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Knex baby rattle.

Well, my nephew C***** (He's about 6 months) came over, and he was a bit fussy. So I wanted to make him something to keep him occupied, but it had to have no small parts. So I made him a little rattle thing. You can't get the green rods out without taking the whole thing apart. Which is really difficult. I'll also try to incorporate it into a "noisy ball machine" I'm going to make.

Topic by travw    |  last reply


Something is making a mysterious noise.

So it's been awhile! Between school, homework, work, and playing with gadgets and such, I haven't gotten the time to post or make an instructable for quite a long time. But now, I'm back with a question. I see lots of new users here, and to them I say welcome to the community! You are going to love  it here, everyone is helpful, and you'll find answers to just about everything. I also see some members here that were around when I still used instructables. Remember me? How are things? :P Ok, so now for my question. A few weeks ago, after flushing the Toilet, a strange noise began behind our refrigerator. It was king of like a rattling, but not so much that as say, a prize wheel at a gameshow spinning and hitting something heavy. It's really quite odd. The refrigerator is a model with the built in water and ice dispenser. I googled it, and many seem to say it is something called "Pipe Rattling", but I don't think that is what it is, because it only started a couple of weeks ago and we have had this fridge for a year. I have drawn a diagram of the first floor of our house to help you get a better understanding of where the fridge is in comparison to the bathroom and the toilet. Like I said before, the noise only occurs after we flush the 1st floor toilet. Another odd thing about it is when the noise occurs. It can make this rattling as the toilet is flushing, directly after the toilet has flushed, and it has happened up to a minute after the toilet is finished flushing and refilling the bowl. The noise goes for about 5-8 seconds each time, and it only sounds once after each flush. We have not made any additions to the house before or since it started, have npt experienced any severe weather, and have not modified any plumbing in the house in quite a while, and never in that area of the house. In the incredibly bad sketch I made, you can see the bathroom, and the incredibly bad drawing of a toilet. The fridge is indented in the wall so there are cabinets surrounding it. Any thoughts on what this noise can be?

Question by kcls    |  last reply


Who's the Better Mascot?

Eddie Iron Maiden of Iron Maiden or Vick Rattle-head of Megadeth VOTE NOW!!!

Topic by spudling9    |  last reply


what can I make from beer bottle caps (other than a rattle instrument)?

I, for some reason, save these things, and I have a lot. Is there anything that's at least a little functional, other than a noise device, that anyone can think of using them for. I hate to throw them away. Something that serves a function would be great! Thanks

Question by aeneas shrike    |  last reply


LED physical durability

Heya, So, I'm thinking of making a flashing rattle, by using LEDs and batteries as the "stones" in the rattle. My thought is that when an LED randomly connects with a battery correctly, it will flash. But, will this destroy the LEDs very quickly? Shaking a light bulb is bad, but I think that LEDS are a bit more durable than that. Don't know HOW durable though. Any other thoughts that would help me?

Topic by AidanG    |  last reply


How far can a snake strike? Answered

Take this snake for instance.  It is not coiled. If it wanted to, how far could this snake strike?

Question by onrust    |  last reply


Downloading

Every time I try to download an instructable, or try to save the pdf file, my computer freezes up , starts rattling, and will not respond at all.  The only way to stop it is to turn the computer off. Any suggestions? Jeff

Topic by lewmanjm    |  last reply


is there a way to stop the washing machine from vibrating loudly?

When the washing machine stops spinning during the rinse cycle it makes a loud rattling sound that echos through the house. Is there a way I can tighten or replace something or do I just buy a new one?

Question by jonnyc249    |  last reply


How do I make my sonic humidifier work like it did when I bought it?

I tried replacing the filter, cleaning the hard white stuff(calcium deposits?), and the metal plate. I even bought a water conditioner shaped like a baby rattle that stows in the water tank, but no luck.

Question by aaronjehall    |  last reply


Awwwwww F****

Hey guys...I think I just blew the sh!t out of my sub. It started to make rattleing noises and I shut it off and touched the cone and it's warm-hotish. Scuse the language, I'm a little disgruntled right now, is it destined for the scrap pile, or is it just the internal amplifier that got really got and just ain't making it work right?

Topic by Punkguyta    |  last reply


The USB port in my TomTom One XL is broken Answered

The connector rattles around it the bottom and sometimes moves into the SD slot. It doesn't  seem it be connected to the board. The battery is empty and we can't charge it because the USB port is broken. Can I fix it or do I need to get a new satnav?

Question by sean1807    |  last reply


Mechanical first rain drops detector?

I am looking for a mechanical' 'way of detecting the first raindrops of a shower or worse. This detector then releases a mechanical alarm, which will alert folk who keep their washing on the line as long as possible, to bring it in.The alarm could be sounded by a gravity falling weight (rock) or rewindable spring, driving a rattle, for example.If possible, a windmill action could generate the power to reset the weight.No electronics to be used in this if possible.

Question by Raymondo    |  last reply


ge adora pours water during gentle cycle?

Had this front loading GE Adora washer for 2.5 yrs. OVer last few months it has begun to leak on every cycle except speed wash. Have cleaned out filter, drained water, but it comes back. Don't know if associated, but washer will "dance" and rattle throughout. When the water leaks, it sounds like an open facet. Any help would be appreciated. DId not want to call GE (unknown # and no warranty)

Question by tokyotea    |  last reply


Soundproofing?

How could I sound proof my room? Particularly against the "bass" end of the spectrum? I know you can use foam panels that are cheap enough but would they also help absorb the bass too? I'm getting tired of my parents yelling at me whenever I play music. I don't nessesarily play it loud, but with my subwoofer on, it goes low enough to rattle through the whole house even at low levels. I'd like to make this a competition, the best idea I will pick out and do to my room, I may even think of a prize.

Topic by Punkguyta    |  last reply


Bird scarer - with noise

I'm looking for any ways of building a repurposed material bird scarer. Not a visual scare (scarecrow, CDs/foil, silhouette) but something that makes a bit of noise. I know a keen allotment owner who has purchased an air gun to shot into the air and scare parakeets ! He would hate to actually hurt a bird - and I feel there has to be a better way. Rattles - tape recorders that can be set outside, wind powered stuff ? Anything that might stop my friend eventually hurting himself (I'm also concerned about the effect air gun pellets could have on the soil). Thanks for any suggestions. Victoria J

Topic by Victoria J    |  last reply


Turnigy 9X not working?

I have a Mode 2 Turnigy 9X transmitter for my quad-copter (3DRobotics APM 2.6) and it worked almost perfectly at first for a $90 controller. After not using it for a while, I tried using my quad-copter and it wouldn't arm (start). I plugged it into my PC to check the transmitter settings in the APM program and the sticks do not work anymore. The left stick does not show movement values at all and the right stick (throttle) does not go to the lowest value (~900) anymore, only to the highest. The left stick is what is used to start the quad, which is why it wouldn't start in the first place. Why would the sticks suddenly stop working? Also, about a week earlier, a screw fell out of the inside of the transmitter (heard it rattling inside). Would this have anything to do with it?

Question by Arya42    |  last reply


Not as cute as Womble...but he comes close!

*see here and here if you don't know your Instructables history* This is my family's new-old Cushman electric vehicle. Yes, it's the same sort of thing you see reading parking meters downtown. Yay for tiny awesome cars that don't use gas! Any ideas for fun modifications? Plans so far include having a silly little decal printed for each side with an amber light on top so we look official, and mounting some 12V air horns in there to rattle the hubcaps off the jerks that pull out in front of it (We already mounted an electric ooga horn in my mom's Xebra SD, but air horns are so much more fun). Cardboard rockets that fire off of compressed air have also been proposed. He also has no name yet...we'll be working on that...

Topic by CameronSS    |  last reply


Proximity Detectors???

I'm not sure what to realy call what i'm looking for so i'll just explain what its use would be. Basically i want to keep our cat out of one room and away from the front door. He tries to run out when ever we open it which makes for a pain with groceries or a 2 year old running around. So there are all kinds of things suggested online , rattle can of coins, spray bottle ect.. I want to put one or two canned air bottles by the door. They will be in some type of device with a sensor. Then put something small on the cats collar that will activate a sensor when it gets close to the bottles , the sensor at the bottles will activate a lever and spray out a one shot of the canned air. I thought that those automatic air freshener spay systems from Glade could help out as a base unit but i'm not sure on the remote unit on the cat and how to get it to activate the base unit.....any ideas???

Topic by baxter10    |  last reply


Earthquake? Answered

Yesterday, around 7:15 pm, I heard a very loud, low rumbling noise.  I first thought it was a truck going past but it got too loud to be that.  I then thought it was the nearby military base doing explosives excercises, as they do it quite often but the noise carried on for a few seconds.  It wasn't a bang. Immediatley after it happenned, my brother who lives about 2.5 km's away from us, phoned me and asked if our house also shook.  He said his cupboard doors and glasses were rattling.  We, didin't have any shaking or even any vibrations.  We both live on the same hill and the area is full of granite rock. My other brother was about 7 km's away and didn't hear or feel anything. Now, we live in an area which has never had an earthquake, the only one was in 1969 and about 250 km away, so I have no idea what it feels like or sounds like. The nearby military base also has planes very often going over this, so I don't know if it's a "sonic boom" because I've also never experienced that. Could this have been an earthquake?

Question by Koosie    |  last reply


I need a TEEPEE cover 18 ft. high by 50+ feet in circumference! I am going to make my own!s How much canvas will I need?

Help, my TEEPEE was destroyed by the last storm. I need a suitable  inexpensive cover for the poles that are 18 ft. 4in.,  tall and has a circumference of 50 ft.+.  TYVEK is no good, too costly, too short, and really rattles in the wind! Anyone got any good ideas out there? The original one cost me a bundle and I don't want to go there again! I wish the Buffalo herd was nearby, good meat and great Teepee covers. I think I was born in the wrong century. I keep honing my Mountain Man skills.  Thanks, as ever, Triumphman (aka Mountain Man)!                                                                                                                                                                                                     *                                                                                                                                                                                                             *                 I have finally come to the conclusion that I have to make my own teepee cover!    I will have to buy some canvas by the yard! Does anyone know how much canvas I will need for an 18 ft. tall by 50 ft. circumference teepee frame ? If the canvas comes in 3 ' width or 5 ' width . I have made a paper half circle teepee model, but the numbers evade me! Thanks.

Question by triumphman    |  last reply


Zero to 300mph in 30 seconds. On two wheels.

Meet the world's fastest ever road vehicle built to reach an astonishing top speed of 340mph.The Acabion GTBO uses jet fighter technology and aerodynamics to reach its extraordinary speed propelled by a state-of-the-art turbo-charged engine.Its designers revealed it could reach 300mph in a blistering 30 seconds - substantially quicker than the rival Bugatti Veyron which takes 55 seconds to reach its top speed of 250mph.Good grief, that would rattle your teeth!The article implies that an electric version is in the pipeline as well.Daily Mail story750 hp and 700 lbs vehicle weight result in more than 2100 hp per ton. They boost the jet-like GTBO to jet-fighter punch and to new dimensions of both efficiency and speed.V-max 340 mph at half throttle, governor limited.0 to 300 mph in less than 30 sec.Economic theories tell us, that you can not maximize effect and minimize effort at the same time. The Acabion GTBO proves the opposite. It minimizes weight and maximizes power and aerodynamic efficiency. The effects are just out of this world.100 mph at 1.7% throttle and 100 miles per gallon.150 mph at 4.3% throttle and 62 miles per gallon.250 mph at 17% throttle and 25 miles per gallon.Acabion websiteMore photos at Jalopnik

Topic by Kiteman    |  last reply


Step up 6 volts to 9 volts? Halp!

I have a GB Instruments dmm i got at a Hamfest (Ham Radio Fest) in Peoria, IL a few years back for like $6. It's great, and its more accurate than my father's Craftsman from Sears that he paid $40 for about a year ago. I have replaced the 9 volt battery twice in it. 9 volt batteries are horrible for capacity, and I use this DMM so much it's almost a high drain on the 9v. I know that a standard 9v holds 500-700mAh. I have a whole box of old AAA batteries that have about 1.4+ volts still in them from a stupid car toy that drained an AAA .1v-.2v and called it dead. A standard AAA alkaline battery (E92 or equivalent) holds 1,200 mAh or 1.2Ah@1.5v. 4 alkaline AAA batteries holds 4,800 mAh@6v. I can fit 4 AAA batteries in the 9 volt holder in my DMM snugly with a piece of foam for anti-rattle. That's only 6 volts. The DMM will power on very dimly at 6v, so is there any circuit to make up for the lost 3 volts without adding a bulky power pack? There is a LOT of room in the DMM for mods n stuff. Thanks for any help Is there any way to step up

Question by lilpepsikraker    |  last reply


Vibration feeder anyone?

I am planning on building some sorting rig.Right now I am quite keen to include a vibration feeder system.You know, like the stff used to transport grain, sweets or aling small parts that run up on the inside of a bowl to come out perfectly aligned.I serviced these systems in the past but never put too much concern into the actual workings.The theory is quite simple.One or two vibrators cause the transported media to move.This works like a sawtooth wave.Slowly up and into the right direction, quickly back to where it started.Adjusting the frequency to change the speed or adjusting the amplitudes to match the weights and other properties of the media is easy - in a properly designed system.I tried to find some easy to understand information on the relations between actuator direction and media direction in relation to the trasport systems shape and dimensions but only got extreme complex stuff.In my small scale tests using simple vibration speakers and a frequency generator I had to relise that it is quite hard to find a proper way of mounting the system.To soft and it is just rattling around, too hard and you need to crank the amp to max to get any action.Orientation and angle of these mounts also affect the direction and amplitude of the swing caused by the vibrations.Straight linear I can do, although still not perfect but anything like these feeder bowls only gives me nice vibrations but no movement.Are there any suitable hobby projects on the web or here?And decent info on the basic design criteria for those feeder systems that are not closely guarded company secrets?

Question by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Dangerous Local Pest, What to do ? Answered

Well the local wild coyote is boldly walking up and down our Reno street at 2pm in the afternoon, sniffing at the neighborhood house dogs leg-lift corners and bushes.  As a life rule, I figure "live and let live"... The bears and wild animals are moving into town because food is scarce in the mountains this year and our leaders admonish us for leaving garbage readily available and encouraging predation.    BUT this afternoon there was some confrontation at the fenced pen our dog uses for his duty and our dog was afraid to go out and chose to leave a large pile in our computer closet which I boldly managed to step into with both feet when starting the computer after supper.  Yes, I was prepping to do our monthly ledger but first I managed to drag brown foot prints over rugs through our bedroom to our bathroom.  After a couple hours of cleaning the most foul smelling dog poop, the monthly bills and Febreze treatment of the wall to wall rugs, we had to use a leash and collar to get our naughty pet to step out to the high fenced dog pen and let him discover it was safe ! ....  We watch preschool grand children and fear the situation.  What to do ?? ... I could rig an IR light beam trip wire to cause a servo to rattle some cans to discourage coyote walkabout in my yard but hope someone has a better suggestion ?

Question by iceng    |  last reply


Problems with Mousey the Junkbot... Answered

I am a young boy with an interest in robots (and electronics). I recently attempted to build my first robot (Mousey the Junkbot.) Unfortunately it did not go well. I was hoping someone would be able to help me. I have tried to wire it up and when I try to run it, I run into a few problems. the motor wires from the relay are like positive and negative leads. when i hook them up to the positive leads on the motor, the ground connection coming from the LM386 basically does nothing and hookup the leads making the motors run like a series circuit. Also, the reverse switch just makes the motors stop for a few seconds then the motors start up again. When i press the reverse switch, sometimes (not always) the relay clicks, then rattles, and the wires become significantly warmer. There are a few variances in my robot than specified. They are: I am using a 12v computer relay instead of a 5v relay, and i am using an LM386N-1 chip instead of the LM386. I believe the problem is the relay, but i have the understanding that the relay is only used for the reverse circuit. if so, is it possible to omit the relay and try to only make it "Light Seeking" without the runaway circuit? Also, I am deeply confused with the wiring for the light sensors. i have found that Make Magazine says to put it in series with the Led, the "corrected" circuit diagram shows it connected to the positive lead of the Led, and the Instructable shows it should be connected to common ground. I hope you can help me! Thanks!

Question by Chowmix12    |  last reply


555 Car Flasher unit circuit

Hi, I'm wanting to put some led indicators in my car because they are so efficient but my current flasher unit isn't designed to run such a low load.  It is also relay based which probably isn't the most efficient way of doing things and with it being an old mini it sometimes rattles itself at whatever rate it feels like flashing at at the time so I wanted to use a transistor instead. I've come up with the circuit attached and built it but when it is running all the indicator lights for the hazzards, the transistor gets hot! Surely there is a better way of doing it? Could someone have a look and see what could be changed? I don't know much about transistors but I know that I'd be better getting it to 'saturate' and act as a low resistance switch but I don't know how to achieve that.  It also has to run under two loads, indicators and hazzards, and has to flash at the same rate for each - between 1hz and 2hz. http://www.dprg.org/tutorials/2005-11a/index.html I think a variation of this circuit might be better (it makes use of the discharge pin rather than the output pin), with the load at the ground side of the transistor because it has to be an output pin on the flasher unit. I've got some BFY51, BUY82, BD743B so it would be great to use one of them. in short: what's the best solid state fixed rate 12v flasher driver using a 555 that can supply around 2 amps using as few parts as possible? Thanks for your time, and sorry if I've done anything wrong!

Topic by arichardson    |  last reply


Sitar bridge mod (for floating-tailpiece guitars) idea

The characteristic sound of a sitar is created by a bridge that gently rolls away from the strings; this creates a buzzing timbre which quickly depletes higher overtones in the string's vibration (I could draw some diagrams if anyone's interested). This type of bridge is something I'd like to make as a removable modification for a guitar. My guitar has a "floating tailpiece" as I believe it's called, in which the strings pass beyond the bridge to the tailpiece. The segment of the strings below the bridge have no part in tone generation, and so could have an object attached to them (a piece of wood wedged between the strings, perhaps) without affecting the guitar's tone. If some object (the "clamp") were attached to the strings immediately below the bridge, another object (the "sitar bridge") could be affixed to it some minuscule distance from the vibrating portion of the strings. The sitar bridge would not make contact with the strings at rest, and so would not be a node of vibration (and not affect the strings' pitch), but when the strings are played, their vibrations would make them rattle against the sitar bridge - much like the bridge of an actual sitar. So how about it? I think it'd be an interesting and relatively simple mod that could be made to be removable and not destructive at all to the actual guitar. I unfortunately have no idea how to refine the concept any further than what's written, so I leave it up to any willing DIY-ers. It all makes sense in my head, but I may have accidentally left out some important particulars of this kind of mod, so please ask any questions you have. Because this mod relies on the strings below the bridge in a floating tailpiece guitar, I don't think it would work on most solid-bodied guitars, but if anyone can come up with a similar mod for the more common bridge type, be my guest. Also remember that the "clamp" below the bridge cannot rely on the tensile strength of the strings, as not only are they not terribly strong, their tension needs to remain intact so that the guitar can be played in tune.

Topic by Impasse    |  last reply


How to order the correct ball bearings and threaded rod so that they will seat well and not be loose or have play?

I am trying to design, what will essentially be a very specific miter box / saw guide for a hand saw. Here is a product on the market that is almost exactly what I am trying to build. The only difference between what I need to build and this miter box, is that the miter box from that link cuts at a 90-degree angle to the workpiece being sawn, whereas I need to saw boards at angles much more acute than 90-degrees. There are commercially available adjustable miter-boxes, such as this one, that allow you to set whatever angle you need, and it will still guide the saw straight. However, they are made for cutting baseboards and molding, so the angle-range is only 90-degrees to ~40-degrees or so. I am cutting wooden boards for making, "scarf joints". So, I need to saw through 4" thick boards at an 11-17 degree angle. Where the above miter box saws perpendicular to the board it is sawing, the one that I am building, at 11-17 degrees, will be closer to cutting parallel. The housing, I think I can cobble together from angle aluminum and hardwood. However, I haven't bought ball bearings since I was a kid riding skateboards. I was hoping to take a threaded rod and push it through the hole in some bearings, then use some spacers and/or washers to space them apart, and secure the whole bearings/spacer/bearings sandwich with some washers and nuts. I do not live near a place that actually sells bearings much less carries bearing and threaded rod in the same store. Therefore, I cannot try it all out right there in the store. So I am going to have to order the bearings and the threaded rod off the internet. I need bearing where... Heavy load is not an issueHow fast they spin is also a non-issue.But that are...Shielded from the sawdust (do not have to watertight)Fit snuggly on a threaded rod and not rattle around. A loose guide-bearing isn't much of a guide, eh?Would one of you fine gentlemen help me by pointing to where I can buy 16-20 bearings, a threaded rod that will definitely fit them, and some .50 - .75" spacers (metal or nylon) that will also fit the bearings?

Question by Dolmetscher007    |  last reply


Eyeclops night vision 2 review

              I haven't used the eyeclops night vision 1, so I can't make any comparisons. From the photographs, you can see two sets of lights on either side and a ring of leds around the camera lens. When in low power or "stealth" mode, only the lights on the sides are on. In the dark, the glow very dimly, you have to be 3 feet or less to see  them glow and it's still very dim. When in long range mode, the lights on the sides turn off, replaced by the circle of lights in the middle. These are clearly visible at close range, even in daytime, although still with less intensity as a red led. The knob toward the eyepiece is for adjustment of eye. I don't see what it does. The knob on the end near the camera adjusts focus. Seeing things at long range clearly and close range clearly require different adjustments. It's real infrared technology. You can switch between "military" and "spy" The difference between "military" and "spy isn't much. One of them is normal, infrared vision, and the other applies a green layer, making it seem like the view from COD. The 6 knobs along the middle don't do anything.  It uses 7.5 volts using 5 AA batteries. There there is only one LCD, despite it claiming dual LCD technology. The skirt on the eyepiece is detachable. The strap feels pretty cheap, I plan on making it into a head light sort of thing later with paracord or elastics. Objects appear closer and you have no peripheral vision though. The latter problem is something all night vision goggles have. Overall, it's not a bad deal for a $50 toy. The most annyoing thing is that the dials are a bit loose, so running or shaking them makes a rattling sound, giving away your position if you were doing covert sneaking around or playing a prank.        This is useful for scanning an area in the dark without revealing your location. It's also useful for night spying. What this toy cannot do is read words or anything in detail the size of words. Although navigation is possible, the lack or peripheral vision is a problem. Possible Mods: Add an airsoft or rc car battery to replace the 5 AA batteries. The half near the eye piece can be cut off I think. You would have to add a new compartment for the batteries though and the light from the LCD would leak out. I would add a strap of two so you can use it hands free. I would also attach a smal telescope or lens backward so objects appear normal distance. The peripheral vision problem could hypothetically be solved the same way people make DIY fisheye lenses. Extra infrared LEDs flashlights and other lights could be added around a house, allowing you to cover up the lights, not exposing your position. Another idea is infrared led throwies. They would function like NATO infrared glow sticks, allowing people to track a certain target or where to fire.

Topic by starwing123    |  last reply


PVC pipes and winding Tesla coils....

There are still people out there playing with high voltage.And one big problem when it comes to Tesla coils is winding the secondary coil.Now, I won't go into the details and options of the actual winding part, instead I would like to share some tricks that might make things easier for your project.Whether you wind fully by hand or make use of some mechanical winder, magnet wire is a very slippery thing on PVC.For that reason and some others we usually wind as tight and close as possible.Any leftover spaces that you find after the winding is finnished will severly compromise the overall tension of the wire in this region if fixed.Next problem is what many call aging.No matter how good you coat your coil with varnish or paint it will start to degrade over time.I found a simple fix for these problems :)Well, not really that simple but I am too lazy today to make a full Instructable for just an addition that everyone can make in a few minutes....Let me start with idea behind it all:I noticed that no matter how thick the pipe or wire is that there is little to no chance at all to get any of the coating material through the wire and all the way down to the PVC.One coil failed after I abused it so I did some cuts and had a close look with a magnifying glass.The coil itself was really good covered but it was like a sleeve that sits on the PVC with nothing on the underside of the wire except for a few single spots.Some people will now say to just a much thinner mix for the coating to allow the stuff to sweep through but that does not always work.One big issue I noticed is that not all paints or varnishes actually stick to PVC.Especially those non smelling eco friendly ones most places now sell.This means when the coil expands due to the vibrations and heat the wire can simply rattle off the varnish or the coating itself can crack under the stress.So I thought there must be a way to fix this right at the winding stage....PVC is a good insulator too!So why not use PVC instead of messing with other things?My first attempt here works quite well with thin wire and goes like this:Go outside with your winding rig and have a bottle of PVC primer and a little brush or sponge ready as well as some gloves.If you have use a friend, if you have none make a small rig to hold the sponge right in front of your winding area.The key is to keep the sponge wet with the primer so it will wet the pipe properly.Best is to have the speed and distance set so the surface just starts to dry off under the wire.The primer will cause the PVC to soften, so the wire slightly sinks into the surface.An automatic winding rig is best here as it allows for consistency.There is no too much or too little here is nothing drips terribly and your wire sticks without fully sinking in.Once done you can cover the winding with your prefered coating.For thicker wire, lets say 0.3mm or thicker, I now use a similar way but with more preperations:Using some very rough sandpaper on a belt or vibrating sander I create a small pile of PVC dust.If you prefer some fancy color you can use ABS plasic here too and it dissolves in a similar way.The resulting mix should be free of lumps and of even color, if in doubt use more primer.Consistency should be a bit thinner than honey, if yours is too thin you can add more ABS/PVC or let the primer evaporate off while stirring it every now and then.To get a good start I do a few turns dry first with quite a big spacing.When approaching the actual start of the winding area I use some stick tape to make the last alignment and start to apply the mix onto the first bit of the winding area.Some lint free cloth with a bit of primer is used to wipe off any excess towards the still uncovered part of the pipe.Every time the mix on the pipe dries out too fast a brush with some primer is use to wet it.Every time the excess runs out a bit more mix is applied onto the wound area.The key is to only have a small area in front of the winding covered with mix with the most is on the winding and "cleaned" off towards the empty area.This way the entire wire is covered by PVC all around.To finnish off you simply use a brush and paint the mix onto the rotating coil until you have an even finnish.What are the downsides?The primer stinks and is certainly not healthy to breathe in. So good ventilation is a must have and it works better in colder temeratures as it gives you more time.It might require some test runs with braided fishing line or similar to get a feeling for how much mix or primer you need to apply and how much max tesion you can use to preven the wire from sinking in.Any benefits?IMHO using this method makes it possible to get a proper bond between the PVC pipe and the wire.And by using PVC or ABS as the coating there is little to no change material properties.This in return gives far less chances for vibrations or wire expansions that result in failing insulations.The whole thing just is one piece of PVC with the wire embedded in it instead of having a wire on top of the PVC with some coating above. ;)Are there alternatives to the PVC primer?If Acetone is much cheaper than you can use it but the same safety measures apply and the mix might dry a bit quicker.What if I need a break or stop the winding for one reason or another?Simply wipe off all access and stop with just enough tension on the wire so you can star again with no problems.Then start by wetting and applying the mix and continue winding as before.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


The Middle East and the Global Hackerspace Movement

Please follow me and imagine this. You're in a city and are taking a rattling train somewhere to the edge of town. The buildings get shorter as they get wider. You are entering the industrial area where the jobs dried up long ago. Where there are more broken windows than whole ones in each building. You pass the streets your parents warned you about and a street covered in "DO NOT CROSS" tape. Two stops later you get off at the stop your friends told you about questioning your sanity and wondering why your friends brought you out there. The graffiti is beautiful though, and somewhere in the distance you can hear the thump of heavy bass. The address your friend gave you can't be right, you look up and see a massive complex thankfully this one seemed to have more of it's windows intact. You push the rusting door noticing the rough texture and surprising heft. You walk in and see a roughly refinished hallway. The drywall isn't yet painted but it appears that this massive factory has been transformed on the inside. You pass a few drywalled off artists studios on the first floor and they smile at you with plaster in their hair. It smells like lavender and you notice you just passed an artist making candles. The "hackerspace" your friend told you about is on the second floor. So you walk to the cargo elevator and push the call button. It makes a horrifying rattling sound as it descends to meet you, instead of a door it has a grate. You take it up and as it slowly moves you can see concrete, then wood and suddenly the thumping bass get's louder - Hello Skrillex. It's too much to take in at first, you only notice the chaos. There are tools everywhere and in every state of operation. A wall of computer monitors lines the back wall. There's someone binding books in the corner, and what appears to be a viking with knitting needles sitting in what appears to be a lounge, he looks up and smiles at you and says "welcome to Scrumspace*!" you've arrived at your first hackerspace. Notice an open basket of dollar bills and place a 2 dollar donation in the basket near the fridge and grab yourself a drink from the fridge in the kitchen. You walk into a common area painted like a scene from Super Mario with what appear to be server racks painted as the tubes. Finally you see your friend. He walks in with a scorched shirt and you see his eyes twinkling through the welding goggles. "Told you this place is awesome!" he says. Hackerspace Values and Culture Hackerspaces like this exist almost all over the world. These places collect (and perhaps helps inspire) people who are passionate initiators. Walking into one you might find someone who wants to share a new iPad application which monitors the GPS on the weather balloon they've released -"It's over //CHINA// right now!!". People in hackerspaces are happy to share, it's a part of the culture! Interacting with them is often uplifting and inspiring. They are building and creating things they think is amazing. They may be playing with technology or science or art without concern for the categories. The only apparent question they ask themselves is how AWESOME is this!? It's a contagious atmosphere of capability where people learn from each other constantly. They can't help it! People are so passionate about what they are doing, they inadvertently teach. The other feature of a hackerspace which is more important is that they give people a venue. It's an open space that is owned by the members. Need a place to host a workshop on hat felting, it's yours! Need a place to build the first prototype of your product? Just make sure you pack it in the lockers when you're done working on it! The atmosphere is fundamentally collaborative. It can't be anything except participatory because of the way the spaces are most often organized and run. There is no single owner. Everyone pays for a portion of the rent, and more importantly everyone brings something new to the table. They might bring with them a new tool, their coffee machine, a desire to set up a program to run a STEM program for children. The spaces become a snapshot the local community of amazing people and their projects. Many of these people started developing their projects during their final years in university. But their is a gap between a school project and feeling capable to take it and turn it into something yourself. I'd love to start here. With these fresh graduates. These young people who (perhaps not coincidentally) are also the driving force behind the revolutions of the middle east. This is a great place to start. These are the young people changing their countries today. They feel empowered to change long standing traditions and the culture of oppression in their governments. Perhaps it's also time to give them the tools to do the same for their local communities. Where they have the ability to have a more direct impact. Who the heck cares about the government if you are free to repave your roads, create alternative energy from solar power, clean your own water and start your own online webstore distributing products that are rapidly prototyped and drop shipped to other places around the world. Sure you might call this line of reasoning anarchistic. But when the systems around you are falling apart, banding together to pick up the pieces is the admirable thing to do. Social entrepreneurship in the states often focuses on countries outside the states. They basically act as for profit NGOs. Non profit organizations as they operate in America don't exist in the middle east. Thus I'm beginning to think that the concept of social entrepreneurship might just be a great way forward for these countries. Doing well by doing good! This concept is a development hack, and one that could possibly have it's roots in the Hackerspace scene. There are features of hackerspaces that I see can give rise to more DIY social entrepreneurship in the middle east. They are: 1) The culture of good. Make something wonderful. Share it with others online and off. Be inspired and inspiring. 2) The availability of tools along with the docracy culture. If you want to see it, do it. 3) A supportive global and local community which has within it stories of other successes to emulate. Where does this culture come from? It appears to be derived from the open source movement. Open source technology is often spearheaded by a few individuals but is maintained, built and supported by a global community of makers who want the tech for themselves as well. Do you want to see that feature? Write it? But don't edit the program and keep it to yourself! Share! That's a doocracy combined with the culture of sharing that the internet helps so much to support. All of this seems to be directed by the common value for people of all ideologies. The golden rule. Do for others as you wish to have done for yourself. Do you want free tools. Freedom. Access to clean water? A cheap space to build projects? Free vector drawing software? Be a doer. Be a part of the change. And then share with others. Your vision is what makes the future. These are some of the amazing features of these spaces. This is why I am in love with hackerspaces, open source technology and makers of all types. They are beautiful people who come from all types of backgrounds who get together to create a culture of sharing and collaboration that enhances their local communities and connects them globally. If you have not visited your local hackerspace yet, visit it. If you live in a place without a space, put your name up on hackerspaces.org, I'm sure you will find like minded people who crave this type of community. Hackerspaces in the Middle East Now that we have described hacker culture and hackerspaces can a space like this become a the hub and home of amazing people in the Middle East? Does the west have a monopoly on awesome. Absolutely not. Are middle easterners creative Heck yes! Are they inspired to work collaboratively? Heck yes! Are they educated? Heck yes! Do they want to fix the problems they see around them? Heck YES! Are they powerful? Heck YES! Again and again I've seen example after example of the young people in the middle east (yes, those that are 30% unemployed) showcasing example after example of incredible projects. And talking to them a message I hear over and over is that they want to show the world that in Beirut, Baghdad, or Cairo things other than violence is created. They want to create positive news that goes out to the world. They want to reach out to the world and participate in sharing! Here's a short list of incredible people I've met personally in my two short trips to the middle east: Bassam Jalgha Tarek Ahmed Ahmed Tohamy Salma Adel Rami Ali's Smart Breadboard Marc Farra Maya Kreidieh Cairo Hackerspace Book Scanner Project An awesome home automation system in Baghdad Iraq Mustafa Elnagar Furkan Alp Pehlivan Hind Hobeika's Butterfleye Project Jad Berro's Tank Robot Mounir Zoorob Octocopter! Here's a video of Munir's octocopter: Beirut is beautiful:   One incredible graduation project by Cairo Hackerspace organizer Salma Adel is one that focuses on the very heart of the maker movement and looks at the artisan as the creator of value. How do you take new design, match it with old technology and create amazing new products. I'm proud to know she's an active memeber at Cairo Hackerspace:  I hope I have shown you that there are already "hackers", makers and entrepreneurs there in the middle east. People with the open source attitude Arabs with the culture of sharing and collaboration. There are many here that work with the Google Technology User Groups or other open source initiatives. Linux user groups. Tons of coworking spaces. And some incredible incubators and entrepreneurship cultural development projects. Android phones are more popular in Egypt than the iPhone from my own small survey. It might have initially started as a cost issue has turned into a passion with Ubuntu, firefox, Android and other open source technologies really taking off. A few things were missing though. If you read hacker news you will begin to think that anyone with a desire to make foursquare mashups is an entrepreneur. In the middle east we have incredibly skilled people languishing after college while their counter parts in the west are out attempting to recreate Facebook. Why?! I think it has to do with the lack of proper story telling about entrepreneurship in the Middle East. Wamda seems to be helping greatly in that regard, but we need more publications talking about this issue! This also comes in concert with an inability to find cofounders. Why? A lack of collaboration? Why? A lack of self initiated projects? Solution? Do stuff. Just do it. Where? Here. At your local hackerspace. Do you have an interesting idea you want to try? A drone to take ariel pictures of the pyramids? Or a service like Utlub which delivers soap to bathers who are wet and realize they ran out of soap. Well in a space like a hackerspace you can do it! The tools are there. But more importantly you will find collaborators! People who are willing to jump on board to help!al Patterns of Propagation The Arab world is not just ready for Hacker culture, hacker culture is already there. My work with GEMSI is simply to connect the right people together and showcase the awesome possibilities hackerspace afford their communities and attempt to create the right environment to allow these amazing people to take their own future into their hands like they already are, but to do it not only politically, but financially, and with direct community education and organizing. Before I went to the middle east I was privileged to participate in the rise of the hackerspace movement in the United States. In 2007 there were very few (if any self identified) hackerspaces in the United States. That same year Mitch Altman, Bre Pettis, and Nick Farr went on a trip to Germany visiting the hackerspaces that were there. Being filled with inspiration and the realization that these spaces were created by PEOPLE who wanted to set them up. They came back to the states and started Noisebridge, NYCResistor and HacDC respectively. Due to the culture of sharing, they started putting up projects online. They shared the process of creating these spaces. And slowly at first people started noticing that they too could start their own local community spaces for creation and we started seeing them grow rapidly. The mathematical name of the function that describes this type of growth is exponential. The more spaces that existed that have this culture of sharing the more people heard about them and wanted them in their own cities. Then something wonderful happened. The economy collapsed in 2008 which had two very positive effects on the development of hackerspaces:  People were freed from their jobs  Space was becoming cheap as tons of manufacturing facilities were abandoned. Check out this chart which shows the rapid growth of hackerspaces and the acceleration around 2008/9. Hacker culture is an attitude that anything can be done by any resource available. MacGyver will make you a mouse trap from your sunglasses and your underpants. A hacker would use it to make a one way privacy screen for your cellphone. But how do you transmit a culture? This is why a space is so important. Having a place where people can sit with others and recognize the possibilities. To see the value in the stuff they know, to share it with others and to build together. The first few hackerspaces that are being set up in the middle east have the same property of viral transmission as we saw in America. Istanbul Hackerspace and Base Istanbul are both hackerspaces in Turkey. Istanbul Hackerspace being in the European part and Base Istanbul in asian section. As widely spread apart as they are, they both have something in common. Both founders had visited a hackerspace, one in Japan and the other in Germany before coming home and deciding they wanted to start one there. It's kind of incredible to see the same pattern repeat in the middle east. This appears to be a universal need, the need for community, creativity and having a open space to build your future. The pattern has been proven in Egypt as well. Alexandria's hackerspace initiative was galvanized after a delegation of students visited  Cairo Hackerspace two hours to the south. It's exciting to see the very same forces at work that took the hackerspaces from being a concept barely known to having a large impact on the American Entrepreneurial and cultural landscape in five short years years at work in Egypt. Cairo Hackerspace currently is without their space but is actively seeking a new one and it's one of my current goals to help in any way I can. Let's conclude with the list of hackerspaces just starting up in Egypt and Beirut. This is just the start. Keep an eye on these guys and know that there will be many many more to come: Egypt: Cairo Hackerspace El Minya Hackerspace Alexandria Hackerspace Mansoura Hackerspace Egypt Fablab (Same idea ;) Lebanon: Beirut Hackerspace (link coming soon) If you'd like to talk more about the global development of hackerspaces. Let's continue talking online at GEMSI's facbebook group. *Scrumspace does not exist as a hackerspace. If you like the name take it!

Topic by lamedust    |  last reply


Tesla's "Earthquake" machine - revisited!

Lockdown sucks, so what bett to do than to check on some old inventions :)It is claimed that, although the earthquaked that happened was unrelated, that Tesla's little machine indeed was able to do some damage.Today however we focus on what is actually possible in terms of an oscillating apparatus causing other things to swing in resonance.If you look at the patent than there is terms used (intentionally) that neither make sense, nor find any explanation inside the patent - like "airsprings" ...Knowing Tesla's way of thinking a little allowed me to come up with some conclusions of my own.Using some surface transducers to get going also helped a lot.Using more or less modern stuff that anyone can access, we will try to build our own little quake machine.At least in theory, I leave it up to you if you want to build something just to confirm or rip apart what I might claim in here ;)How does this resonance thing work?If you check "Londong bridge swing" you see what I mean ;)Like soldiers won't cross a bridge in step for good reasons, a lot of little inputs quickly accumulated and syncronise themself- the bridge swings.You try it in small scale with a bunch of Metronoms (is that right for many of them? LOL) on a board supported by rollers.Set them all to the same timing, start them and release the board.One after the other will fall in sync until they all swing the same.Check how much the board moves in relation, especially if you place some added weights on it ;)For machines we often have the problem that something unbalanced and rotating causes all sorts of vibrations in other parts - we know that from our cars as well when a wheel is unbalanced.Not always is the part causing the resoance somewhere near where it resonates ;)What Tesla claimed to have built was a machine that had a freely moving weight, some electromagnets, "airsprings" and somehing to make it all able to find the resonance by magic....I can recreate some of it, but not all (yet).We need a way to move a weight with as little friction as possible while also providing some sort of dampening effect - otherwise the weight would just swing to the max.I thought a lot about this and how to do in the most basic form.For sake of simplicity I opted for a vertical approach.Ideally you would have big and heavy cylindrical magnet, about 3cm in diameter and at leat 6cm long.But you can cheat by stacking disk magnets or putting suare ones into a round tube.You need two cylinders, one to hold the magnets, the other just a bit wider to allow for a TINY air gap.Put together the magnet cylinder should freely boune around when you shake it but show good resistance if you close both ends of the outer tube.How to make "airsprings"....I found the easiest way out is to use "bouncers" on either end of the outer tube - with consideration that the inner tube needs to movable ;)The inner magnet has some good weight, so using stacks of small magnets allows us to compensate the different movement.Start with a bottom stack so the inner magnet has a good distance (gap).Now you need a sensitive scale or use a balanced weighbridge.Check how much extra weight on the inner magnets is required to push it down by, let's say 5mm.Note that weight somewhere.Place a smaller stack on the top end of the tubes.You want the distance so the inner magnet just start to be pushed down a tiny bit.You might need a slotted outer tube to allow you to push it up as well down now - hence the weighbridge idea.Adjust the distance and amount/type of magnets on the top stack until the inner magnet travels an equal amount up and down with the force (weight) applied.It is now "balanced" to be weightless in terms being suspended while free to travel a limited amount.Ideally the force you need for up and down should stay equal (more or less) throughout the indended range of motion.I found two ways that work well to actuate the magnet by extrenal means while having a good control.One uses a center coil around the tube, the other a split coil.Key is wind it so it is usable with something simple.Like creating a coil with a resistance if 4 Ohm so a normal audio amplifier can be used.Tricky bit here is to find the right balance in terms of the inductivity.For a strong magnet you wants of turns and lots of layers - your amp does not like this too much.I found that many layers and many turns require a capacitor to compensate but also that this brings additional problems.I suggest to stick with reall cheap amps in the 25 to 50W range for your testing.They seem to be more forgiving if you use multiple layers on a coil.Using a split coil with reversed polarities allows to use both channels on a stereo amp.In this configuration you can have a lot of fun in the lower frequencies, which are usually the ones we want anyway.The resonance finding though it a fully manually thing and you need to make sure the machine is secured properly to the surface you want to use it on.I found it best to start at about 1kHz and then to work my way down until something happens somewhere.Once you go below the 200hz region you will need to crank the amp up a bit.What is actually happening and why once it starts moving things around?Figuring that one out took me quite a while.It is not the moving magnet causing a change of things.It is the forces it transfers when it changes directions.When the magnet is down and the coil changes polarity it is "pulled" up.Wich means the mounted machine is applying downforces onto the surface.Opposite for the way down.Interesting about this how both the surcare and the machine interact.Out of sync not much at happens anywhere, but the closer you get to a resonant frequency the easier the magnet can move around - the amplitude increases while the input level is the same.Hence the need for the dampening magnet stacks ;)These stop the motion in a smooth and even way while transfering the excess to the machine in the form of vertical forces.Together this works rather well and surprisingly simple.You just need the right balance between weight of the magnet inside and magnetic field your coil can generate - it does not have to be huge magnet to have some fun...No clue, or least no usuable, how Tesla simplified the resonance finding and keeping - if he did not do it manually after all.In terms of electronic means it should be possible fairly easy to get the same output force no matter the conditions.Thinking of a controlled feedback loop here.The required power from the amp is lowest in resonance and higest when totally out of sync.This out of sync motion is to a small degree transfered onto the coil through the moving magnet.A clear sine wave gets "distortions" from the overlaying frequencies transfered from the surface.You can "filter" the required power level and the detected "distortions".If both filters indicate a minimum it means resonace is found.From there only the power levels are monitored.Every time they spike the frequency is adjusted so the spike is in sync again with the max amplitude of the frequency.The power levels will then level out while the external movement maxes out sooner or later.Will it actually make a building shake?If it is an old, wooden construction like mine it will rattle here and there ;)A solid brick or concrete one however won't be too impressed.A big barn with a sheet metal roof might get noisy but won't collapse.The frequencies to actually make big things swing are rather low, often below the 60Hz range.With that comes the energy requirements - you have maybe 200g moving around at max in your machine?Try pushing over some dead pine tree by making it swing until it breaks - same thing.If you manage to keep the correct swing you need a long, long time to make swing far enough to snap.For a big bridge you might need a centimeter or more of swing before anything can be noticed.You machine might be able to add a µm with every hundred swings it makes....Moving traffic constantly changes things so after a few weeks of trying the bridge might not even vibrate a little.Huge fun though to make friends cars shake apart with no sound at all LOLJust screw in the boot and crank it up once you notice something vibrates somewhere ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


"Sonic" drilling or cutting

If we look up sonic drills today we usually get some fancy machines driving pipes in the ground, preferably softer ground.But the term includes all types of machines that use sonic vibrations to advance through a media.With the ancient and claimed to have never existed technologies in mind I did some digging...In the food industry vibrating knifes are quite common, same for "air knifes" on softer food.Even in the meat industry they find more and more uses now.Ultrasonic cutting or welding is the same thing and included in "sonic".Same for some experimental sub sonic drilling methods currently being tested.The general idea might be as old as using vibrating equippment to compact stuff, like concrete, bricks and so on.What you can compact by vibration you can also make "fluid" by vibration.Industrial feeder systems utilise this to the extreme by even making light and fine particles like flour move like water without causing any dusting.What all the techniques have in common that a suitable tool or tool head is used and that it is attempted to use the most suitable vibration frequency for the job.Anyone operating an ultrasonic welder knows the pain of finetuning for a new electrode or just new part to be welded.What does that tell us now that makes the understanding easier?Take a bottle of ketchup, preferably one that is still quite full.Turn it upside down and noothing comes out.Shake it a bit and you are either lucky or drowned in red.But hold it at an angle and start tapping it and the red sauce flows out easily.What it true for most newtonian fluids is in some way also true for non-newtonian fluids.Ever mixed corn starch and water to make these funny experiments with it?Hit it hard and it reacts really hard and is not sticky at all.Leave your hand resting on it and in sinks in and sticks to it.Stirring it very slowly is easy, go faster and you get stuck.You can do similar things with by using an external source for vibrations.For example a vibration speaker mounted to a smal cup of the goo.If you place sand on a sloped piece of plastic or sheet metal then at a low angle it will pile up easy and stay.Start vibrating the plate and the sand will start to flow off.Works fine with a vibration source mounted to a piece of steel bar or rod and a bucket of sand too.Trying to press it into the sand requires a lot of force, especially once you are a bit deeper.Let it vibrate properly and it slides rights down.If we can do the simple stuff as well as really complicated stuff in the industry then what about other materials?So far we use vibrations to make things move out of the way, compact things, transport them or to heat them up for welding plus some cutting applications.Considering the variety one might wonder why no one tries it for "difficult" materials.Machined surface can be found throughout ancient history.Finding "machined things" were vibrations was clearly used is a bit harder.The great walls are not a perfect example here as the views differ quite a bit on how they could have been created.But if we leave things melting them or a secret concret like recipe for creating for example granite then vibrations start to make some sense.You find some interesting videos on youtube where people use speakers, wires and rocks to confirm you can actually "machine" them by vibrations.Especially granite has some quite musical properties, big boulders as well as smaller ones produce destinct sounds when you hit them hard.Tests and measurements were made on granite and other hard rocks to check how fast sound travels in them , how it is refeclted and where the sound comes out or affects the surface the most.Lets just say every sample gave different results.Shape, density and dimensions affect not just the resonant frequency but also where and how the sound travels in the rock.What if??We can use a simple speaker, a plate and some rice to see how patterns form under various frequencies.Works with sand or other granules as well.The interesting patterns are the so called harmoncis.Here we see clear and destinct patters, sometimes with extremely fine lines and areas of softly vibrating granules.Some people say these harmonic frequencies have all special meanings and uses.We mainly used them to avoid problems.Imagine your new TV would not have a housing tested to be stable with all frequencies the speakers can produce.All of a sudden your back of the TV might start to rattle ;)Same for car engines.Harmonic vibrations are eliminated wherever possible.Otherwise they could multiply and affect other things in the engine or around it.Simply put it means we have various options to detect and measure vibrations on a surface or in a system.Back in the day every half decent backup generator had a mechanical indicator for the frequency of the supplied electricity.A set of tiny forks with the desired on painted red and several on either side of it.These forks were designed to get into harmonic and therfor quite intense vibrations at their set frequency.If the one for 50Hz looked blurry then all was good ;)The same principle god be applied on a big boulder of granite.Place the "vibration meter" at the desired spot and start moving around the vibration source on the surface until you find a spot that causes maximum response on the meter.Best thing here is that if you then place that surface area onto another peice of fixed in place granite both pieces will start to loose substance if vibrations are applied.The fine sediment forming is then usable as an indicator where to move the vibration source to continue once the effect literally wears off.Is it feasable?Well, if we trust mainstream science then the answer is no.A huge amount of vibration energy would be required for such a hard material, despite ancient proof that says otherwise.Semi industrial test also seemed to confirm the theory as only with very high amplitudes (loudness) and while automatically adjusting for the resonant frequency changes a measurable amount of material was removed.I struggle a bit with that as for the testing tool heads made from hardened steel or carbide were used.And that with little or no regards on how the head and tool itself affects the output.I mean in terms of having the max possible movement happening right t the tool contact surface!There is a huge difference between applying a vibration to a tool and using a system, tool and tool head DESIGNED to work at the desired frequency!Otherwise we wouldn't need a computer to design and test a horn for welding purposes or shade a knife spefically so that the vibration go along the right axis and in the right direction.You not break a hard thing with a very soft thing unless it travels fast enough to become harder as the target!This complicated explanation basically just confirms that if you hit water at a too high speed then it will just break you into pieces instead of offering a soft splashPlease do not jump of bridges or such to confirm this yourself!!If that is really true and science says it is, then how about the other way around?Works fine too, or we wouldn't have pressure washers or water cutters.Now for the part where I hope some really smart people leave helpful comments:If we can cut steel with just a stream of water, then I ask:Isn't for example copper much harder than water?Steel is much harder than copper but water cuts through it.The answer here it simple or complicated, depending on how you want to expain how it works.Comes down to speed and pressure plus the right nozzle shape to prevent a beam expansion.But then water is indeed "harder than steel".Questions:Lets say we would use a copper pipe that in lenght, thickness, hardness and diameter is optimised to transmit a frequency so the pipe end sees the max vibration like a feed horn for ultrasonic welding.Not to hard to calculate these days :)Now imagine said "main frequency" would be optimised for the pipe but also be a harmonic frequency of the rock to be worked on.The pipe end would deform quickly, abrasion does the rest and it fails before even making a decent sratch that is not copper metal on granite.No matter how hard we press nothing good enough will ever happen.BUT: If we would add more hormainc frequencies to feed our pipe we can multiply the amplitude quite easy!Just try with a sound generator from your app store, needs 2 or more channels to be usable.Pick for example 400hZ on one and 800Hz on another, then finetune around these number to hear how the tone changes ;)My theory goes like this:If all "working frequencies" would just harmonics of the resonant frequency of the granite, then they can be tuned so the effect on the pipe end is minimised.The overlaying frequencies however should result in the same effect a water cutter has: The pipe becomes ultra hard.The better the match and the more you have to get it right the harder the pipe will be.Adding now a "drilling frequency" or multiple could be used to drive these harmonics slightly out of phase.Like with the sound generator on your phone we end up with a pulsating sound, or vibration.While the pipe still vibrates at the same "hardening" mix the drilling frequency creates a peak like a jackhammer.Try it by using the heaphone output on a small speaker and placing some light and tiny things into the cone.The will violently jump around during these pulsing tones.For a drilling system the output can be mechanically maximised by utilising a pitchfork design.A head holds the vibration speakers and the tynes are tuned good enough to the frequency of the speakers.Always two would have to operate in sync though as otherwise the pitchfork movement that transfers the sound down the center bar won't work.This head could then be desgined to act as a holder for a quick change of work out pipes that are no longer long enough for tuning.I guesstimate that a well tuned design would result in a copper pipe being able to drill at least 10 to 15cm into solid granite before it wears off too much.And we are talking here about just a few mm to get the thing out of tune!But would dare to desing such a thing just to confirm a theory that no one ever really dared to test? ;)And if friction welding works as good as ultrasonic welding, then what would happen if we try this with the right frequencies and vibrations instead of wasting tons of energy?

Topic by Downunder35m