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How to know if Arduino is working?

I bought the RAMPS and Arduino Mega 2560 and 5 stepper drivers. I plugged in everything to the pc and everything was working perfectly. I installed all my arduino drivers easily. Then at my friends place when I plugged the psu to the mains and turned everything on, 1 of the stepper drivers started smoking from the chip attached to it and got fried. I think it was  due to too much voltage. After a while removing the burnt driver when I connected my Arduino to the pc, the pc does not find its hardware. Only this 1 light stays on and nothing happens. I don't see that there is any physical damage to the board.. but there might be .. I am not sure what to do now.. I want to know if I can check wether the board is still working and how can I connect it to the pc?

Question by SowmenD    |  last reply


should I post ramp and grind rail?

Should I make an instructable for a nice DIY bike ,skateboard, roller blades, ect. ramp and a simple sturdy skate board or roller blade grind rail? 1-3 are of the ramp obviously that i made quite recently.4 is of the grind rail its like a year and a half old so its really beat up it was a lot better new ,and i figured out a better way to build it.here is the ible so far tell me what ya think https://www.instructables.com/id/EHRS1JAFGB0X664/

Topic by the_burrito_master    |  last reply



what kind of tech deck fingerboard ramp or box can i make with:4 10" long and 2" wide peices of wood1 1/2 paint sticks?

What kind of tech deck fingerboard ramp or box can i make with: 4 10" long and 2" wide peices of wood 1 1/2 paint sticks

Question by rigidmaster    |  last reply


did I destroy my arduino mega and ramps 1.4?

I was using an arduino mega and ramps 1.4 motor controller for my 3d printer.During the time of testing ,i switched the power polarities in the ramps 1.4 , then I put 12V in the arduino then the mega chip got hot. This is the state now,when i plug the mega on to my computer : 1)The red ON led lights up and the L lights up. 2)device not detected. 3)Reset button does not make any change. 4)RX-TX  lighting up. when i plug the 12 in the ramps: 1) the red ON led lights up, the green doesn't I want to know if this arduino and the ramps 1.4 can ever be used again. please help!! thanks in advance!!

Question by joee1    |  last reply


how can I connect my ramps 1.4 and arduino mega to my Laptop?

Hello guys. I need to ask you on how to connect my ramps 1.4 &arduino mega to my laptop, because in the first time I fried my arduino and my ramps 1.4. can I plug the power to my arduino from my laptop and my ramps to the power supply  simultaneously?

Question by joee1    |  last reply


how to make a microcontroller potentiometer control a servo and motors on my rc lorry for rear wheel steer?

Hi Guys, Im a keen modeller and build rc 1:14 scale trucks, I'm trying to build a trailer as many have done that uses a potentiometer which is turned when the lorry turns and the trailer follows through the tow pin, this then turns a servo that makes the rear wheels of the trailer steer creating rear wheel steering. the servo doesn't start turning till the pin is turned about 5 degrees either way, allowing the lorry to reverse easier as the rear steering won't work if not turning past the 5 degrees. On the trailer it has a detachable neck that is driven by a motor. Another servo or small motor to lower and raise the loading ramps Another motor that raises and lowers the legs to support the trailer when disconnected from the lorry. All of this I would like to be able to control separate from the lorry, so i can press a button and the legs will lower and lorry can drive away without wires going from one to the other. Ive attached some videos to give you some idea of what I'm trying to achieve This video has a circuit board that they refer to as E.T.S. Module (electronic trailer steering) This has been made by a fellow member but wants big money for them, it controls the rear wheel steer and neck detach motor, sorry its a long video. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ioOHjobQPho&spfreload;=10 This next video you can see the movement pause, roughly 5 degrees each way. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z0MvFHVAa1w Im trying to achieve one board that can control the items above and be somehow wireless or link in with my rc gear, Hope you guys can help. Many thanks

Question by brummy2002    |  last reply


how to connect my 6 wire stepper to ramps 1.4 shield, and which stepper driver should i use ?? Answered

Stepper is nema 17 4.5kg torque  and the current rating is 1.3 A , please give me the link for the stepper driver ...... :) Thanks in Advance

Question by _Boltz_    |  last reply


Help me with my 3D printer

ISSUE: Stepper motors are not working when connected with RAMPS 1.4.OBSERVATION: The LED lights(LED 2,3,4) in the RAMPS 1.4 and Stepper motor are not powering up.PRATICES: I use Arduino mega 2560 and installed marlin firmware in it. And I bought a RAMPS 1.4 in a local electronic dealer. I placed the RAMPS over Arduino mega 2560. For testing I just connected 2 NEMA 17 stepper motors with RAMPS. When USB port connection is given from laptop to arudino board, a LED light is ON in Arduino board(L) and in RAMPS(LED 1). I use SMPS 12V 20A as a PSU for RAMPS. But in RAMPS the LED 2,3,4 is not switched ON. I checked the input voltage to the RAMPS using micrometer and it shows 11.75V. But there is no output from the RAMPS.Also I installed and tried Repetier firmware and grbl but it doesn't work.When I flashed Arduino with grbl, in this case all the LED lights in arduino and RAMPS 1.4 is switch ON. I use Candle GRBL software to test the stepper motors.And I replaced and tested with another RAMPS which is bought from Amazon but the problem remains unchanged.Hereby I attached images of circuit connections. https://i.imgur.com/mM3BIEn.jpg https://i.imgur.com/OPPuElQ.jpg https://i.imgur.com/mM3BIEn.jpg kindly give some suggestions at the earliest.Thanks and regardsBaalaji V

Question by Baalaji V  


Cnc using ramps 1.4 ,repatier host,nema 17. Help with the software?

Hey guys I am almost ready with my CNC which I was building during my summer vacations. Well I have nema 17motors ,ramps1.4 and polulu motor controller. Well I can't get the firmware that is to be uploaded onto the arduino to work properly. I tried repatier/marlin firmware,but have no clue what to tweak and what not.

Question by chrissunny94    |  last reply


How do you make a skateboard halfpipe?

How do you make a skateboard halfpipe for under $300? Please give sensible answers. Thanks, Gerrit

Question by GerritSmith11    |  last reply


Auto bed levelling probe problems on marlin.

When i try to set the probe routine (g29) the servo dose not deploy the probe. Also if i try it with the probe down (m401) it will try to probe but the motors don't move so it ends up probing the same spot 3 times. (on the lcd it thinks the motors have moved but they haven't) 3- point probe mode Marlin 1.0.3 dev These problems are when i try on pronterface. My config file: http://forums.reprap.org/file.php?4,file=58699,filename=Configuration.h

Question by bonze77  


I fried the arduino mega?

Ok i was using an arduino mega and ramps 1.4 motor controller for my home build cnc.During the time of testing ,there was ahuge back current and probably the mega is fried. This is the state now,when i plug the mega on to my computer : 1)The Green ON led lights up 2)device detected ,but not recognized.( tried  re installing the drivers ,but no use ) 3)Reset button does not make the L light blink. 4)RX-TX not lighting up. I want to know if this arduino can ever be used again. And for the safe use of the cnc,what micro-controller/micro-controller precautions/PLC   should be used. Can i fix this MEGA by replacing some components , i really dont want to spend more on the cnc(i have already spend around 400$ till date)

Question by chrissunny94    |  last reply


Arduino IDE wont load to Mega 2560 it gets half way through the compile and upload, then says com X is already in use? Answered

I am running win 7 and it doesn't matter what the baud rate it set at for the port. There are no other programs running to lock up the port and only usb plugged in is the 2560 and the keyboard. Someone please tell me the secret. Thank you in advance! Oh and it doesnt matter what version IDE I use either..... Dave

Question by Dr.Z2    |  last reply


what motor should i get PLEASE HELP?

For science fair, i need to make a car for a 'king of the hill' type thing I need 2 motors (one for each back wheel) that can get me up the hill relatively quickly. The maximum power source i'm allowed is two nine volt batteries at one time (i can switch out dead ones in between runs) The hill is 40 inches in height and the ramp leading to the top of the hill is eight feet long The motors need to have a driveshaft sticking out about 1-2 inches for the wheels to fit on I'm not allowed to use remote control but i've devised a way so that the car will stop, regardless of what the motor is. I have plenty links to websites, i just dont know which one to get, if someone could point one or a few out for me that'd be great (please below $15 per motor) Help would be GREATLY appreciated I'm told by multiple friends that solarbotics.com is a GREAT resource edit: my car will weigh about 1 -1.5 pounds

Question by ishmal1103    |  last reply


Need Help writing a Star Trek themed Arduino code

Hey Folks. I really need help  writing an arduino code to control a star trek model i'm working on. I don't really understand programming but I'd really like if anyone can help out. The code is supposed to use 2 momentary switches. When the main switch is pushed it will activate some leds in sequence, the last 2 will fade on one after the other in the same manner, this will be called the 'startup mode'. Then when the second momentary switch is pushed (while the main is on) it will 'switch modes' and the 2 leds that faded on one after the other initially will now fade off or ramp down at the exact same time then 2 more leds will fade on or 'ramp up' in their place at the exact same time. Finally, when the button is pushed again it will simply switch back. A video demo shows what im talking about with some very small differences. Any help would be appreciated! This video below shows what Im trying to do. Please see from time frame 0:35 to 0:54 which shows the 'start up sequence' described above. And one more showing the actual model i'll be working on and the startup sequence with the movie timing.

Question by jamesstills  


using a thermoelectric cooler for High powered LEDs

Has anyone tried using a thermoelectric cooler, like this one http://www.allelectronics.com/cgi-bin/category.cgi?item=PJT-7to cool down a high powered LED star. I am considering mounting one on the back of a new Luxeon RebelI plan on ramping the current up to max (1 amp) on the led, and run the Thermoelectric cooler (TEC) as high as possible off a lead-acid battery. Strap a giant heat sink on it (maybe a fan too) plus thermal and silicone over the whole thing. It wouldn't be pretty, but it would be a neat experiment on how many lumens you could crank out of one of these things. Any inputs, suggestions, Ideas? Feel free to make an instructale on this if you want, I can't guarantee I will do it anytime soon.

Topic by John Culbertson    |  last reply


Work table/bench for working on lawn mowers

I've searched here and elsewhere without any luck. I'm looking for a design for making a table/bench about 20 inches high for use in working on lawnmowers and other items that require a lot of bending or stooping to reach. I'm nearly 80yo and have a pinched sciatic nerve in my back. I can't stoop or kneel (replaced joints in knees and hip) for any length of time without painful consequences. I'd use a stool or chair while working.In the vein of not re-inventing the wheel, I thought I'd ask around before attempting my own design. Two important features are 1) a ramp or hoist to raise and lower the mower/whatever; 2) a lazy susan type table top. I don't have a welder so the thing would have to be made of wood.Thanks,cb21

Question by Cueball21    |  last reply


What motor should I get? PLEASE HELP?

For science fair,  i need to make a car for a 'king of the hill' type thing I need 2 motors (one for each back wheel) that can get me up the hill relatively quickly. The maximum power source i'm allowed is two nine volt batteries at one time (i can switch out dead ones in between runs) The hill is 40 inches in height and the ramp leading to the top of the hill is eight feet long The motors need to have a driveshaft sticking out about 1-2 inches I'm not allowed to use remote control but i've devised a way so that the car will stop, regardless of what the motor is. A link to a website where i can buy the motors or where i could get them would suffice (please below $15 per motor) Help would be GREATLY appreciated edit: my car will weigh about 1 -1.5 pounds edit: i dont know a whole lot about which motor to get so if someone could (not to sound helpless) pick one for my situation that'd be great

Question by ishmal1103    |  last reply


Tech Deck Skate Park (WIP)

I've recently started to build a tech deck skate park. The base is mdf (solid stuff, very heavy), and all the features will be made from wood with metal coping. The base is 36"x16" to fit on my desk. You can track my progress here: chrismccann.wordpress.com Let me know what you think, what you might change, and what you like/don't like. Also if you need any closeups of anything, I've got it saved in CAD and can post any screenshots you guys want. Also, here are a few questions I have for you guys: -The flat rails were easy because they were handles, but how could I make the rail on the stair set? -How should I cut the profiles (out of 1/2" plywood) that will be the shape of the quarter pipe? I need to accurately cut that radius, but I only have a crappy band saw, 1" belt sander, drill press, dremel, and various hand tools.

Topic by saturnv7890    |  last reply


Help loading a wide load onto a narrow trailer?

I'm looking for some ideas on how to get a small 1940's AC Combine (farm machinery) onto a trailer without having to dismantle it.  It weighs about 3000# so not too heavy but the 2 wheels are about 104" apart (wide) so they won't fir onto a normal deckover style trailer (96" wide).  Once I can get it on the trailer, I plan to set it down on blocks and chain it down.  The problem - how to get it ONTO the trailer. Seems I have 2 options - 1) rig up something to make the ramps and trailer wider (just for loading) OR 2) rig up something with wheels that will bolt to the axle BUT be narrow enough to fit onto the trailer ..... sort of like a dolly.  Option 2 presents a bit of a problem in making sure the "dolly wheels" clear the combine's axle since they'll be underneath it. Thanks for your advice/ideas.

Question by Bunchgrass    |  last reply


New lift ideas.

I have a couple lift ideas that im going to share, but no stealing! >:-( 1. Spoon lift. the ball waits on a path, and a "spoon" that rotates on an axis comes down, picks the ball up and drops it at the top.                             0 ______                              I                              I                          _______ 0 - - - - - o this is a picture of the idea. the ball waits at the ramp (the line) and the two spoonlike things would be the two positions of where the ball would get on and off. the line at the top is the exit path. 2. bar lift. this is basically a chain lift, but with a rod sticking out horizontally. the ball is picked upby the bar, then deposited at the top.                     0            the zero is the chain and the hyphens are the rod. the ball is cushioned                  -------         the chain and rod. obviously, the rod would be connected somehow.                                   This is supposed to be an aerial view, so it kind of looks like a chainsaw. If you want any pictures of these lifts, i will post some pictures. Feel free to post any other ideas for new lifts.                   

Topic by Purple Waffles    |  last reply


Which Projects should I instructablize?

       Complete, yet undocumented: 1 Hero Steam Engine 2 Ice Bullet 3 Heated side mirrors (truck) 4 Camera launched from cannon 5 Easy ways to connect batteries without the "proper" battery case. 6 Disconnect anti-lock brake circuit when they start acting like it's icy even on dry pavement. 7 Bicycle turns a car alternator, generates power. 8 Firestarting reflector from space-blanket. 9 Modify an off-the-shelf night light which is designed to light when A) smoke alarm beeps  B) It's dark. I only wanted light when smoke alarm goes off. 10 Home-made rocket engine. 11 Augment gasoline with propane when auto fuel pump is crapping out. 12 Adapt lawnmower to cut very tall grass 13 Non slip surface for ramp. 14 Apple picker.                     Some of these I still have around. Some, not.  Yet I might be able to dig up pics, or do line drawings + writeup.  I numbered em to make it easy to reference items.

Topic by Toga_Dan    |  last reply


Having trouble with Marlin RepRap library

I am currently in a senior design group at Saint Louis University and we are working on a "DIY" 3D printer using electronics parts from SainSmart (Arduino Mega 2560 & RAMPS 1.4) & Hardware from McMaster-Carr. We loaded on two libraries to the Arduino: 1) Marlin RepRap (https://github.com/ErikZalm/Marlin/tree/Marlin_v1/Marlin) 2) U8GLIB (https://code.google.com/p/u8glib/) [which is used to supplement the Marlin RepRap] We have the LCD GUI set up and we are sending commands from the LCD to make small X, Y, and Z steps. It seems like the Arduino recognizes the signal and does send it to the stepper motors, but all the motors do are sort of 'vibrate' and not really spin. If we take small steps we get a little movement, usually which is incoherent. We recently moved the voltage down to 10.5V from 12V from our power supply (because of the 1.5V from the USB to the Arduino), because 12 V caused smoke to come from the Arduino's voltage regulator. We don't know if this is causing the problem. We also do not have the heatbed hooked up because we do not need it for our purposes. We are using a 12V 18 Amp PSU. We were able to get the mechanical endstops to work and the fans to work, but we cannot get the motors to work properly. Does anyone have any suggestions, or has anyone worked with this Arduino library who could help us out? BTW: Our SainSmart kit is: http://www.sainsmart.com/3d-printing/3d-printkits/sanguinololu-rev-1-3-a4988-lcd-2004-3d-printer-controller-kit-for-reprap.html Thank you everyone ahead of time for all your wonderful help and guidance!

Topic by JakedGr8    |  last reply


DEPLOYABLE FIRE ESCAPES for TOWERING BUILDINGS

The “9/11” World Trade Center disaster horrified Americans as they witnessed people leaping out of 100 story windows to their death. There was simply no available escape system to facilitate a safe yet quick evacuation to the ground floor. Elevators weren’t working and internal staircases were blocked by sporadic debris, black smoke and fires. The situation was virtually hopeless to the point where many chose to jump rather than be burned alive. So here we are, with technology capable of constructing 100+ story buildings but without the means for external fire-escapes. Unfortunately, the public isn’t aware that at our current level of technology we can finally address this problem with our architects. We are talking about a means to rapidly deploy a flexible escape tube-chute from 100+ stories that hangs along a guy-wire which is pre-attached to our escape floor and anchored to the ground (Fig-1). This tube-chute escape system will deliver a person from 100-stories down to ground level and safely outside the building in under 10-minutes. Prior to deployment, the entire system is housed inside a container that is either attached to the outside of the building or built into a structured wall, opening to the outside at various floor levels. When in deployment, the inlet of the flexible escape tube will be anchored to the outside wall of a designated escape window and contain an inner diameter sufficiently sized to accommodate an individual. The tube’s exit end is tethered to a rope-wire that runs down our permanently located guy-wire, through a series of guy-wire slip-rings, and quickly pulls the tube's exit end to ground. The rope-wire is permanently attached to a winch-motor located on the ground. During deployment, the winch pulls the tube’s rope-wire down to ground level by slipping along the guy-wire rings. As the tube-chute deploys downward, it automatically forms a spiral about the guy-wire, creating a very long escape slide that gets anchored to the ground. A fully deployed tube-chute exhibits three basic attachments for stability: 1) a set of flexible slip-rings and tethers attached between the permanent guy-wire and tube to form its downward spiral, 2) a tube-chute inlet anchored to the outside of the building at various floor levels, and 3) a tube-chute exit anchored to the ground and providing a fully deployed and reliable escape system ready for use. As each person enters the tube-chute, they are only aware of the outside winds which buffet the tube plus the internally hanging cloth fingers used to slow their descent as they slide down to safety. They are not aware of any height and feel relatively secure due to their complete envelopment by both the tube and its touching fingers.  A 100-story descent would take about 6-to-10-minutes to reach the outside safety of ground while travelling at a speed of roughly 5-fps (3.5 MPH) as regulated by the spiral-ramp and internal cloth-fingers retarding gravity.   Technical  Details: The tube-chute is reinforced by a sewn-in spiral wire that gives it strength and flexibility. Its tube is made of heavy duty nylon, much like the large yet light air-hoses used on many high stress applications today. The tube cork-screws its way down and around a permanently deployed guy-wire that stretches from the designated floor of the building to the ground. The tube is sized for a person to enter and slide down the spiraling pathway until he reaches ground level. Gravity will act to propel the sliding individual down the tube. To counter gravity, we rely on the tube’s spiraling design to produce a gradually declining ramp that slows and checks an individual’s descent speed. The number of spirals and ramp-angle necessary to reach the ground will be sized to limit the gravity-induced speed so as not to endanger an individual’s sliding descent. That and the internally hanging cloth fingers guard against excessive speeds and will prevent skin-burns from the sliding friction. The tube’s nylon material is impregnated with anti-flammable chemistry and its exterior is aluminized to prevent radiative heatloads from causing a fire due to either direct flames or the radiant heat from indirect flames. A final note on the overall weight for this flexible tube-chute structure. Clearly, since we are designing a deployable fire-escape system, its weight must be kept to a minimum for deployment safety and reliability. Items such as the cloth materials, tube-wire reinforcements, and spiraling tube tether attachments must be carefully chosen for weight, strength and durability. While issues of weathering may not be that important, as it will be housed and protected from the elements, the shelf life of the various materials chosen is of paramount importance.

Topic by RT-101    |  last reply


Help with getting a car on a trailer (More difficult then it sounds)? Answered

I recently purchased another car to restore, a 1962 Ford Fairlane, for $200.  Its in great shape, however, the brakes have locked up and none of the wheels turn, other then that I would drive it the 300km to my home.  However, I can't drive out there continually to work on it until it is road worthy, and because snow is coming I planned on hauling it home on a trailer.  The problem lies in getting the car on the trailer.  We tried winching it up the ramps onto the Low-boy trailer, however, because the wheels don't turn, it pulled the trailer and my friends 1 ton truck around.  So my question is; How can I get the car onto the trailer, which are both on a level surface (The trailer is about a foot off the ground) using a winch?  It does have to be readily and cheaply available fix, but anything will do (Jacks, winches, anything!  If you can think of a way to get it on there with dog sh1t then I will use dog sh1t!) I need a good, solid, well though out/engineered plan preferably by the end of the week!  And I thank everyone ahead of time for anything you may post, because it may not be the solution, but it may pave the road to a solution! ***I have included a very detailed sketch of the situation, done by a professional artist, and the scene is very accurate to the circumstances.  Level ground, accurate representation of the type of trailer I am using and the car I intend to put on the trailer.***

Question by Electric Spectre1    |  last reply


Solar Powered iPod/USB Charger?

I know you can buy these suckers for some $60-$100, but I prefer to make my own so that it'll be (hopefully) cheaper and definitely more fun. This is my first major project as well, although I have toyed with breadboards and other test environments with ICs, capacitors, transistors, and LEDs to create some effects.Right now I'm just thinking about the power system itself, of course the idea is solar power so I've been looking at the solar cells that Clare electronics has. The CLA289-ND and CLA292-ND seem like they might be pretty decent cells for the job.The iPod (5Gen) uses a USB interface for charging, so it'll need a steady 5V source along with 100-500mA. At this point, I have two questions:1. While USB starts at 100mA, it can ramp up to 500mA maximum. If the charger only provides 100 or 200mA, will the iPod still charge? Even if slower, it's better than nothing.2. The solar cells I mentioned state a short circuit current of 50 uA. Does that mean I'd need 5,000 of these to get 500 mA? If so, then I'd better look for a more powerful solar cell it seems. It seems I am misunderstanding something here since Ohm's law would seem that 8V input should mean a current of 8/R. Taking the pure ideal case of "no resistance" (assuming R = 1), that gives 8 amps. Of course, that doesn't sound right either. I'm sure I'm messing up something here, it's been a while since electronics class. I also assume that the solar power voltage will definitely be spiky with the varying amount of light that it may have. There would definitely have to be some kind of regulation with it before giving it to the iPod.If anyone could give me a little tip on how to construct the power cell or what solar cells I should use, I'd greatly appreciate it. I got the idea from this related article: How To Make Your Own USB Car Charger For Any iPod Or Other Devices That Charge Via USB

Topic by SiLo    |  last reply


Difference Between Type L vs Type ACR Copper Coil

Hello everyone,    I was hoping someone can share advice, tips etc. I plan on getting 55gal steel drum & turning into wood burning pool heater. My question is about which type copper coil would work best, and still be safe to use. My son has Down syndrome and is very sensitive to cold water. We just spent around $1500 to get pool ready with a installed ramp for his wheelchair. We called few different pool people about a reg heater they want from $2500 to $3700. Mostly cause it would not be easy install lot of things in way, etc etc. oh and then add monthly bill. I don't mind the pool temp but my son does and he truly doesn't ask for anything. And if I could safely get pool warm enough for him then I want to at least try. so we really don't have the extra cash to go "normal" pool heater way but I've watched allot of vids on YouTube where they took a steel 55 gal drum, turned on its side and put the copper coil mounted inside at the top. These people would be able to increase temp by allot. Its labor involved but I'm home anyhow taking care of my son. I'm looking at using about 100ft. I can get 1/2 100ft of Type L $163.00 and Type ACR for $119.00. Anyhow Type ACR is much much cheaper then Type L.  Is there a real big difference? Big enough to spend the extra cash and use Type L, instead. Or Is ACR still safe to use with the pool? I'm not sure which Type L or ACR but I've read it say it's cleaned inside the pipe. Does this matter cleaned vs not cleaned inside pipe for what I would be using for? here link of place I'm getting https://m.grainger.com/mobile/product/MUELLER-INDUSTRIES-100-ft-Soft-Coil-Copper-Tubing-4WTC2?breadcrumbCatId=7726&fc;=MWP2IDP2PCP Please any info would be greatly appreciated. Truly thanks so much for your time. Thank Lisa

Topic by fst2011    |  last reply


500W electric scooter control and instrumentation with Arduino mega

1. Introduction DC 500W motor control with an Arduino mega to limit starting current and to vary the speed of the scooter. The battery is in 24V, 10A.h. The following table summarizes their characteristics: https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a014.jpg https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a111.jpg 2. Bibliography: Link download : sketch_escooter_feed_back_reel_V1.ino https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_fB3GAsM02FSlRTWHdyRkhuUW8/view?usp=sharing escooter_ampli_SIMULINK.mdl https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_fB3GAsM02FOW9OdmlhdDhJZGc/view?usp=sharing escooter feed back ISIS.DSN https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_fB3GAsM02FOXdRWFN5OWRMQkE/view?usp=sharing youtube  :  "study trotinette electric e-scooter 100W et 350W, wiring"  youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QqJ2-YiE8Tg&index;=75&list;=PLfZunVn_gcq7EOurXuWU2sRFmh6CbiUiL Article: «Study of electric scooters 100W and 500W (Arduino), Revue 3EI 2017» Pdf? Book «I realize my electric vehicle» at DUNOD 3. Open loop program To test the programming, we simulate the program in ISIS, as can be seen in the following figure. In addition, we have an LCD display to display data (duty cycle corresponding to the PWM at 32Khz, motor current, motor voltage, action on the pushbuttons, 4 push buttons are used. BP1 to manually increment the duty cycle, BP2 decrement it. BP3 set the duty cycle to 0, corresponding to the brake contact. The speed of the motor is practically proportional to the duty cycle https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a211.jpg We made our own current amplifier called a step-down chopper but it is possible to buy a shield There are many cards for Arduino to control DC motors especially of low powers and also of great powers as can be observed on the following links.http://www.robotpower.com/products/MegaMotoPlus_info.html http://www.robotshop.com/en/dc-motor-driver-2-15a.html https://www.pololu.com/file/0J51/vnh3sp30.pdf https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a310.jpg But all these chopper shields measure the current internally but there is no current limitation. In order to have a current limitation, an analog current loop is required using specialized AOP or IC or a fast digital current loop. But what should be the value of the limitation current? The choice of the current value is normally for the 1-hour operation service in order to be able to carry out relatively long climbs without reaching the critical temperature of the engine. In our case, the limitation current must be Limiting motor = Power / Upper battery = 500W / 24V = 20A In addition, the power transistor of the chopper can only support 50A in our case. But in open loop, it has no current regulation, so as not to exceed the maximum current, a ramp of the duty cycle will be used. A 0.1 second interruption routine will be used to measure the voltage of the current (sample measurement, sample). This sampling time is arbitrary but does not allow to be faster than the rise time of the current because the electric time constant of the motor is L / R = 1.5 ms. Open loop operation with a 25.5s (8bit) ramp and 0.1s interrupt routine provides a good understanding of the operation of a DC motor drive. The display will only be done every 0.2s to have a stability of the digits on the screen. In addition, a digital filtering will be done on the current and the voltage on 4 values therefore on 0.4s. [b] Algo open loop [/b] Interrupt Routine All 0.1S Read voltage and current Loop loop (push button scan) If BP1 = 1 then increment PWM If BP2 = 1 then decrement PWM If BP3 = 1 then PWM = 0 Displaying variables every 0.2s Code: [Select] // include the library code: #include #include #include #define SERIAL_PORT_LOG_ENABLE 1 #define Led     13       // 13 for the yellow led on the map #define BP1     30       // 30 BP1 #define BP2     31       // 31 BP2           #define BP3     32       // 32 BP3 #define LEDV    33       // 33 led #define LEDJ    34       // 34 led #define LEDR    35       // 35 led #define relay   36       // 36 relay #define PWM10    10      //11   timer2    LiquidCrystal lcd(27, 28, 25, 24, 23, 22); // RS=12, Enable=11, D4=5, D5=4, D6= 3, D7=2, BPpoussoir=26 // Configuring variables unsigned   int UmoteurF = 0;  // variable to store the value coming from the sensor unsigned   int Umoteur = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur2 = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur3 = 0; unsigned   int Umoteur4 = 0; unsigned   int ImoteurF = 0;  unsigned   int Imoteur = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur2 = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur3 = 0; unsigned   int Imoteur4 = 0;            byte Rcy=0 ;    // 8bit duty cycle unsigned    int temps; // the setup function runs once when you press reset or power the board void setup() {   pinMode(Led, OUTPUT);   // Arduino card   pinMode(LEDV, OUTPUT);   pinMode(LEDR, OUTPUT);   pinMode(LEDJ, OUTPUT);   pinMode (PWM10,OUTPUT);     // Pin (10) output timer2   //  digitalWrite(LEDV,LOW);   Timer1.initialize(100000);         // initialize timer1, and set a 0,1 second period =>  100 000   Timer1.attachInterrupt(callback);  // attaches callback() as a timer overflow interrupt   lcd.begin(20, 4);    Serial1.begin(9600);   TCCR2B = (TCCR2B & 0b11111000) | 0x01;         //pin 10  32khz    http://playground.arduino.cc/Main/TimerPWMCheatsheet                                                   //http://www.pobot.org/Modifier-la-frequence-d-un-PWM.html   //   analogWriteResolution(bits)      https://www.arduino.cc/en/Reference/AnalogWriteResolution lcd.setCursor(0,1); lcd.print("Rcy"); lcd.setCursor(10,1); lcd.print("Um"); lcd.setCursor(5,1); lcd.print("Im"); lcd.setCursor(10,1); lcd.print("Um"); lcd.setCursor(20,1); // 4 lines display * 20 characters lcd.print("BP1+"); lcd.setCursor(25,1); lcd.print("BP2-"); lcd.setCursor(29,1); lcd.print("BP3=0"); } // Interruptions  tous les 0.1s void callback()  { temps++; //toogle state ledv for check   if ( digitalRead(LEDV)== 1 ) {digitalWrite(LEDV,LOW);}     else {digitalWrite(LEDV,HIGH);}     analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // frequency Umoteur=analogRead(A0); Imoteur=analogRead(A1); Imoteur2=Imoteur; Imoteur3=Imoteur2; Imoteur4=Imoteur3; ImoteurF=(Imoteur4+Imoteur3+Imoteur2+Imoteur)/4 ; Umoteur2=Umoteur; Umoteur3=Umoteur2; Umoteur4=Umoteur3; UmoteurF=(Umoteur4+Umoteur3+Umoteur2+Umoteur)/4 ;   }// End routine // Loop corresponding to main function void loop() {    // BP + LED   if ((digitalRead(BP1))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);      // Column line     lcd.print("BP1");     digitalWrite(LEDR, LOW);        digitalWrite(LEDJ, LOW);     Rcy++;                        // PWM incrementation     if ( Rcy>254)  {Rcy=254;}     delay(100);               //8bits * 100ms = 25S increment 25ssecond slope     }        if ((digitalRead(BP2))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);     lcd.print("BP2");             Rcy--;      if ( Rcy<2)  {Rcy=2;}  // PWM almost at 0, engine stop         delay(100);      digitalWrite(LEDR, HIGH);     digitalWrite(LEDJ, HIGH);     }   if ((digitalRead(BP3))==1) {     lcd.setCursor(20,0);     lcd.print("BP3");      Rcy=2;               // PWM almost at 0, engine stop     } if (temps>=2)  { lcd.setCursor(0,0); lcd.print("                "); // Erase line lcd.setCursor(0,0);     lcd.print(Rcy); lcd.setCursor(5,0); ImoteurF=(ImoteurF)/20;     //resistance (5/1024)*(10/0.25ohm) si ACS712 66mV/A                            // For resistance 1ohm (ImoteurF) / 20; Simulation 5/25 lcd.print(ImoteurF); lcd.setCursor(10,0); UmoteurF=UmoteurF*10/38;                              //10/38   10/30 simula if (Umoteur>ImoteurF){UmoteurF=UmoteurF-ImoteurF;  }  //U-R*I lcd.print(UmoteurF); temps=0; }// End if time    } // End loop https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/dsc_0614.jpg Since there is a limit of 9000 characters in the forum below Open loop program feature previous The interrupt routine lasts only 250 microseconds, the loop of the main program which scans the action of push buttons is 13micros and the display time of all data is 11ms. Thus, it is possible to improve the sampling period and thus the speed of the regulation of the current. The Arduino makes it possible to make the instrumentation of the scooter so to know the power, the consumption in Ah and Wh, to measure the speed, to know the consumption according to Wh / km, to measure the temperature of the engine, Have a safe operation. But for now we will see how to limit the current 4. Closed loop program, limited current control The sampling period will increase to 0.01 seconds (interrupt routine) If the current is less than the desired value, then the duty cycle can be increased or decreased to the desired value which is the setpoint. On the other hand, if the motor current is greater than the limiting value, there is a rapid decrease in the duty cycle. So as not to exceed the value of the duty cycle if it is saturated to 254 maximum and to the minimum value 6. Code: [Select] if (Imoteur<4000)                    // No current limitation at (20A * 10) * 20 = 4000   {if (consigne>Rcy)   {Rcy=Rcy+1;}   // Pwm ramp + 1 * 0.01second pure integrator    if (consigne    if ( Rcy>254)  {Rcy=254;}           // Limitation of duty cycle    analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // Frequency 32kHz timer2}         } if (Imoteur>4000)  { Rcy=Rcy-5;              // No current filtering, to be faster                     if ( Rcy<6)  {Rcy=5;}       // Rcy is not signed, nor the PWM therefore Rcy minimum must not be less than 6                   analogWrite(PWM10,Rcy);   // Frequency 32kHz timer2}                        } 5. Closed Loop Program, Limited Current Control with Acceleration Handle An acceleration handle provides a 0.8V voltage when not operated and a 4.5V voltage when the handle is fully engaged. Instead of using pushbuttons to increase or decrease the speed setpoint, an acceleration handle will be used Code: [Select] Upoignee=analogRead(A3); // The relation in Upoign and the setpoint which corresponds to the duty cycle corresponds to if (Upoignee>100) { consigne=(Upoignee/2);     //0=a*200+b    et 255=a*800+b                      consigne= consigne-100;                   }                            else { consigne=0;   }               if (Upoignee<100) { consigne=0;  }     // redundancy     6. Temperature and safety program of the motor with the current measurement The outdoor temperature measurement can be easily performed by the LM35 component which charges 0.01V by degrees Celsius Code: [Select] temperature=analogRead(A2); //lm35 0.01V/°C temperature=temperature/2;       // Temperature coefficient lcd.setCursor(5,2); lcd.print("      "); lcd.setCursor(5,2); lcd.print(temperature);   // Display in ° C lcd.setCursor(9,2);      // Erasing secu display lcd.print("     ");   if (temperature>80 ) {lcd.setCursor(9,2);         // If motor external temperature is above 80 ° C                      lcd.print("secuT");                       Rcy=0;} In addition, thermal safety by measuring the motor current will be added. If the limitation current is greater than 10s then the motor will no longer be powered for 30s. A "secu" display will appear on the LCD display. This safety makes it possible to cut the motor on slope too high and when blocking the engine but it would be necessary to add the measurement of the speed in the latter case Code: [Select] if (timesecurite>=10000 ) {flagarret=1;      // If limitation current for a current of more than 10s                               timerepos=0;                               consigne=0;                               Rcy=0;                                 timesecurite=0;}       //   Then stop engine during a downtime    if (flagarret==1 ) {lcd.setCursor(9,2);         // If limiting current for a current of more than 20s                      lcd.print("secU");  }     //   Then stopping the motor for a stop time and display                                                     if (timerepos>=30000 &&  flagarret==1) {flagarret=0;                                           lcd.setCursor(9,2);      // After a rest time here of 30s                                            lcd.print("       ");   }   The display can be observed if the temperature is above 80 ° C https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a017.jpg Thermal safety by measuring the motor current (digital thermal relay) which allows to know the image of the internal temperature of the engine would be ideal. But for this, it is necessary to know well the thermal modeling of the motor. 7. Measurement of the energy capacity of the battery The energy capacity of a battery is in A.H, we will display the value in mA.H to have a high accuracy. The capacity will be in A.Second in the following equation. So to have in mA.H, it will be divided by capacity by3600. Capacity (A.s) n = I * Te + Cn-1 with Te = 0.01s and I multiplied by 10 So in the interrupt routine Code: [Select] capacity=ImoteurF+capacity ; And in the display Code: [Select] lcd.setCursor(0,3); // Display of energy capacity lcd.print("C mA.h="); capacity1=capacity/(18000);   //18000=3600*5  5=> Current measurement coefficient lcd.print(capacity1); To check a current of 10A with an adjustable resistor and after 30s, the capacity must be 83mA.H 8. Power and modeling with SIMULINK Modeling helps to understand the vehicle and its control. In addition, it is possible to compile the control part directly into the Arduino program from simulation under Simulink. But it will not be possible to simulate the instrumentation with the LCD display. In the following figure, we can observe the simulation of the programming of the chopper with the current limitation with Simulink. In the following figure, the green box shows the duty cycle control to vary the speed and the red border the current limitation. The controller of the control is here a simple integrator but it is possible to carry out a multitude of control. https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/azub_c15.jpg In the previous figure, it can be observed that the current is well limited to 25A from 2s to 9.5s. Then, the current reaches 10.8A under established speed regime at 22.5km / h. The dynamics are similar to the tests carried out. With a slope of 5%, the cyclic ratio reaches only 100% as can be seen in the following figure. The speed will reach painfully 19km / h with a current of 24A and a motor power of 580W. See article: Study of electric scooters 100W and 500W (Arduino), 9. First conclusion It is easy to control a 500W DC motor with an Arduino and some components So repair many scooters that are in DC motors. But it takes some knowledge (automatic, engine) to know how to properly manage the engine and limit its current so as not to damage it The display of the speed, the distance, the operating time to know the Watt.km / km can also be realized with a menu 2. The .ino program as an attached file, But it is not possible to put an attached file in ISIS electronic labcenter? What is this forum? It would be desirable that the compiler could generate the.cof to debug in Isis and test the program line by line .... Arduino still has to make a lot of effort to be on the same level as other microcontrollers 10. speed measurement (tachometer) Velocity measurement is carried out using a hall effect sensor SS495 or A1324 which counts each revolution of the wheel. It is enough to enter the perimeter of the wheel of the scooter (130mm of radius therefore 0.816m in the case To have the speed, it is enough just to divide the number of turn of wheel on an arbitrary time of 1s to have a minimum speed of 0.81m / s therefore of 2.93 km / h. In addition, an average filter with 3 values will be used to display the speed. At 25km / h, there will be 8.5 laps. To count the turns, an external interrupt routine will be used on input INT0 21 of the mega card. http://www.locoduino.org/spip.php?article64 To simulate the speed, a pulse on input 21 will be used with a duty cycle of 10%. https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a018.jpg Code: [Select] void INT0b21() {   Tspeed++;   // External interruption to count the number of turns } // In the set up declare the interrupt routine when the 5V edge of the magnet detection is done   attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(21), INT0b21, RISING );  // External interruption // In loop if (temps09>=5)  {        // 1 second loop lcd.setCursor(13,2);      // Erasing speed lcd.print("kph     "); lcd.setCursor(16,2); speed1=Tspeed*2937;      //1tour*816*3.6/1s=2.937km/h speed2=speed1;           //Tspeed (rate/seconde) speed3=speed2; speedF=(speed1+speed2+speed3)/3000;   // To put in kph lcd.print(speedF,1);    // Display to the nearest tenth Tspeed=0;   // Reset counter temps09=0;  //reset time } To improve the accuracy of the velocity measurement, it is possible that the sampling time of the velocity measurement is dependent on the velocity. For example: For speeds less than 10km / h sample at 1second, but above 10km / h sample at 2 seconds. 11. Distance measurement for autonomy The distance corresponds to the total number of turns of the wheel multiplied by the perimeter of the wheel. So do not set the number of turns to 0 for each sample. On the other hand, the reset of the distance will be done when pressing the reset of the Arduino Mega. The distance display will be displayed to the nearest second. At 32km / h, it will take 2 minutes to do 1km as can be seen in the following figure: https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/a019.jpg Code: [Select] void INT0b21() {   Tspeed++;   // External interruption to count speed   nbrRate++; } lcd.setCursor(13,4);      lcd.print("km      ");  // distance=(nbrRate*816)/1000;  //distance m distance=distance/1000;  //distance km lcd.setCursor(15,4);      lcd.print(distance,1);  You can observe the electrical installation with the chopper, the arduino, and the display when the program is set up https://i58.servimg.com/u/f58/17/56/35/17/dsc_0613.jpg 12. Synthesis The RAM space is used only at 4% and ROM space at 3%, for an Arduino mega. So we could take an arduino a little smaller. But, there are 8 Lipo cells to make the 24V power supply to power the engine via the chopper. Therefore, the voltage measurement of each element will be on the Arduino with a JST connector. This measurement makes it possible to know if a cell with an internal resistance which begins to pose a problem and to know if the balancing of each cell has indeed been carried out. It is possible to switch to 36V with 12 cells also with the arduino mega without using an external shield that multiplex 24 analog inputs on input A0 It is possible to send all data to a smartphone via Bluetooth HC06 via pins 20, 21, RX1 and TX1. But the application under android realized under JAVA Studio can not be shared on this forum. This part will not be explained. After having made the instrumentation of this scooter, a study should be carried out on the precision of the measurements, it is possible to read "Instrumentation of a low-power electrical motor vehicle" eco marathon "type Revue 3EI N ° 81, July 2015 http://www.fichier-pdf.fr/2015/09/07/instrumentation-vehicule-faible-consommation-eco-marathon/

Topic by Iutgeiisoissons  


unfinished,5 DOF Robotic Mechanical ARM

5 DOF Robotic Mechanical ARM Required Material of project:- 1. Basic Servo Tower pro 9g*4 2. Header pins Male female*2 3. Arduino Nano*1 4.10kΩ Resistor resistance*2 5. Trimmer Potentiometer track Linear; maximum resistance 10kΩ*4 6. Tactile push button*2 7. Blank circuit board*1 8. Acrylic strips for Robot & potentiometer body*2 9. Wires, Button, Switch 10.Balsa wood, Metal, Plastic Procedure:- Arrange all necessary items.. Please go through the attached images  for better understanding.. I divide whole project in two parts 1) Servo Motor assembly 2) Potentiometer assembly 1) Servo motor assembly: – Servo motor as J1, J2, J3, J4 fix the servo motors as shown in image use 3M tape to glue servo, use thin flexible plastic strip to make griper, make hole in center of each finger tie thread in that hole pass this thread from center hole and tie knot at the other end of thread with 4th servo motor’s knob, as you stretch thread finger get close vise versa. Fix whole arrangement on strong rigid base. 2) Potentiometer assembly: – Fix potentiometer as shown in figure name potentiometer as do previous R3, R4, R5, R6 this time place R6 separately for easy access this potentiometer control gripper to pick and place. Potentiometer arrangement symmetry must be same as servo arm. Fix whole arrangement on strong rigid base. Moving a little bolt from one side to the other side:- 1. Actuators / output devices: 4 micro servos 2. Control method: controlled by a PIC16F690       assembler firmware 3. CPU: PIC16f690 micro controller 4. Operating system: self made assembler code 5. Power source: 4.8V to 6V from 4 battery cells 6. Programming language: PIC Assembler 7. Sensors / input devices: teach in system with                         4 potentiometers       Making Processer:- The Potis are standard types and are screwed to the white plastic parts with their nuts. The axles are pressed into the transparent plastic part. The handle to move the teach-in-arm is a M3-Spacer and the socket is a plastic part with is normally used to fix balloons on a stick to hold it.                     move the motor itself by hand a little force is needed due to its permanent magnets, which create a small holding force. But inside the servo a lot of gears increase the force which you have to apply. If you move the servo by hand, you have to apply a much higher force. If you overcome the motors holding force, it starts to rotate an acts as a flywheel. So moving a servo by hand needs a high torque and its not easy to turn it to the position where you want it. ( Fan control modules for engine cooling of real cars have some extra parts to clamp the voltage which is generated, when you drive at higher speeds. In that case the fan works like a windmill and creates higher voltages than normal inside the power stage of the module.) And there were also a lot of other "problems" which had to be solved using my PIC Controllers. i.e. self made electronics for a RC-Excavator which works similar to the digital system used in slot cars. To replace a lot of wires between the rotating part of the excavator and the track unit, a small PIC 12F629 reads the pulses from up to 5 channels of a RC-Receiver and leads their information via a 2 wire connection to a second PIC12F629. At the second board the power is separated from the data. The PIC is reading the data, and generates the PWM output for the 5 Servo output connector. the 2 wire connection is made with a cheap 6,3mm mono microphone plug which is also used as the axle for the rotating part. The arm of the excavator is also powered by standard servos and so it was necessary to change the control behavior from proportional to integral so that the servos move like real hydraulic cylinders which are controlled by valves. I used the same 12F629 type for that job and added some features like adjustable limit positions and starting point programmable by one jumper, and automatic return to park position when missing the pulses for some seconds. The Software is simple:- Its working like a servotester for four axis. That means, every poti is connected to an analog in of the controller and all servos are connected to GPIOs. The controller reads each poti, does some scaling, so that the angle of the poti equals to the angle of the axis and finally he creates the PWM output 1-2ms pulse every 20ms for all servos. Teach mode:- After a reset the robot arm follows the teach in arm while simple mapping the analog inputs every 25ms to the servo motors. Pressing the button stores each servo position in a array. Play mode: The sketch reads the array step by step and moves the robot arm. For cool looking movements I added a routine calculates different micro steps for each servo to have moving start and end sync on all axis. Also added a ramp for soft increase/decrease velocity. Shorter travel distances the robot does slow, longer distances with faster speed.           The program moves the servos at full speed to the next position and a short delay time after each command allows all of the servos to reach their final position. That means that it is possible to increase the speed a little bit more by doing some fine tuning of the delay times after each command. The final thing which is still not implemented is the routine which saves the "Teach In" data 5 or 10 times per second, so that the controller is able to replay it in a loop with the original speed or with a lower or higher speed. Electrical Connection:- Provide separate power supply (5V DC 1amps) to the Servo motors . Don’t forget to short ground of both power source ( arduino + servo) 5 DOF Robotic Mechanical ARM :- 1. Use of Fiber on upper side 2. wooden spoon is a part of side body 3. cable tie *12 pieces use the robotic. 4. Some pices of wires 5. use scraw*4 6. Glue 7. some small clips Because to attached body 8. small size of plastic box 9. One pieces of  square fiber stand and one pieces small & medium  circular fiber  10.  L293D Motor Driver IC+IC Base KG143 11. Generic Elementz High Quality Nickel Plated 24*18 Points Bread Board*(2 pieces) and one plastic 12. Push Button Switch. Play Mode version 1.1 The gripper input is used to set the delay (0,1,3,15,60,300 seconds) after a loop is done. The switch (it was left from the project start) pauses the robot.        Thanks you:

Topic by aarif1234  


Knex gun ideas

Knex Gun Ideas Hello fellow Knexers, I have some ideas and concepts that I have been thinking about and I would like to share them with you all.  Please give me credit if you use any of these ideas of mine.  Also please send me pictures if you are able to create any of these ideas so that we can all help to advance the Knex community.  I know that some of you may have thought of  ideas kind of  like this, so please don't get all bent out of shape that I stole one of your ideas. And please give me your feedback and and ideas in the comments below. 1 Horizontal Knex Oodammo mag     This is an idea that I came up with the other day ago, it could either be on the top or the bottom of     the gun.  First there would be a rail that holds the ammo on top and pushes it down a ramp and then     it falls in front of the FP  and is shot out.  This may have an advantage because then you don't have a                     large mag sticking out of the bottom of your gun. 2  Oodammo bull-pup    I do not see a big advantage to this but maybe some one would like to try this,  Has any one tried             this before? 3 Rotating hammer action   There would be 4 hammers attached to a cog and the hammers would spin around in a circular          motion and hit a new piece of ammo each time they spin around.  I don't think that you could get that      much power with this, but maybe it could be attached to a motor or it could be wound up and released     by the trigger.     4 Knex magazine idea      I was watching some YouTube videos about Nerf guns and there was this one that I saw, is there a      way to make something like this out of Knex?  To load the gun you slide back the pullback and load          ammo though the top into the magazine, this is not a top loading mag but you feed the ammo into the      mag from the top and it is pushed up when you slide the pullback back over the top of the gun.    Here is a link to a video about the gun so you get the idea of how it works    http://https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cjpkp9TRDWo    I will be posting more new ideas here soon so come back often to see updates and more, and please subscribe and share your ideas    below so that we can advance the Knex community to the Next level of innovation, design, comfort and power!    If you have a question or don't understand one of these ideas,  please just ask me below.    Thanks for your ideas and feedback!!    SONIC BROOM

Topic by sonic broom    |  last reply


Instructables junkie, are you one? Know the signs.

Are you an Instructables junkie? (if you or a friend/loved one apply to 3 or more of these, please indicate it so that we may be enablers to your self destructive/constructive behaviors. Please be honest) If I feel nice, I might make a personalized I'bles member card for those who ask(domindude10). Symptoms include: - Spending more then 5 straight hours on the site - Commenting excessively - PMing excessively - Trying way to hard for any patches you can find, no matter how lame they are - Replying to all your comments, within less than 15 minutes of comment being posted - Posting the most unrelated stuff to the subject at hand - Neglecting things in the real world that are more important then your attention-seeking behavior here, like homework, or your job - Complaining about things that aren't worth anyone's breath or time - Making many I'bles solely for contest entries - Using terms like I'bles, 'able, OB, O-board, (more to be amended) - Making excessive forum topics - Those who post *some* things Knex (like guns. its not all bad, the ramp stuff is cool) - You roam the Instructables chatroom (meaning you are more than just a casual user) sub-note - you also troll the I'bles IRC much more then necessary - You have lots of partial projects lying around the house, but not being able to prioritize them because they are all so equally Instructableizeable(or you lack the funds to finish them(possibly from your lack of attention to the real world)). - Your response to pretty much everything that happens around you is "That would make a good Instructable." - Your first choice of a search engine is Instructables and not Google, even when you're not searching instructions. - You pressure everyone you know to join/submit Instructables/use them. - You brag to no end to everyone about how cool Instructables is and how it is your whole online life (possibly real life too) - Asking yourself, "What would Kiteman do?" - Praising the robot or Eric whenever it is totally unnecessary. (list to be amended with new whore attributes when they are identified) List of confirmed Instructables junkies: 1) Dj Radio 2) Killer~Safe[Cracker] 3) Kiteman 4) ripstikfan 5) domindude10 6) PKM 7) Nova Hawk 8) V-Man737 9) Izanagi Telos 10) lemonie 11) smilee 12) Berkin 13) mg0930mg 14) logangina 15) conadia 16) The Jamalam 17) hiyadudez 18) Kryptonite 19) Seleziona 20) daywalker42 21) Bartboy 22) MrMystery96 23) sharlston 24) RavingMadStudios 25) joshualater If you have found that you are are indubitably a junkie, you may think about joining the 12 step program.

Topic by The Ideanator    |  last reply


Funny Labels

These are hilarious!!! There all REAL funny product lables that people have found. Here's the link to where I got them: http://www.rinkworks.com/said/warnings.shtml Product Warnings: • "Do not use if you cannot see clearly to read the information in the information booklet." -- In the information booklet. • "Caution: The contents of this bottle should not be fed to fish." -- On a bottle of shampoo for dogs. • "For external use only!" -- On a curling iron. • "Warning: This product can burn eyes." -- On a curling iron. • "Do not use in shower." -- On a hair dryer. • "Do not use while sleeping." -- On a hair dryer. • "Do not use while sleeping or unconscious." -- On a hand-held massaging device. • "Do not place this product into any electronic equipment." -- On the case of a chocolate CD in a gift basket. • "Recycled flush water unsafe for drinking." -- On a toilet at a public sports facility in Ann Arbor, Michigan. • "Shin pads cannot protect any part of the body they do not cover." -- On a pair of shin guards made for bicyclists. • "This product not intended for use as a dental drill." -- On an electric rotary tool. • "Caution: Do not spray in eyes." -- On a container of underarm deodorant. • "Do not drive with sunshield in place." -- On a cardboard sunshield that keeps the sun off the dashboard. • "Caution: This is not a safety protective device." -- On a plastic toy helmet used as a container for popcorn. • "Do not use near fire, flame, or sparks." -- On an "Aim-n-Flame" fireplace lighter. • "Battery may explore or leak." -- On a battery. See a scanned image. • "Do not eat toner." -- On a toner cartridge for a laser printer. • "Not intended for highway use." -- On a 13-inch wheel on a wheelbarrow. • "This product is not to be used in bathrooms." -- On a Holmes bathroom heater. • "May irritate eyes." -- On a can of self-defense pepper spray. • "Eating rocks may lead to broken teeth." -- On a novelty rock garden set called "Popcorn Rock." • "Caution! Contents hot!" -- On a Domino's Pizza box. • "Caution: Hot beverages are hot!" -- On a coffee cup. • "Caution: Shoots rubber bands." -- On a product called "Rubber Band Shooter." • "Warning: May contain small parts." -- On a frisbee. • "Do not use orally." -- On a toilet bowl cleaning brush. • "Please keep out of children." -- On a butcher knife. • "Not suitable for children aged 36 months or less." -- On a birthday card for a 1 year old. • "Do not recharge, put in backwards, or use." -- On a battery. • "Warning: Do not use on eyes." -- In the manual for a heated seat cushion. • "Do not look into laser with remaining eye." -- On a laser pointer. • "Do not use for drying pets." -- In the manual for a microwave oven. • "For use on animals only." -- On an electric cattle prod. • "For use by trained personnel only." -- On a can of air freshener. • "Keep out of reach of children and teenagers." -- On a can of air freshener. • "Remember, objects in the mirror are actually behind you." -- On a motorcycle helmet-mounted rear-view mirror. • "Warning: Riders of personal watercraft may suffer injury due to the forceful injection of water into body cavities either by falling into the water or while mounting the craft." -- In the manual for a jetski. • "Warning: Do not climb inside this bag and zip it up. Doing so will cause injury and death." -- A label inside a protective bag (for fragile objects), which measures 15cm by 15cm by 12cm. • "Do not use as ear plugs." -- On a package of silly putty. • "Please store in the cold section of the refrigerator." -- On a bag of fresh grapes in Australia. • "Warning: knives are sharp!" -- On the packaging of a sharpening stone. • "Not for weight control." -- On a pack of Breath Savers. • "Twist top off with hands. Throw top away. Do not put top in mouth." -- On the label of a bottled drink. • "Theft of this container is a crime." -- On a milk crate. • "Do not use intimately." -- On a tube of deodorant. • "Warning: has been found to cause cancer in laboratory mice." -- On a box of rat poison. • "Fragile. Do not drop." -- Posted on a Boeing 757. • "Cannot be made non-poisonous." -- On the back of a can of de-icing windshield fluid. • "Caution: Remove infant before folding for storage." -- On a portable stroller. • "Excessive dust may be irritating to shin and eyes." -- On a tube of agarose powder, used to make gels. • "Look before driving." -- On the dash board of a mail truck. • "Do not iron clothes on body." -- On packaging for a Rowenta iron. • "Do not drive car or operate machinery." -- On Boot's children's cough medicine. • "For indoor or outdoor use only." -- On a string of Christmas lights. • "Wearing of this garment does not enable you to fly." -- On a child sized Superman costume. • "This door is alarmed from 7:00pm - 7:00am." -- On a hospital's outside access door. • "Beware! To touch these wires is instant death. Anyone found doing so will be prosecuted." -- On a sign at a railroad station. • "Warning: do not use if you have prostate problems." -- On a box of Midol PMS relief tablets. • "Product will be hot after heating." -- On a supermarket dessert box. • "Do not turn upside down." -- On the bottom of a supermarket dessert box. • "Do not light in face. Do not expose to flame." -- On a lighter. • "Choking hazard: This toy is a small ball." -- On the label for a cheap rubber ball toy. • "Not for human consumption." -- On a package of dice. • "May be harmful if swallowed." -- On a shipment of hammers. • "Using Ingenio cookware to destroy your old pots may void your warranty." -- A printed message that appears in a television advertisement when the presenter demonstrates how strong the cookware is by using it to beat up and destroy a regular frying pan. • "Do not attempt to stop the blade with your hand." -- In the manual for a Swedish chainsaw. • "Do not dangle the mouse by its cable or throw the mouse at co-workers." -- From a manual for an SGI computer. • "Warning: May contain nuts." -- On a package of peanuts. • "Do not eat." -- On a slip of paper in a stereo box, referring to the styrofoam packing. • "Do not eat if seal is missing." -- On said seal. • "Remove occupants from the stroller before folding it." • "Access hole only -- not intended for use in lifting box." -- On the sides of a shipping carton, just above cut-out openings which one would assume were handholds. • "Warning: May cause drowsiness." -- On a bottle of Nytol, a brand of sleeping pills. • "Warning: Misuse may cause injury or death." -- Stamped on the metal barrel of a .22 calibre rifle. • "Do not use orally after using rectally." -- In the instructions for an electric thermometer. • "Turn off motor before using this product." -- On the packaging for a chain saw file, used to sharpen the cutting teeth on the chain. • "Not to be used as a personal flotation device." -- On a 6x10 inch inflatable picture frame. • "Do not put in mouth." -- On a box of bottle rockets. • "Remove plastic before eating." -- On the wrapper of a Fruit Roll-Up snack. • "Not dishwasher safe." -- On a remote control for a TV. • "For lifting purposes only." -- On the box for a car jack. • "Do not put lit candles on phone." -- On the instructions for a cordless phone. • "Warning! This is not underwear! Do not attempt to put in pants." -- On the packaging for a wristwatch. • "Do not wear for sumo wrestling." -- From a set of washing instructions. See a scanned image. ________________________________________ Assurances: • "Safe for use around pets." -- On a box of Arm & Hammer Cat Litter. ________________________________________ Small Print From Commercials: • "Do not use house paint on face." -- In a Visa commercial that depicts an expecting couple looking for paint at a hardware store. • "Do not drive cars in ocean." -- In a car commercial which shows a car in the ocean. • "Always drive on roads. Not on people." -- From a car commercial which shows a vehicle "body-surfing" at a concert. • "For a limited time only." -- From a Rally's commercial that described how their burgers were fresh. ________________________________________ Signs and Notices: • "No stopping or standing." -- A sign at bus stops everywhere. • "Do not sit under coconut trees." -- A sign on a coconut palm in a West Palm Beach park circa 1950. • "These rows reserved for parents with children." -- A sign in a church. • "All cups leaving this store, rather full or empty, must be paid for." -- A sign in a Cumberland Farms in Hillsboro, New Hampshire. • "Malfunction: Too less water." -- A notice left on a coffee machine. • "Prescriptions cannot be filled by phone." -- On a form in a clinic. • "You could be a winner! No purchase necessary. Details inside." -- On a bag of Fritos. • "Fits one head." -- On a hotel-provided shower cap box. • "Payment is due by the due date." -- On a credit card statement. • "No small children." -- On a laundromat triple washer. • "Warning: Ramp Ends In Stairs." -- A sign, correctly describing the end of a concrete ramp intended for handicap access to a bridge. ________________________________________ Safety Procedures: • "Take care: new non-slip surface." -- On a sign in front of a newly renovated ramp that led to the entrance of a building. • "In case of flood, proceed uphill. In case of flash flood, proceed uphill quickly." -- One of the emergency safety procedures at a summer camp. ________________________________________ Ingredients: • "Ingredients: Artificially bleached flour, sugar, vegetable fat, yeast, salt, gluten, soya flour, emulsifier 472 (E) & 481, flour treatment agents, enzymes, water. May contain: fruit." -- The ingredients list on a package of fruit buns. • "100% pure yarn." -- On a sweater. • "Some materials may irritate sensitive skin. Please look at the materials if you believe this may be the case. Materials: Covering: 100% Unknown. Stuffing: 100% Unknown." -- On a pillow. • "Cleans and refreshes without soap or water. Contains: Water, fragrance & soap." -- On the packet for a moist towelette. See a scanned image. ________________________________________ Instructions: • "Remove the plastic wrapper." -- The first instruction on a bag of microwave popcorn; to see the instructions, one first has to remove the plastic wrapper and unfold the pouch. • "Take one capsule by mouth three times daily until gone." -- On a box of pills. • "Open packet. Eat contents." -- Instructions on a packet of airline peanuts. • "Remove wrapper, open mouth, insert muffin, eat." -- Instructions on the packaging for a muffin at a 7-11. • "Use like regular soap." -- On a bar of Dial soap. • "Instructions: usage known." -- Instructions on a can of black pepper. • "Serving suggestion: Defrost." -- On a Swann frozen dinner. • "Simply pour the biscuits into a bowl and allow the cat to eat when it wants." -- On a bag of cat biscuits. • "In order to get out of car, open door, get out, lock doors, and then close doors." -- In a car manual. • "Please include the proper portion of your bill." -- On the envelope for an auto insurance bill. • "The appliance is switched on by setting the on/off switch to the 'on' position." -- Instructions for an espresso kettle. • "For heat-retaining corrugated cardboard technology to function properly, close lid." -- On a Domino's sandwich box. ________________________________________ Requirements: • "Optional modem required." -- On a computer software package.

Topic by LoneWolf    |  last reply


Tesla's earthquake machine - revisited!

Nothing is better to beat isolation boredom than a good science puzzle.It's been centuries since Nicola Tesla was claimed to be responsible for a minor earthquake caused by one of his inventions.We can be quite sure the actual earthquake was just a coincidence that happened duiring his experiment but still...Inventors and scientists alike have tried to figure out how his appearently small and simple device could have caused effects that can be felt by people.Now it is time to reveal a possible way how Tesla might have done it.Harmonic vibrations are what cause structural things to swing, a reason why soldiers will never cross a bridge with the steps in marching sync ;)The famous London bridge was a modern example on how seemingly randomly generated pushes by pedestrians create one syncronous motions by all of them.You can replicate the effect with a rooling board that has a bunch of metronomes placed on it.Set to the same pace they will start more or less out of sync no matter what you try.But after a few minutes the moving board brings them all in perfect harmony.The above examples and a modern vibration speaker made me think...Tesla used terms like "airspring" and "harmonic coupling" to describe how his machine worked.We know Tesla did not use written notes and that his understanding of science was a bit different.Magnetism wasn't new to him.My proposal for anyone to try is this approach of his earthquake machine:We use a T-shaped housing with a mounting plate at the bottom.Inside is a hollow tube construction.Either side of the T in the top is an electromagnetic coil.Polarities of the coils are identical.In the downgoing pipe we have one magnet mounted at the bottom and another, smaller one in the top - the middle of the horizontal part of he T.Between them is a cylindrical magnet.The upper and lower magnets are selected or machined to keep the moving magnet centered.Preferably in an equal way, meaning the weight of the moving magnet should be compensated for by the other two magnets.The tube shall be providing a tiny air gap around the magnet - enough for a free movement but small enough to provide some air resistance.We created the airspring ;)At least if the tube is properly sealed.Theory of operation:In a vibration speaker we use the weight of the magnet and housing to transfer soundwaves onto a surface.This is a forced coupling that relies on the weight and inertia of the speaker assembly.A sinewave fed into our linked electromagnets will cause the magnet in the tube to move up and down with the amplitude of the sine wave.Electronics side of things:Tesla was a genius, I am not, so I need to cheat a bit now.With the moving part solved we need a way to syncronise our coils to the movement we need.In the most basic form by a simple sinewave generator and audi amplifier - helps to create 4 or 8 Ohm coils ;)However, to make it work in harmony we need one or two hall sensors.The sensors have two functions.Firstly they help to provide the right amplitude for both polarites to get a really even movement from the magnets neutral position.Secondly they provide the feedback to find the harmonic frequency(ies).Like the push-levitating platforms we need a PID control for the coils.The reference comes from the hall sensors like in the platform.Calibration needs to be done on a rocksolid surface.The calibration ensures the magnet will always move in a perfect sinosodial motion - in sync with the coils.In normal operation the hall sensor(s) will monitor the difference between set value and reality.The difference is used to adjust the frequency in small steps.Operation requirements for the electronics:During a frequency sweep the required amount of energy required to get the set movement of the magnet changes.The closer the frequency gets to resonance the less energy is required to push or pull the magnet.Like your kid on the swing.You would try to push when the swing is at the lowest point, you wait until it is just about to change direction ;)The sweep can locate one or several resonating frequencies depending on the set frequency range.The one causing the lowest energy requirements is usually the best.With the resonance almost figured out the electronics now start a fine sweep near the found frequency.From then on the frequency is adjusted to track the point of lowest energy consumption through the PID control.Detailed explanation:With the surface the device is mounted onto starting to swing the magnet becomes weightless at resonance - every time it reaches the top or bottom end of the swing.This means we need to adjust the sinewave so the coils only provide a push right when the surface starts to move in the other direction again.We also need to make sure this push is short and ends when the surface swing together with the coil push moved the magnet to the bottom - the surface push shall keep it here in freefall so to say.In theroy short ramped pulses would be sufficient here.Limitations of the design:As we still have no clue how Tesla create friction free air springs and can only guess how he found and tracked the resonant frequency we face several problems.1. The possible amplitude or lenght of the vertical tube is limited by what the coils can provide in electromagnetic field strenght.The need to be able to pull the magnet from the lowest point as otherwise the frequency sweep is very difficult to accomplish.2. Weight and lenght of the magnet.Ideally you want the biggest cylindrical magnet you can find.Realistically you need one that has a weight the coils can handle properly.No use having a 2kg magnet if then you need coils the size of door holding magnets.So going a longer and thinner might be the way to go.I found a ratio of 1 to 5 suitable, 1 to 3 still works but causes a lot more sideways push on the magnet and through that actually more friction than a longer magnet.3.Ventilation...You will notice that at very low frequencies there might be a "delay" caused by the air pockets either side of the magnet.If you can't ge a suitable air gap between magnet and tube it is often better to have a snug and friction free fit and to add venting holes either end.If the above three points are addressed and matched properly it is literally like you pushing a swing - the limit is the energy you have to push.Good thing is that we don't need to support a circular motion ;)That means the device is mostly only limited in what is possible by the electronics and code.More severe and vital to consider is the last part:Placement limitations:Imagine you want to test the device on a vertically mounted beam with sturdy support either end.The first harmonic would cause the center of the beam to swing but also means the ideal placement of the device would be dead center.In the center the device can support the movement in an ideal way.Place it half the center distance to the mounts (1/4) and the push from the device is far less effective.Furthermore you risk adding sub harmonics thanks to the uneven pressure on the beam.If used as a subwoofer to make your wooden floor shake during the action scenes of your favourite movie you would of course aim for a more hidden placement that would require to find a harmonic frequency that causes the desired effect in the right area of the floor.As a "destructunal" device you would need to find the resonant center of the structure and the frequency where this structure is able to transmit and amplify the motion throughout everything that is structural.Makes it quite unlikely to work as an earthquake machine but still can cause some interesting effects.Ok, if all this relatively easy to accomplish with some cheap electronics and a 3D printer then what about reality and physics?Before you go overboard on the testing and coding try a simple surface or vibration speaker with a suitable amp.Don't use the suction type thingies that use batteries, go for the bare driver (speaker).The amp shall be able to produce and work at frequencies down to below 20Hz.Sounds impossible but I had good luck with dirt cheap 25W car amps that have a 3.5mm audio input on top of the stuff for the car stereo.Most phone with a real headphone output are capable to be misused as a frequency generator.Mount the speaker onto a suitable testing surface, preferably centered.If you happen to have one of these tables with a glass sheet as an insert you can cut a plastic or steel shet to fit in there and add some window sealing tape to act as a cushion.Start at about 10kHz and adjust the volume so you can still tolerate the noise.Move the frequency down and you will notice that at certain frequencies the volume seem to go up quite hard.These are resonant frquencies that cause harmonic waves to form on the sheet.The lower you go the bigger the "spacing" between these waves become.When you found the one that causes a single wave to form on the shet in a suitable direction you will get a rather violent movement of the sheet.It will be required to crank the volume up the lower you go with the frequency.At around 50Hz you should hear this a an annoyingly loud humm.What works with a speaker works even better with a dedicated device that can accomodate for a growing amplitude on a surface and only uses pulses at the right time to move the weight around that causes the push.That means we can only fully utilise our device in stuations where we can match the device capabilities with the structure or surface in question.It is not hard to destroy a pane of glass with a surface speaker and the right right frequency but much harder to make a complex structure vibrate as intended.A very rigid structure with measures to prevent the swinging of supporting structures, like a building, is unlikely to fall in sync with the device.Ever seen these rope or banner swingers in action?They can create amasing shapes by their harmonic movements.Imagine how the rope or banner would look like if there were lots of overlaying swings at different frequencies - that is what you wuld have to fight and eliminate.Fear chamber anyone? ;)Subsonic vibrations are quite easy to do with such a device.And some people say that certain low frequencies make us feel unwell, even haunted.If your house is made from plasterboard and wood then why not transform a wall or the floor into a subsonic speaker?Imagine your next Freddy Krüger night with friends....Crank the volume up every time it gets scary and your friends won't know why this fun movie suddely makes them feel so scared LOL

Topic by Downunder35m  


How to ride DH safely

1. Always wear a helmet, wear body armor as well when needed (how much depends on course, and what you find to be suitable) at all times. 2. Look ahead of you. The faster you are going the further ahead you should look. 3. Stay focused and try not to concentrate or think while you are going at high speed, this tends to slow you down and/or cause accidents...practice alot and everything should come naturally with flow! - Before a run get a song or something that gets you "in the mood" in the back of your mind,and go for it - before you know it you'll be through the track/race no problem...you should all ready know the track turn for turn before doing this. 4. Make sure your tires have appropriate tread on them and are not cracking/damaged 5. Check your bike over in the parking lot before going up the lift. Ride it around and check the brakes and tire pressures. 6. Get enough sleep before riding and especially before racing. 7. Don't drink or get high before racing or riding (you can do it, and seen it done, but if you want to win or want to be safe...don't) 8. Stay relaxed and dialed in on the bike, be as relaxed as possible mentally before you start a race but be pumped physically at the same time. 9. Know the track as well as you can before racing it (the later steps will go into greater detail on how to do this). 10.Learn to 'pump through the ruff stuff'-pull up on the face and push down on the back side of bumps/rocks/landing trannys, etc... 11. Stay light on the back brake as much as you can and try to lock it as rarely as possible if at all...it may cause you to wash out. Only lock the brake on extremely sharp turns or to get into a turn if a cuttie won't be efficient enuff. 12. Try to go as fast as you can when you can-->PEDAL PEDAL PEDAL like a bat out of hell in the open or out of turns when/where ever you can. 13. Practice "cutties". 14. Buy the "Fundamentals" DVD available here on pinkbike.com or at most bike shops and study it...take notes if you have to. You will find how to do "cutties" on the DVD as well as many many more "fundamentals" for DH riding-----> BUY IT, you will be glad you did. 15.Off camber: make sure you weight your outside foot and stand the bike on the egde of the tire, that way it will stick 16. Rock gardens: the faster the better- you will bobble across the top and be on you way before you know it, rather than getting packed down and ending up with major arm pump. 17. Braking: only ever do real braking in straight lines, you can brake on corners but do it conservatively and only to slide around sharp turns better as it may cause you to wash out as mentioned above. The less you brake the faster you go and fast riding is a winning formula- think about that. 18. >>>Don't Crash It can have you out for the rest of the season and that can prevent you from winning races----obviously. Just dont ride like an idiot and attempt things that will probably end in you getting hurt. Ride within your limits! 19. (Words of Pro Down hiller Steve Peat from the "fundamentals" DVD mentioned above) "Stay as light as you can on the bike and pump through the back side of rocks or rough sections as a skateboarder pumps a vert ramp" to gain or maintain speed and momentum. 20. Trust your tires throughout the course. If you believe and have faith in your tires grip, chances are they will have grip fine. If you don't trust your tires and BELEIVE that they wont grip and you will probably fall, chances are they won't grip and as a result you will indeed fall. 21. Walk the track and look for new lines or which lines are best to take and are the fastest 22. Tuck when ever possible to conserve energy. Pedal hard in the open spots before the ruff stuff then tuck and pump and repeat. 23. True your wheels to increase your speed and pedalling efficiency 24. Don't use big fat mud bog tiresfor DH(i.e. 2.6"-3.0") EVER...unless your DH course happens to be a downhill mud swamp 25. Learn to brake with out losing traction , this helps in straight line braking before turns. 26.Push yourself in the warmups, (not stupidly) and give 95% of what your maximum was when you were pushing yourself, in the actual race. This way you wont fall, but you are still hauling a$$. 27.Practice shift points, it is very important to be in the right gear at the right time or youll be sucking wind trying to pedal a flat stretch in too high of a gear. On a fast stretch where you need to begin pedaling to maintain that speed, youll be spinning out. Know what gear to start in and what gear you need to be in at every point in the track. 28. If all else fails look fast across the finish line where everyones watching. 29.When learning, set your fork/and or shock harder than you would normally, this will teach you to use to body rather than relying upon the bike. 30. Try to pick memory markers for your self; tree stump, odd looking rock, etc... and break the course down in your head so you can become very quick overall. 31. Practice simple skills such as manuals (good for roots), Hops, roots/rocks) and of course cutties 32. Commit to berms, brake on a berm and it will end it tears, aim to "rail the berm" to do this - hit the berm at a speed that isnt too fast (this will cause you to slip up it) and not to slow (you will slip down and is slower duh) The ideal speed should carry you round as g forces will push you into the berm. 34.Take a couple of the "Learn to race" clinics offered before many of the sanctioned races. 35.Play with your set up, everything from seat angle, to brake postioning- it can all make a big difference. The more comfortable you are on the bike the faster youll go, the steepness can be different for each course(for instance) so tweak it a little each time but dont EVER change your entire setup before a race. 36.When walking the course, look back up at it. You will find new lines looking up rather then down. 37. While riding (including in the air) never squeeze the seat with your knees. This makes it impossible to flow smoothly, and makes you a ridged weight to be tossed around at the mercy of the trail. It may feel safer, but it will cause you to wreck and lose speed when you would not otherwise. In the air also, it you pinch your seat then you can not compress the lip and extend for landing. Also you can not whip and prepare for upcoming turns and bumps. The ONLY time that pinching your seat would be appropriate is when doing a suicide no hander which, if you can do it without loosing speed, is a cool way to entertain the crowd. 38.Learn to crash,it is an important skill to have that will save you alot of trouble in the long run. 39. Work your way up to the big stuff. Even if you are a good rider always warm up on an easier trail then go for the harder stuff you set out to conquer. Same for riding in general- dont go tackle the hardest trail on the mountain without first being able to do the easy ones---this may sound somewhat obvious but alot of people just cant get this bit of logic into their skulls without being told directly. 40. If the drop doesn't have a great tranny, hit it with more speed. this will cause you to have increased foreward momentum and less downward ( static ) momentum and make the landing smoother. let your bike go off the drop first. 41. If you are in the air ( off a jump drop or whatever... ) and your back end starts to dip too much, tap your back brake, this will cause the front end to dip forward. ( this is used all the time in Motocross) WARNING: Use this with caution and only when its a neccesity. 42. XC riding will make you faster. I always love watching the out of shape downhillers crossing the finish line and nearly having a hear attack. The more tired you are the more mistakes you make and the more likely you are to get hurt. Pedal! Then pedal more! 43. Train like a mofo. During my DH racing times I would spend the summer mornings doing 5-8 runs on local dh trails then dirt jumping and XC riding in the afternoon= Legs that were strong/fast as hell. Dont forget to train in the off season too. 44. Develop a training schedule not just for biking and racing but to keep in shape in general. The more you ride the better you will be. Like Ito was saying, do as much of each mountain biking discipline as possible with emphasis on Down hill. Cedric Gracia wins because he is a great all around rider as is Minaar. 45.Commit to the front end of your bike in corners. Watch Sam Hill, no-one does it better. NOTE: BEFORE DOING THIS, make sure you have practiced it and know how to do this technique at speed (Note is courtesy of Iceboy) 46. Don't pedal like a mad man out of the gate. Pedal, but let your bike gather speed and focus on keeping it. Racing comes down to one thing - exit speed , in particular your speed out of corners. Wait until you feel the flow before you start pushing it harder. If you pedal too hard from the start you'll flip in 60 seconds and get back on your bike a go harder to make up the time. Then you'll flip again. Speaking from experience on this one! It's all about being 'zen'. At least that's what all the dudes who keep beating me are telling me. Learn how to go as fast as you can through turns and sections to know your limits. 47. Make your riding FEEL slow when you are going fast! If you feel fast it's because the trail is catching up with you too quickly for you to process all the info in a comfortable time frame. Probably because you are too busy worrying about going fast and not feeling the flow. Look out, you are about to flip. It's that zen thing you're missing. 48. Practice having FLOW in all your riding, down hill (speed as well as flow), Dirt jumps (flow), XC(speed and flow), what ever (FLOW)... 49.Dont be intimidated by other riders, stay focused on what you have to do not what they are doing, if they crash pay atention to why, and try not to make the same mistake. 50. Learn to go over jumps at as high a speed as possible with out overshooting or losing speed by going too high. Jumps and learning to land them without thinking is a VERY beneficial skill to have... (if you want to stay low coming of jumps learn to soak up the lip...you will go just as far but you'll stay lower) 51. When doing a j-hop, bunny hop or going up the face of a jump don't forget to push into the ground and then come up to get more air. 53. The rougher the place you are riding the more ralaxed and flowy you should be trying to go . 54. Spend time at the track and just watch other riders(especially how they are going through the tricky sections that you are having trouble with), see what they are doing wrong and try to not make the same mistakes, also watch for where the speed spots of the section are. 55.Read Brian Lopes's & Lee McCormick's book " Mastering Mountain Biking Skills", this book covers everything you need to know in great detail from top to bottom, it is with out a doubt the most comprehensive guide for how to ride/race mountain bikes and how to handle and practice everything involved in riding. I HIGHLY RECCOMEND IT, and would say that it is the BIBLE for Mountain Biking! 56.Look where you want to go not at what you are trying to avoid. if you stare at the tree you are trying to go around instead of the trail around it you will more often than not hit the tree. 57. As mentioned previously-The faster you are going the further ahead you should look, always look at what lies further ahead when riding downhill AND avoid staring at your front wheel--staring at your front wheel will slow you down drastically and often will lead to crashing. 58.To re-inerate what Harding.Thomas was saying; do not focus on obstacles like stumps logs and rocks, because thats were you will go instead of where you want to go. In essence, keep an eye on where you want to go and you will go there. Do not look down at what your riding over, let your bike deal with the terrain, thats what its for. This is a very important tip to increasing speed and improving flow. 59. Before you go riding, I find that a simple 10 minute warm up on flat land and practicing tight turns and j-hops helps loosen you up and calms you down If you have any other tips, tell me! ill post them in the list.

Topic by struckbyanarrow