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teflon ( ptfe ) tape melting how to

Hello, I am looking for a viable way to melt some teflon tape so to form a sort of spiraled tube . I am thinking of wrapping it around a steel tube and heating the tube up to 600 °F  or such . How should I heat the steel tube so to melt the teflon not  permanently bonding it (teflon) to the tube surface ?

Topic by gabdab    |  last reply


In Spain, looking for clear teflon tube for a lightpipe.

I guess this question has two parts. I'm prototyping a solar energy device, part of which is a light pipe to transport the collected solar energy, about 300 - 2500 nM. I'm planning on making this from a flexible tube filled with a highly refractive liquid, stoppered at each end with clear plugs. It looks like the materials I should be using are: Tube: Teflon (PTFE, FEP, AF 1600, AF 2400) in that order of desireablitity, lowest to highest. The AF 2400 has a refractive index of 1.29, which is the lowest of any polymer. Apparently. Core: Mineral oil / liquid paraffin. Plugs: Acrylic or normal glass. Thoughts? Also, where would you suggest I try to find these? (I have the mineral oil already) Keeping in mind that I'm in Madrid, Spain. Getting this to work would make a huge difference to solar microgeneration, as transporting the energy is currently a bit of a nightmare. Thanks heaps, Daniel.

Topic by SolarFlower_org    |  last reply


Best method for mounting teflon servo arms to a base (metal or wood)?

I am currently working on a simple tilt system for a mobius camera on a quadcopter. Basicly, when FPV flying, I want to be able to look directly down, and straight ahead, so I know what is below me as well as get some good footage. I have 3 parts that need to be mounted together. A small, sub-micro servo, a plastic shell/case for the mobius camera, and a fabricated piece that extends from the bottom of the quadcopter, to the servo, allowing just enough room for the servo to turn the camera ~90 degrees. I have hot glued the camera case/shell directly to the servo, so that the arm of it is free to turn directly above the center hole. The arm that mounts there then somehow needs to be mounted to a little board or something that extends down from below the quadcopter body. That piece is not difficult to mount, however, the teflon servo arm needs to firmly mount to that piece. So far I have tried hot glue (peels right off the teflon after some vibration) and universal JP weld (that grey and black stuff that takes a REALLY long time to set, and same problem). Whenever possible, I prefer to not use glue, as it is messy, sloppy and bad-looking, as well as permanent and fragile when it does work. I may sometime plan to change the design, I would prefer better mounting techniques, and do not want the bonds to break with large shock from a crash landing.

Question by -max-    |  last reply


Longboard sliding gloves material?

I already have a longboard, but I'm making one this summer... (new instructable.. stay tuned!) I'm now making a pair of longboard sliding gloves for palm-down slides... what is the best material for the palm disk.. ABS, teflon, PVC? ( The thing in the back of the gloves is my homemade flattened ABS pipe.)

Question by mrwonton    |  last reply


Where can i find nylon?

I am building a vdg for sci fair and i don't know where to look for a nylon roller. also if i use nylon and the top and Teflon at the bottom will that work?

Topic by DELETED_DELETED_kruser495    |  last reply


i need one DIY CNC ready use

I need DIY CNC, for help my job.  This CNC will be use for make SHAPE of Teflon as like degree that i need. So pls give me information who can supply DIY CNC ready use and the price?

Question by pakdanang    |  last reply


Shopping Bags to Frisbees

Someone once told me that about the only way to join polyethylene plastic was with heat and pressure. Plastic shopping bags are a recycling problem.  I think they are polyethylene plastic.  Heat and pressure might turn them into Frisbees, or other essential things.  I visualize a vertical, heat-resistant cylinder with a removable  Teflon-coated bottom cap in the shape of a Frisbee -- black to absorb solar heat.  A piston inside with the other half of the Teflon-coated mold could have a weight on it to provide pressure.  Fill the cylinder with shopping bags, with the piston inside, and suspend it over a solar reflector to heat the end cap of the cylinder.   There you have heat and pressure -- and free energy to turn the shopping bags inside into Frisbees, or other objects. Personally, I don't have need for more Frisbees, and don't collect enough bags to keep the equipment busy.  On a community recycling scale, though, it might be a way to get rid of a lot of bags that nobody wants.  Would anybody like to run the experiment? 

Topic by Thinkenstein    |  last reply


Anyone savvy with Air Electrodes??? Thanks! =)

I'm posting this after having googled, of course...I work with DIY fuel cells using off the wall fuels. By far, the most expensive component of my FCs is the Air Electrode which I purchase from Electric Fuel Ltd. in Israel. The material was invented in 2008 (as far as I know) and EF were the ones who bought the patent (according to the inventor himself...sorry but his name eludes me). Anyhow, I was wondering if anyone knows how to make good air electrodes. Something that would give me at least a vold in reference to the SHE (V=0) and a current density of up to a few hundred mA/aq cm...The stuff is basically this, from the electrolyte side to the air side: Separator paper, Carbon powder with Manganese or Cobalt catalyst mixed in (and a binder of some sort, I suppose), a Nickel mesh (current collector) and a bit more Carbon+catalyst then a microporous Teflon(r) sheet (permeable to gases but not to liquids). I cant find nickel mesh where I live but the other stuff I could get--the Teflon(r) being replaceable with oil paper??? Any help would be greatly appreciated. N.B: I am Not trying to infringe on a patent, just trying to make some "homebrew" air electrodes for R&D; since I am still (steam comes out of ears) self-funded and low on funding...lol. Thanks a lot!!! =)

Question by gizander    |  last reply


Can someone help me with plastics? Answered

I'm making a project and I dont know what plastic I should use. I need it to be painted, kinda pretty, and durable. It will not be out in the sun. It will only take its own weight. The measurements are 24'' x 18'' + 24'' x 18'' ( there are two pieces) .There will be hinges screwed to the plastic to hold together the 2 pieces. It also needs to be in sheets (there is no problem getting this, I just wanted to let you know). What choice would you choose? These are some of the plastics they sell in my local plastic shop (I would like to use one of these): -Acrylic -Polycarbonate -Polyethylene -Polypropylene -Nylon -Delrin -Teflon -PVC -ABS

Question by Dr. Pepper    |  last reply


Advice on riveting moving joints

Hi guys. I've been prototyping some very basic steampunk mechanisms that I'm preparing an Instructable for, and I'm looking for a bit of advice on how to make the moving joints. The mechanisms are simple, with parts I'm cutting from brass sheet myself. They'll be using joints that I'd like to make reasonably permanent and low profile, yet able to move (elbow joints, for want of a better description). I've not tested it yet, but I've read that putting a piece of paper between the two arms before riveting them (blind/pop rivets) will allow the joint to move once it's fastened together. I was also considering whether it might be advantageous to put a nylon of teflon washer between them before riveting, instead. Any advice on whether this type of moving joint would be any good, if it would last with moderate use, whether it would work at all, and what some possible alternatives might be would be very much appreciated. Thanks in advance!

Topic by SpannerSpencer    |  last reply


How do I fix my Nitro car rc tank?

My RC tank has a 1 inch crack were the fuel line attaches.  It leaks faster than the engine can demand it.  I can't seem to fix it i've tried 3 things like: taking a soldering iron and running it over the crack didn't work, Hot glue over crack-didn't work, teflon tape around it the kind with the adhesive on it.  All of those things the Nitro fuel de-solved it in about 10 hours. I am running 20% nitro.  I have already ordered a new tank on eBay. it's just I need it fixed by friday for a race.  The new gas tank hasn't been shipped yet it is coming from Pennsylvania I live in Utah also shipped USPS parcel post please help!! if there is a product out there or any thing that will work. Thanks

Question by ebayboy98    |  last reply


Help making a heating pad

Hi folks, Essentially, I'm trying to make a heating pad and I'm becoming terrible confused. . . Let me start by offering some background on my project. I'm building a fermentation cabinet that will be cooled by a window A/C unit. The cabinet will be split into two halves. The first half, with the A/C unit, will be for lagering beer and cold conditioning. Temps will be around 40° F. The beer fermenting in the second half show be kept at about 60°-70° F.  The 120mm PC fan will turn on and blow cold air into the second chamber when the temperature drops below a set point. I would like to have heating belts wrapped around the containers in the second chamber to bring the heat of the liquid up when it drops too low. This is where I'm getting very confused. I'm basically an idiot when it comes to electrical work. . . I would like to use about 7' of 30 AWG Teflon coated copper wire as my heating element. I've calculated the resistance of the wire at .722 ohms (this is the part where you ought to start speaking up and correcting me). Can anyone help me figure out what type of resistor I would need to drop the voltage down enough to get a 20W heating element? I'm starting with 120V from the wall. The sketch below is the cabinet design. Thanks, Chris

Topic by Soulproperty    |  last reply


What is wrong with my VDG?

I have just finished my small van de graaf generator but have run into a problem. I am only really building this small one as a model for my future large VDG so it is not to important, I would just like to find out more. My setup consists of two wooden dowl rollers built up with tape to "bevel" them. the bottom roller is coated with paper while the top is coated with teflon tape. the belt is a section of rubber balloon. the tube is a PVC pipe which is split so i can easly open it up and make ajustments. i have found this setup to be very good and can often achieve 2 CM sparks whith only a beer can as a top load. The problem is after about 5 miniunts the output will slowly decline untill I can no loger get any sparks. when this happens i have to open up the PVC coulom and clean the belt and rollers with an alcohol wipe. After wards, the machine continues creating 2 CM sparks until i have to clean it off again. I do understand the fact that dirt will be attracted to it and that enough dirt can bleed the voltage away but i do not think this is the case as i clean it so often and it is all sealed up. I just wanted your feed back because it is becoming tedius and i am starting to wonder weather it will affect the larger van de graaf. Thanks In Advance

Question by MadScientist101    |  last reply


Melting Tin Alloy to make pendant jewelry

I've made several attempts to melt down a tin alloy metal (92% tin, 8% antimony) to make pendants; small pendants for necklaces. I haven't had any luck with this at all!  The mold has been cast - the metal has been chosen but...my process isn't working. I'm using a hot plate and a small teflon pan to melt the metal. The problems I'm running into are: Once I melt the alloy, I can't get it into the mold before it starts cooling.  It pours out too quickly from the pan, then cools too quick to finish pouring.  It's a small mold (1 3/4" diameter with 1/8" lines) which isn't helping I'm sure.  Not sure on a couple things I'm hoping somebody who know more about this than I do could possibly make some suggestions. I don't know if I should be using a flux to keep the metal clean because it is getting dirty after the melting. I don't know how to get it from the pan to the mold before it cools? Someone, I'd imagine, must have come out with a tool for transferring small amounts of metal to molds.  I tried a glass eye dropper today but didn't have any luck with the transfer process.  Not sure if a crucible and flux is the way to go or not. If so, does anybody know of a good company that has items designed for this type of work? Any and all help / info / suggestions would be greatly appreciated!!  Thank you

Topic by Vince11    |  last reply


How Can I Fix a Leaky Gasket on an Old Silex Vacuum Coffee Pot?

I have an old Silex vacuum coffee pot, which is really a superior way to make coffee.  When you heat the pot, the expansion of the hot water and air in the bottom globe forces the water from the bottom globe up into the top globe, where the coffee grounds are.  After a couple of minutes, you turn off the heat, and the air in the bottom globe cools, it contracts, creating a vacuum which sucks the brewed coffee through a filter, back down into the bottom globe. All this depends on the integrity of the rubber gasket between the two globes.  (See second photo.)  If it leaks--no vacuum; and the coffee stays up in the top globe until gravity pulls it down, resulting in overbrewed coffee.  (A big leak will keep the water from even rising in the first place.  A little one just slows or prevents the "drawdown".) My pot has developed a little leak.  At first, I thought the gasket had hardened or cracked, since it's at least fifty years old; but that turned out not to be the case.  I inspected it, and found a little bump right under the flange of the gasket, where it sits on the glass rim of the bottom pot.  I gently sanded this irregularity, thinking I could smooth it out, but it turned out to be a bubble, which popped, leaving a dimple about the size of a caraway seed. I've tried teflon tape, filling the dimple with a tiny dab of Devcon rubber adhesive, putting a bead of the rubber adhesive around the gasket, and a couple of other things, but I only make the leak worse.  (Fortunately, everything I've tried has been reversible.)  Anybody got any ideas for repairing that gasket, short of sealing it onto the pot with silicone caulk, which I'm not willing to do? Thanks for any help! Regards, Jim Crutchfield Long Island City, NY Photos by edgarandron on Flickr.

Topic by jdcrutch    |  last reply


Magnetic stirrer and springs....

Wanted to try how far the magnetic field of my new stirrer is reaching and observes something weird...If you have a normal stirring rod in a beaker then these things do excatly what they are supposed to.Even if you try to add the rodd to an empty beaker while the stirrer is already running.The first option gives you a nice rotation, the later often just some jumping and bouncing rod.Fun fact though: Inside a stirrer rotates a magnet and the rod is just a steel bar enclosed in polyethylen or teflon.Trying to make a stirring rod roll around the center instead of rotating is next to impossible - it always tries to use the max binding force and centers itself.So I tried different things for the end goal of designing a stand up stirring twoer instead.You know, like these fancy ones found in huge water towers to agitate the water.I found a small steel ball with two magnets attached quite interesting but an accident made me wonder...For some reason I did not turn the stirrer fully off when searching my little box of goodies for new stuff to try.A small spring for some motor bushes landed on the stirrer...And although it moved dead center it did not spin at all.A slight vibration was all I could see.First weird behaviur happen when I tried to move the spring around to check why it is not spinning.Pushing it a bit lengthwise suddenly made it spin!A bit of fiddling a trying showed it works best slightly off center to the magnet with one end while sitting on the radius.The spring rotated like a horizontal drill but in no relation to the stirring speed.Second and even weirder things happened when the spring slipped through my fingers.It started to roll around the center of the plate but in the opposite direction to the magnets rotattion!An increase in speed made it roll faster until the g forces made it fly off the plate.If you have a magnetic stirrer then try it out one day.I have a few theories why the spring starts to rotate or roll but none make fully sense.Can try to take a video for those with no stirrer but for the fun of it it might be good to just mount a magnet on a motor and try LOL

Topic by Downunder35m  


Needle valve on the cheap?

I need a needle valve or similar to adjust some pressure with more or less precision. Problems I am facing with commercial solutions at the moment: Needs to withstand about 300psi max pressure, must survive contionous exposure to concentrated ammonia vapour. I already wasted too much money on stainless steel valves claiming to be chemical proof and capable of 6000psi only to find out they use seals that turn to goo in the ammonia vapour and fail. And since the stuff is not really healthy, not easy to get, I would prefer something safer. Real problem is also that the thing should be able to allow for good flow rates when opened fully. Modes of operation: During the active cycle ammonia vapour needs to pass through an opening as big as possible while after that the flow must be shut off. The reverse cycle needs to be adjustable from closed to fully open with great detail to control the flow rate. Current ways to compensate: With a ball valves and extra piping I could seperate the two cycles so I won't have to bother with tiny openings but I would prefer to use only a single connection. With a bypass around the needle valve this could be accomplished better but still looks ugly. Materials out of the question: Copper, brass, normal seals based on rubber, nitrile or similar. Questions: I know fully sealed in.line valves exist for LPG system and similar. Are any of these magnetic valves available for the use with ammonia? And if so: Can they be operated with a neodymium magnet instead of the coil? Even stainless steel valves rated for chemical use and high pressure fail quickly on the seals. Is there anything available that does not use soft seals but for example aluminium instead? Thinking spray pump here... One way ball valve systems like used in simple spray pumps are a great thing. With some aluminium tubing I was able to make a simple valve that with some more attention to detail might even work. But of course there no other way of moving the ball then to use a magnet and with sufficient back pressure even neodymium ones fail to get the ball in the open position and keep it there. Now getting this combine with a needle... If, instead of the ball, a magnet in a teflon shell is used on a spindle I could spin a magnet around the outside to turn the valve with great precision. Has anyone already designed such a thing or would I have to start from scratch here?

Question by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Fighting with Nylon ;)

As some might know I still use an old Gen1 Prusa but love the challenge of basically getting everything done with that oldie. One of my latest challenges of "always" printing on a cold bed includes Nylon. If you ever had troubles because you ABS or PLA filament got too moist you will already know what happens to your print... Nylon is even worse when it comes to moisture as you can't see or really feel it. I was thinking of making a complete Nylon guide as an Instructable but think I will start here to kick off some discussion first. So, we know the Nylon must be really dry for a god print as otherwise we get bubbles, bad adhesion and of course a foamy looking print. Well, not really... Let me explain: A perfectly smooth and shiny finnish is not always required, and with the right settings Nylon still forms strong bonds even with a foamy look. However, the dimensions of parts are affected as well - outside dimensions go bigger and hole diameters smaller. If that is no issue for your print then there is no real need to perfectly dry your filament ;) Speaking of drying: People use all sorts of methods to dry their filament, not just Nylon. One of the most common and most expensive seems to be the use of your oven for several hours to dry it. Another way involves food dyhydrators, bit less on the energy bill but still... Then we have the smart guys using the sun and silaca gel for the drying - good and great but so useless in cold and wet climates... My advise here: Take your time! I mean, sure you want to print right after the filament arrived in your letter box but a bit of preperation will save you filament and frustration. Usually filament comes in a sealed bag with a pack of silica gel and it should be dry and ready to use. But Nylon can become too moist within the time it takes to finnish a long print if you are in a wet climate. This means you start printing and all is good but the next day your new print looks ugly as for no real reason. Make use of these sealed storage containers. Put the filament in there with a good amount of indicating silica gel and only have a hole to feed the filament through - if in doubt use a bowden fitting and a short lenght of teflon tube to prevent friction. A piece of sticky tape over the hole when you don't use the filament and the filament is always ready to use. Reminds me to make an Ible for a suitable storage solution with spool holder... Anyway... When it finally comes to print Nylon you should know cardboard works best as a bed as Nylon sticks really well to it. I glue mine onto a layer of masking tape, this way it won't lift from the bed and I can still replace it very easy. But the most common mistake with Nylon is to print it too fast. The stuff really expands and shrinks a lot from filament to print and high speeds only too often cause the layers to seperate later on. Some people compensate with higher temperatures but I don't like the idea of fitting a filter system with activated carbon filters... Also keep in mind the intense shrinkage when setting the extrusion multiplier! If your ABS prints fine with 0.85 you can expect that the same sized Nylon prints fine somewhere in the range of 55-60! Now you also know why printing with thick layers is not such a great idea if you require all dimensions to fit. Although only outside accuracy can be done by cheating in the settings, getting outside, inside and extrusion widths settings accurate is almost rocket sience ;) Nylon is expensive or not available here in the diameter I require.... I had the same trouble and reverted to trimmer line and a modified, dedicated hotend instead. Why dedicated you wonder? Nylon can be real pain to clean as nothing dissolves and if you heat the parts hot enough to melt it you can not work easy with them. Having a decicated hotend means you won't run into the problem of burnt ABS or PLA clogging the nozzle ;) It also means you can match the hotend to the trimmer line you choice (more on that in a minute). For example, in some areas trimmer line of 2mm or 3.3mm diameter is the most popular and cheapest. Just drill out the hotend to cater for the new diameter, which I did after noticing the filament got stuck in the neck of the cold end ;) Trimmer line - does it matter which one? It does these days! Avoid everything that is not round or labeled with terms like "duracore", "dual core", "multi layer"  -basically all that indicates it is not just a single, solid stand of Nylon. Long lasting, special core line is great for your lawn trimmer but really bad for your hotend! PET, High temp nylon or even fibre re-inforced cores are in use, so in the best case you mix the nylon with overheating PET, in the worst you block your nozzle permanently. If it looks like it has a core or some sort of "mantle" around it, it means not usable.

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Tips and tricks for UV curing glue, resin and coatings

Only a few years ago your only option to repair certain plastics, glass or even a broken crystal was epoxy based resin or the good old superglue.You might have already tried one of the 5-seconds-repair pens or tried your own UV curing nail polish art at home.For the later you might be lucky as the resins used here are optimised for the purpose and lights you get with them.Sadly even the best nail polish is no substitude for a glue as the material properties need to be different.One of the most common complaints when it comes to using some UV glue, like Kafuter or similar is that it never comes with instructions.Sould be straight forward but it is not free of problems.For example almost all commercail UV curing glues that you can buy require quite stirct procedures and for the light the right wavelenth(s).Resins and coatings can be even more painful here as they might also require you to stick to the correct temperature.Let's start with one thing you might have encountered already...The glue is definately cured and rock hard but the surface tacky and smeary.Quite annoying if you want to fix a piece of jewellery and can't prevent it from collecting dirt and dust...The next thing you might have encountered is that despite having transparent materials it seems to be impossible to cure the clue.Both problems come down to wavelenght and exposure.UV curing glue is prevented from curing in the presence of oxygen - a factor utilised for example in resin based 3D printers.Uncovered glue is exposed to the oxygen in the air and won't cure easy.The glue or resin below this layer however with fully cure with ease in the absence of oxygen.For the second problem consider that not all materials that you can see through will let UVC light pass through ;)Bonding strenght is another complaint I hear a lot...Be aware that certain things just are no good for UV curing glues or resins.Take the molds you get for that purpose: on the material the glue won't bond!Teflon is another prime candidate here.But in a lot of cases it comes down to surface preparation.Don't be afriad to sand the surface!Not only will the surface area increase but the scratch marks will be invisible once filled anyways.Use sandpaper on your fingernails, then go over with clear nail polish -mirror finish ;)With curing often a problem consider to fully cover the glue.A bit of clear sticky tape, food wrapping foil....If that is not an option then eliminate the oxygen.You can use a container filled with inert (for the glue) gas like CO2 or just place a burning candle in it until it goes out....Either way the amount of oxygen should then be low enough to cure the surface of your glue.Not always is any of the above an option.Then you can still try more power and a lover wavelength.Mercury based lamps for example provide a very broad and powerful light that in most cases will cure within seconds.For a proper surface cure you need a wavelength of 265nm or lower.LED's offering this exist but at prices well out of range for the hobby user.A mercury lamp under high pressure is nothing for short term use and the limited lifespan does not always justify the costs of buying them.Like with most things in life certain inventions can have a dual purpose.Quality germicidal lamp systems for examples often state to go as low or even lower than 265nm.And they come at a fraction of the cost you have with a broadband mercury lamp.Even cheaper is the fre weather forecast.If the sun is siad to be strong enough so you need protection than even the worst glue will fully cure in seconds outside in the sun - tackfree!Don't be fooled and protect yourself!!These tiny LED lamps for your glue stick, the curing thingies for your nailpolish and everything else using UV light comes with warnings.For very good reasons!It might be hidden in the fineprint but you can not really see UV light.The blueish-purple glow you see is on the high end of what comes out and by that in the visible range of your eye.Just because a LED only gives a faint glow you see does not mean the UV light wouldn blind you if you could see it!Even worse for fluoroscent lamps or open cruning systems like those for your nailpolish.Reflected UV light is still UV light and you can still NOT see it!Stories of people getting sunburnt from germicidal lamps in a butcher shop or other people going blind from checking money as their living have a true base...In most cases lamps used well past their lifespan or simply the wrong type of lamp but still: the damage came from UVC light...If you just love creating your own artwork or jewellery with UV curing resins and glues than protect yourself.Proper sunglasses with a stated UV protection for example or just black nitrile gloves for your hands...

Topic by Downunder35m  


Magnetmotor - really impossible or just supressed?

When someone starts talking about a so called magnetmotor than most people judge right away.Laws of physics, perpetuum mobile is impossible, magnets are static....We all know the limitations nature puts on us... That however did not stop quite a few people since the 1950's to build working magnet motors. Or, to be precise: To make the claim, show them and then somehow disappear. A few though seem to have survived and even claim to make good business. Securely closed machine, stellite tracking and 24/7 online monitoring. Either just a bad and long running hoax or a real attempt to keep a secret secret. Even the somewhat famous Yildiz motor showed off around the world only to disappear.Some like them, some don't. Either way all this sounds like the perfect conspirary theory LOL So lets take a look on what is fake and what might be real but missing some vital clues. You can find several good Youtube channels created by people trying to build a working magnet motor. Some of them have no problems to admit failure and still keep trying and updating their projects. Did long enough and you see two outcomes. The first is giving up or "realising" that it will never work. The second often seems like a user is getting some relly good results and is really close to keep the magnetmotor running. Both disappear without and updates or traces. Now of course this is just confirmation that it will never work, but then again: What if it did already quite a few times? Even Tesla had patents for a magnetmotor and so far none of his patents were a hoax. Although none of his patents allow to actually build a working devices without some additional info and knowledge. And that is the key that I am trying to get: The lost knowledge.How can a magnetmotor never work? That one is quite simple from the start. If a linear model won't work no matter where you start then a rotary version will fail as well. And if a linear version works, it has to do so far at least 5 segments and with preferably increasing or at least constant speed. Having said that and assuming you know a little bit about magnetism: Ever wondered about shapes of magnets?? The common types are block, round like a bar and those disk like ones, some even with holes. A less well known version is the ring magnet. You can look them up as well as their corresponding magnetic field geometry - or what is assumed to be the right geometry. To give you a clue: All those floating spinning toys use a ring magnet in the base and onother one in the spinner. In the center is a dead zone for the magnetic field that is far lower than further out on the ring. And the strnger outer fields also reach further - giving the entire spinner a bowl like area to float on, the spinning just stabilises it like a gyroscope. A similar flat disk magnet wouldn't have this indentation in the field but rather a dome like sphere. The ring just kicks a dint into this sphere if you don't mind the simpification. Similar changes in the field structure happen when you combine two or more magnets. One example we all know is stacking identical smaller magnets. And often we are suprised how much stronger two thin disk magnets are compared to a single. Distance however sets a certain limit. And take those hook magnets... Just a small ring magnet in a metal pot with core. Remove the magnet and just by itself it is far weaker. Why? Quite simple.... The same way a transformer core directs the magnetic flow, the metal part of the hook magnet provides a shortcut for the magnetic field - and in return all is much stronger ;) Now you have some more clues, but still there are tons of options for failure... The most common is the sticking effect. No matter how well you planned and designed in most cases you linear or rotary prototype will stall sooner or later. Even if started manually at high speeds some seem to run very long but once they slow down and stop it is obvious they always stop where the magnetic field won't allow the binding effect to be overcome.Wouldn't dare to say that I have a working magnetmotor, but I might have some clues you want to try if you decide to give it a try yourself. So how COULD a magnetmotor actually work? Like in the Perendiv examples all over the web, you could aloow a moving responder to the rotor. Like a piston the responder will be lifted in areas it would otherwise limit or reduce the speed of the system. Well designed only a few mm would b required but it also means wasted energy to move the responder. Then there is the nice way of modifying fields by adding magnets in different angles and polarities. Lets say towards the end of your stages on the linear model it is hard to overcome the binding effect from the end of the previous stage. The perendiv model would now somehow change the distances. But you can also add magnets to lower the binding effect ;) Like a ring or hook magnet you can shape the field and offer a stronger repulsin field or a lower binding force. Last but certainly not least is the option of adding magnetic metals like iron or somehow weirder ones like bismuth. So, do we have any examples of something very common utilising any of this? We sure do :) Take a speaker apart and you end with the cage, the membrane, the actual work coil and the magnet. We don't need anything but the magnet so take a good and very close look. What in the audio world is called a shield to prevent the magnet from messing with things close by is exactly the same as on a hook magnet ;) Only difference is the tiny gap for the coil. The magnetic field is directed into two paths, one by the metal core, the other by the inner enclosure of the magnet or the magnet itself. The coil operates in the area of maximum flux.Last hints... If you take two identical and strong magnets with north or south facing up then it is quite hard to push them very close together. But check what happens if you try the same wen both soth poles (or both north poles) are placed on a magnetic surface - if in doubt your standard fridge door. Suddenly you can move much closer together with the same amout of force (not considering the added friction!). And similar story for opposing configurations. Where in free air or on a table the magnets would just jump together, on a metal plated you can move them much, much closer before this happens. Copper pipe and magnet fun :) Ideally you would have a straight copper pipe and a cylindrical magnet that has a loose fit in the pipe. Aluminium pipe work too or even a roll of aluminium foil if you have nothing else. A magnet in the pipe will travel very slow down the pipe, friction is not an issue here. So what is slowing it down? The magnet creates a field in the pipe and through that the pipe generates electicity. And funny enough this electricity creates an opposing magnetic field in the pipe - the magnet slows down. Even if you glue it onto a wooden stick it won't rush through it. Trying to push it by hand and you feel the created resistance. The faster you push, the harder it is to push! If you made it all the way down here with the reading then I have to assume you fit into one of three of my categories. a) You are a total sceptic and just read it for your amusement. If so, then please don't post a reply with usual negative feedback, instead see it as the same fun you had reading it ;) b) You are at least curious and like to play with magnets. In this case take the above as inspiration to explore more ways to have fun with your magnets! c) You are more or less frustated because you wasted a lot of time and some money to build a magnet motor that just won't work. A and B might go on and enjoy the fun, C however might want to read very attentive now ;) If you take some indicator sheet for magnetic fields, like these funny green ones, and play with moving magnets then you see a very interesting effect on the "screen". The otherwise static field lines change chape and sometimes even seem to disappear or shrink. With a small rotor assembly it almost looks like flashes when the magnets move past each other. This effect is often totally neglected and to be honest I overlooked it for a long time as well. Being able to see how the magnetic field changes gives the thing an whole new dimension so to speak. Creating a magnet with a complex shape is difficult to say the least. Only ferrite or ceramic ones can be used and you would cut of machine them according to your desired shape and with regards to the orginal center of the magnetic field. So most people revert to the classic way of shaping by adding magnets of various types, sizes and amounts. Modern neodymium magnets make this trial and error process easier as there are many sizes and strengths available. Add a detector shield of suitable size and you have hours of fun time ahead of you. But doing so in any rotary assembly is next to impossible. So what did Yildiz differently and what was missed so many times? Yildiz took it a step further and not only provided "shunts" to create very strong magnetic field from the generated electricity but also a second rotor. Since we all start small lets focus on the basics first. Remember the hook magnet and speaker or the copper pipe? Some examples for shape shifting your otherwise static magnetic fields: 1. A magnetic metal "connection" from one (low in the armature) pole to an opposing (high in the amature) pole with cause the field from the "high" pole to "bend" towards the connected magnet. 2. A magnet with an orientation of 90° to the last magnet is the sequence will severely influence the field of this last magnet! This goes for either orientations! 3. Adding a non-magnetic "shield" around a magnet, like a piece of copper pipe, will not affect the static field of the magnet. However it will severely alter the field of the enclosed magnet when another magnet passes it! It will also affect the overal field during the passing as the moving magnet will also induce a field in the copper by affecting the field of the enclosed magnet! Thickness and lenght of the shield influence the strength of these effects. 4. In a simple perendiv motor design the bar that creates the attraction for the spinning part is a magnet too. Either a long bar type or two small ones with an iron or nickel rod between them. There is no need for a piston or something that drives the bar up or out of the way ;) Just use the right magnet at the right spot on your rotor to repell the bar ;) Mount the ar with suitable springs and you suddenly can have multiple stages on your rotor instead of just the usual one! Don't forget the moving magnet on the opposing side of the segment in question though as otherwise you still will get stuck. (Hint: You can place a small but powerful magnet in the center of the opposing bar ;) Just make sure you limit the springs movement so the bar won't be pulled closer)Ok, hold on now! Does a magnet motor actually work or not? I can only give hints and say the laws of physics as we know them apply to magnetmotors the same way as everything else. Unlimeted motion without supplying energy is not possible. Limited motion with adding or using energy however is still possible and real. The same is true for being able to machine, 3D print or otherwise manufacture at very tight tolerence and accuracy levels. This includes bearings or bearing systems with very little friction losses. Just check these floting and rotating magnet toys that look like a spindle. Only a tiny needle like pin makes contact with a glass surface - next to no friction loss. A proper and supposedly working magnet motor should provide more energy than what it uses - one way or the other. No law of physics lets us get around the fact that such a motor could only keep spinning if the produced power or motion energy is at least the same as what is required to make it move. Magnets lose their strenght over time, they are like a very slowly depleting battery. So, isn't it funny that all magnet motors so far that claimed to work also had the requirement to replace the magnets once the things fails to work or start? And if you leave a very strong neodymium magnet shielded from outside fields or magnetic stuff than your grandkids will still find a quite strong magnet. Do a little performance test with your new magnets, like how much force is required is required to lift them off a steel plate. Make the same test with the magnets once you played around extensively with them in your motor. Now take a spare magnet that was never used from the orginal batch and compare both against each other ;) If the motor would not use energy then why are the magnets depleted to a certain degree, realted to runtime and usage time? Wait a minute! Does that now mean it actually works? Lets just say energy is certainly used. We only know similar effects from electromagnetic systems. But did anyone ever really check how much actual energy is in magnetic field generated by a non electric magnet? Get a good sized N52 neodymium magnet and check how much force is required to pull it off a steel surface. Now try to get the smallest sized electromagnet capable of that force and check how much energy it consumes at the level that equals the pulling force of the N52 magnet ;) Makes no sense to even try to compare these you will say now. I just say energy is energy and we were formed to only think in certain ways and don't even try silly things like this ;) To keep the fun up let us imagine we would actually have a similar energy available than what our electro magnet would require. In reality more because we wouldn't have electrical or flux related losses in the metal around the coil. Or is the imagined reality, no clue ;) If true it would mean even a motor with very bad efficiency would be able to create huge amounts of torque. Well, torque is basically acceleration. Which would mean our motor would not just be happy to spin, it would speed up until the bearing fail or the thing is ripped apart. Imagine a dental drill of that size and weight suddenly falling apart at full speed... Every example of motors claimed to be working, that are not fakes, seem to be happy no matter what the load is. It the thing turns a generator than it would have to slow down a bit with the increased load but they don't. With no limited factors otherwise this makes them a fake. Even a perfect motor would have to react to load changes.... Don't we agree that the stronger the magnetic force or field in a conductor the stronger the resulting magnetic and opposing field of the conductor? We use the difference to either drive a motor or take out electricity... But if you take the "open" shielding of a magnet in a changing field than the influence of the shield on the overall field gets stronger with stronger field changes. And properly desinged and orientated they would actually double as a natural limiter for the rotation speed. Once the electrical energy in the shield becomes too strong it will be able to cancel out the field of the enclosed magnet...If we assume a magnet motor is really possible and works with the intended output to keep it spinning or even take energy out: Then what would be possible downfalls that stop this thing happening in everyones garage? We can explore the stars but so far no one bothered to invent anything to visualise magnetic field in a 3 dimensional way other than by simulation. No realtime and true observation like this. The few working technologies that exist rely on sensors, interpretaion and filling in gaps. But imagine something like a detector shield as cloud! And then even better with selctive spacing to get a realtime view of where exactly the field lines go. All we can do is forget our teaching and try it out anyway ;) If by some mistake a magnet motor would really work right away, then chances are high the inventor would wonder why that thing takes off like mad and how to stop it. Unless well prepared it would certainly end in the destrution of the motor. But the inventor would know what to look for in the next prototype. The logical conclusion would be to the couple the energy taken to the speed while physically limittin the free load speed. The other one would be the design the electrical generator around the and within the motor. To even get close to this point you would have to spend endless days and nights working on finding a solution. The closer you get the more disappointment when the final model still fails to keep spinning for more than a few hours. Most people will then accept defeat and move on... Still not saying it actually works but if you made it to this point in time where it could be easier to move on and do other things:Ever wondered what would happen if you "shield" a magnet with a coil? Of course nothing would happen as we know. But try this in some fixed assembly that allows you move another magnet through the field of the shielded one. Perferably witha force gauge or some option to read out the energy required to move it through the various stages of the field. See what happens if you short the coil or add a resistor to it ;) Now if this coild is able to produce electricity then the more we use the more the effects on the required force would change. What do you think would happen if you combine common coil relations of electric motors to a "coil shielded" magnet motor? Right, all these coils would interact with the magnetic fields of the coils they are connected to... And through that with the overall field surrounding the enclosed magnet..... I leave up to you to imagine how these interacting coils could provide "resistance" or "acceleration"/"surplus electricity"...Like they say: You can only find out if you try ;) To keep up the positive thinking: A permanent magnet just sticks to any magnetic surface and does so with the same force. But the real energy loss in terms of getting weaker can almost be neglected. Any electromagnet capable of the same holding force woul require ongoing energy supplies to keep it up. It is using energy the same way the permanent magnet does! The difference is the permanent magnet is not seen as anything that would provide us with energy.... And if it can't provide energy other than passing through coils then why the heck does it keep sticking to the fridge year after year? It does require energy to keep this weight up doesn't it, even if you add a thin teflon disk and oil to reduce friction? ;) No magic, no "free energy" bogus, just plain physics viewed from a slightly different angle than what we learn in school ;) Have a good laugh and a good beer, then read it again and just consider some of the things here that are not mentioned in any literature about magnetism that we commonly use. Now I got you thinking, didn't I ? ;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply


Pure cacsaicin from chilli peppers

I already had a quite long Ible in the making when it downed on me that not too many people should actually create such a dangerous substance at home.So instead I decided to just write a bit about the history, general procedures and what is possible or not.If you already made your own chilli exptract for a special hot sauce or your home made pepper spray then you feel right at home.Those who never done anything like it or at least some essential oil extractions might just find some other interesting stuff to read.I won't go into all details here as those with the basic knowledge will already know the precautions and most things.Capsaicin...The stuff that makes your exes run, clear you nose and makes you sweat like you on fire.At least if it comes within you favourite dish.In the pure form it is a severe irritant and should be handled like explosives or concentrated acids.You just won't make a mistake with this stuff twice - trust me!What really harms you is not the capsaicin itself, it is your bodies reaction to it!It stimulates the same nerves responsible to feel heat and pain, sometimes those for a severe itch as well.And unlike a normal reaction you would get from hot water, it won't stop until it is fully removed.Even after this the body keeps reacting for bit longer.On the skin you can end up with blisters like from a real burn, in your airways it can make breathing impossible!And lets just say that swimming goggles won't look as dumb and funny on your face once you realise you got some fine crystals on your face....If you dare to continue then I assume you are well aware of the risks, dangers and PPE requirements!Pure or extract?I checked tons of so called instructions on how to make pure or 99% pure capsaicin from chilli peppers.They all just produce a really crude mix of goo that happens to have a lot of capsaicin in it.If it is red or even darker it is nowhere near pure.If it has a weird smell that has really nothing in common with chilli than it is even worse.If it is more or less colorless, with a very strong scent that your nose does not like at all then we are getting somewhere.So why is it that we always end up with this color that is impossible to remove?Extracting chilli peppers....A thing most people ignore a bit when in a hurry is that an alcohol extraction requires DRY alcohol.You just won't tolerate water in it, which is why often methanol comes easier and cheaper than ethanol.Some people even think just because the alcohol is either evaporated or distilled off that all is good when using things like methylated spirit.Ever had the problem that you used that stuff and your hot sauce made you vomit after realising that it comes with a bad and extremely bitter after taste?That is the stuff that makes your home depot ethanol unuasable ;)If you use homegrown or otherwise fresh chilli you need to fully dry it first!Don't be fooled by people stating they did it with fresh peppers.What you get this way is some of the worst extractions you can get.Don't be fooled to think you need some Carolina Reaper either.A big bag of chilli powder from your grocery store will do just fine.So what is all in our extract?Alcohol or any other solvent usable for a capsaicin extraction also dissolves a lot of other things.Like the beta carotenes that give the extract the organge to red color.The skin and the entire fruit also contains oils, plus the shiny outside is mostly due to wax...All of this ends in your extract....You not only get what you want and might not mind but also everything else you don't want.Making the difference....The impossible we do right away, for miricles or wonder allow a day or two of processing ;)Assuming you end with a rather large qauntity of alcohol the concentration of everything is relatively low.If you used something like a Soxhlet extraction you already degraded a lot of the capsaicin due to the heat.And even after the best filtering you might have a clear solution but whatever is not a solid is still in there.Imagine you would put it all into a freezer....Surprisingly a lot of stuff won't stay in solution once cooled down enough.Especially if you give it a few days.Depending on what you started with you either get a slimy looking sludge or some crystals showing.Either way it needs to be filtered out and washed.For the washing use the same pure alcohol as before but make sure it is well cooled.If any cacsaicin was already forming crystals then they will be washed into your solution again now to a little extend.But you removed an awful lot of the wax if it was not capsaicin already. ;)Testing the slurry we collected.When using chilli powder from the shops I noticed that there is often no wax to be found at all.While for fresh produce the content is significant.Once dry you make a simple test with water.Capsaicin basically does not dissolve in water, so it would sink to the bottom while wax floats ;)I assume you ended with little to no wax but fine capsaicin instead.From the natural form it is very hard to get crystals bigger than a dust particle.This only happens if the temperature is cold enough and the concentration high enough.As my entire setup is quite small I usually prepare several 500ml plastic bottles that I fill to one quarter by height with chilli powder and then fill up to half with methanol.In the end I use a full 1kg bad of chilli powder but only a may of 5 to ten bottles.Making the most of it.When using alcohol extraction you want to use a little of the solvent as possible.Use means here wasting it instead of recycling it.Once I filtered my white slurry out I destill the remaining solution to reduce it by 50-75%.An almost dark red color is usually when it is time to stop.After this I place it back in the freezer for a day to check if more crystals or slurry forms.If so then I filter it off again.What is left is then mixed with recycled and fresh methanol to soak more chilli powder in my bottles.Means I discard the filtered of chilli poweder once washed, recycle what I can from the methanol and keep whatever the slurry produces that is not wax or dissolves in water.Depending with how much chilli you start you will get to the point where your filtered solution is already dark red.Since the final capsaicin won't dissolve in water you can destill with some added (destilled) water.This way you recover the alcohol without risking to get a sticky goo everyhwere that you need to clean off.It is quite possible to get some more capsaicin this way as with the alcohol leaving it will participate out.Simply filter the solution once the alcohol is recovered.As the beta carotenes won't dissolve well in water either it is best to perfom this destillation while all is mixed.If you can't do this then don't worry to much, it just means a few more minutes of cleaning later ;)Testing the final product....What you have left once the slurry is dried should be almost colorless with maybe a pale yellow in it.Fully dried it should appear as basically white.There should be no smell to it, nothing to tickkle you nose.Colorless and odorless.For whatever reason I still sometimes end up with a very faint smell.Not really chilli though...Depending on the temperature the products is either quite hard to almost britlle (when frozen) to almost wax like at room temp and above.I highly recommend against testing whatever you have on your skin or to ingest it!!!Waste some sauce base like ketchup (you can add it later to your sauce again) or some butter - I prefer the later.Butter become liquid well below the 65°C celsius decomposition temp for capsaicin, so it should dissolve very easy in it.Take a shot glass with just enough butter for a sandwich and dip a toothpick into your product.Make sure there it a tiny bit on it and not that the toothpick has a thick coating!Once cooled down while mixing every now then spread it on some sandwich and take a bite.After a minute or two you should definitately feel a difference to just butter - hopefully not too hot.If nothing happens repeat with a bit more on the toothpick.Still nothing at all usually means you filtered out only by-products and for some reasons managed to make the capsaicin disappear.Hints and tips that might safe your bacon....Methanol boils at about 64°C, ethanol at about 77°C.Capsaicin starts to decompose at 65°C.Not a big deal but if you get to the 80° mark, which is easy which ethanol you might have to use evaporation instead of destillation and waste the alcohol to your surrounding air...Water...For the final product it is not a problem but during the extraction process it is.Despite some people claiming otherwise both the quality and amount of what you end up with are lower.It seems some of the capsaicin binds to the water molecules with the help of some other stuff that the plant material provides.And when you try to destill a solution that was contaminated with water from the chilli it tends to foam up quite badly.While with pure alcohol and fully dried product there is no foaming.What to expect when collecting the end product...At room temperature you can dissolve what you get in product from one kg of dried chilli powder in under 10ml of pure alcohol.However at -20°C next to nothing dissolves in the alcohol.That means as long as you have still over lets say 1000ml alcohol extract then very little will participate out.Just one reason why I prefer to work with small batches - keeps the concentration higher from the start.The more you destill off and re-use the higher the capsaicin concentration in the alcohol will be.So before you start to add any water for the destillation you need to be aware of the consequences.I found out that first destilling most of the alcohol off the single rounds that got too dark in color helps.I just collect this conentrate for the final destillation process.Key is to destill this off to the point where it just starts to thicken up a bit.It should still be liquid but act almost like a thin oil.You don't want it so thick that is crates a coating on the walls when you move the liquid around.In case it did happen just add a tiny amount of alcohol again.Put in the freezer for a few days....Empty into your filter and let as much as possible drip out.Rinse with as little alcohol as possible - have the rinsing alcohol at -20C as well .Do not wash the filter with water but with the frozen cold rinsing alcohol.Cover the filter up and leave in a cool place for the next run - have something under it as it might still let a drip or two off.The remaining liquid leave to evaporate off until it just starts to thick up again a tiny bit - back in the freezer for a day or two.Filter out again then while still a bit wet turn the filter over to remove most what is in it.I prefer to empty onto a teflon sheet and to wear full PPE here....While still wet you try to remove more from the filter with a fine but short brush, knife or whatever you find suitable.Do not continue any action once the stuff starts to dry!Place the filter into a sealed bag and leave in your freezer for when you do anthoer extraction - this way you loose far less product ;)When doing a final destillation with added water to cover all the alcohol you are left with the remains of the original product, minus all solids.Beta carotene is quite beneficial, so it would make sense to include it into your hot sauce.Plus there will always be some leftover capsaicin in it.If you want to use this part of the extract as well to really get what is possible then IMHO slow is better.You can't just destill off or boil off the water to get a nice "sauce" base.The capsaicin that is left would be mostly decomposed and with no effect anymore.A clear sign of too much temperature is bad smell that really turns you off.Hard to define in words but trust me, if you smell it you know what I means as you woul refuse to have this smell coming from your final hotsauce.During the summer it no problem to just leave it out to evaporate in the shade !You can do it in full sun but must make sure no sunlight gets into the liquid.UV decomposes at least a lot of the karotenes....Special equippment at hand? If you happen to have a vacuum pump or at least a salvaged fridge compressor you can safe a lot of time.A buchner filter for 500ml in the top is quite cheap but you can build something similar with a normal funnel.Look it up it you want...A proper buchner filter however already comes with a very fine glass filter built in.Means you don't really need any filter paper - I still add it as it makes the cleaning easier.Instead of waiting several hours for gravity to do its work on a coffe filter you are done in a few minutes.Well worth trying out!For the water destillation of the remaining end product, or by-product if you like, vacuum also helps.CVD or Closed Vacuum Destillation sound complicated but is really simple.One pressure vessel is filled with the solution to be conectrated, the other is kept empty.Connected with a suitable pipe or hose and fully sealed.The extract is heated to about 40°C while the empty vessel is placed into an ice bath.With the pump and the help of a valve create just enough vacuum so create small bubbles in the heated vessel.Close the valve and a few hours later there should be far less water in the hot one while the frozen one builds up ice.Every now and then check the vacuum gauge and if require start the pump again.You can do with just the pump and one vessel....Problem is that the oil in your pump will quickly get far too contaminated with water.You could add a conatainer with something like an absorbent but it would have to be sufficient for all the water you need to remove.Most of all it must be able to absorb it fully before the airstream enters the compressor.The benefit is that the capsaicin can't decompose at all.In a vacuum or close to it anyways, a lot of the things that procude smell also disappear through the compressor.Won't help it was already a stinky mess but will certainly reduce the smell of the concentrate.If you prefer to keep this aroma for your final sauce then do not use a vacuum.Why not a Soxhlet or similar device as used for essential oil extraction?The benefit seems to be clear:You have a relatively large vessel to hold a lot of chille powder and can let the alcohol cycle and wash it out completly...Theory is not always reality.....Firstly the alcohol runs through it many times while it dissolves what it can from the powder.That means each round you actually wash with a higher concentration until there is equal amounts in the alcohol and the powder.You waste about 50% of the end product unless you repeat it all several times with fresh alcohol.Worst of all however is the temperature, even if you use methanol.To make the alcohol evaporate enough to make the process work properly and in a timely fashion it must be heated to above 65°C, in most cases even with a proper heating mantle you won't have the temperature control tight enough.It is quite possible to destroy 70% of the capsaicin this way....The condesers used are also not really suitable for these low temperatures.Means you should use ice water to cool.Either way you will loose a lot of what could otherwise be product.Funny things that might stumble you along the way.In the freezer the solution will participate out a bit.However, when back to room temperature most if it will still be there, only a fraction goes back into solution.I could not figure out why this happens but once heated to about 40°C it all dissolves again.Filter fully blocked by the product?The fine sludge can be a problem even with a proper vacuum filtration unit.Especially if the product is still not really a solid once fully dried.A paper filter can be re-used many times but whatever makes it past and into the glass filter is tricky.You should not get much here if the paper filter was fine enough but if it builds up to the point where it makes the filtration long and slow:Remove the paper filter and add a small amount of luke warm alcohol.If it does not start to trickle through already give it a minute or two before turning the vacuum on.Starts a bit slow but should clear up quickly, if in doub repaet with a large volume of alcohol.I prefer to do this cleaning before I start a new bag of powder or whever I need to restock.Means I can use the same alcohol I had to clean the filter to add to the bottles with powder ;)Nothing gets wasted if you are prepared....If you find any typos in the above then feel free to keep them.However if you decide to use the typos for monetary gain I would kindly ask for 5% of the net profit made from my typos.;)

Topic by Downunder35m    |  last reply