Do you agree with the saying, Resistance is Futile? It can be applied in anything, politics, electronics, etc.
Topic by starwing123 | last reply
Why is it that as super capacitors capacitance goes up the internal resistance goes down? I'm looking for a tiny capacitor that can supply 0.3 volts20mA (I'm going to be powering flexinol, not an LED) for 1 second. I don't want the capacitor to be huge because I'm making a beam bot where size is a factor for charging time and because of it's physical size.
Topic by guyfrom7up | last reply
I have an amp schematics and for the speaker rezistance it says 8 ohms. I have 4 ohm speakers so I am worried that amp circuit will burn. Will it be ok, or should I put a 4ohm resistor in series with the speaker. The chip is TDA2615. Power source is 12v lead-acid battery.
Question by Dantex | last reply
How to find the voltage after adding a resistor with the resistance formula? For example I have a circuit that uses 0.975A and I add a 1000ohm resistor to it, if its powered by 220v main then according to V=IR what should be the voltage drop due to the resistor?
Question by Ahtasham Ahmad Mohtashim | last reply
I recently got a new watch for my 18th birthday. On the back of it, it said "5 ATM". I looked it up, and supposedly it should be water resistant to 50 meters or 165 feet. However, all places I went to online said to only have it around sinks, "slight splashes", shallow water, and to not use it for snorkeling. I live near the ocean and would most likely use it for that; not for any real diving though. Shouldn't a 50 meter tested watch be able to handle a few feet of water, or is it because it's saltwater that it would not be able to?
Question by The Dark Lord | last reply
I am wiring some LEDs in series-parallel using a 9v battery. The schematic I've been looking at online as a reference shows resistors being used but doesn't say what size. Here is the layout: |-- LED -- LED -- LED -- resistor?--| |-- LED -- LED -- LED -- resistor?--| |-- LED -- LED -- LED -- resistor?--| |--9v-----------------------------------------| I assume it's a simple calculation but I haven't worked with this stuff in a few years. Thanks in advance.
Topic by L3fty | last reply
Ok, I need to figure out how to know what resistor to use. I know how to read a reistor, I just dont know how to use one. Say I hook an LED, a 9 volt battery, and a resistor in a circuit. I want to get the voltage down to 3 volts. How would I go about calculating a resistor reading? What ohm resistor would I use? How do I know?
Question by Adum24 | last reply
I am very familiar with velostat and conductive fabric and how to combine them to make textile touch sensors. I would now like to make a touch sensor that's more solid, and made from a firmer resistive substance than velostat. I've been looking up the resistivity/conductivity of different metals here: https://www.thoughtco.com/table-of-electrical-resi.... In theory, as long as one metal (or other material) is more conductive than the other, it should work the same? I've read on silicon and carbon fiber, but I'm not sure if what I'm researching is the solid kind, or the flimsy/squishy/bendy kind.
Topic by LeAnne_K | last reply
So I have this seriously old touch screen desktop from FEC. I've been browsing around and found how to turn laptop LCD screens into monitors using controller boards, finding them by looking up the model number of the screen. I could probably use find the monitor stuff by myself, but when it comes to the touch screen interface, I'm clueless on what to look for. These are the pictures that I took of the boards and model numbers, and I'm assuming I would need something to either connect to the middle board, or something to replace it. I'm willing to take on the task, I just don't know entirely where to go from here as this is the first time I've really dug deep into something like this. The model number and barcodes are from the back of the monitor. At the end of the think white wire there are a ton of connections that go the the old motherboard of the computer. Is there anyone that might be able to give me a hand on what to find? Number on the large center board:............................RG9000PB0880 V1.0 Below the number there is another number: 0821 Number for the small connector on the far right:.....RG9000PB0260 There's USB1 and AUDIO1 connectors on the large board in the center, and I'm assuming the long board at the bottom is power. mini-update: Could it also be possible to change the touch screen controller, run it into my computer via USB, and then find a controller for the LCD screen?
Topic by JKMan | last reply
I just created a resistance calculator using liveswif (its like macromedia flash only not as good) and programmed it with actionscript. I can't figure out how to get the numbers to line up properly, although the calculator still works. If you have a resistor and need to find out how many ohms it is, the calculator will do it. http://www.gamesfree4u.com/resistancecalculator.html
Topic by pennsteve | last reply
I need an idea! I'm a magician and i want to create my magic bag. I thought that i can make the wood box with nails and after i can veneer it. The problem is that I never made anything in wood. So the question is: is it a resistant box or not? do you have some advice? (Sorry for my english :S) thank you!
Topic by michele92 | last reply
Hey guys, i know there are a lot of you guys out there that deal with electrical dealings and such, and im doing a science project, dealing with electrolysis, so i decided to compare two electrolytes to see which has a lower resistance, and to see which would be more efficient therefore. SO, the only problem is, i have no multimeter, voltmeter, or anything close to it, and i don't know anybody 'round her that does..So im asking you, could you help me with seeing the resistance of- * water (tap water) * water with Epsom Salts * and water with Baking soda powder (either will work, but i would prefer powder, as baking soda is said to cause chlorine gas, and what not..whichever you have works) If you could take a picture of yourself using the multimeter, that would be stellar, thats all for now, come on guys, i know you know this stuff, and i just cant figure it out, counting on you :)
Question by fwjs28 | last reply
I'm making a USB solar charger intended to last 20 years. It will have no batteries inside, just a voltage reg and a zener diode. The solar cells will be wired together under glass, not epoxy (for better lifespan). I want the frame to be made of wood, but how long will that last in direct sunlight? This solar charger will contain no plastics, polymers, or resins...so my only choice for a frame is glass and wood. THANK YOU SO MUCH!! -Nepheron PS. I chose wood because it is very opaque, and I reasoned that it may be fairly UV resistant... But IDK.
Question by nepheron | last reply
My question is relative to getting a LED to function correctly in a resistance sensitive circuit. Here is the situation. 1. The Battery Warning Light in an automobile I am restoring currently uses an incandescent bulb. 2. Functionally, the light is on when the ignition is turned on, but goes off when the engine starts. 3. This works fine with the incandescent bulb, but not with a LED, even if I put the same incandescent bulb in the circuit (parallel). 4.With just the LED in the circuit, it never goes off. This is because the circuit has about .5V leakage voltage through the device (which is a Lucas 3AW Warning Light Unit) when the engine is running (and correctly, 12V when just the ignition is on). 5. With both the LED and the incandescent in the circuit, the incandescent does not come on and the LED does not go off, both with ignition on and engine running. 6. I have also put a potentiometer in the circuit with just the LED and cranked it from 1 Ohm to 100K Ohms, with no effect. 7. Of course, an easy answer is to just use the incandescent, except that the dash is wired and complete and installed, and I prefer to get the LED to work. Any thoughts or suggestions would be very much appreciated.
Topic by DaleR18 | last reply
Nissan has introduced the Eco Pedal, an acceleration pedal that pushes back on the driver's foot if the driver is supplying unnecessary pressure and therefore being fuel inefficient. From Wired News: Nissan estimates that the Eco Pedal, coupled with the already ubiquitous instant fuel readout on the dash, can increase fuel economy 10 to 15 percent.While it may hinder driving freedom a little bit, it seems more like it's there to be a friendly little reminder. Sort of like parents when you're learning how to drive. Very environmentally friendly, fuel optimizing parents. Nissan via Wired News
Topic by joshf | last reply
Hi folks I'm new to this I was wondering if someone can help me with these questions I've answered them but I would like one of you expert folks to tell me if they are correct or where I'm going wrong Or if I have the correct formulas its just a question for an exam revision which I have soon. A coil of inductance 4H and resistance of 80Î© is connected in parallel with a 200Î© of resistor of negligible inductance across a 200v dc supply. The switch connecting these to the supply is then opened; the coil and resistor remain connected together. State in each case one for immediately before and one for immediately after opening the switch; The current Through the resistor Switch closed 200v/200Î© =1a Switch open 200v/80Î© =2.5a The current through the coil Switch Closed 200v/80Î© = 2.5a Switch open 200v/(200ohm +80Î©) = 0.714a The e.m.f induced in the coil Switch closed (2.5a*80Î©)/200v = 0v Switch Open 2.5a *(200Î© + 80Î©) = 700v The voltage across the coil Switch closed 200v/1a = 200v Switch open 2.5a * 200Î© = 500v
Topic by Andrew187 | last reply
Want to know where the latest MRSA strains are coming from?Not the hospitals- it's factory farms. I know the basics of antibiotic use in factory farming, but seeing the statistics is still appalling. It makes me particularly happy to have scored 55lbs of venison from my uncle this weekend.The bit on testing reminds me of the bit about Mad Cow- US farmers who want to test 100% of their livestock aren't allowed to basically because 1) it would make the untested animals look bad, and 2) they might find something. One BSE-infected cow (or at least proof of such) could shut down US beef exports entirely. Anyway, back to MRSA:The Union of Concerned Scientists estimates that at least 70 percent of the antibiotics used in America are fed to animals living on factory farms.Raising vast numbers of pigs or chickens or cattle in close and filthy confinement simply would not be possible without the routine feeding of antibiotics to keep the animals from dying of infectious diseases. That the antibiotics speed up the animals' growth also commends their use to industrial agriculture, but the crucial fact is that without these pharmaceuticals, meat production practiced on the scale and with the intensity we practice it could not be sustained for months, let alone decades.Public-health experts have been warning us for years that this situation is a public-health disaster waiting to happen. Sooner or later, the profligate use of these antibiotics -- in many cases the very same ones we depend on when we're sick -- would lead to the evolution of bacteria that could shake them off like a spring shower. It appears that "sooner or later" may be now. Recent studies in Europe and Canada found that confinement pig operations have become reservoirs of MRSA. A European study found that 60 percent of pig farms that routinely used antibiotics had MRSA-positive pigs (compared with 5 percent of farms that did not feed pigs antibiotics). This month, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published a study showing that a strain of "ÃÂÃÂMRSA from an animal reservoir has recently entered the human population and is now responsible for [more than] 20 percent of all MRSA in the Netherlands." Is this strictly a European problem? Evidently not. According to a study in Veterinary Microbiology, MRSA was found on 45 percent of the 20 pig farms sampled in Ontario, and in 20 percent of the pig farmers. (People can harbor the bacteria without being infected by it.) Thanks to Nafta, pigs move freely between Canada and the United States. So MRSA may be present on American pig farms; we just haven't looked yet.I love Michael Pollan's work. If you haven't read The Omnivore's Dilemma you should. Many of his books started as pieces for the NYTimes magazine: here's a list of books and articles, with links. He's much more of a storyteller than a straight-up reporter, and despite the often dire subject matter his stories are simply fun to read. He's also a journalism prof at UCBerkeley right around the corner from Instructables.
Topic by canida | last reply
Hi, and thanks for reading my question. We have just bought an exercise bike, it uses the pedalling to power the magnetic resistance of the bike. Here is the problem: at the highest setting, the resistance is still not very much. We think that maybe we can increase the resistance by putting a strong permanent magnet near the flywheel, (we would cut a hole in the plastic cover to put the magnet near the flywheel). Can someone explain how to figure out how strong a magnet would need to be? How much "pull" would probably have a significant effect? What type (neodymium?), and what shape would work best (disk, rod, etc...?). We are willing to put about $50 into a magnet. If this doesn't work I think I will remove the cover and just use a "friction wheel" sitting on top of the flywheel. really ugly, but it should work. Thanks for any help you guys can give!
Question by Urrgghh004 | last reply
Question by Yashknowsbetter | last reply
I would like to use a motor to provide a variable bike resistance. The bike will be turning the motor, and the motor will provide a physical resistance, making it easier or harder to pedal. My ultimate goal is to make a microprocessor-controlled stationary bike, where the micro can both set the physical resistance of the motor and detect the speed of the motor. My intention is to use a variable electrical resistance to make the motor harder or easier to turn. However, I don't know much about motors, so my question is: what kind of motor will work for this? Any comments welcome.
Question by FazJaxton | last reply
I WANT TO KNOW HOW TO CALCULATE THE TOTAL RESISTANCE OF THIS CIRCUIT ! I CAN'T FIGURE OUT WHAT THE RED MARKED RESISTOR PLAYS CAN ANY ONE PLEASE EXPLAIN?
Question by ubdussamad | last reply
I am trying to find a heat resistant material that is flexible... I am trying to make a pull down shade to attach to a tension rod, that will make my home more energy efficient... This means It will also need to be thin enough to roll up into a small roll... It needs to be reflective or at least block out all the sun... I work nights and sleep through the day, and have trouble sleeping when the sun gets through...
Topic by BadBobbo | last reply
I am making a device which uses a laser to lower a photocell's resistance to the point where enough current can flow to begin spinning a motor. Unfortunately, the motor (4.5 V) starts off by drawing about .75 amps and once running falls to .25 amps, but apparently the photocell can only draw a lot less- the only word I've been able to find is that it typically draws about 1 milliamp, which is nowhere near enough. I have two questions- first off, does anyone know how many milliamps I can run through a photocell, and is there any way that is pretty cheap so that I can lower the amps drawn or the resistance of the photocell without stopping the motors?
Question by seraine | last reply
after reading the capri sun welding instructable i was thinking of making an outdoor tarp out of them to cover my lawnmowers. maybe even putting it on the roof in summer to reflect heat and reduce cooling costs. my kids love these things so i have a lot of them.
Question by dannemillerd | last reply
Okay so I understand the basic concepts of power generation but I have a question pertaining to the old addage: An object in motion tends to stay in motion. Resistance is power that stops any said object if it is equal to the energy of the object in motion - this resistance is from gravity and other outside forces acting upon said object. OKAY If the force to put an object in motion was then then collected by electrical generators from multiple other sources as part of the same object - would it be able to make up for the amount of resistance from the added collection and the amount needed to put said object into motion and keeping it in motion???? If an object is designed to be in motion then it does not require as much energy to stay in motion as it does to be put in motion. Even when affected by gravity, as it is affected by gravity less when is in motion. But can technology (bearings and rotors) be designed so they offer less resistance than the amount of energy required to keep said object in motion? This is impossible as far as I am aware. Energy is NOT free - but If the energy required to keep an object in motion is less than required to put it into motion, would not the true energy of the object in motion be greater than what is required to keep it in motion and be able to be collected as excess energy? Collection would result in resistance however and since the formula of "greater or equal force" applies collecting anything other than that differential in energy would result in the objects motion being slowed. Is this true? I am concerned about going into details on the nature of my concept until I can gain a better understanding of the science behind it. As such I apologize for how vague my questioning is.
Topic by Tetsuoh | last reply
I have a Led Tail light to wire to my motorcycle. I split my running light to light up my flashers also. My question is how can I make my tail light less bright? I off course think about putting a resistance, but how to choose the right one?here's my spec:12V motorcycle batteryLed light: 15 white LEDs2 flashers: 12 volts incandescent bulbsWiring: original running light split in two (1 in tail light and one to the back) then the second one split into the two flashersThank you all
Question by JimmyM95 | last reply
Before I begin: yes, I should know this already, but I'm really sleep deprived right now, and therefore slightly muzzy on my electronics knowledge... My circuit has two loops running in parallel off one, limited, 18v power supply: [*] Loop 1 requires the majority of the supply's power to run [*] Loop 2 is simply a 7805 voltage regulator supplying 5v to an analog input on an Arduino, so needs almost no current running through it. [*] when Loop 1 and Loop 2 are both active, Loop 1 does not get enough power. if I place a resistor in Loop 2, in series with the 7805, will it increase the amperage to Loop 1? I think the answer is yes, but, once again, I'm MASSIVELY sleep deprived. any help is appreciated.
Topic by gschoppe | last reply
Hi, my name is david. im working on a project, for a device that is roughly .25-.5 inches long. im trying to find the right material resistance wire for the application. the components are submerged in coolant to maintain a low temperature. i wish to have a resistance wire of some kind wrapped around the components to heat them to about 90 degrees as quickly as a possibly can, for only a brief time(fractions of a second) i am using a variable power supply to determine my power needs. im hoping to be able to send a quick "signal" through the resistance wire, and use heat as a sort of input/output system. the internal components will melt at temperatures above 100 degrees. so regulating the temperatures is key. now obviously since they will be submerged in coolant, the resistance wire will need to heat to higher temperatures in order to heat the other components. ive been doing some research on nichrome and kanthal wire. but from what ive seen so far, it almost heats up to quickly, to higher temperatures than i require. it is hard for me to do the calculations, since i dont know how many watts/amps etc i will be using. so to recap: temperature required about 90 degrees. (as quickly as possible, "flash heating" to 90degrees would be great) length is .25-.5 inch (the size will actualy be determined by the resistance wire i would prefer it to be as small as possible but i could make the module larger if i have to) variable power supply to determine my power needs(preferably the lowest possible power usage to conserve battery power) any suggestions on an appropriate material would be appreciated. i dont mind testing out different materials. i just dont want to spend thousands of dollars buying a little bit of everything and testing each one out one at a time. >< some experiments have suggesting silver coated nylon, but requires 20watts and a pretty sizable heating time. the heating coil will most likely have direct contact with the components, unless it is required to provide space between the coil and the components to heat it appropriately. i would prefer direct contact though to make the modules as compact as possible. currently the coolant is being pumped continuously through the whole system, but ive been working on plans for a valve to interupt the flow of the coolant during cycles where the coil is activated, if the need arises to keep the coolant from preventing the resistance wire from heating up appropriately.
Topic by DavidW433 | last reply
Dear All I know very little about electronics! So please pardon potentially dumb questions! My objective is to know when to (properly) discard a rechargeable battery and buy a new one. I want to be able to read the voltage of a rechargeable battery when freshly charged. Then I want to be able place the battery under load and measure the voltage as well as amperage again in order to compute the internal resistance. I intend keeping track of these results for this (and other batteries) over time (and also comparing the data to other similar batteries I have). I have created a simple schematic of what I think I aught to do (attached to this post). Known parameters are: - Battery voltages vary from 3.2 to 4.2 V depending on model and age - Battery capacities vary from 700 mAh to 1,200 mAh depending on model and age What I would like to do is: - Have one circuit where I can measure the unloaded voltage (and amperage) - Change a switch and then place the battery under load - with an LED indicating when this circuit is on permitting me to measure the loaded voltage and amperage. What I don't know is: - What size fuse do I use (do I need one?) - What size / voltage LED should I use considering the different voltages of the batteries? - What resistor should I use for this LED? - What resistor should I use to place the batteries under load? How large should this load be to sufficiently stress the battery but not damaging it? (The 3 Ohm in the diagram is a total guess!) I know I can go and read up on this on various websites - but, being honest - its so much easier to ask! Your advice would be most appreciated.
Question by Farawayman | last reply
I am hoping that some of you creative, DIY'ers out there can brainstorm with me to come up with a vandal proof (or at least resistant) rural mailbox. Our mailbox sits 4.5 miles out from our house, in the middle of nowhere, at a county crossroads. It has been shot up and other wise vandalized several times over the years. One time some sick jerk put 3 small dead dogs in it. I still can't believe that one. Most recently, the entire mailbox and 2-pc mounting post was stolen. The whole thing! We looked for several miles along the ditches to see if it had been tossed, but no luck. I have looked at the commercial mailboxes, and boy, are they expensive! If I am going to spend that kind of cash, I'd rather find a way to make something that will REALLY do the job. So, I am visualizing something metal, like a steel barrel. Somehow making a locking access door to retrieve mail (the mail carrier is not allowed to carry a key, OR get out of his vehicle) but with a large enough mail slot to accommodate small packages, maybe with some kind of trapdoor to drop mail down but prevent sticking an arm in to steal mail. What kind of ideas can you all come up with? I figure I can get my cousin to do any welding I might need, Thanks! I look forward to reading your good ideas!
Topic by panakanic | last reply
I've seen devices which do this but I don't know the name of it?
Question by ShanL3 | last reply
Howdy is there a kind of resist that can be left on the pcb after etching (except the solder points), as an electrical insulator? can it be used with the photo-etching method, or only heat? thanks
Topic by johnyradio | last reply
Thinking of just this case using an AC current with a frequency of 1k Hz, thru a simple non-inductive resistor. Is the impedance of the resistor the same thing as the resistance measured using DC? Is it equal to the resistance in value or different altogether? (sentence edited to change inductance to impedance) I think it's the same thing and so equal in value. Or maybe I've still got a bunch of reading to do.
Question by Re-design | last reply
After i finished my coilgun. i found that my coil which has a resistance of 3 ohms is not efficient enough for my 1920uf cap bank at 310v. i've read that high resistance coils need high voltages and low capacitance from the capacitor banks. and that low resistance can use both high voltages and high bigger capacitor banks to increase the current and drain the capacitor more quickly so that the projectile will not be sucked back. so i am wondering if i can wound a coil that has 2 wires to decrease resistance, the current one is about 30mm in length and have 12 layers of 1.024mm of enamel coated wire. it is just that i don't have bigger wire which has a lower resistance. and i also did not solved my switching problem. i already damaged 3 heavy duty water heater switches here is the picture
Question by ARJOON | last reply
I unfortunately do not have many big resistors that can dissipate lots of power, and would like to make a dummy load to test and parameterize batteries and power supplies. I want constant power, constant current, and constant resistance load, I do have lots of opamps and a few N and P channel enhancement mode MOSFETs as well as many 2N3055s and a couple MJE2955's. I think constant current is the easiest, since all I need to do is make a closed loop controller that will turn off the transistor as the current is exceeded, and turn it on as the current falls. Constant power might be more tricky, as I need a device that controls the bias on a transistor as a function of the product of the voltage and current, since P=IE or W=AV, and similarly, constant resistance, I need a thing that will divide voltage across the pass element by the current through it. I don't want to use a "slow" microcontroller for this, I like nice continuous analog control system, if that is possible.
Question by -max- | last reply
I am working on a project where I want to be able to paint with 5 brushes of different sizes simultaneously. For this, I need to build a device that can hold 5 paintbrushes together, one next to another with a 0.5 inch gap between them (so the bristles don't overlap). My challenge so far is to find a clamp or material that can adjust to various sizes of handles while keeping everything still when I push down to paint. I have tried to poke the brushes through a piece of foam but they will slip and go through (depending on the shape of the brush). Someone suggested duct tape but I'd like this device to be reusable and easy to change between brushes. Basically, can anyone suggest an adjustable clamp or some better material that can fit various diameters and hold still?
Topic by Julep | last reply
Hey guys! Been a while. . . Anyways I was looking for some guidance on selecting an N-channel mosfet, and also what resistor to use when I'm applying voltage to the gate. So I'm working some long LED strips, and I need the mosfet to be able to handle at least 7 amps, so I was hoping for like a 10 amp mosfet or so. I just didn't want to guy buy the first mosfet I found on digikey, I was just hoping for some cheap good options or popular ones. I needs to be able to do PWM. Also I don't know where in the datasheets to find the information on what resistor to use on the gate. For instance I see people using anything from a 1K to a 5K resister with a TIP120. How do you select that information? I will be using an 5v output from my Arduino. So after searching ebay I found the IRFZ44N mosfet, 55v and 49A. I know this is way over my needed specs but I can get 50 of them for 10 bucks. Steal. Since it's so overrated what problems might I run into if any? Thanks guys! What I've found so far: IRF740 - 400v 10A
Topic by HavocRC | last reply
What will be resistance across base and emitter of BJT in C.E configuration
Question by deepakmurali | last reply
I just want to know the values of 8k2, 2k2, 1k5 and 560R and what type of coding method it is?
Question by acs1956 | last reply
Back from the store with ten Tamper Resistant outlets. I have great difficulty plugging anything into them completely. I have great difficulty unplugging anything from them. Is there something I can spray into them to make them open more easily? Can I rig something to pound into them to loosen them with one whack? We're putting in more than 100 outlets. I'm old. I want to be able to plug things in during my lifetime. "Oh they'll loosen up with use" just doesn't cut it for anyone with arthritic hands. Short of moving, or replacing them after inspection, what can I do?
Question by mole1 | last reply
Does anyone have a silicone recipe that IS safe for food and can be put in the oven, safe up to 500 degrees? Or is there such a product already out on the market? I need it in liquid form, so I can make my own mold.
Question by dlrlt530 | last reply
Ok, have a request. I need to make a compact device that will be DC powered (batteries) and produces a set wattage between 4.2watts and 12.7 ish. Can be a little lower a little higher on the scale. I'll be putting different attachments ont he end of this device that will have different resistance between 3-4ohm down to around 1.0ohm. I need the device to read the resistance and adjust the voltage coming from the DC battery to match the wattage I set. Basically if I set it to 10watts I want it to always be 10watts no matter what resistance attachement is on it. I hope that makes sense. I'm sure there's a pre-existing board made by some one out there that does this or that could be salvaged from another device but I can't find one. I know how to do variable voltage with a regulator but I need an auto sensing system where you set the output wattage. That goes a little beyond my expertise. Any help would be greatly appreciated, thanks in advance.
Topic by wallenc | last reply