Extremely small arduino using dip16 form factor?

I am looking for a extremely small arduino board close to this one that I have.-> www.anatools.com/anarduino-kit/ I want a smaller form factor and I dont need need the serial headers, or even the extended sides as I can solder strait to the headers. I tried making my own board using eagle, and diptrace but I am running into alot of issues making it so compact. I was wondering if anyone has already made a board and have to eagle files, or know of any eagle files that I can have so I can etch my own board. Any help would be great! Thanks!

Question by newrev426   |  last reply


Where to find a small form factor 12v Battery?

I am looking to build an LED light that can be powered directly by a 12v source or use an internal battery. I expect that the fixture form factor will be about 4" in length by 2" to 2.5" in width and no more than 3/4" in depth. Internally, it needs to fit two LED units (each draws 0.1-0.2amps and only one would be on at a time) that are 1"x1"x5/8" each, the inside component of a single pole double throw waterproof switch and the remaining space for batteries. I would like to fit the maximum amount of available capacity as possible in as small a space as possible. I am looking for battery suggestions - small form factor, 12v, preferably available via a regular source (i.e. don't have to be special ordered from China), low self-discharge rate, ability to withstand temperature extremes (specifically 120F-140F degree heat). I'll consider wiring up batteries in parallel and serial to get the charge depth and the proper voltage. Any thoughts? I looked at A23 12v batteries and 2CR-1/3N 6v batteries (wire in serial) but I'd like to find something with more available capacity. Also, I'd prefer a non-toxic battery, but will consider lithium, and the ability to be recharged would be a big bonus. I'm guessing there's nothing out there that would give me enough life to be happy, but I thought I'd ask. Thanks!

Question by kcls   |  last reply


Hard drive price confusion

Looking to create a small form factor PC to fit on the back of a monitor and while searching for a hard drive on Newegg noticed that the lowest price 2.5" internal desktop hard drive was $120 and not even 150GB ( http://tiny.cc/01012 ) while a 2.5" USB powered portable hard drive that is 1TB is $90 ( http://tiny.cc/01024 ), these numbers just are not adding up, couldn't I just disassemble the portable hard drive. Not sure if I am missing something important, Help is greatly appreciated!

Question by Algag   |  last reply


how effective is this airflow design? Answered

I am working on a very small build pc, and i was thinking that the best way to reduce overall height would be to design a cover piece that directs the airflow from the intake fanover the CPU and northbridge heatsinks and out the back of the unit via an exhaust fan. this method was chosen because the fan cannot be on top of the cpu heatsink because the unit would be too bulky if it was. I have attached a crude image of the planned cover and the layout of the board's heatsinks, and i would like to know if this is a effective method for cooling, in such a small form factor. if it isn't, what is?

Question by zack247   |  last reply


I need a small FM radio tuner that can be set up for presets?

I need a small form factor FM frequency radio with tuner that can be set up for presets and to a plug in power supply To be used on a exercise machine. It also needs a headphone jack.

Question by fiteqprpr 


Capacitor quick question: (Dissipation factor vs ESR?)

I want a decent small capacitor that is suitable for "high power resonant circuits." On the osciloscope, the waveform looks like 2 well rounded humps, one that is skinny and tall and one shortly following that is shorter but longer, and this is periodic at 30KHz. UPDATE: looking at the waveform closer, it is clearly a damped ringing that is a bit trimmed. The screenshot is uploaded. The maximum measured slew rate was about 25.5MV/S, (which is 25.5V/uS, right?) for a "perfect" 1uF capacitor, that is a peak current of 25.5A! I am unsure of the RMS current due to the non-sinusoidal nature of this waveform. But it must be pretty high as well, explaining why my 3, 1cm diameter 3cm long 0.47uF MMC film capacitors get pretty warm.   . Why do some film capacitor datasheets only give dissipation factor ratings at a few test frequencies (like 10KHz and 100KHz) and others give ESR ratings as well? . Based on what I googled, I figured out dissipation factor is the ratio of ESR to the capacitive reactance. And since the frequency and capacitance is given it is not hard to calculate the ESR. So then why is this not conveniently already listed on the datasheet? Is it because the dissipation factor is what is directly measured? (like the total measured impedance of the capacitor at a certain test frequency)

Question by -max-   |  last reply


How to take a PC DVD Drive and make it a stand alone DVD player?

Yes, I know I can use one of the many small form factor PC's out there...but what other ways can I use to achieve the goal of taking a pc based internal DVD Rom and getting it to work as a standalone dvd player.....

Question by IdeaVault   |  last reply


How to Attach Small Plastic Trinkets to a Shirt/Pants? Answered

I want this to be a rather permanent solution, and the "Trinkets" come in many different forms, but are mostly plastic, i have one or two wooden ones, and a couple paper/cardboard ones. And i really don't care about washing, as i'll probably only wear it once.

Question by milkywaybar   |  last reply


A min-wind turbine tower possibly tree like form

Http://www.megagadgets.nl/en/products/minikin-wind-charger-p-1265/ The image above show the small windturbines I would like to use withouth the battery compartiment, or something like wise. with the stormy weather, I was wondering if a vertical colum 3 wide, and say 3,5 m high could not be used to generate electricty. I then thought it would be better if it liked a bit like a tree, have a tree shape. So that in the bottom 0,5 m there are no mini wind turbines, but at the top end it would have tree like shape filled with them, all generating there bit of power and adding that to a battery system. As I consider it possible that to much power could be obtained, so the excess power would go to a kind of art installation. I wonder how to fabricate such a small turbine myself, but also what windspeed it could have, and how much power each one could generate. e.g. could it generate so much power that it damages itself. It may not be the most efficient form as that a small windturbine would do the same, but in total it would be flatter and with a nice color i´d like them more. I don´t really like the grayish color of those big ones they build along the road. The idea behind it is that you can then ´plant´ a forest of them. The images are merly to given an idea.

Question by Floris Vermeir   |  last reply


12vdc to 5vdc

Can anyone help me, I need a way to convert 12vdc from a vehicle battery to 5vdc for an application that I am working on. I need to do this in a way that it will not fail quickly, and also on the smallest form factor that I can.

Topic by janders223   |  last reply


Dual HDMI Processing

I have an idea for a project that needs to process 2 hdmi inputs in real time, and 1 hdmi output. What kind of processing power would I need for this? I don't think an arduino would be able to handle it, but would a raspberry pi? Or should I be looking at like a mobile dual-core or something? I'm trying to keep it in a small form factor and have it the least amount of lag possible. Thanks, -Nikon

Topic by evillordnikon   |  last reply


How to make Arduino triggered still camera?

I'm looking for a simple way to make a camera using Arduino with the following properties and behavior: -when a certain signal from a sensor or switch gets to the Arduino it takes a single picture and sends it to some kind of memory, preferably a large one that can hold a lot but is small in form factor like an SD card or USB stick. -the camera is always on and waiting for input, allowing the image to trigger immediately upon sensor trigger -the whole thing would work with a fairly small form factor Arduino board, shield, and camera module -obviously camera quality is important, something that would give a reasonably clear image within a fifteen foot distance and in a variety of lighting conditions without a long time taken to focus would be ideal. It seems like most guides I've seen are for video cameras with a ton of options or other inputs. I just want a stupid simple camera that only returns one picture for one input, with an on off switch. Looking for product suggestions or pointers to guides to do this. I'm pretty inexperienced with Arduino. thanks so much!

Question by ilpug 


micro camera for Rc planes

If been wanting to film some of my Rc flights iv been thinking of two ways to do this: A.) buy a mini camera (not wireless could cause interference with other planes or mine although it should only affect 2.4GHZ or spreed spectrum channels which are designed to handle this kind of interference but i dont want to cause any accidents) or B.) Buy a cheep digital camera and mount it to plane Things to consider:Any thing will add weight to the plane which will affect balance (to solve this add weight till balance)I want to avoid wireless. How to power; battery's weight a lot and take up lots of spaceDragSize of cameraIf i do use micro camera where will it record too?Dose any one have any suggestions or ideas on the best way to do this on the cheep?Original form (it was origanaly posted in that group but it got separated) *update* i found a Camera called the flip video camera it has every thing iv been looking for its cheep about 150$, has a tripod mount, records 60 min of video, comes with editing software, runs on 2 AA batteries, and has a small (1.5inch) Lcd screen

Topic by i make shooting things   |  last reply


Anyone know where one can by a ball lock in component form?

I need to source a small ball lock, or the components for one. I have a device which has a broken retaining collar for the ball, and I want to replace.

Question by rodonn   |  last reply


Any ideas for a PC case mod?

I've decided to clear out my assorted computer detritus (Love that word) and have decided to build myself a teamspeak/ventrillo server from the various pieces. Thing is, i have many small form factor components and no case in which to put them. I previously tried putting the PC into a Frosties (Cereal) box , with success, although the case was too flimsy. This leaves me with the following question:What can I put a small PC in (besides buying a case) that is around the size of a 1kg cereal box or larger?Pictures of Frosties mod

Topic by whatsisface   |  last reply


Looking for the smallest wide angle lens I can find

Premise: I have a droid incredible and I love taking pictures with its awesome 8MP camera.  I don't like its depth of field however.  I'm sitting here right now, looking at the camera enclosure, and I'm wondering if I might be able to pop open the red dome of the camera and slide in a tiny wide angle lens.  I've seen the cellphone wide angle lens kits you can buy for things like your iphone, and I actually did buy one for my Zi6.  Worked amazingly well, but even in that small form factor, it sticks out too far for me if i were to use this on my droid inc. Objective: I'm looking for an elegant solution that keeps the wide angle in the enclosure, and can't be knocked off or removed while in the pocket. How feasible would this be?  Would it be possible to find a small enough piece of glass that would give a wide angle view in such a small form factor?  I'm just guessing here, but I'd say the diameter would be 8mm and probably 2 or 3 mm in depth.  Thats pretty tiny... Anyway, I just wanted to get some suggestions from the DIY crowd.  I'll include some pictures of the camera's enclosure to take a look at. Thanks.

Topic by Dotcommer   |  last reply


How can I make a biodegradable adhesive in a paintball-like form-factor that's durable but would break if thrown.

Scenario: you're riding your bike. A car cuts you off. You have a little hopper full of these balls and have the presence of mind to get one out and throw it at the car. It sticks to the car. When the driver gets home, he sees it. Inside of the clear adhesive is a laminated piece of paper or something durable with a link written on it. The driver goes to the website and reads instructions about how to be a better bike-friendly driver. They wash the adhesive off with no damage done to the car. They become more conscientious drivers.

Question by pyaranderson   |  last reply


can super caps be used with rotating magnet to form generator?

Rotate cylindrical magnetic bar over circular super cap as it's or short her 2 internal plate (hopefully if we can) to act like one flat ribbon coil nano wire made of carbon instead of copper. nano tech also should be implemented in small medium even large motor/generator and I think it would yield generator with high efficiency low weight and size with minimized edde current and inertia. NOTE ultra caps does not sold in our local electronic store here in damascus syria , if it was i would bought it's and experiment making generator using magnet and super caps and post the result thank you all for your time reading my question :)

Question by infoseek   |  last reply


Monthly Make It Challenge: Big and Small!

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Other than for entrants who are U.K. residents, Sponsor, any Co-Sponsor, and each entrant agree to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of an appropriate state court in Marin County, California, or an appropriate federal court located in San Francisco, for any action or proceeding arising out of or related to these Rules, the Contest, or any prize. For U.K. residents: these Rules are governed by the Laws of England and Wales, and Sponsor, any Co-Sponsor, and each entrant agree to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts in England in connection with any action or proceeding arising out of or related to these Rules, the Contest, or any prize. By entering the Contest, each entrant submits to the jurisdiction of those courts and waives any objection to those courts, whether on the basis of jurisdiction, venue, inconvenience of the forum, or otherwise. If any part of these Rules is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, illegal, or otherwise unenforceable, such part will be modified by such court to the minimum extent necessary to make it enforceable while preserving to the maximum extent possible the original intent of Sponsor, and the remaining parts of these Rules will remain in full force and effect. Nothing contained herein or in any of the Contest related materials should be construed as an endorsement by Sponsor of any Co-Sponsor, or of Sponsor or any Co-Sponsor of any third party, product, or service. Winner's List; Mailing List. The user name(s) and entries of the Contest winner(s) will be posted on the Contest page of the Sponsor Site, within thirty (30) days of awarding of all prizes. In addition, the names of the winner(s) may be obtained by sending a written request and a self-addressed, stamped envelope to the below address (requests must include the words "WINNER'S LIST" and the full name of the Contest prominently in the first line of the address): Instructables 82 2nd St. San Francisco, California 94105 USA All such requests must be received within six (6) months of the Deadline. Sponsor's telephone number for Contest purposes is (01-510-473-7626). Entrants who opt to join Sponsor's electronic mailing list agree to be contacted by email by Sponsor. Requests for removal from Sponsor's mailing list may be made as instructed in any such email, or by sending a written request and a self-addressed, stamped envelope to "Instructables Mailing List" at the above address, by calling the above telephone number, or as otherwise indicated on the Sponsor Site. Residents of Vermont may omit return postage on winner's list and mailing list requests. © 2011 Instructables, Inc. All rights reserved. INSTRUCTABLES is a registered trademark of Instructables, Inc. Other brands may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Topic by mikeasaurus 


Wifi Voip Phone

The call control protocol of the WF01 is based on SIP V2 (Session Initiation Protocol version 2, RFC 3261) open standard, which is interoperable with major SIP-based call servers, IP-PBXs, and other standard SIP-based client devices. The WF01_V2 is compliant with the IEEE 802.11b standard and interoperates with any existing 802.11b or 802.11g wireless AP and gateway. It may be used as a cordless handset for residential users or for business users in an office environment. The small form factor of the handset is easy to transport and allows users to place VoIP phone calls in public 802.11-based environment.

Topic by chinakorinna2008   |  last reply


Can you use fused plastic bags to make small plastic boxes? Answered

I would like to make some small plastic boxes to hold assorted electronic experiments, are the fused plastic bags hard / strong enough to form around a wodden block or similar to shape into a small box?

Question by mad_mat   |  last reply


Where can I find a (very) small auger?

For some reason, I have found it very difficult to find an auger that is 1" or less in diameter and is long enough for practical use.  I have needed such a thing for both a science project as well as an automatic feeder.   I have only found this part in the form of parts in toys.  One of the toys is a demonstration of an archimedes screw water lifter, which I have obtained but it's not long enough to be terribly practical.  The other is from an old toy grain auger that isn't made anymore.  Similar ones are still produced, but the augers are made of plastic and aren't entirely straight or flush with their enclosure.   The best one I've found is in this toy: http://i.imgur.com/8vVWJgG.jpg I'd like to know of any manufacturers that make augers similar to that, whether they be metal or plastic.  I'd rather not blow money on expensive antique toys and destroy them.

Question by Ravenstine   |  last reply


Very simple proximity activated switch (several inches range)?

Hello Instructables! I am looking for a simple electronic switch that will instantly turn on when it comes within a few inches (5-8) of a little beacon or antenna of some sort. I would like to be able to have the beacon be small, and preferably flat in form factor, with the receiver/switch system being no larger than an inch square. For size constraints, watch batteries would be the most preferred power source.  Would RFID be a good option for this?  Preferably I don't want this to have to be hooked to a phone, and it would need to be something that I could conceivably make a PCB foror use a very small existing board like a TEENSY. 

Question by ilpug   |  last reply


Looking for Info On These CNC Motors For Replacement

I purchased a surplus 2-axis CNC machine with built by Yamaha. I hoped to rebuild it into a new machine for myself, but it ended up requiring 200 volts AC for the controller and motors, which I don't have access to. I sold off the controller already. I don't know too much about professional CNC macahines, hoping someone has some input. I am hoping to replace the motors with ones in the same form-factor that run on DC or 120v AC(if such thing exists), preferably stepper type. I do not know what form-factor/package/mounting style to look for, or even if any are available with the power requirements I want.  Motors are the same for both axis and are part#: TS2620N664E122, attached are some pictures. Thanks,

Topic by ChromationSystems   |  last reply


Electromagnet Help! How to Make a Small but very Strong Electromagnet???

I need you help smart people of Instructables!I need to make a small Electromagnet, that uses minimum power (by that I mean the battery), but still has to be very powerful. I have a couple of questions that I need you to help me answer:Does the number of coils that is wound to the metal bar effect the strenght of the electromagnet?Does the wire gauge (20,24,28,30,34,36 wire gauge) make a difference is the strenght of the magnet?Does the voltage I supply to the coil effect the Electromagnet?What type of battery is best for an Electromagnet (AA, AAA, C, D), and what voltage (1,5V, 3V, 4,5V, 6V, 9V) ???Here is the thing, I need to make the Electromagnet super strong but taking up the minimum of energy, for example, just 1,5V. The things that are not important to me (doesn't play a factor in my device) is the number of wire winds to the metal rod and the wire gauge! So is it better to just make 1 or more (3,4,5,6...) layers of wire winds???Is it better to use thinner (36 gauge) or thicker wire (24 gauge)???Thank you a lot!Stanislav

Question by comodore   |  last reply


how do i make a lego transformer as in the transforming toys? Answered

I want to make a transforming lego robot in mini form not big a small one

Question by zaktanandy   |  last reply


How can I make a small motor for an old scooter I have from junk? Answered

I have an old scooter and wanted to motorize it I have some motor parts form my uncles motorcycle but I wonder if there was a cheaper and easier way to do it

Question by Rebreg   |  last reply


Ice Alaska: Ice

Ice for the competition is collected form gravel pits around Fairbanks. In the summer gravel is mined from old river channels. The resulting ponds contain little organic material. Additionally during nine month winter, temperatures range from +40 to -60F (+5 to -50C). These factors combine to create exceptionally thick clear ice. The following are pictures of an iced over gravel pit.

Topic by jesse.hensel   |  last reply


Anyone use or think of a use in projects: used discarded automotive Serpentine Belts?

I've cut some into strips and bonded pieces to appliance edges making "scratch resistant bumpers.My vacuum cleaner does not chip paint from the woodwork anymore!  Serpentine belts are strong and have a nice form factor. Pieces of thick rubber for projects are hard to find any ideas?

Question by MEGACYCLES   |  last reply


Looking for an Electrical Engineer to partner with

Hi - I've got a business idea that requires hardware and I can't build the thing myself.  I'll write the software for it, but I need assistance building the circuitry. The circuitry involved would include a temp sensor, R/F communications module, photodiode, memory (possibly micro SD), controller,  and a timer in a very small form factor (about the size of a cigar tube). I'll split any profits from selling the device 50/50 with the HW designer.  I'll ask you to sign an NDA before we get going. Please contact me here or at bret at thelastmilellc dot com. Rgds, Bret

Topic by bschuhma   |  last reply


i need help coming up with a way to press a spray bottle wirelessly form 200+ feet away? Bug sprayer? Answered

I am working on a misting system that would operator wirelessly. I want to spray the bug spray with the click of a button in my back yard. It needs to be pretty small but really I am trying to figure the easiest way to either pump liquid from a small water bottle or a spray bottle. Thoughts?

Question by scottzkee   |  last reply


Is it feasable for an eighth grader to build a small (4 computer) cluster running linux?

I am going into eighth grade and for my science project i want to build a computer cluster running linux. for my project  i want to test if the time it takes to process something would be cut in half, thirds and fourths when doubling , tripling and quadrupling the number of computers, or slightly less than half, thirds and fourths because of various factors slowing down processing speeds the more computers are added. Is that extremely impractical or is it possible? if so would i use software types such as pvm or mpi? Finally, are there any suggestions as to what program i should process. i need something that will stay constant ( if i did two tests with the same computer the processing time would generally stay the same) but also take long enough that slight time differences would be noticeable (1 computer takes 2 hours, 2 computers take 1 hour and 1 minute, 3 computers would take 41.5 minutes and so on and so forth).

Question by danielemur   |  last reply


Camera Flash Circuit

I know that it's pretty easy to cannibalize a camera flash to do some pretty simple things...but i find it difficult (probably by design) to solder things to these prebuilt boards (especially the "charge button"...that things not built for soldering)...i was wondering if someone could work up a circuit schematic with part numbers (or at least part identification) for a flash circuit like those in a disposable camera...so that someone could build it from scratch in whatever form factor they choose.

Topic by crapflinger   |  last reply


Is it possible to use a DVD player hardware / peripherals and convert it into a small "net book" style computer?

I have a "older" (maybe 2 years tops) DVD player made by Haier with a 7" screen. (Total width is about 8 inches.) My questions are numerous but can be sumeerized with this: Can I use the case, psu(battery), and LCD and rip the rest of the guts ot to make a small computer. Now granted, I know it won't be any kind of speed demon. I have built many desktop systems before. But insofar as laptop hardware is concerned I might as well call myself a complete beginner. My plan is thus (and if you would like pictures of the existing hardware and connectors I would be able to supply them): I would take out the mobo and the drive which is broken (my daughter burned the motor out when she was younger by manually moving it) and try to replace it with a smaller form factor motherboard. I would need this mobo to be able to boot from a usb drive so that I could use a bootable linux, possibly ubuntu, and maybe another usb drive for an input device. (Mouse most likely, use an on screen keyboard.) Another question would be are the connectors for the i/o in small devices standard or are they mostly proprietary? Would I be able to use the existing cables with a motherboard? If not are there converters? And the next thing would be that I would need a network card to work with it.... In the end, I would like it to be able to use a tiny linux, have some sort of i86 architechture (becuase flash 9 or 10 wont work with a powerpc arch.), and be able to use firefox to view youtube. It's kind of a gift for my daughter. Is it possible?

Question by Asmodean_7   |  last reply


anyone got plan for a hand operated fly/platten press?

I need to make a small platten press for die cutting thin metal foils using cutting forms the foil is amaximum of a3 size

Question by trapper23   |  last reply


Prize verification

Hi Prize Room Guru, I think it would be a great idea to create some form of prize verification for contest and challenge winners. I've won a few contests, and each time I fill out the 'collect your prize' form I always wonder whether or not anyone received my info. Once I won something from the Big and Small challenge and my info was never processed, so I visited the HQ to pick it up (which isn't exactly a bad thing, but still). It's a small improvement, I know, but it would definitely put my mind at ease. I'm sure there are others out there who feel the same way. Thanks for considering this :) Lance

Topic by LanceMakes   |  last reply


Any Way to Easily Obtain Deuterium?

I've had an interest in how physicists obtain deuterium for their experiments (especially those dealing with nuclear fusion).  I know it comes in small quantities in water, in the form of deuterium oxide ('heavy water') .  It also comes in the form of 'heavy methane' also.  I've looked at several patents dealing with extracting deuterium from such sources.  Is their any do-it-yourself (DIY) techniques that could use every day materials to obtain deuterium?

Topic by bigboy4006   |  last reply


Why is it so bad that the small bakeries disappear more and more...

Everyone loves a good bread roll, a nice and freshly baked bread...But where does it come from and what is really in it?When it comes to bread and bread rolls we tend to think all is fresh, especially when you see that your favourite supermarket has a bakery with a real oven.Our local baker that took over the business from his father not only sees a thread but also is unable to compete with the price.The consumer only too often selects by price only if look and taste seem to be good.A bread roll for under 20 cents, a whole bread for just over $2 and I am not talking toast here...So how is such a price possible or how can a "bakery" provide 30 or more different types of rolls and bread with just one or two small ovens and a tiny kitchen area?The trick on a small scale is to use ready to go mixes, just add yeast and water and you are set to go.On a big scale we talk about dough that is frozen, sometimes pre-baked but alsways already in the shape of the finnished product.Since there is just flour, salt and yeast in it what could the harm?Like with soft drinks and alcohol not all ingredients are legally required to be listed.Enzymes, antioxidants, modifiers and more.The claim is that ingredients that disappear during the baking need not mentioning at all.If we check how these helping substances are made we get everything from bacteria and fungi over chemical compositions that are lab created and even things that are totally engeneered.Why use nature if you can made the substance in a lab...Most countries have authorities that deal with just these things and their use.So as long as every single ingredient is legal and does not require to be listed it is fair game.The problem here is that no one really knows what goes into the dough for these ready to bake frozen products.As we know from our chemistry lessons in school even totally harmless components can combine to a harmful endproduct.Especially enzymes are used to to modify everything from DNA over meat products to modifying the appearence and shelf life of a product.For most if not all the secret ingredients used we are assured they are conform with the local law and food regulations but we will never know where they came from or how they could interact with each other.Every dentist will tell you that cheap, white (so called) bread is pretty much the worst for your teeth.The usual claim here is that it is too soft, might contain too much sugar but in general the carbohydrates convert to harmful sugars and food for bacteria.These bacteria then harm your teeth...This alone however has shown to be a bit of a misjudgement.If you take the official ingredients on their own then their harm on the teeth is basically non existing.It is again the enzymes and their remains that do the hard work by providing the base to convert a lot of contents directly to sugars through these bacteria.If we now go a step further and consider that bacteria do a pretty good in our body to keep a healthy balance and convert nutrients for us we have to wonder...A thing of our modern time is alleries, same for intolerance to certain foods.The sources for these are plentyful but apart from shielding ourselfs agains all bacteria, viruses and germs in general food is a common factor.Regions with limited or no access to processed foods or drinks show little to no signs of our common allergies or common helth conerns like heart disease or obesity.When it comes to our bread products it is obvious that we consume a lot of it and simply trust the claims on the pack.Rich in omega 3 added fibres, wholemeal...A real baker starting shortly after midnight to produce fresh products for his customer will just shake his head.There are many studies that show us the quality of certain foods, also a lot that show how fast food is bad for you.But when it comes to investigating the bread we eat every day we only find meaningless informations.The long term effect of some of the "secret" ingredients in bread are however well studied in animal tests.Digestive problems, failing to make use of certain basic amino acids, an affected central nervous system and even behaviour abnomalities have been observed.Of course we can't really compare a rat or pig on totally overdosed tests with what we eat on a daily base.But if certain enzymes and other ingredients in our frozen bread mixes and also dry mixes can do this then it is safe to asume that some sife effects from long term exposure will happen too.An enzyme that might just cause a less sticky dough might also affect meat.Another ingredient that should keep the dough firm enough for production machines could cause your stomach lining to produce far less liquids that help digestion.And other ingredients that might just try to produce a more uniform expansion of the dough might break down other food products in your intestines so the body can not convert them into as many other building blocks as before.Sure, we trust the claim that the baking will totall remove all traces of all the things that are not required to be listed.But lab test will show quite opposite, especially when it comes to soft, fluffy "bread" in sliced form.Bread is one of the basic food items everyone needs, so if being able to provide it at an "affordable" price is possible than not too many will actually check the product as a whole.Imagine you buy a premium looking steak and on the pack it states it was made with meat glue - another enzyme.You would not buy it...Thankfully most countries banned the use of meat glues after to many cases of related food poisoning happened.Should have been obvious that cut meat will have more bacteria and that gluing such pieces will result in bacteria to grow inside the meat at fast rates.So if you now wonder why such things are not fully regulated and checked ask yourself: why do you buy the cheap bread from your supermarket instead going to support your local baker?Money...Don't trust my words here!Grab a bread from your supermarket and some bread rolls, then do the same at a real bakery and compare the products.After that check for the best time and grab a few cold beer to have a nice chat about factory made bread products with the guy who kowns how to make it.You might be suprised what he will tell you ;)

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


Speak Visual Contest - for computer modders and visual artists

MAKE has just announce a new contest it's running with NVIDIA called the Speak Visual Contest. This is perfect for computer modders since you can enter a PC mod, gamer station or PC hardware creation. Interestingly enough, it's also open to motion graphics and data visualization that uses a graphics card as well.Top prize is a Digital Storm PC with some killer specs that's worth over two grand. Five runners up will win the BFG GeForce GTX 260 OC MAXCORE. Others will win copies of Building The Perfect PC 2nd Edition or Make Projects: Small Form Factor PCs from MAKE.Even cooler, one of the ways to enter is to submit an Instructable with "modificationstation" as a tag. Below is the full list of ways to enter.Flickr: tag your photos with "modificationstation" and also add it to the Make: Flickr photo pool.YouTube, Vimeo, blip.tv: tag your videos with "modificationstation".Submit your project link via the Make: Submit form.Instructables, tag your project with "modificationstation".You can also send links to your videos, photos or more to us via email. Speak Visual Contest

Topic by fungus amungus   |  last reply


Problem with instructable. How do I eliminate a draft to start over? Is the small picture at the top the project?I

I have my project pretty well planned out.  I am having trouble with entering it into the form.  Also have 3 drafts that I started that do not seem right, but do not know how to eliminate them so that I can start over.   Is the small picture at the top for the project, or is it supposed to be my profile picture? Any suggestions?

Question by grandmaof13   |  last reply


how to avoid lump formation due to carbonates in lab slab cultured marble samples.?

When we make lab samples, small lumps are formed which is difficult to break in the mixtures. This on pressing gives spots of carbonate specks which looks very odd and damages the beauty of the samples.

Question by ashok -1955   |  last reply


UV filtration in your fish tank or small fish pond

Year after year the topic "I have a fish tank" seems to go more out of control. What was once a hobby just to have some fish can now be a design feature both in your home and inside the tank. Realistic looking lasdscapes, optical illusions that make you think the tank is much bigger and the list goes on. But one thing that now always pops up is the must have thing of UV filtration. Or to be precise: UV-C sterilisation! Now, if we trust Wiki and our big water suppliers then UV-C will literally kill anything alive that comes into contact with. So of course it would be a good thing to have for your tank - or not? UV-C is very dangerous for your eyesight and quite harmful for your skin! Looking into a proper UV-C lamp without protection means you can go blind! Even good sunglasses might not have enough protection in the UV-C range, so only use them for additional protection but never without and glass between you and the lamp! Don't be a fool! Treat UV-C seriously! You would not look into the full sun with your sunglasses and would not expose your eyes or skin to a powerful laser, UV-C is to be treated the same way! Let's start by using some boring text to explain the concept a little bit. On a large scale special and quite powerful systems are used to treat our drinking or pool water. Here special UV-C lights with a wavelenghts of 260nm or below are used to shine through the water passing by. There are two key factors here. a) the wavelenght b) the water flow rate and the corresponding time the water is in contact with the UV light To ensure all bacteria, viruses, algae and other harmful organics are dead the water must circulate for long enough so even the last water molecule had a few seconds of exposure. All this only works good with "crystal clear" water for obvious reasons as otherwise the UV has to be even more powerful to pass through. Single cell organisms literally crack into pieces similar to being exposed to gamma rays, more complex cells like algae have their cell membranes damages and the DNA suffers as well causing reproduction loss and early death. Even some chemicals break down, most importantly here chlorine based substances. Differences within the UV-C range! If you bothered to check Wiki about the topic of UV-C you will already know that only certain wavelengths within this spectrum will actuall be powerful enough to do what we want it to do. And here is the first problem for us hobby users. Most cheaply advertised "sterlisation lamps" you find in places like Ebay are actually totally useless. Stating to be selling a UV-C light to sterilze your water in such a case is still not considered to be fraud though. Simply because it still does what it supposed to do, just very slow and with very little effect. Only the so called "short wave" UV-C range is powerful enough! To avoid loosing business during the times of the biggest hype in 20 years no seller will actuall state the available wavelengths. That means without this info anywhere you can be certain the advertised lamp is of little to no use. Even those advertised to be short wave UV-C might not be the real deal. However, if a decent manufacturer is behind the actual lamp used it is possible to check the datasheet for these performance figures - but again most cheap systems come with no-name lamps inside. Check the prices for a reputable UV-C light with the same lamp fitting, e.g. G23 and you will see it might cost more than your entire system. Ok, you have a poper short wave UV-C lamp or consider getting a canister filter with one in it.... Never, ever test your lamp without proper protection!!!!! UV-C will damage your eye within seconds! If you system or lamp does not provide a viewing port or shine through area then you have to place a piece of glass between you and the light! UV-C won't be able to penetrate normal window glass but will pass through quartz glass. Place the lamp in a box and cover with the glass. How make proper use of UV-C sterilisation... The replacement lights are quite expensive, so let's see how to get the most out of them. As said before exposure is the key factor so the flow rate of the UV system must match tank size and flow rate of your filter system. Canister filters with a build in lamp should be designed to match but I will tell you later what to look for ;) Most of us will prefer to have a in-line system if there is already a good canister filter at work, so I will focus on those and rop in solutions. If you compare in-line system you might notice that some quite small and low power units claim to allow for the same flow rates as for example 40W units. Some are fraud and just want to sell while others use simple physics to make the claim true. A good system will utilise an auger like "ramp" that forces the water to circulate around the tube many times - causing up to ten times longer exposure rates. Others create this sprial effect more like a vortex with some diverters and modified inlets. The later seems to be less efficient though with low power lamps. An in-line system should be on the outlet side of your canister filter so the best quality water will pass through it. A drop in solution should be used alone and without the existing normal filter pump you might have in there. Ok, got it, but how do I actually use it now? Despite common thinking a UV-C system should not run 24/7 like your normal filter. You really only need it to solve problems you should not have in a healthy tank! It is not a magical solution to make your underlaying problems go away ;) Let's start with the most common reason someone buys a UV-C system: An algae or bacterial outbreak causing greenish or milky water. If that developed slowly over a period of weeks then you would be better off to do a good clean of the tank and filter plus a decent water exchange. A few drops of meds will do the rest. And if you constantly get algae growing on your glass, ornaments and plants then your nutrient levels and water quality is not right anyway and needs a good check. But of course there is also the problem of light - too much for too long and unwanted gree appears everywhere. If in doubt reduce the light power, shade out natural light or reduce the on time for your lights. Having said that we now face the problem of a sudden outbreak after introducing new fish or plants. If you don't have a quarantaine tank chances are that sooner or later you get unwanted or even harmful guest into your tank. Here the UV-C will be beneficial, which is why a canister filter with build in light should have a seperate switch or power supply for the light. After an outbreak or while introducing new life into your tank the UV-C will remove a lot of the things that we don't want to bring along. For new life I leave the light on non stop for a week, that is for a small 4ft tank with 200 liters. To control an outbreak it depends on how bad it is. I assume here you can still see the back of your tank  but that the water either appears greenish or slightly milky from bacteria. As a personal thing I prefer to to remove and clean my filter material before treating a severe outbreak. Once done I fill the filter with a mix of activate carbon material and fine filter wool. Reason for this quite simple: The outbreak causing stuff is already in your filter material and will be a constant source of re-infection. And since breaking down all this bad stuff causes even more bad stuff to be produced as biological waste we want to discard it properly once done. Using just fine filter wool and activated carbon also reduces the flow rate bit if compacted ;) Now we can turn on the light and pump and forget about it for a while. It is not recommended to run UV lights on a timer as you want them on all time to prevent short lifespan and have ongoing treatment of the water. Good idea to take a picture at the same of a day from now on to compare and check results. After 3 days the water should definately be clearer, if not then either your filter material is packed too losse or the lamp is no good. Once the water appears to be clear do a readin test - take a newspaper behind the tank and check if the text is clear - blurry means the water is still not clean. You will reach a point where the water quality will not further improve as much as in the days before. This is the time where you discard or clean out to dry your filter material and put the original stuff back in. The activated carbon should be discarded of course. You cleaned filter material will now need a certain time to grow enough good bacteria to go back to the old performance. During this time you should still leave the light on. In most cases with enough fish and plants in the tank a week should be sufficient. After that you can leave the light off and keep the tank fit and healthy. Special case: Algae everywhere! Especially after getting a new plant you can end up with quite pesty algae growth. Be it these long ghost hair types or in a bad case the black stuff growing on plants, ornaments and the glass. I have even seen tanks with algae covering the entire bottom of the tank causing the gravel to look like carpet. Here I can only advise to set up a quarantaine tank for your fish. Then remove all infested material for manual removal and cleaning. Infested plants should be cut clean and what can be boiled should be boiled in water for a few minutes. Now start scrubbing in the tank with ongoing water replacements. I prefer to let everything settle over night without any bubbler or pump running. This way I can suck up a lot of sediment the next day. If you can remove all plants and fish you can now use hydrogen peroxide and add it to your tank water. But this is only feasable for small desktop tanks. Before using the UV as above to cure an outbreak you should consider all water one last time. Allow at least 2 weeks with ongoing water checks before adding plants back in and another week before placing your fish back in the tank. The week before adding fish should be used to monitor the plats for any signs of algae you might have missed - if you find any remove it! A week after the fish is back in you can turn off the UV light. Underwater UV-C light!? In most online stores you will find quite cheap UV lights to be advertised as underwater or in tank use. Although it might sound tempting you should be well aware of the dangers of using them. The glass of your tank will block the harmfull UV rays but the water surface won't, so either don't ever look at it or use proper sunglasses with real UV protection. Apart from the dangers to you these lamps are not just cheap in price but also cheaply produced. That means there is no way of telling how much or how little UV-C is produced. If they are good then you still need to know in what type of tank setup you can use them. As plants can tolerate a bit of UV a placement as far away from the nearest plant should do, especially if you can place a bubble wall betwenn light and plants. The fish is another thing as some seem to be unaware of the danger in their tank. This means they can get too close to the light but I have not found any articles explaining how harmful UV-C is to fish or their eyesight. I guess once your fish starts to bounce into everything you know... ;) My advise is to stay away from the idea of hanging a UV-C lamp in your tank, the risk for you and your tank is just not justified. If you need to go cheap then get two or thre of these lamps so you have spares. But use them externally ;) Meaning: Take a UV proof plastic container of small size and place the light in there. To be really safe tape the lid and all holes for the hoses with black tape. Place the container above the water level of your tank and if you only have an internal filter pump push a suitable sized hose into the outlet to feed into you canister. Check how high you pump can make it and place the outlet or overflow slightly below this level. When to change the light? If you made it all the way down here then you might already had the benefit of using light to "cure" your tank. Now we are faced with the high replacement cost for the lamp itself. Ususally only flouroscent tubes are used. It is always good to check after purchase what type of lamp and manufacturer (if there is one) was used. In some cases the system itself is like an inkjet printer: Just a cheap way to make you buy the consumables. Let's say you new in-line filter was priced at $100 to have a nice round number, some are cheaper some much more expensive. The lamp used might be an exotic type and not even be available easy, so before you buy your system check where you can get spares, not just the lamp of course. A replacement lamp can be as ceap as 20 bucks or cost even more than your system if you need to order it elsewhere. The quartz glass sleeve can break too meaning you then need a lamp and cylinder. Going with a reputable brand and paying a bit more certainly helps to get spares in the future. Let's just assume you either got your system in bulk due to the price of replacement lamps or can get them at a reasonable price. UV-C lamps are not like your normal flouroscent light tubes you have around or maybe even on top of your tank. Consider them like the tubes used in the now unhealthy tanning beds. After a certain amount of time they no longer produce enough of the short wave UV light that we need. As you can't see it and most of us won't have the means to specifically measure it we have to trust manufacturers recommendations. For most good brands the numbers are the same: 8000 hours max. Considering the costs it does make sense to keep written track of the usage. Not too hard since we won't use them like normal lights but instead have them on for a week or more without turning them off. I recommend to have a replacement at hand long before you need it. A lamp can fail premature, crack or simply burn out. The 8000 hours are based on 24 hour usage, so one day on, one day off. This could mean for us the lifetime can be slightly longer but I would not go over 9000 hours. As a rule of thumb: If the water does not show good signs of getting clear on day thre the lamp is due.

Topic by Downunder35m   |  last reply


what can i do with a waterpump?

Hey guys i have a big old electric waterpump and a small 1l/min waterpump do you have any suggestions what to do with them? i would like to do something in the form of a worktool or a usable machine, not a useless item

Question by timothy demaegdt   |  last reply


Can i put potting mix or dirt of soil in water forming a slurry and use it as hydroponics nutrient solution?

I recently saw videos on hydroponics and wanted to set it up my self on a budget, 0$, just as an experiment i cut the cone top of a small mineral water bottle put it upside down like a diy minnow trap and used tissue as substitute for rock wool, filled bottom with water till it just touched the tissue, then plopped a bean in it. I then forgot after putting it behind a fish tank. After 3 days it looks like this. I need nutrient in water so i was thinking about just dumping a palm full of soil, would it work?

Question by Atharva1   |  last reply


I need to charge my laptop while on a tour through the americas. Is there any way i can hit 40 watts using my bike? Answered

 I don't have a massive budget for a sweet solar panel. So i am curious to see if there is any way i can get the kinetic energy of my tires to capture enough power to at least charge my batter while i ride. Small, lite simple & robust are all important factors. Any ideas?

Question by okiave   |  last reply


$13 Arduino Boards now at Evil Mad Scientist Labs

Evil Mad Scientist has just released Diavolino, a low cost option for those who like to do arduino development, take a look:   "Diavolino ("little devil") is a low-cost, easy to build Arduino-compatible development board. Diavolino has the form factor of an Arduino Duemilanove or Arduino Pro, but with nicely rounded corners and a striking appearance. It's a low-profile through-hole version, with a simplified design. It's based on a ATmega328P microcontroller, and comes pre-flashed with the Arduino bootloader. Open source design, with bare basics hardware."   You can buy them here

Topic by frenzy 


How can i focus a magnetron beam from a microwave , to make a small metal forge?

hello I have been looking for a number of ways to cast my zinc with, along with just melting other metals namely aluminium. I have come across the microwave method, however i feel that just using a microwave is a wasteful and hazardous means of meting metals like zinc , since the metal vapors are very flammable, even explosive, even as a dust I thought, since the microwave is basically just a box which the magnetron beams microwaves into, why not build a forge, which consist of a crucible laying in the center-point of a magnetron beam. all this would sit outside, done at a distance to avoid exposure to rouge microwaves. I dont wish to introduce anything new into the equation, just use prexisting things form the microwave, and probably some aluminium sheet. Anyone know if it will work better than just using a microwave? and how i should focus the beam? i want to keep the whole thing as compact as possible, probably which the crucible being no further than 10-20cm from the magnetron. Thanks

Question by oldmanbeefjerky   |  last reply


Help with an Electronic Sabacc deck

I think an electronic sabacc deck would be epic but so far have not found any that exsist. I understand this as LCD tech is still fairly expensive and there are complications of networking the screens but I think its doable. What is really needed is "cards" that are networked with a small randomization program running that displays pictures. The hardest part would be figuring out how to network the devices so that no two cards can display the same face value at one time.  I think it could be possible to use old cell phones to do this. A semi-modded razor form factor would work really well if we could find some for about 2-5$ each. I am good with graphics and have some programming knowledge but I don't have enough to figure out how to run the program on the device or how to get them to talk to each other. I think that people in this community would have the know how if this is possible and it would be rock star if we could figure it out.

Topic by legendary42 


Solubility chemistry question Answered

Picture an ionic compound that dissolves in water is saturated with a small amount left over Since the solubility reaction occurs in both directions at equal rates, what's stoping the reverse reaction from forming precipitates that aren't on the surface of the lump of compound left over? why do the ions almost always precipitate on the already solid compound causing harldy any noticable change?

Question by Tombini   |  last reply


can you hack a picture viewer keychain to show vidieo?

I want to use a small cheap keychain picture things to show video form a cctv camera for a rov remote monitor. I just don't know if its possible or how to do it if it is. please help its driving me insane and thats not a far drive for me!

Question by jeepless   |  last reply