or something left over in the container, and I ended up forming a bit of explosive foam as well. The hydrogen foam blows up like nothing else, and the oxygen foam makes a loud pop and sends (slightly) caustic foam all over the place. Totally useless but still somewhat cool, so long as you're not fool enough to do it in large quantities.So, as of right now, I've got a good container and collection system, but my electrodes suck and production rates are so low that it'd take me hours and hours to inflate a good-sized balloon anyway. I'll be using sodium hydroxide in the future as the electrolyte, skipping the chlorine production and observing the proper safety procedures. My top priority is finding a good electrode, my next is finding a good way to increase surface area, and my last is getting a higher voltage source than the 12V power supply I had lying around. Any ideas?

Topic by Cognoscan    |  last reply


Ancient technologies revisted - flying machines

With ancient "toys" and "decoration" showing someone who is NOT an archeologist things like planes, helicopters, jets and even "flying saucers" we can't help but wonder...If we see a little kid making a crude cryon drawing of a plane we have no objections at all that it IS a plane.If a little kid watched a nice pirate movie the resulting cryon ship still is a ship for us.And well, if the kid watched Star Trek a lot and draws a space ship we again agree it is just that.So why, if the same kids say they see a plane in an ancient trinket are we told it is anything BUT a plane?Take the famous planes the Maya culture presented us with so many times and that even build at a larger scale to show it is actually capable of proper flight.Archeologist and those involved with the official exploration of the past state it is an insect, some bird or just a fantasy creation.This and much more happens over and over again.What one side clearly sees as evidence that advanced technology existed long before we even had steel, the other side clearly sees it as something impossible.Artefacts showing os animals, plants and such however are always just that and everyone can agree - funny isn't?You have to wonder why a culture that can create delicate "toys" looking like the real thing would go and create something born out of fantasy.They did not do this, it a new trade of humanity called deception.What they drew, what they created what their myths talk about is all based on things they saw and experienced.It just makes no sense that they "invented" a helicopter for fun - they did not have the fantasy or brains to come with the idea of a helicopter...Then why are there no remains, no wrecks, not even spare parts to be found anywhere in the world?It is a defence argument often used by "real" experts of the field...So let's take a look at this statement and conundrum behind it.What we found in metal tools, toys, artefacts and such from ancient times is in almost all cases so badly corroded that it becomes impossible to make sense of it.A few cm of something that might have been a few meters square won't tell you what it was when it was made.On the other hand we found lots of copper and bronze tools - metals that can form a natural layer of protection that lasts for a very long time.Still even those, unless found in sealed places, are often so corroded that you need a bit of fantasy to imagine the original shape.At least the experts here won't tell us that something that looks like a hammer was actually a fork....If we try to imagine the materials that would have been used to build flying machines modern scientists all agree that modern metals must have been used as neither copper, nor brinze would work due to their weight and softness.Natural materials are out of the question as well because we never found evidence of something as simple a the Wright brothers or Hudini's plane...Like these old folks skipped balloon, gliders and all to go directly to modern jets and such...Today we use quite a few fancy materials in our flying machines.Composites made from plastic and aluminium, blow expanded titanium turbine blades, high quality steel for bearings and drive shafts...And one thing we only know too well: all these materials suffer badly from fatigue and wear and tear.We constantly need to replace worn parts to keep the thin airworthy...To back up our real archeologists and their claims or to show how all these alien nuts are wrong some tests were performed on modern alloys and plastics.It is the same process that checks how materials age in an accelearted way that helps engeneers to create better things.The best example of this technique you might have heard of is "biodegradeable" - found on many packing materials these days.Everything from sun light over moisture to bacteria and possible by products is added and "accelerated"- if the bag is gone after the set time it is deemed biodegradable.The results for our metal and composite tests however were not that conclusive and accurate.It is a different thing if instead of a few years you are supposed to simulated a few thausand years of exposure to the elements, having a jungle growing over it and all.At least they could agree that unless preserved in some sealed chamber or the perfect "soil" that turned into oxygen deprived and non acidic mud it would not take long for things to disappear fully.3000 to 5000 years only and there would be nothing of a fancy flying machine - if materials we are familiar today would have been used.Many of these cultures though are older, much older, so there wouldn't a realistic chance to find any "advanced" technology anywhere.But in hind sight of recent finding on the sea bed another round of this time just theortical agin tests were performed.If left undisturbed a flying machine, like a sunken cargo ship would start to form a reef in shallow waters and be overgrown by coral, sediments and more.On the hand, if left in deep enough water only corrosion by chemical means would be an issue and the deeper you go the better everything is preserved.For such a case it was estimated that identifiable remains could still be found up to 10.000 years later.Our biggest problem is to go down into the deep oceans to explore all those regions that were dry land before our sea levels started to rise.Why is this part of archeology so controversial and gets basically no funding at all?Considering the billions we waste on military and space programs it actually makes no sense.Same for the refusal to fully admit that ruins uner the sea that are over 40.000 years old can only mean we had a thriving human civilisation long before we are supposed to have been cave dwelling primitives.It is almost entirely up to a few private investors to cough up a few bucks to allow the exploration of the deep sea.And if you exclude minerals, vulcanic stuff and finding new bacteria and animals living down there you get next to nothing.Openly admitting that we were flying around like we drive our cars today at times when we did not even know steel is just too outragous.Would be like this dude a few hundred years ago trying to convince the world that earth rotates around the sun and not the other way around...We all know how that ended.Just imgine this for a moment:You invent and create something that you know is totally new, totally awesome and you wasted years of your life to finally finnish it and make it work.You would be proud as.And rightfully so!But then comes some weird dude and tells you "Nice, quite crude and badly designed but a good start."You would be furious whether you like to admit it or not - you just got insulted for your life's work...And to top it all up he comes along a few days to show you how he did it properly long before you even made your first technical drawings...Would be massive blow to your confidence and you would start to question a lot of things...Now imagine it would not just be you and what you invented and acomplished but in fact literally everything humankid ever invented and thought to be the best of everything....In a sick sense it is actually logical to prevent this moment of enlightenment to ever hit humanity.We can look at ancient artefacts, drawings and even entiry stories hammered in stone (or vibrated into it to be precise).We can see the reality but chose to turn a blind eye on it.What is even funny if you think about it is what sort of delays this refusal caused when it came to translation ancient writing.Not really that easy to create a totally different context just to avoid including the word "plane" or "space suit" for example.Entire sections of ancient texts still have "exclusion zones" for this very reason.Unoffical prove is out there that we in fact not only found ancient crafts but that we also managed to re-create at least what we could understand.But then again the same would be true if we trust our alien theorists.Almost every single day people report some sort of UFO in the skies, some even claim to have seen them coming out of lakes and the ocean.99% of these sightings are anything but alien craft.But it seems easier to post a video stating UFO's flying over.... Why bother to check if some rocket test, launch or similar was done around the time in this area?Why bother to check if a satellite was turned off for a controlled destruction in the atmosphere?And none of these reports are taken down or corrected with the right info when the truth comes out - you have to search the comments for it...In recent years though it seem the entire approach to keeping certain secrets secret has changed.Even NASA made old videos and images available to the general public showing "controversial" optical "artefacts".Some former astronauts went as far are providing images and videos they took with their own cameras and added what they thought about it at the time and till today.The US even finally openly admitted to have been doing "UFO research" for decades.Research in this context however means exploring or trying to, what these weird things might be that seem to follow and watch us everywhere.A bit shy of admitting they examined some of these flying objects but a complete reversal of the statements and approach we we told for so long.And then there is all this "new" technology we implement now, stealth technology, trust vector control, A.I. supported flight controls, three dimensional and real time computer simulations of the battlefield - the "soldier" could be on a different continent when his tank got hit by an RPG...Some claim the advances of these technologies were just logical and a result of theoretical research come to life once we had the tech and materials for it.These official claims however can also be read like this:Theoretical research includes reverse engineering and developing the required technology and materials is a logical step to re-create the reverse engineered object....Isn't it funny in this context that basically ALL these fance "inventions" have a trace that ends in a secret labs and projects?Only once NASA or the Militara was done with it and happy outside companies and people got access to parts of it.And this pratice is still happening every single day.Another, for some, strong hint is the rejuventation of the space race.But for this conundrum I will do another episode ;)

Topic by Downunder35m